Cognitivism Will you remember? Renee Talmich and Ryan Lucas Cognitivism Definition Summary 1. A retreat from behaviorism. 2. An understanding of the organization of thinking Examples 3. Learning is not always indicated by behavior Historical Perspective Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Summary Summary • Cognitive processes influence learning • As children grow, they become Examples capable of increasingly more sophisticated thought • People organize the things that Historical they learn Perspective Concluding Remarks More Cognitivism Examples Summary 1. Mnemonic Effect 2. Meaningful Effect Examples 3. Serial Position Effect 4. Practice Effect Historical 5. State Dependant Effect Perspective Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Historical Perspective Summary • Jean Piaget • Lev Vygotsky Examples • Edward Tolman Historical Perspective Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Summary Summary •New information is most easily acquired when people can associate it with the things they have already learned Examples • People control their own learning • The more meaningful the Historical information is, the easier it is Perspective learned and remembered Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Mnemonic Effect Summary • Silly Songs (ABC) • Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Examples • Rhymes (e-i) Historical Perspective Back Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Meaningful Effect Summary Meaningful information is retained easier • Fractions—too abstract unless Examples related to something that students are already familiar with (e.g. pizza or pie) Historical Perspective Back Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Serial Position Effect Summary Items at the beginning of a list or at the end are easier to remember Examples • Classroom directions • Driving directions Unless… Historical Perspective • If item in the middle is distinctively different (e.g. blue, red, yellow, brown, cat, orange, purple, pink, Concluding Remarks green) Back Cognitivism Practice Effect Summary Perfect practice makes perfect • Spelling words are learned easier by writing, visualizing, and orally Examples spelling rather than just one context Historical Perspective Back Concluding Remarks Cognitivism State Dependent Effect Summary Learning in one context is easier to remember in that context • Informative posters on the wall Examples • Informative Bulletin Boards Historical Perspective Back Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Jean Piaget Summary • Focused on logical reasoning and the structure of knowledge Examples • People are intrinsically motivated to make sense of the world (i.e. learn) Historical Perspective • There are different “stages” of learning Back Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Lev Vygotsky Summary • Russian psychologist and philosopher • Learning = social and Examples collaborative activity • Thought and language Historical develop independently of each Perspective other (until 2 years old) Back Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Edward Tolman Summary • Learning can occur without a reward (reinforcement) Examples • Learning occurs because of organization Historical • Most behavior is intentional Perspective (not reactive) Back Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Conclusion Summary Weakness— Student learns one way, but may not be the best way. Examples Strength— Produces consistency. Historical Perspective Everyone accomplishes the task the say way. Concluding Remarks Cognitivism Did you remember?