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					                     ASSOCIATE Issue 37 – Spring 2002

                        A S S O C IA T E
                                                         Newsletter of the
                                            Association for Bahá'í Studies
                                              (English Speaking Europe)

                                             Issue 37 – Spring 2002 C.E.

Conference on Bahá'í Theology                    Special Interest Group of the Association

                                                 of  Bahá'í    Studies  (English-Speaking
          would like to invite you to a          Europe)
conference on the above theme to be held
in London. The Conference will include a       Reporting on the Spirit: How the
special session on the Translation of          Media Covers Spiritual and Religious
Scripture into English and a seminar on        Issues - No coverage; no comment?
the Writings of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.       [Our final paper in our series of papers
An interesting programme has been              from     last    year’s   ABS(ESE)    annual
arranged with speakers from Germany,           conference – Ed.]
USA, Kirgizistan, Sweden, Italy and
Britain.                                         W   e hear a lot in the British media
        The conference will be held at the     about ‘morals’ - building a ‘moral society’,
London School of Economics, The Old            questioning the ‘morality’ of politicians, of
Building, Vera Anstey Room, Houghton           scientists, of the clergy, or the education
Street, London WC2A 2AE Friday 19 July         and legal systems, and so on. So, in a
2001, 7:00 p.m. until Sunday 21 July,          sense, we hear a lot about the end-point
5:00 p.m.                                      of spirituality; how it informsmoral
        Registration fees: For the duration    behaviour. But we hear less about the
of the Colloquium including the package of     starting point - this nebulous concept of
materials: 30 pounds (includes package of      spirituality itself.
materials)      (Students:    20    pounds)            If we’re going to ask why some
Registration per day: 10 pounds without        issues or stories are covered by the media
the package of the materials. Package of       - and why others aren’t - we need to know
materials: 12 pounds                           what criteria the media apply in deciding
        For information on registration        to cover particular stories.
contact: Mr Oliver Scharbrodt, Friendship              If you want to attract as many
House, Room C33, Rectory Lane, 1 St.           customers as possible, you have to avoid
Nicholas Glebe, London SW17 9QH, United        upsetting or putting off as many people as
Kingdom, E-Mail: or          possible. One of the consequences of this
Mrs. Mirta, Lopez, 64 Addison Road, Flat 1,    is that the media tend to reflect the moral
London W14 8JL. Phone & Fax: +44 (0) 20        values which journalists and editors
7371               6022;             E-mail:   believe are shared by the most people.                                   In ‘News and Journalism in the UK’,
        Accommodation is available in a        media lecturer Brian McNair defines values
student       hall   of    residence.   For    as     ‘an     individual’s  conscious     or
accommodation        contact:
Mr. Mark Holmes, Tel.: 020
7379       5589.      E-mail:    6      Ø New Book                      Ø George Ronald Website
        This conference is              Ø American Academy of Religion
the Forty-Second session of
the Irfan Colloquium and is      9      Ø Religious Studies SIG – N. America
held in conjunction with                Ø Summer Scholarship Academy
the      Religious    Studies
 2                                                                         Associate
unconscious preferences for what the            or television programs. Where they refrain
world should be’, and he adds that ‘the         from committing themselves to a moral or
news media of a particular society... tend      religious standpoint, I would argue, it’s
to construct accounts of events which are       because they’re convinced it won’t sell,
structured and framed by the dominant           and not because they feel morally
values and interests of that society.’          obligated not to, nor because they think it
        As someone who’s worked in              might have a negative ‘moral’ or social
journalism for quite a while, I can tell you    outcome.
that there aren’t a set of written rules on              An example to illustrate this
how to churn out this ‘value-laden’             argument is the reporting of the murder of
material. The social historian, Noam            the little girl, Sarah Payne, by the News of
Chomsky has argued over the years that          the World, and the campaign that
journalists    are   pressured     by    ‘the   newspaper launched to name and shame
establishment’ into covering stories a          child molesters in Britain. As a journalist,
certain way. While there is documented          I saw that campaign as a very clever,
evidence that journalists are put under         calculated marketing move on the part of
pressure from time to time not to run - for     the News of the World, which had very
example - a negative story on a reliable        little to do with building a more moral
advertiser - most of the time it’s a lot        Britain. The newspaper’s agenda was to
subtler than that. The overarching              sell newspapers by doing what we call in
principle at work in determining what to        journalism ‘generating a story’; where the
run, and what not to run, is that the story     story wasn’t really about Sarah Payne, or
has to sell. And, as I will argue later in      her parents, who weren’t happy about the
this paper, stories about religion are not      campaign. The story was: the News of the
widely viewed as a saleable commodity.          World’s campaign.
        It is a mistake to assume that                   Now, if the paper’s aim was to
putting forward particular values or moral      build a more moral Britain, in which
ideas do not sell, however. Journalists and     children can walk the streets safely, it
the media ‘evangelise’ all the time; they       failed. The campaign sent a number of
take sides, voice opinions, and run             paedophiles into hiding, and forced some
campaigns aimed at influencing public           convicted molesters off the rehabilitation
opinion - and these kinds of stories do         programmes they were on so they could
sell.                                           move to another area, or go underground.
        Through their media consumption,        It made it difficult for individuals who
readers and viewers get to feel as though       might have been facing a trial to get an
they’re in on a bid to change the world, or     unbiased jury - and that leads cases to be
their corner of it, anyway. They feel their     dismissed. And in at least two instances,
opinion is being given voice by their           the mobs mistakenly attacked individuals
favourite media outlet. They get to feel        who had no history of child molestation.
outraged or titillated or informed in an        So as a moral campaign, it was a failure.
inclusive way. They become more loyal to        But it did sell a lot of copies of the News
that newspaper or radio program or TV           of the World.
show; they become regular customers.                     So – to sum up so far: the media
        So, given that journalists and          are comfortable with handling stories
media outlets do voice opinions and             about morals – about right and wrong;
publish stories about particular values, I’d    what's fair and not fair, what's justice and
now like to argue that there is no              what's an injustice, what behaviour is
ideological reason within the ethos of          acceptable, and what isn't. And we're
British journalism to prevent journalists or    comfortable with them doing that, and
media outlets from holding religious            there's plenty of coverage of these issues.
opinions or giving voice to them.               And they’re also happy to hold forth on
        Media outlets do, in fact, put          subjects that were traditionally the
forward what could be called ‘religious’        domain of religion.
opinions. In fact earlier this year, Tony                There are stories about religion. But
Benn wrote in The Observer that ‘the mass       there are fewer than there used to be and
media have to some extent replaced the          there is likely to be even less of it in
church’ - although I would add that the         future. The religious coverage that does
media only does this in cases where it’s        remain tend to be handled in a particular
likely to sell newspapers, radio programs       way. Not, as I mentioned before, because
 3                                                                         Associate
there are rules about how these stories          the state government education board,
should be covered, but because the               leading to a right-wing majority on the
coverage is determined according to the          board. For about a year, this tiny group of
values we’re collectively perceived to hold.     conservatives held sway over the Kansas
        In a collection of essays called         education system - and one of their first
‘Dare we speak of God in public?’,               policies was a requirement that all Kansas
theologian Hugh McLeod writes that               schools teach Creationism instead of
churches continue to be approached for           evolution in science class. In other words,
input not only by the media, but also by         that the world was created in six days,
government and civil organisations, for          and is only a few thousand years old. How
input on ‘moral issues’ - such as the            do you think this was reported? Most of
Abortion Act, South African apartheid, the       the reporting painted religion-in-total in a
1980s peace movement, and so on. The             negative light, rather than getting a
reason for this, McLeod argues, is that ‘the     balanced response from, say, Christian
Churches (are) still seen as uniquely            evolutionists in Kansas. Did anyone here
qualified to make moral judgements, and          know that this policy was reversed after
indeed, many people would have felt that         new state elections a year or so later? Why
the churches were failing in their duty if       not? Because it's not as entertaining to
they had not attempted to respond.’              report that Kansas children are studying
        Last year, or the year before, a         evolution; that’s boring. Everyone studies
group of Afghan Muslims took the                 evolution. But it’s a much zanier idea to
passengers on board a plane hostage.             hear about people who believe the world
These people were making a last-ditch            was created in six days. A lot of people in
effort to avoid being sent back to               Britain believe the Religious Right are
Afghanistan. Now, you can guess how this         crazy, that anything can happen in
story goes, too. There'll be an interview        America - and we're delighted when we
with one of the passengers' family               find examples of this. And the media know
members about how terrible these                 this - and give us what we expect -
‘terrorists’ are, an interview with a            because it will get us watching, or
trustworthy police officer about how the         listening or reading that media.
hijacking is being handled … and perhaps,                Okay, let’s move on again - more
at the end, there might be an interview          specifically to some of the religious
with an Afghan Muslim here in Britain. But       concepts that can be associated with
here, the religious person, the Muslim, will     spirituality - such as God and prayer.
be on the back foot, with questions that         Here, there’s a lot less coverage. Why is
paint Islam in a negative light. Why?            this the case? It's not because these
Because - again - audience feedback and          issues aren't interesting to British people.
opinion polls show that many people in           A government survey two years ago found
Britain share values and assumptions             more than 70% of people in Britain have
about Islam; they associate it with              some form of belief in God. If we take a
‘fundamentalism’ and terrorism. And so by        closer look at those statistics - the survey
covering the story in this way, the reporter     found one in five people were convinced
is reflecting a set of values back which are     there was a God, another fifth said they
shared by much of the audience, and              had some doubts but nevertheless felt
knows the story will sell. Even if one of the    there probably was a God, and another
elements of this story is that human rights      15% said they believed in a higher power
abuses drive people to do desperate              of some kind. About 20% said they
things, only the most broad-ranging              believed in God some of the time, but not
report will include this in its coverage. You    all of the time. Worldwide, the figures are
are also unlikely to hear anything about         even higher; a newly published Oxford
institutionalised    racism     or   religious   University encyclopaedia of world faiths
prejudice in the police force in this story -    records that 84% of the world’s people
even though there may be a story about           describe themselves in believers in a
that on the facing page of your                  religion.
newspaper.                                               This tells us two things. First, that
        Let's look at another example. A         spirituality is something that interests
couple of years ago, in Kansas in the            more than 7 out of 10 British people. But
United States, three people from what is         second, we can see from this survey that
called the Religious Right were elected to
 4                                                                       Associate
people hold a wide range of beliefs about       almost any report we hear is going to
God.                                            challenge our ideas and beliefs - and it
         Because British people have less in    may make us feel uncomfortable. And it
common with each other about concepts           can also spark protests from the religious
like ‘God’ than they do about ‘moral’           community. The last thing a producer or
behaviour, it's harder for the media to do      an editor wants is a heap of letters from
stories on concepts about God, or about         the Christian, or the Muslim, or the Sikh
beliefs, because there aren’t widely held       community complaining about a story and
ideas about these concepts. And as we’ve        boycotting the paper or the broadcast in
already heard, if a story won’t appeal to or    future.
resonate with a wide audience, it won’t                 There’s another reason, Stephen
get covered.                                    Pattison, in an essay subtitled ‘Need
         The lack of media coverage on          Theology Be So Useless’, says theological
stories or issues that are not expected to      academics have contributed to the lack of
resonate with a wide audience is often          public understanding by using language
frustrating for people who do public            which is ‘complex, technical and obscure
relations work for religious organisations.     to non-initiates’.
What’s interesting is, similar frustrations             So - Oxford University’s Paul Joyce
are expressed by people who work in PR          writes that theologians must share some
for     asylum    seekers    and     refugee    of the blame for the public’s inability to
organisations,    or    the   anti-capitalist   engage with spiritual issues. The essence
movement - in fact, any group that              of his essay can be summed up in the
doesn’t meet with the approval of               opening paragraph, which I’d like to share
mainstream society, or about which public       with you:
opinion is divided.                                     Picture the scene. A golden July
         And so we find ourselves in a                  evening in Manchester. At Maine
situation where J.K. Galbraith said                     Road Stadium, the rock group
television reporters breathlessly report on             Queen comes on stage, to a roar of
the game of politics, but are ‘quite silent’            appreciation from a crowd of
on what the game is about. An interview I               50,000 fans ... Half a mile away, at
did with the Refugee Council made a                     one of the halls of residence of
similar complaint about the British media               Manchester University, a mere 100
and asylum seekers; that there was                      Old    Testament     scholars  have
coverage on how many people seek                        gathered     to   listen    to  the
asylum in Britain, and there are interviews             distinguished German scholar Otto
with residents in Dover and politicians                 Kaiser read a paper on the Second
about how the majority of these people                  Book of Samuel. The sounds of
are ‘bogus’, but far less coverage of what              Queen reverberate across the city,
it’s like to be a refugee; in other words,              and at least a few of the biblical
about being an asylum seeker.                           scholars wish they could be at Main
         And the same is true of religion. A            Road ... (T)he overwhelming sense
Muslim writing to the Independent some                  that this episode conveys is of two
months ago complained that even after                   worlds, with little in common;
years of extensive coverage of the Iranian              those who read and study the Bible
hostage crisis in the United States, most               being a tiny, ghetto-like minority
Americans knew all about the hostages,                  separated from the great bulk of
but nothing about the people who took                   humanity and out of touch with the
them hostage. The US public was also left               lives and interests of most of their
none the wiser about the tenets of Islam.               contemporaries.
Martin Bell stood just last month against a     Joyce issues a challenge to his fellow
Christian party in London; there was            theologians to move away from the
plenty of coverage. But there was little        ‘academicisation’ of religious study, in
coverage devoted to the teachings of the        which there is a ‘widespread sense that
Peniel Pentecostal Church.                      only the experts could interpret the Bible
         So we can see that it’s fine to tell   whilst others - even many parish clergy -
us that a politician is running for election    [have come] to feel deskilled’.
against a church, or that Muslims have                  To move on: if most people do
kidnapped Americans, but it’s not fine to       actually have some form of religious
tell us what those people believe. Because      belief, and religious people are actively
 5                                                                        Associate
toiling away at good works and charitable       published, the war in Vietnam was
organisations, but they aren’t visible in       happening ‘somewhere else’; there was
any positive sense or feel too embarrassed      little television or newspaper coverage of
to speak up; and if the stories that do         the effect it was having on the people of
make it into the press tend to be about an      Vietnam. Historians agree that this photo
ailing Pope, or perverted priests or crazy      was one of the triggers that swung public
Creationists or Islamic ‘terrorists’ or         opinion against the war, and the protests
Branch Davidians or pro-lifers bombing          that made the Vietnam War politically
abortion    clinics   or    unfaithful tele-    unpopular. America pulled out of Vietnam
evangelists or breatharians starving to         not long afterwards.
death - then it’s easy to believe at best                That photograph was a single
that religion is a problem, not a solution,     moment in media coverage. But there’s
which deserves to be pilloried in public, or    another example I’d like us to think about
- if the issue at hand is too complex, too      - which is sustained coverage, when
specialised, too academic, too inaccessible     you’re bombarded with a particular idea or
or irrelevant to most people - a problem        a particular message. One concept we’re
which deserves to be ignored.                   bombarded with is the idea that it’s
        There’s one last factor I’d like to     important to be slim. Over the past 40
mention in relation to what kinds of            years, the average dress size of female
stories the media tend to cover. They like      models has fallen from a size 12 or 14 to a
short, simple stories. Whether it’s a story     size 8. Over the same period, the eating
about religion, or horticulture, or gene        disorder anorexia nervosa has emerged
therapy or trade relations - if it’s            from obscurity, if you like, to become one
complicated, or if the significance lies in     of the leading causes of death and
the details, or if it takes too long to tell,   hospitalisation among young women.
it’s probably going to be spiked.                        So you can see that if we're
        Many stories about God or religious     bombarded with a particular idea or
beliefs are complex, full of nuances and        concept - if there is coverage - it can
caveats - and that makes them difficult to      become absorbed into public values or
cover. If you add to that the perceived         attitudes. So it follows that if we never see
apathy about religion and the diversity of      a particular idea or concept, we'll become
beliefs in Britain, you get a media that’s      comfortable with its absence; we may not
wary of covering these issues at all.           even notice that it's gone.
        So - what happens when direct                    Well, there are a number of
coverage of what religions have to say and      potential consequences. First of all, we get
what they’re about, dwindles? Does it           out of the habit of seeing these stories.
have any effects on us as individuals or as     Secondly, we all forget things unless we're
a society? Let’s go back to the end-point       reminded of them. So it follows that if we
of spirituality - our attitudes and values      don't see stories about spirituality, or God,
about moral behaviour. What are the             or religion, we forget about these things,
influences that shape those values and          unless something else in our lives reminds
attitudes? These can include our family,        us; such as our family, or where we work,
our school or university, our colleagues        or our religious community.
and friends, our religious community if we               I think there’s at least one
are part of a church or a religion. And         consequence of this: it can make it hard
another influence is what we watch on           to learn how to think about spirituality.
television, what we listen to on the radio,     We don't get the information we need to
and what we read in newspapers and              make an educated or informed choices
magazines.                                      about them. Most of us go through our
        To illustrate the influence the         lives equipped with the spiritual education
media can have, and in order to ask ‘what       of a child, and we don't get very much
happens when there’s no coverage of a           more information than that from the
story?’, I want to give you a couple of         media. And because we live in an
examples of what can happen when there          increasingly secular society, we may not
is coverage.                                    get that information from anywhere else;
        Who      here     remembers      the    from friends, or workmates, or whatever.
photograph of the little girl running naked     So it's difficult to have ideas about these
down a road in Vietnam, covered in              issues, let alone develop our thinking
napalm? Up to when that photo was
 6                                                                        Associate
about them, and work out what we think          we have the courage to do that, and feel
about these things.                             that it is important, it is worthwhile - even
        So if a story isn't in the news or on   if it’s not a particularly good story.
TV or on the radio or in the newspaper -                                       Corinne Podger
and if it's NEVER there, what does this tell
us? Without the media necessarily
meaning to - because I don't think -
overall - that there's an anti-religion
agenda      in    the    British    media   -   New Book from Kalimat
nevertheless, we get the impression that
spirituality and religion aren't particularly   Coming soon … Reason and Revelation:
important. It’s not one of ‘today’s top         New Directions in Bahá'í Thought
stories’. Even though 70% of us have at                ‘An    exciting   and   provocative
least a suspicion that it might be.             volume of essays that take innovative
        What they hear instead is how           approaches to familiar Bahá'í themes.
important it is to make money, to get           These are the most recent, the most
ahead, to be competitive. Their moral           interesting, and the most challenging
education, if they get one, will come from      contributions    to    Bahá'í  intellectual
attempts by their parents to instil moral       discourse.’
values, and perhaps once or twice a week        Retail price: $29.95, paperback only
while they’re in primary school. And they’ll
receive that education from people who
will increasingly have had no religious         George Ronald Website
upbringing or influence on their lives.
        But there are two very clear effects
on individuals, I think. Firstly, it is
                                                George Ronald now has a Website which
                                                can be viewed at
becoming harder to search for spiritual
                                                        It has:
truth; for a way of life that gives us
                                                * details of all our books that are currently
spiritual strength and inspiration. It’s not
                                                in print that can be found by title, by
easy to ask questions, because many
                                                author or by category
people around us won’t have any more
                                                * details of forthcoming titles
answers than we do. And we don’t have
                                                * special offers of reduced priced books
much information to go on, and we’re
                                                (which will change monthly)
conditioned by the media to think
                                                * a list of books that are out of print and
spirituality isn’t that important anyway.
                                                when they are scheduled for reprinting
So embarking on a spiritual search is
                                                * details of how submit a manuscript
going to become more of a challenge - not
                                                * a brief history of the company
just for seekers, but a challenge to people
                                                        At the moment it is not possible to
of faith to make what they have to offer
                                                order books on line but the Website gives
more openly available and understandable
                                                you the addresses of distributors who
to those seekers.
                                                have their own Website and are happy to
        But secondly, if we look at history,
                                                take on-line orders. It also tells you how
we can see that the spiritual urge seems
                                                to order directly from us.
to be a central part of being human. It’s
an urge that persists no matter how
superficially beautiful or wealthy or
materially successful we become. An
                                                American Academy of Religion
example of this is Ted Turner, the
incredibly wealthy head of the news
corporation CNN. He gives away millions         The    annual meeting of the American
of dollars every year to charities, and has     Academy of Religion will be held in
said a number of times that these acts of       Toronto this November 23-26, 2002. The
generosity are what actually make him           AAR is the professional association of
happy. This urge appears to be an integral      professors of religious studies, theology,
part of being human; our spiritus, our          and biblical studies, and its annual
human spirit. What I hope is that when it       meeting is attended by 7,000 to 8,000
makes itself felt, when we feel the need to     professors, graduate students, and other
ask the big questions about life, or the        interested persons. The Bahá'í Studies
need to embark on a spiritual search, that      Colloquy holds one or two panels at the
 7                                                                     Associate
AAR, each of which includes two or three       Glenashley, Old Kildimo, Co Limerick,
presentations on the Bahá'í Faith as it        Ireland.
relates to religious studies. Persons          Cost: Full board and accommodation
interested in offering a presentation on       approximately €150 (UKP 90).
the Faith at the AAR should submit a 250-             For more information about the
word abstract to Dr. Robert H. Stockman        scholarship       academy         contact:
( The deadline for
proposals is May 15.                                  To see the provisional programme,
                                               go to the ABS-ESE web page at

Religious    Studies    SIG     of   North

The     Religious Studies Special Interest
Group of the Association for Bahá'í Studies
holds a one-day program every year at the
ABS annual meeting. This year the ABS
meeting will be held August 30 through
September 2, 2002, in Toronto, and the
Religious Studies SIG will meet on the
first day. Persons interested in presenting
on the Bahá'í Faith as studied through the
methods of religious studies, or as it
relates to world religions and philosophies,
should submit a 250-word abstract to Dr.
Robert              H.            Stockman
( by May 15.

Summer Scholarship Academy
11 August -18 August
Summer School of the Republic of Ireland

Come and explore how to correlate the
Bahá'í teachings with the contemporary
world. A one-week course held by the
Association for Bahá'í Studies English-
speaking Europe aimed at training
interested Bahá'ís to learn the practical
skills   to   do   Bahá'í   research    and
scholarship. Aimed at Bahá'ís from all
backgrounds aged 15 upwards.
        Speakers include leading lights in
Bahá'í scholarship from North America and
Europe, and include Moojan Momen,
Stephen Lambden, Todd Lawson, Wendi
Momen, Sholeh Quinn. The course was run
last year at the Arts Academy and was
very well received by the participants.
        The course will run parallel to the
Irish summer school in Waterford.
To book, send in a booking for summer
school as normal and tick the box on the
summer school brochure to say that they
will attend the academy. The registrar for
summer school is Geraldine Ronan,
 8                                            Associate

Membership of ABS(ESE)
   §   Individual     membership:      £15
       Sterling per year
   §   Unwaged      membership:        £10
       Sterling per year (including full-
       time students and senior citizens)
   §   Sponsoring     membership:       £25
       Sterling per year (supporting a
       Bahá'í in Central or Eastern Europe)
   Membership Secretary
   27 Rutland Gate
   London, SW7 1PD
   United Kingdom
Submissions for Associate should be
sent to:
      By e-mail:
      or by return e-mail
      Or by post (preferably on disk) to:
      27 Rutland Gate
      London, SW7 1PD
      United Kingdom

The ABS(ESE) webpage can be found at:

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