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					Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




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                                      Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




           1    Executive Summary                                                          1

           2    Background                                                                 9

           3    Greater Nottingham                                                       10


Contents   4    The Case for Greater Nottingham                                          12

           5    The Climate for NGA                                                      23

           6    The Partnership                                                          35

           7    A Framework for the Future                                               41

           8    Concepts for the Future                                                  43

           9    Technical Architecture                                                   52

           10   Programme & Considerations                                               55

           11   About CBN                                                                57

           12   Appendix                                                                 62




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Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




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                                                           Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




                          Making Next Generation Access and Municipal Wireless
                          relevant
                          Accelerate Nottingham is leading a group of its partners which has a clear
                          desire to implement municipal wireless („MW‟) and next generation access
                          („NGA‟) networks in the conurbation of Greater Nottingham. NGA networks



1
                          offer the possibility of very high speed broadband connections (orders of
                          magnitude higher than existing broadband services) and MW networks offer
      Executive Summary   high speed wireless networks available across large areas of cities and regions.
                          Many experts believe that the combination of NGA and MW form the essential
                          „building blocks‟ of the developing „Knowledge Economy‟ enabling new services
                          to be offered by both the public and private sectors and promoting high levels
                          of citizen engagement and cohesion.
                          The partners (particularly Nottingham City and Nottinghamshire County
                          Councils, the PCT, Nottinghamshire Police and Nottingham Trent University)
                          already understand some of the benefits that NGA and MW networks offer but
                          as yet they are unclear on how they can take this forward in their individual
                          organisations or what the best route is likely to be to promote broader
                          engagement. Work already done on projects such a “Homeshoring”, “Shared
                          Services Charter”, “Network Builders” and “Crime Reporting and CCTV Image
                          Matching”, plus others from the Digital Challenge provide ideal avenues to
                          progress benefits afforded by NGA and MW.
                          In order to bring about the conditions where NGA and MW can happen in




                                                                                                                      Page 1 - Executive Summary
                          Nottingham, we argue that it will be necessary to make NGA and MW relevant
                          to the concerns of leaders, policy-makers and communities.




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                             Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                             Nottingham in context                                                              We believe, following wide consultation with partners in the GNP, Accelerate
                                                                                                                Nottingham and other stakeholders, that there is a significant opportunity to
                                                                                                                work collaboratively on projects that can use NGA to support Nottingham in
                             Nottingham is in the midst of massive change and regeneration. Nottingham is       achieving the vision. In order to do this, there would need to be significant
                             a key commercial centre and a focus of both the scientific and pharmaceutical      cross-boundary project and collaborative working among the GNP partners and
                             industries. Nottingham is a designated Science City, and the Bio City is home      other stakeholders. We believe, based on discussions and workshops held
                             now to more workers than when Boots ran the site as their research facility.       during the project reported in this document, there may well be support for
                             With two renowned Universities, the city is becoming a knowledge-based             pragmatic projects covering NGA for Greater Nottingham.
                             economy.
                             It has been reported that Nottingham is today one of the wealthiest by GVA per
                             capita in the UK, consistently outperforming the UK as a whole. However, the
                             area is also one of the most multiply deprived cities in the UK. For example,
                             the city‟s population has more than double the CCJ‟s per capita than the UK        Supporting regeneration with digital connectivity – the
                             average but they are also for less than half the value; and the unemployment       role of NGA
                             rate of 8.8% is 30% higher than the average for England.
                             While the evidence of a buoyant knowledge economy clearly exists, its impact       Modernising infrastructure is a key process in supporting economic and social
                             is on a small proportion of the population, and it is largely missing the more     regeneration. Increasingly, City-regions have begun to realise that their
                             deprived areas of the city. If the city is to continue to make the shift to a      “digital” connections to the wider world are an increasing differentiator. The
                             knowledge economy apace it needs to embrace more of the local populations.         availability of the most flexible and affordable telecommunications
                                                                                                                infrastructure combined with skilled people comprises key foundations for
                             Accelerate Nottingham aspires to deliver a creative and innovative
                                                                                                                economic development.
                             infrastructure in support of Nottingham‟s vision as a Science City, and focus of
                             the bio-pharma and creative industries. Success in this project will help to       In the greater Nottingham conurbation, many partners have recognised the
                             reduce barriers and forge new links between the new economy and the people         importance of ICT application and use in the delivery of their strategies; both
                             of Nottingham.                                                                     in terms of their own services and also in the need to improve the skill levels
                                                                                                                and the attractiveness of the area to employers and inward investors.
                                                                                                                We have selected three cases which have useful learnings for Nottingham:
Page 2 - Executive Summary




                                                                                                                      Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA – a former manufacturing city region making
                             Nottingham‟s Vision                                                                       the transition to the Knowledge Economy
                                                                                                                      Vasteras in Sweden where the municipality has taken a very active role
                             Nottingham has ambitious plans for the future and many stakeholders are                   in the delivery of NGA for its citizens and businesses
                             promoting their vision of what Nottingham could become. In this feasibility
                             study, we focus on those areas where NGA can contribute to achieving the                 Amsterdam where a public/private partnership partly owned by the
                             Vision and on those sectors most likely to benefit from access to NGA, both               City Council is building a Next Generation Fibre network.
                             fixed and wireless, or where lack of access to NGA risks placing Nottingham at
                             a competitive disadvantage.




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                                                                                                                      Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Analysis of the case studies provides useful learning about NGA networks:         In many parts of the world demands from public sector and health providers
                                                                                  are a key factor in the case for faster broadband. In the Netherlands, the
         The network capacity is likely to be constrained only by the physical
                                                                                  major health insurance company Achmea is playing a pivotal role in the
          capability of the network not by the business model.
                                                                                  development of the OnsNet FttP network near Eindhoven because it is looking
         They serve a defined geographic community up to the size of a City      for ways to reduce expensive acute interventions.
          Region and they do not encroach on the trunk or international
                                                                                  As more services such as television move onto internet platforms (IPTV) and
          networks of the conventional telecoms sector, nor do they subsume
                                                                                  related video streaming services develop, and increasingly go “HD”, then their
          local area networks within homes and office buildings.
                                                                                  distribution and use will require NGA networks for delivery. Community based
         They are intended to be used by any party located within the            media services are growing rapidly in the UK, but nowhere near as rapidly as in
          community it serves - public and private, business and residential.     the rest of Europe or the US. We believe that these will increasingly have
                                                                                  “social value” as they develop.
         The networks are generally owned and controlled independently of any
          service or content which runs over them.
         They facilitate market entry by removing the high fixed costs
          associated with the need for each competitor to deploy its own
          infrastructure.                                                         International experience and competitiveness
         Finally, the key feature of the legal structure is that they have a
          corporate governance culture and structure that places emphasis on      The need to ensure competitiveness is always cited as one of the key drivers of
          serving the “common good”.                                              NGA investment by municipalities. Leadership in information technologies in
                                                                                  general and broadband in particular, is seen as important for maintaining high
                                                                                  standards of living and national competitiveness.


The Climate for NGA
                                                                                  Regulatory & Political Climate
There is compelling evidence that ICT investments have positive benefits for
the economy and society. Numerous studies cite the contribution to GDP




                                                                                                                                                                                 Page 3 - Executive Summary
growth of ICT, more recently studies have focused on the impact of broadband      The national debate about “Next Generation Broadband Access” began in
on the economy. The debate within industry has tended to focus on a narrow        earnest in 2006 with growing concern amongst industry insiders and
business case involving a “triple play” or “quadruple play” of voice telephony,   government about the capacity of the current telecoms access network – the
data, TV and mobile services aimed at consumers. Discussion about how next        part that links homes and businesses to local telephone exchanges – to deliver
generation infrastructure can help deliver public services more effectively and   significantly higher bandwidth for new applications and services.
efficiently and the likely impacts on local and regional economies has been       In April 2007 BSG published its report “Pipedreams? Prospects for Next
relatively limited.                                                               Generation Broadband Deployment in the UK”1. It does not make comfortable
                                                                                  reading for those concerned with economic development and competitiveness.


                                                                                  1
                                                                                      See www.broadbanduk.org for details


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                             Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                             Existing and planned access technologies will provide significantly higher speed   These are precisely the conditions under which a number of public sector NGA
                             services for only about 40%-50% of the population.                                 projects are being proposed. They aim to be pilots, experiments, projects that
                                                                                                                the commercial sector will not invest in alone. The expectation is that through
                             Currently the major players amongst the traditional telecoms operators have
                                                                                                                these projects the public sector can learn about how NGA can be developed,
                             no plans to deploy NGA except on green-field sites. The reasons for this
                                                                                                                its economic and social outcomes; and a project in which its citizens can
                             reticence are defined narrowly and purely around the commercial drivers (for
                                                                                                                participate and benefit.
                             understandable reasons).
                             The barriers to investment include uncertainty over consumer demand; the
                             regulatory environment; uncertainty over the deployment and take up of new
                             applications and services requiring significantly higher speeds; and a
                             perception that consumers will be unwilling to pay a premium for higher
                             speeds.
                                                                                                                A Framework for the Future
                             The BSG report suggested in April 2007 that the UK had about two years to
                             work out what needs to be done to encourage next generation broadband roll-        We propose that Nottingham engage in a series of focused trials and
                             out. The public sector is already concerned that without deployment of NGA         experiments designed to demonstrate the value of NGA and MW.
                             the UK‟s competitive position may be damaged. Consequently, whilst not
                             wishing to distort competition, it sees a role for public intervention to          The Nottingham area already has many of the elements necessary to deliver a
                             stimulate investment and to create pilot projects.                                 broad technology base:

                             Currently the major players‟ default expectation is that there will be a                 The Greater Nottingham Partnership has an essential role as the focus
                             patchwork of next generation pilot schemes and trials emerging. This position             for partnership working towards economic regeneration.
                             is summed up by BT:                                                                      Accelerate Nottingham has a more focussed role on the impact of
                                                                                                                       technology in regeneration; is made up of essential partners at the
                                  “BT agrees with Ofcom that there is currently no general case for                    right level to deliver new services and platforms; and has sound links
                                  direct public intervention in NGA investment given that the social                   to the creative industries
                                  value of higher bandwidth services is currently unclear. The public
                                                                                                                      Emman would be a fantastic resource to have in any region; to have it
                                  sector should be looking at ways in which it can encourage the market
                                                                                                                       based in the City may be a critical catalyst for the project.
                                  to provide rather than seeking to deliver such services itself.
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                                  However, there may be a case for funding by RDAs or local authorities         The focus of this section then is to consider how these elements can be
                                  in certain regions, subject to those meeting Ofcom/BERR and state             brought together and the missing ingredients added to deliver a framework
                                  aid guidelines. Such local initiatives potentially offer the opportunity      which can sustainably and efficiently deliver both the internal and external
                                  to increase the UK fibre footprint and allow some technical and               needs of the partners.
                                  commercial trialling.”
                                                                                                                In order to formalise relationships and foster a sense that ICT is a natural
                                                                                                                partner for policy delivery, we recommend the development of a “Consumer
                                                                                                                Panel” made up of non-technical local community and strategic organisations.
                                                                                                                The role of this body is to guide and advise the ICT partnership on where the
                                                                                                                strategic use of ICT may be most usefully applied.




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                                                                                                                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Encouraging local innovation                                                        Projects for the Future
The evolution of a next generation wireless and fibre solution will provide local   We recommend that Accelerate Nottingham and the GNP collaborate on a set
innovators with the ideal platform on which to develop and trial new services –     of experimental projects designed to make the benefits of NGA and MW
with the strategic role of this framework, the innovation will have direction       tangible. The projects are:
and focus.
                                                                                           Greater Nottingham Network Co-operative
                                                                                           BioCity Outreach
                                                                                           Health, Learning and Science
Delivering the platform                                                                    Revolution revisited

Delivering a complex telecommunications platform requires specialist
organisations with clearly defined roles. While Emman is a fantastic resource,
its exclusive role is to deliver regional backbone connectivity for its partners.
It is neither resourced nor technically well positioned to begin delivering         Greater Nottingham Network Co-operative
connectivity to large numbers of localised connections.
                                                                                    One thing that became very clear during the course of the research was that
We recommend that a new vehicle, jointly owned by the GNP and Emman
                                                                                    many of the GNP partners own and run networks with nodes in largely the
partners, be created to fulfil two key roles:
                                                                                    same areas. Aggregating each of these disparate networks onto a common
         Firstly to translate requirements into technical designs                  platform, while respecting needs for security, will clearly lead to substantial
                                                                                    financial savings for a number of the key partners, but it will also create some
         Secondly to procure or build the networks which can deliver
                                                                                    immediate possibilities for improvements to service delivery and working
          bandwidth from Emman POP’s to where its needed locally.
                                                                                    practices.
The mission of the first role will be to become a centre of national excellence
                                                                                    There is also no need to limit this network to a WiFi hotspot model. OfCom
in positioning technology at the heart of local policy delivery. While the
                                                                                    released a series of “pico-GSM” licences at the end of 2006 which could permit
following section describes a series of potential projects to begin the journey,




                                                                                                                                                                                Page 5 - Executive Summary
                                                                                    the city to run its own private GSM/GPRS network – while staff members are
it is this translation function which forges a link between the community and
                                                                                    within reach of a node, their use will be “on-net”, as if they were at their
technologists, making ICT an important tool for policy makers. If the linkage
                                                                                    desk, and when they are further afield their handsets will roam onto a
cannot be created, this programme may be viewed as a useful but discrete set
                                                                                    traditional mobile network.
of hi-tech projects fulfilling isolated tactical goals.
Success will demonstrate through examples and dialogue that ICT can be a            Deprocurement
powerful tool, helping deliver core policy initiatives beyond the core
partnership. The local area agreement‟s vision of “one Nottingham, one plan”        It is recommended that a process of “deprocurement” will achieve the
could then be supported by one platform.                                            optimum result for the GNP members; traditional aggregation leads to financial
                                                                                    savings by purchasing more for less from the same traditional suppliers while
                                                                                    the goal of deprocurement is to develop less traditional relationships with




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                             Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                             alternative suppliers who can provide managed services over a form of
                             capitalised network.
                             This approach not only reduces the headline cost of the network but also the
                             cost of moves and changes improving flexibility; it offers an optimum             BioCity Outreach
                             environment on which to launch novel services; and encourages secure co-
                             operation and partnership working.                                                Nottingham has a long and illustrious history in the scientific field including
                             Emman is essentially a core network provider and not well configured to offer     drug discovery and development (such as Ibuprofen) and technologies such as
                             end-user connections but they are well placed to provide regional transit         Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in which Nottingham is widely regarded as
                             bandwidth across the city and around the county.                                  one of the leading centres in the world.

                             We propose to develop a sister organisation which can develop and manage          This recognition helped ensure Nottingham‟s credentials as one of the UK's six
                             the first-mile connections, akin to a local OpenReach organisation.               “Science Cities”2. With Nottingham‟s international reputation and two world
                                                                                                               class universities, science-based employers have few problems recruiting
                             This organisation would be responsible for developing the wireless network,       research scientists to work in this rapidly growing sector. However, this success
                             and overseeing the design, delivery and management of any NGA networks –          has highlighted a national skills gap at technician level.
                             Emman would provide the backbone connectivity, drawing the various
                             technologies and networks together, and linking them to external services such    To complement the expertise of research scientists being developed at the
                             as N3 and the Internet.                                                           local universities, there is a need to develop qualified laboratory technician at
                                                                                                               NVQ levels. Nottingham is one of the wealthiest cities in the UK yet there is a
                             The organisation will need to be a form of social enterprise representing the     great disparity between the knowledge economy workers and many of the
                             key stakeholders in the project, and will become a focus for realising            residents of the cities more deprived areas. If Nottingham is to maintain its
                             partnership ICT projects. This overcomes many of the state-aid issues discussed   momentum as a Science City with a focus on bio-research it needs to engage
                             in previous sections as well as encourages partnership working.                   more of its population in the area.
                             Further work needs to be done to map partner organisations‟ networks and to       We propose an NVQ or BTEC course aimed at lab technicians to create such
                             formalise a structure to manage the aggregated networks.                          a path, and such courses typically contain considerable practical elements
                                                                                                               and require immersion in the subject. If either the local universities or the
                                                                                                               further education colleges launched such a programme, it would be helped if
                                                                                                               students could be in proximity to the work of BioCity companies.
Page 6 - Executive Summary




                                                                                                               The recommendation is to include the BioCity campus in the development of
                                                                                                               an NGA network, providing its tenants from incubator to established business
                                                                                                               with access to affordable and high-performance connectivity. The network
                                                                                                               could then be extended with a WiMax solution, covering the immediate
                                                                                                               hinterland such as Sneinton. In partnership with BioCity, the local schools, and
                                                                                                               a further education partner, the network could provide a flexible learning
                                                                                                               platform for local students wanting to embark on a career in science, helping
                                                                                                               to create a fast-track programme for technician level apprentices.


                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                                   See www.science-city.co.uk/


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                                                                                                                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Health, learning & science                                                           Children from deprived areas are more susceptible to chronic illness and are
                                                                                     more likely to spend periods in hospital. Even with professional hospital-based
                                                                                     educationalists, their education is bound to suffer. If this becomes a repeated
The Building Schools for the Future programme is seeking to redefine                 and long term impact, the child‟s work opportunities will also become
education and how it‟s delivered in the largest investment in secondary              blighted, perpetuating the cycle.
education ever seen in England. While there is enormous scope to link the
programme in any number of ways to the regeneration programmes of the city
and to think up imaginative ways of using ICT to assist in delivering both           Extending the benefits
simultaneously, the goal of this initial seed project is to focus on one small       Nottingham Regeneration (NRL) is currently planning a medically focussed
aspect.                                                                              science park adjacent to the hospital complex. While the Emman network
                                                                                     already ready reaches the campus, and the project outline so far is a
The University Hospital Trust is about to renovate the Children‟s Hospital. The
                                                                                     pathfinder for how it might help bring education and healthcare close
UHT has expressed a desire to offer improved bedside patient terminals which
                                                                                     together, there is also an opportunity to extend the network into the new
offer more than a basic triple-play. This offers an opportunity to link the two
                                                                                     science park.
programmes – helping to redefine both education and patient services.
Children admitted to hospital lose out in many ways; they have reduced
contact with family and friends, and their schooling may suffer; with a
tendency for more deprived families to suffer chronic illness, the impact is can
be one which reinforces a perpetuating cycle.                                        Revolution Revisited
While the hospital employs professional educationalists, this can never replace
the feeling of being in a classroom with school friends and a familiar teacher.      Ada Lovelace, Lord Byron‟s first child was born in Newstead and she played a
                                                                                     fundamental part in the early developments of computing. She documented
We propose to build on the work of the Djanogly Academy, in using                    the work of Charles Babbage and is widely credited as the world‟s first
technology to provide interaction and education beyond the classroom:                computer programmer with her “code” to generate number sequences using
         For children able to participate, telepresence and simpler video           Babbage‟s “Analytical Engine”; the US military named an early modern
          hook-up will enable a child to participate in class lessons from their     computer language after her, and her image can still be seen in Microsoft‟s
          own school.                                                                hologram; the British Computer Society award an annual Lovelace Medal to
                                                                                     people who have made a significant contribution to our understanding of




                                                                                                                                                                                Page 7 - Executive Summary
         Where lessons are missed, the opportunity to catch-up will be              information systems.
          provided using video archives of lessons.
                                                                                     Babbage incorporated punched cards (based on Jacquard looms) into his
         The possibility of live-video tutorial sessions with their teachers will   designs for a mechanical computer, and Ada Lovelace used them to develop
          also permit some opportunity to remain in touch with their own             her programs.
          school programme.
                                                                                     The village of Newstead, neighbouring the Byron families country seat, was a
         The same video technology can be used to allow friends and family          coal mining community; one with a reputation of innovation and change. In
          to “visit” children more often.                                            1987 this heritage came to an end with the closure of the mine. While the
                                                                                     regeneration of the village continues, after 20-years the community still faces
                                                                                     considerable challenges.




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                             Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                             Around Newstead is an area of expensive homes and higher incomes, but the                   Trials of telemedicine and independent living technology will
                             village itself paints a somewhat different picture. The unemployment level is                empirically test the efficacy and value of allowing people to remain in
                             almost double the national average, and more than one in five of the homes                   the homes longer or of being remotely treated at home.
                             are registered to social landlords – six times that of the surrounding hinterland.
                                                                                                                  There are also opportunities to build on this, especially by exploiting the
                             Those in work are typically travelling the 15km to Nottingham, with all the
                                                                                                                  “Building Schools for the Future” programme and the local goals of removing
                             associated environmental impacts. There are insufficient local job
                                                                                                                  the traditional bricks and mortar definition of schooling.
                             opportunities to sustain the community closer to home.
                             Access to public services is also often challenging; the nearest medical centre      Community Services
                             is some miles away, and the lack of a local secondary school means access to
                             after-school activities is more difficult. Rural Community Action, based at the      Newstead has a clear and vibrant community but it faces challenges. The goal
                             Miners‟ Welfare Community Centre also pointed to the scale of villages like          of this project is to arm the community with a new set of technological tools to
                             Newstead, where a population of around 1400 homes is typically required to           better enable them to face those challenges together.
                             sustain a village shop; with a little less than that, alternative models for         It is important to for the community to feel they have a stake in a project of
                             retaining the village shops is becoming necessary, with the nearest                  this kind, developing an “us feeling”. The initial service suggestions build on
                             supermarket some miles away.                                                         existing programmes; the local community will be empowered to evolve and
                                                                                                                  add to the services as their own confidence grows, ensuring the solution
                             Newstead at the speed of light                                                       closely meets their needs.
                             We propose to recapture the village’s spirit of innovation and link it to the        Lovelace Academy
                             area’s wider heritage, to create an exemplar of how technology can be                Today Cisco provides an Academy at the Community Centre, where local
                             used in smaller communities to regenerate the economy and create                     people can study towards a CCNA qualification.
                             opportunities – even in more isolated communities.
                                                                                                                  We propose to extend Cisco’s work into a broader “Lovelace Academy” in
                             The goal will be to deliver a true NGA network, with initial connection speeds       honour of the localities links with the pioneer. The goal of the centre will
                             of 100 Mbps symmetrical, to as many homes, businesses and organisations as           be two-fold:
                             want to join the project. The relatively dense housing types of the village
                             make this much less disruptive, and therefore less expensive, than it might be              Provide a broader training opportunity for the community, from
                             in many rural villages. Over this network will run a broad range of services                 first steps with a PC through to CCNA and beyond;
Page 8 - Executive Summary




                             which take advantage of the high speed and the local control.                               Develop thinking and excellence in community-based “eWellbeing”,

                             Public Services                                                                      With a local network on their doorstep, they will have access to the perfect lab
                                                                                                                  on which to develop their new-found skills through hands-on work experience
                             The proposal is to initially concentrate on a programme of novel healthcare          for CCNA graduates, offering the opportunity for local people to become
                             services, developed in collaboration between the community, the Hospital             engaged in the running of the services.
                             Trust and the PCT.
                                                                                                                  By developing links with the Hospital Trust, the PCT and the Universities there
                                       With the nearest medical centre some miles away, there is an              is also a fantastic opportunity to develop a “living lab” environment for
                                        opportunity to use a form of “telepresence”3 to reach the community.      community-based services, demonstrating the lessons learnt from the Luddites
                                                                                                                  by avoid a “more from less” impact from the technology, and replace it with a
                             3
                                                                                                                  “more for less” ethos.
                                 For a definition, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telepresence


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                                                    Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                   Accelerate Nottingham was established to promote the benefits of ICT to the
                   citizens of Greater Nottingham and quantify what these developments mean
                   for the city and wider region.
                   Its remit is to act as the major catalyst for change in leading, shaping and
                   transforming ICT usage within the Greater Nottingham conurbation and the
                   County; supporting future workforce, business, education and community
                   developments. Accelerate Nottingham is also a member of the DC10, a national
                   group of local authorities and related organisations with the objective of using
                   ICT to transform government and achieve social and digital inclusion.



2
                   Accelerate Nottingham have four key objectives:

      Background       1. Encourage a new business prosperity and better quality of life by
                          making businesses and citizens aware of the advantages that new
                          technology brings.
                       2. Demonstrate how ICT initiatives can be used to tackle Greater
                          Nottingham‟s challenges, particularly economic development.
                       3. Draw on a wide range of technical knowledge, experience and thought
                          leadership in order to initiate the best long-term innovative solutions.
                       4. Act as a partnership vehicle for the funding and delivery of integrated
                          conurbation-wide ICT projects that would not otherwise happen.
                          Identify best practice locally, regionally nationally and internationally
                          and disseminate to partners.
                   Accelerate Nottingham is leading a group of its partners concerned specifically
                   with connectivity infrastructure. There is a clear desire amongst the partners
                   to implement municipal wireless and next generation access (NGA) networks in
                   the conurbation of Greater Nottingham, but before taking this forward, they
                   need to understand the feasibility of implementing such networks and the
                   inter-relationships between the two.




                                                                                                               Page 9 - Background
                   The partners (particularly Nottingham City and Nottinghamshire County
                   Councils, the PCT, Nottinghamshire Police and Nottingham Trent University)
                   already understand the benefits that these networks offer, but as yet they are
                   unclear on how they can take this forward in their individual organisations or
                   what the best route is likely to be. Work already done on projects such a
                   “Homeshoring”, “Shared Services Charter”, “Network Builders” and “Crime
                   Reporting and CCTV Image Matching”, plus others from the Digital Challenge
                   provide ideal avenues to progress benefits afforded by NGA and MW.



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                               Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                          Nottingham is unlike many of the major English conurbations, having no formal
                                                                                          administrative definition which fully delineates its entire people. The City of
                                                                                          Nottingham‟s administrative boundary, like Newcastle‟s, has been set well
                                                                                          inside the urban area with a majority of the population actually living beyond
                                                                                          the city limits; of the 667,000 people living in the conurbation, less than
                                                                                          280,000 actually live within the formal cities bounds. This is well illustrated by
                                                                                          the two great football teams; the Notts County ground is actually in the city,
                                                                                          while Nottingham Forest, based at the City Ground, is across the River Trent
                                                                                          and beyond the official city limits.
                                                                                          The Greater Nottingham area is used to describe the urban area from the heart


                               3
                                                                                          of the city to the rural edges, incorporating the unitary authority of the city

                                              Greater Nottingham                          with the district councils of Gedling, Broxtowe and Rushcliffe together with a
                                                                                          peninsular containing Hucknall from Ashfield District. While the City is less
                                                                                          populous than Coventry and Leicester, this broader definition makes it the
                                                                                          seventh largest urban area in the UK, larger than Sheffield for example, and
                                                                                          therefore a member of the English Core Cities, a group the eight major urban
                                                                                          areas outside London.
                                                                                          Beyond the famous football teams, Nottingham is also host to international
                                                                                          test cricket at the Trent Bridge ground, the National Ice Centre in honour of
                                                                                          local Olympic winners Torville & Dean, and home to the national water sports
                                                                                          centre at Holme Pierrepont.
Page 10 - Greater Nottingham




                                                                                                                                                                 CBN
                                                                                                                      Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


During the industrial revolution, Nottingham came to prominence as a key             Accelerate Nottingham aspires to deliver a creative and innovative
centre of the textile industry and especially lace production. While very little     infrastructure in support of Nottingham‟s vision as a Science City, and focus of
remains of the industry today, its mark has been left in buildings such as the       the bio-pharma and creative industries. Their success in this project will help
Lace Market.                                                                         to reduce barriers and forge new links between the new economy and the
                                                                                     people of Nottingham.
The book “Saturday Night and Sunday Morning” recounts 1960‟s life in
Nottingham, based around a working man‟s club, and captures what is now the
industrial past of the city. Today‟s economy is very different; major employers
include Experian, the power generator e.on, and Capital One. A number of
public bodies have key locations in the city, including HMRC, and the Hospital
Trust is one of the largest in the country.
As the birthplace of Boots the Chemists, Nottingham remains a key centre of
both the scientific and pharmaceutical industries. Nottingham is a designated
Science City, and the Bio City is home now to more workers than when Boots
ran the site as their research facility. With two renowned Universities, the city
is becoming a knowledge-based economy.
While the local economy is clearly advancing, the balance of employment
opportunities is tilted towards the public sector, with less than one in four
positions in the top 30 employers in the private sector.
It has been reported that Nottingham is today one of the wealthiest by GVA per
capita in the UK; 42% higher than the UK average, ranking it behind only
London, Edinburgh, and Belfast in 20044. In the last decade, the city has
consistently outperformed the UK as a whole. However, the area is also one of
the most multiply deprived cities in the UK. For example, the city‟s population
has more than double the CCJ‟s per capita than the UK average but they are
also for less than half the value; and the unemployment rate of 8.8% is 30%




                                                                                                                                                                                 Page 11 - Greater Nottingham
higher than the average for England.
A symptom of this is that while the evidence of a buoyant knowledge economy
clearly exists, its impact is on a small proportion of the population, and it is
largely missing the more deprived areas of the city. If the city is to continue to
make the shift to a knowledge economy apace it needs to embrace more of the
local populations.




4
    Source: ONS


CBN
                                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                       Core to this project is a need to demonstrate to policy-makers and community
                                                                                                       leaders how working together on ICT issues can contribute greatly to realising
                                                                                                       the vision for Nottingham – the Clever City, Connected City, and Science City –
                                                                                                       and will accelerate moves to Next Generation Broadband and Mobile Wireless.




                                                                                                       Nottingham‟s Vision



                                            4
                                                                                                       Nottingham has ambitious plans for the future and many stakeholders are
                                                                                                       promoting their vision of what Nottingham could become.

                                                           The Case for Greater                        The Greater Nottingham Partnership has set out an overarching plan for the
                                                                                                       area drawing together many of the strands of activity in the Sub-Regional
                                                           Nottingham                                  Investment Plan5, which was approved by the EMDA Board in November 2006.
Page 12 - The Case for Greater Nottingham




                                                                                                       Nottingham has many opportunities to develop and key sectors are being
                                                                                                       actively promoted to deliver growth:
                                                                                                                Science and technology
                                                                                                                Business and professional services
                                                                                                                Public sector and related services
                                                                                                                Retail and leisure
                                                                                                                Creative industries
                                                                                                       In this feasibility study, we focus on those areas where NGA can contribute to
                                                                                                       achieving the Vision and on those sectors most likely to benefit from access to
                                                                                                       NGA, both fixed and wireless, or where lack of access to NGA risks placing
                                                                                                       Nottingham at a competitive disadvantage.

                                                                                                       5
                                                                                                           See: http://www.gnpartnership.org.uk/documents/srip


                                                                                                                                                                            CBN
                                                                                                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Nottingham has impressive strengths in science and status as a Science City:   We encountered significant agreement on the goals for the activities of the
                                                                               partners in the work on this study and great pride in Nottingham and its people
                                                                               and prospects.
                                                                               In terms of outcomes, the goal is well summarised in the objectives of One
                                                                               Nottingham:




And ambitions to drive further value from „connected‟ ways of working and
living through Accelerate Nottingham and the „Clever City‟:




                                                                               Working together on NGA to support the vision




                                                                                                                                                                            Page 13 - The Case for Greater Nottingham
                                                                               We believe, following wide consultation with partners in the GNP, Accelerate
                                                                               Nottingham and other stakeholders, that there is a significant opportunity to
                                                                               work collaboratively on projects that can use NGA to support Nottingham in
                                                                               achieving the vision. In order to do this, there would need to be significant
As one of only 8 Core Cities in England, Nottingham can be the focus of far-   cross-boundary project working (both institutional and geographical) and close
reaching developments in the City-Region:                                      collaboration between the City and County Councils, the Police, Health Service
                                                                               and the Education sectors. A benefit and risk of the projects would be to work
                                                                               across some of the „silos‟ identified by the National Audit Office
                                                                               Comprehensive Performance Assessments for the City Council in 2007 6 and for
                                                                               the County Council in 20047. However, we believe, based on discussions and
                                                                               workshops held during the project reported in this document, there may well
                                                                               be support for pragmatic projects covering NGA for Greater Nottingham.


                                                                               6
                                                                                 Corporate Assessment, Nottingingham City Council, Audit Commission July 2007
                                                                               http://tinyurl.com/2ch59z
                                                                               7
                                                                                 Corporate Assessment Report, Nottinghamshire County Copuncil, Audit Commission
                                                                               Dec 2004 http://tinyurl.com/yr2w8p


CBN
                                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                            Supporting regeneration with digital connectivity – the                             “Wired and Inspired to Compete” – Fort Wayne Indiana
                                            role of NGA                                                                         Fort Wayne is a “rust belt” city; with a population of 250,000 it is the second
                                                                                                                                largest city in Indiana. Fort Wayne has been through a difficult time
                                                                                                                                economically dealing with the changes as its traditional manufacturing base
                                            Modernising infrastructure is a key process in supporting economic and social       declined:
                                            regeneration. In the past, public and private stakeholders have focused on
                                            regenerating physical infrastructure such as housing, schools and colleges,               Fort Wayne was a major site for International Harvester with, in the
                                            business parks and transport infrastructure. “Connectivity” has meant road                 1970s and 80s, 10,000 workers making trucks and engines. By 2007,
                                            and rail “connections”. The provision of services such as utility services and             there were fewer than 1,200 high tech workers designing trucks,
                                            telecommunications has usually been ceded to large public companies, often                 engines, and buses all of which are built elsewhere
                                            operating as local monopolies.                                                            General Electric had 13,000 workers and by 2007 there were 300
                                            Increasingly, City-regions have begun to realise that their “digital” connections         Fort Wayne also had the world‟s leading manufacturer of gasoline
                                            to the wider world are an increasing differentiator. The availability of the               pumps – the company moved all its jobs offshore
                                            most flexible and affordable telecommunications infrastructure combined with
                                            skilled people able to take advantage of the business opportunities which
                                            result is one of the foundations of this economic development.
                                            In the greater Nottingham conurbation, many partners have
                                            recognised the importance of ICT application and use in the
                                            delivery of their strategies; both in terms of their own services
                                            and also in the need to improve the skill levels and the
                                            attractiveness of the area to employers and inward investors.
Page 14 - The Case for Greater Nottingham




                                            In this section, we provide case study examples of other Cities
                                            who have seen NGA, both fixed and wireless as a key part of their
                                            development strategies. We have selected three cases which have
                                            useful learnings for Nottingham:
                                                    Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA – a former manufacturing city
                                                     region making the transition to the Knowledge Economy
                                                    Vasteras in Sweden where the municipality has taken a
                                                     very active role in the delivery of NGA for its citizens and
                                                     businesses
                                                    Amsterdam where a public/private partnership partly owned by the
                                                     City Council is building a Next Generation Fibre network.
                                            After the case studies, we highlight the issues and insights from these cases
                                            relevant to Nottingham.




                                                                                                                                                                                                     CBN
                                                                                                                             Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


By January 2000, when Mayor Graham Richard was elected, earnings in Fort                Outcomes in Fort Wayne
Wayne had declined from 106% of the US average annual wage down to less                 By the end of 2006, the investment in NGA had created 900 new jobs. About
than 80%. Like many Midwestern cities, the future was uncertain and the                 200 of these were permanent new jobs with about 700 jobs being related to
city‟s leadership looked for new directions.                                            Verizon‟s network build and installation. In addition, a number of related
Mayor Richard was influenced in his thinking by Tom Friedman‟s work, “The               economic outcomes have been realised:
World is Flat” which highlights the need for competitiveness from the                             The preservation and expansion of high-value jobs with companies such
pressures of globalisation8. In an interview conducted for the Cook Report                         as Raytheon and ITT. In particular, Raytheon has indicated that it is
Europe9 Mayor Richard described his approach:                                                      using the NGA network to encourage more flexible working

      “Friedman argues that as the mayor of a city, the most important                            The development of centres of expertise in the development of
      thing you can do is invest in ports, airports and broadband. Those are                       applications for high bandwidth services (for example the Fort Wayne
      the infrastructure investments for the future. While we don‟t have a                         Regional Public Safety Academy and the Innovation Centre supporting
      port, we do have an airport in which we are investing heavily. And                           new businesses)
      then there is broadband which was getting ready to fly right by us.                         The increased attractiveness of Fort Wayne as a business location with
      We decided by the fall of 2001 to invest in broadband and show off                           it being ranked 16th out of the US‟ top 50 locations for entrepreneurial
      Fort Wayne as the most wired and inspired city in America with                               businesses to locate. In terms of innovation metrics, Fort Wayne now
      broadband access for all it citizens”.                                                       has a patent rate of 0.54 versus a US average of 0.01 – indicating that
                                                                                                   higher value, more knowledge intensive businesses are active in the
Initially, Fort Wayne used a public/private partnership to deliver a city-wide                     City.
wireless broadband network. At first it was used for public safety applications         Relevance to Nottingham
and then extended for access to city services both for city employees and




                                                                                                                                                                                        Page 15 - The Case for Greater Nottingham
citizens. Fort Wayne then worked with Verizon to enable the deployment of               Mayor Richard was asked by e-mail for his advice to UK cities which are former
the NGA fibre system. These two networks enable access for all public                   manufacturing cities that have been through difficult times and are working to
buildings, schools and colleges, health centres and hospitals.                          regenerate10. He was asked about metrics and outcomes and responded as
                                                                                        follows:
Mayor’s innovation initiative
                                                                                                  “Metrics... we are only now beginning to set community wide metrics.
Built on the availability of broadband, the Mayor promoted initiatives to drive                    One is a connections measure. Tracking who has access to broadband.
new applications with an innovators forum, seed capital fund, and iTeams for                       Another is the extent to which underserved people are now getting
innovation projects. iTeams are sector focused cross-disciplinary teams                            services. Within city government we are seeing initial good outcomes
looking at new ideas. The iTeams are asked “to think about what could be                           based on savings on transportation costs, speed and new online service
done with a gigabit pipe.” Various iTeams are operating focused on education,                      uses.
medical services, private sector and SMEs, city government and services.
                                                                                                  Senior [city leadership] support is a function of understanding the
                                                                                                   applications and seeing the benefits of using them.”

8
  “The World is Flat – The Globalized World in the Twenty-First Century” by Thomas L.
Friedman ISBN 0-141-02272-8
9
  Extract from a transcript of an audio interview with Mayor Graham Richard, Dallas,
                                                                                        10
2006, Brian Condon                                                                           From a personal e-mail from Graham Richard to Brian Condon, 21 October 2006.


CBN
                                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                            Västerås                                                                        MälarEnergi Stadsnät‟s open access network has three broad advantages:
                                            The city of Västerås is a municipality with 130,000 inhabitants (60,000               Freedom of choice for end users; they are not locked in by any service
                                            households) located 100 km west of Stockholm. It owns and operates a                   provider and can change providers at any time.
                                            Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), which is used by many service providers – an
                                            open access network. MälarEnergi Stadsnät is a subsidiary owned by the local          Competition; more than one provider of each service leads to
                                            multi-utility company, MälarEnergi (electricity, water and district heating).          competition which, in turn, leads to more valuable services. There is
                                            The subsidiary has virtually completed a commercial build-out of broadband             no competition from the network owner (Mälarenergi Stadsnät), which
                                            infrastructure in Västerås.                                                            is not a service provider.

                                            The vision has been to create a meeting place characterised by many services,         Cost; shared cost of infrastructure leads to lower cost for service
                                            freedom of choice, and openness, where everybody can reach everybody                   providers and lower prices for end users. Service providers get access
                                            instantly, at great speed, at all times – “the virtual society”. The virtual           to new customers (ownership of the customer relationship) without
                                            society and vision is portrayed in the city portal MälarNetCity 11.                    investing in infrastructure or bearing the burden of the long pay-back
                                                                                                                                   periods associated with such investments.
                                                                                                                            Customers of Malarnet can choose from a wide variety of services and packages
                                                                                                                            from competing providers.
Page 16 - The Case for Greater Nottingham




                                            11
                                                 See www.malarnetcity.se


                                                                                                                                                                                                CBN
                                                                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Malarnet has 40,000 household connections and 2,000 business customers. All
municipal and public services are connected to the network. More than 25
service providers sell over 85 different services on their network that go far
beyond conventional voice, video and data services, including:
         health and other public services
         distance education
         financial services
         remote alarm and video camera services
         gaming and application hosting.
The provision of a wide variety of services is facilitated by the fact that a
service provider connects once to the network yet has the potential to connect
to all subscribers (assuming that they can deliver a compelling service on a
competitive basis). The development of the network has resulted in users
paying approximately 60% less than they were paying before Malarnet was
available and receiving significantly better, higher speed services.
Malarnet‟s forecast is to connect to 50,000 customers by the end of 2007.
Additionally, in the past two years, almost 600 new companies have been
established in Vasteras. The city‟s leaders believe that the development of




                                                                                                                                            Page 17 - The Case for Greater Nottingham
Malarnet has had a positive impact on new business development and job
creation.




CBN
                                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                                                Hettrick, Loma Linda‟s Director of Information Systems, along with a long list
                                            Loma Linda                                                                          of advocates and doubters, took Loma Linda from a comparative backwater to
                                            Loma Linda, the Spanish words meaning "pretty hill", is a community located in      perhaps the leading position in the US in terms of robust communications
                                            Southern California's Inland Empire, which is just east of the greater Los          infrastructure.
                                            Angeles area. Loma Linda is bordered by Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego           Along the way, Loma Linda became the first city in the US to        promulgate
                                            County. The area is a logical extension of those economic bases.                    wiring standards, and mandated fibre demarcation into all new       homes and
                                            The regional population is about four million while Loma Linda‟s is over            commercial spaces. They used the metrics of a measurable             return on
                                            21,000. There are about 20,000 jobs in town, including in-home jobs and             investment with a variety of public/private partnership and for     sustainable
                                            major institutional jobs. The city has between 50,000 and 60,000 visitors a         economic development.
                                            day, one of the reasons being the medical facilities and telemedicine               The following four points have served as the core rationale within the City
                                            infrastructure. While the medical centre has existed for about a century, the       Council and partners in planning the build-out:
                                            city itself was incorporated only in 1970.
                                                                                                                                      The fibre network is viewed as part of the city‟s infrastructure in the
                                            Loma Linda‟s Connected Community Programme 12 is one of the first advanced                 same manner as city streets, electricity, water and sewer systems.
                                            responses to an increasing problem: how do you use a city utility to take back
                                            control of what now amounts to the communication destiny of the city? James               The council wanted as much speed as possible both for City employees
                                                                                                                                       and for citizens, believing that applications would be developed to
                                                                                                                                       make use of the capacity available.
                                                                                                                                      They demanded a high degree of security, both physical and perceived,
                                                                                                                                       and mobility – so they use a combination of secure wireless and optical
                                                                                                                                       fibre. The City Council believes that fibre is the infrastructure of the
Page 18 - The Case for Greater Nottingham




                                                                                                                                       future and that local government ought to have some opportunity to
                                                                                                                                       secure its own future.
                                                                                                                                      The project is a foundation for a “comprehensive communications
                                                                                                                                       infrastructure” – a term coined by James Hettrick and is seen as a
                                                                                                                                       necessity for future economic competitiveness. It directly supports the
                                                                                                                                       community‟s commercial and residential interests, creating a globally
                                                                                                                                       competitive community that enhances “quality of life”.




                                            12
                                              See: www.llccp.net/project_description.html for a more detailed overview of the
                                            project


                                                                                                                                                                                                      CBN
                                                                                                                         Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Amsterdam                                                                              An economic study called “The Rise of the Skilled City” by Glaeser and Saiz14
Amsterdam is an interesting comparator for Nottingham as it faces similar              analyses the ability of a city to withstand economic shocks. It demonstrates
challenges in regeneration and development. Amsterdam‟s City Council is a              that a highly skilled workforce can adapt much better to changing economies
strong proponent of and partner in a fibre network of significant scale. In this       by creating new businesses – services-related or other. In Amsterdam‟s case,
section, we present some background and a summary of the Citynet project. 13           for example, the eastern harbour area (which has been converted from
                                                                                       derelict warehouses to a new residential area 15), now supports more jobs in
Amsterdam has a population of about 740,000 with 173 different nationalities;          ICT/Internet than the total number of jobs in the harbour of Amsterdam for
49% of inhabitants have non-Dutch grandparents. Compared with the Dutch                decades. These jobs are mostly with small service companies and individuals
average, more young people live in Amsterdam (51.9 % are below 40 years of             but this, in turn, has attracted bigger companies (such as Cisco).
age). In the neighbourhood where construction of the network started, the
relative proportion of young people is higher with 64% below 40 years of age.          The network ownership model and costs
                                                                                       The limited partnership Glasvezelnet Amsterdam cv (GNA) has been
There are about 380,000 dwellings in Amsterdam. Housing density is high:
                                                                                       incorporated to implement the fibre-optic network (the equivalent of a UK
about 23 dwellings per hectare with 80% of properties rented and with 53% of
                                                                                       Special Purpose Vehicle, Company Limited by Guarantee or LLP). Participants
housing owned by housing associations.
                                                                                       in GNA are 5 major housing corporations (Algemene Woningbouw Vereniging,
The fibre-optic network is designed for home users and for small and medium-           WBV Het Oosten, Woonstichting De Key, Woningstichting Rochdale, Stichting
sized businesses. 98% of businesses in Amsterdam have fewer than 50                    Ymere), investors ING Real Estate and ReggeFiber and the city of Amsterdam
employees. These small and medium-sized businesses provide 60% of the jobs             as shareholders. GNA owns the fibre-optic network.
in Amsterdam.
                                                                                       GNA is a small core organisation which restricts its tasks to:
The economy of Amsterdam depends heavily on four ports or exchanges – the
                                                                                             constructing and maintaining the fibre-optic network
port, the airport, the financial market (AEX stock exchange, banks) and the




                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 19 - The Case for Greater Nottingham
AMSIX Internet Exchange. The AMSIX has led to a boom in Internet/ICT/digital-                concluding contracts with the operator and the contractor
media-related economic activities (it accounts for approximately 11 per cent
                                                                                             obtaining permits for the construction work
of jobs.) Given the existence of the AMSIX hub, the cost of getting Internet
content is very low.                                                                         obtaining permission from property-owners
                                                                                             setting up the project management infrastructure which makes it
                                                                                              possible to construct the network in an area




13                                                                                     14
  The material in this section is drawn from a number of sources including Amsterdam      See ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedpwp/04-2.html
Citynet, Glasvezelnet Amsterdam cv and primary research and face-to-face interviews    and www.nber.org/digest/jun04/w10191.html
                                                                                       15
originally conducted for the Cook Report Europe.                                          See www.oostelijkhavengebied.nl


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                                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                            Initially, Citynet will connect small businesses and private homes in two         The network structure follows the 3-layer model. The three-layer model
                                            different areas of the city – one in the west, and the other in the east (see     separates the fibre-optic cables themselves from what can be done with them.
                                            diagram below). This coverage will take two years. It is the intention to
                                                                                                                                 1. The passive layer: ducts, fibre-optic cables, accommodation for
                                            extend coverage to the whole city which would take a minimum of seven
                                                                                                                                    equipment.
                                            years.
                                                                                                                                 2. The active layer: the equipment placed in the local exchange and with
                                                                                                                                    the end user, including active management of the equipment. This
                                                                                                                                    creates a wholesale transmission provider. This provider leases the
                                                                                                                                    fibre-optic cables from GNA.
                                                                                                                                 3. The service layer: the services offered by market parties (radio,
                                                                                                                                    television, internet, telephony) and the services offered by people,
                                                                                                                                    businesses and institutions themselves. The service providers hire
                                                                                                                                    transport capacity from the wholesale provider.
Page 20 - The Case for Greater Nottingham




                                            The total amount required for running fibre-optic cable into approximately
                                            40,000 buildings is €30 million, of which €18 million will be provided by the
                                            shareholders and €12 million by debt capital. The equity is divided as follows:
                                                    housing corporations         €6 million
                                                    private investors            €6 million
                                                    local authority              €6 million




                                                                                                                                                                                                  CBN
                                                                                                                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


The three-layer model is also reflected in the project‟s organisation:               In participating as a minority investor in the project, the city council
                                                                                     demonstrated its support and commitment and also has a direct financial
         The construction consortium BAM/Van den Berg-Draka VOF (BD) is the
                                                                                     interest in the outcome. The city council sees the benefit in continuing to
          contractor who will construct and maintain the physical network.
                                                                                     invest in infrastructure as prerequisites to attracting businesses and people,
         Glasvezelnet Amsterdam (GNA cv) is the owner of the infrastructure.        and therefore as support the local economy. The City‟s leaders see Citynet as
                                                                                     having new infrastructure that is able to facilitate these positive economic
         BBned will operate the fibre-optic network, and manage the active
                                                                                     benefits.
          infrastructure.
GNA‟s network is a point-to-point network. This type of fibre-optic network
runs from every home or business to a local exchange (usually called a Point of
Presence, or “PoP”). Each PoP is large enough to accommodate the technical
equipment for several operators. Connecting a customer to a particular
operator requires no more than making a connection in the district exchange
and installing the electrical equipment at the customer‟s premises. This
practice is comparable to ADSL, where various operators can connect their
equipment via individual copper lines inside one local telephone exchange.
It is interesting to note that most FttP projects promoted by new entrants use
the same approaches as Amsterdam – active infrastructure where each premise
receives its own fibre which goes from the local exchange to the premises. By
comparison, incumbent Telco operators (elsewhere in Europe and in Japan and
the USA) tend to use PON (passive optical networks) which require fewer fibre-




                                                                                                                                                                                Page 21 - The Case for Greater Nottingham
optic cables, meaning that several users share the capacity of the cable.
After analysis of the options, Citynet and its promoters and stakeholders
decided that the best choice for Amsterdam is active point-to-point
architecture. They judged that the advantages of a very long amortisation
period and extremely little chance of capacity shortage are greater than the
disadvantages, namely having to lay more fibre-optic cables straightaway. The
majority of the costs for constructing the fibre-optic network are incurred in
planning, coordination, communication and excavating. Digging in every street
in Amsterdam is a disruptive and intensive operation and involves considerable
cost and effort. It would be most undesirable to have to repeat the process.
Secondly, a point-to-point network makes it easily possible to allow a large
number of service providers to offer service across the network at the same
time, sharing costs and providing great flexibility both for the service providers
and customers. This is not possible with a PON network.




CBN
                                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




                                            Learning points for Nottingham
                                            The best practice examples we have covered here contain a number of
                                            learning points for Nottingham and we draw on a summary of these prepared
                                            as part of a study by the World Bank on the development of open access
                                            networks:16
                                                      They have in most instances true broadband capacity. This capacity is
                                                       likely to be constrained only by the physical capability of the digital
                                                       hardware/software that is deployed, rather than by some artificially
                                                       imposed business model.
                                                      They serve a local geographic community ranging from a street or
                                                       business park or housing block right up to an entire village, town or
                                                       city. Such networks do not encroach upon the trunk and international
                                                       networks of the conventional telecoms sector, nor do they subsume
                                                       local area networks within homes and office buildings.
                                                      These networks are, in one sense, a public utility for the information
Page 22 - The Case for Greater Nottingham




                                                       society. They are intended to be used by any party located within the
                                                       community it serves - public and private, business and residential.
                                                      They are operated on an open basis. These networks are owned and
                                                       controlled independently of any service or content which runs over
                                                       them. This affords anyone connected to the network to take or
                                                       provide content or service from or to anyone they choose.
                                                      They facilitate market entry by removing the high fixed costs
                                                       associated with the need for each competitor to deploy its own
                                                       infrastructure.
                                                      Finally, the key feature of the legal structure of these local open
                                                       access networks is that they have a corporate governance culture and
                                                       structure that places emphasis on serving the “common good”.




                                            16
                                                 See www.infodev.org/en/Publication.130.html


                                                                                                                                 CBN
                                                              Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                            Impacting the economy through ICT – the economic case
                            There is compelling evidence that ICT investments have positive benefits for
                            the economy and society. Numerous studies cite the contribution to GDP
                            growth of ICT, more recently studies have focused on the impact of broadband
                            on the economy. Approaches to date have used highly theoretical statistical
                            correlations generated by econometric models to estimate the economic
                            impacts.17 We reproduce a table from Lehr et al below noting that their
                            results are based on analysis of “conventional” (i.e. First Generation)
                            broadband.


5     The Climate for NGA



                            More recently, the Scottish Government has studied the links between
                            broadband penetration and GDP growth finding a positive correlation with a
                            time lag of 3 years between the increase in broadband connections and GDP
                            growth (refer to the chart overleaf).




                                                                                                                         Page 23 - /The Climate for NGA
                            17
                               “Measuring Broadband’s Economic Impact” by William H. Lehr et al, Presented at
                            the 33rd Research Conference on Communication, Information, and Internet Policy
                            (TPRC). September 2005, Arlington, VA, USA. Revised January 2006.


CBN
                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                                       A 2006 MIT study concluded that “communities in which mass-market
                                                                                                                        broadband was available experienced more rapid growth in (1)
                                                                                                                        employment, (2) the number of businesses overall, and (3) businesses
                                                                                                                        in IT-intensive sectors”.
                                                                                                                       The Scottish Executive concluded that the annual Gross Value Added
                                                                                                                        (GVA) of Scotland‟s market sector in 2015 would be in the order of £2
                                                                                                                        billion to £6 billion higher due to business take-up of broadband than it
                                                                                                                        would have been otherwise (at 2000 prices).
                                                                                                                       In South Yorkshire, the Digital Region project is planning to deploy a
                                                                                                                        fibre to the street cabinet infrastructure throughout the sub-region. A
                                                                                                                        report by Adit, the public sector procurement agency (2005) suggested
                                                                                                                        that “conservative estimates indicate a £270m increase in GDP across
                                                                                                                        South Yorkshire and 7,285 new jobs will result over a 10 year period”.




                                 The debate within industry has tended to focus on a narrow business case
                                 involving a “triple play” or “quadruple play” of voice telephony, data, TV and
                                 mobile services aimed at consumers. Discussion about how next generation
                                 infrastructure can help deliver public services more effectively and efficiently
Page 24 - /The Climate for NGA




                                 and the likely impacts on local and regional economies has been relatively
                                 limited. In terms of economic impacts the BSG “Pipedreams” report quotes
                                 studies from other parts of the world:
                                         In 2002 the Momentum Group and Brookings Institution forecast that
                                          “business and government efficiencies from broadband had the
                                          potential to produce US $500 billion in savings in the US by 2010”
                                         In August 2002 Dataquest forecast that “true broadband (greater than
                                          10 Mbps) could incrementally increase US GDP by up to US$500 billion
                                          for each of the next 10 years.”




                                                                                                                                                                                      CBN
                                                                                                                   Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                   We also note that in Manchester, another DC10 City which Nottingham is
                                                                                   working closely with, Manchester Digital, the local trade association
                                                                                   representing more than 200 digital sector companies, went “on record” to
                                                                                   highlight their concerns that the lack of NGA is a serious constraint on their
Generating value                                                                   future growth and competitiveness. On 4th December 2007, the Manchester
                                                                                   Digital Board voted unanimously to highlight this issue as part of the recent
We are seeing the rapid adoption of video services (such as YouTube) and other     response to Ofcom‟s consultation on NGA.
services which promote interaction and networking among communities of
users (it is called “social networking” though increasingly these types of
networks are being adopted and developed by business users). The rise of
social networking and user generated content may be difficult to fit in to
traditional analytical models of consumers and the goods and services that
they consume but its impact on the scope and scale of the use of on-line
services and the bandwidth available is undeniable. The shift is all about
consumers becoming active producers of services and content as well as still
being “consumers”. Seeing users at the centre of the network, creating the
uses for the “first mile”, and, therefore, creating social value is an important
part of this new equation.         The implications for business and social
development are potentially very valuable.
In many parts of the world demands from public sector and health providers
are a key factor in the case for faster broadband. In the Netherlands, the
major health insurance company Achmea is playing a pivotal role in the
development of the OnsNet FttP network near Eindhoven because it is looking
for ways to reduce expensive acute interventions. OnsNet offers a way of
deploying new health monitoring technologies and new ways of interacting
with patients throughout the community, thus improving services at the same




                                                                                                                                                                              Page 25 - /The Climate for NGA
or lower cost.
A UK regional example is in the county of Cheshire, which spends £60m per
annum on residential care for 3,000 people - £20,000 per year per person. If
only 25% could remain in their own homes for one year longer the savings
would be enormous.
As more services such as television move onto internet platforms (IPTV) and
related video streaming services develop, and increasingly go “HD”, then their
distribution and use will require NGA networks for delivery. Community based
media services are growing rapidly in the UK, but nowhere near as rapidly as in
the rest of Europe or the US. We believe that these will increasingly have
“social value” as they develop.




CBN
                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                                    Households with children are more likely to have internet access than those
                                                                                                                    without, and those with internet access are more likely to have broadband (see
                                                                                                                    Figure below). Levels of internet access and broadband use also rise as
                                                                                                                    children in the household get older, suggesting that children‟s needs are a
                                 Municipalities and communities increasingly see                                    significant driver in the take-up of household internet services. However, over
                                 advantage in telecommunications                                                    a quarter of UK households with children do not have internet access. These
                                                                                                                    children, who generally have high speed access to broadband at school and
                                 Telecommunications infrastructure is now one of the top 3 factors businesses       who will have even higher speed access at colleges and universities, are the
                                 use when evaluating the attractiveness of cities. A recent Cushman and             future consumers of very high speed services in the communities they will live
                                 Wakefield study highlighted the importance of the availability of digital          and work in. In the USA for example, housing developers report that housing
                                 connectivity as a key factor in influencing corporate investment and location      developments with FttH infrastructure are more popular with recent graduates
                                 decisions; availability of staff and markets and telecommunications                than those without and suffer fewer “voids” in letting. 18
                                 infrastructure rank ahead of office space and transport. No UK cities other
                                 than London were in the top 10 of “best cities in terms of quality of
                                 telecommunications” and all the other UK cities listed had fallen in the
                                 rankings between 2006 and 2007.
                                 Families with children also see value in access to telecommunications and the
                                 internet. Ofcom research finds that over 60% of ten-year-olds own a mobile
                                 phone, rising to over 90% of 15-year-olds. Seventy per cent of ten-year-olds use
                                 the internet at home, rising to nearly 80% of 15-year-olds. Mobile phones and
                                 the internet are essential to the way in which children live their lives and
                                 define themselves. Around two thirds of children do not believe they could
                                 easily live their lives without a mobile phone and the internet and claim that
                                 they would feel “left out” if they had to do so.
Page 26 - /The Climate for NGA




                                                                                                                    18
                                                                                                                         Primary research at the Broadband Properties Summit, Dallas Texas 2006


                                                                                                                                                                                                  CBN
                                                                                                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


For businesses too, broadband connections are becoming critical to their         As well as the demands of existing businesses, it is important to take account
development. The ICT benchmarking survey covering SMEs in Yorkshire and the      of the impact of new businesses which can flourish when there is better
Humber19 links turnover growth to speed of internet access (See pie chart). It   connectivity. These include parts of the creative industries, property
is interesting to note that a significant proportion of companies plan to get    developers, providers of non-telecoms infrastructures and so-called
faster internet, which establishes that there is demand for higher speed         “Long Tail” businesses.
services – from more than 22,000 companies in Yorkshire Forward‟s area.
However, given that the SMEs concerned most likely have conventional
broadband, speed increases are not available – unless they are prepared to pay
for significantly more expensive links based on leased lines.




                                                                                                                                                                            Page 27 - /The Climate for NGA
19
     Yorkshire Forward ICT Regional Benchmarking Survey 2005


CBN
                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




                                 International experience and competitiveness
                                 The need to ensure competitiveness is always cited as one of the key drivers of
                                 NGA investment by municipalities. Leadership in information technologies in
                                 general, and broadband in particular, is seen as important for maintaining high
                                 standards of living and national competitiveness for two reasons:
                                         Experienced technology buyers (both businesses and individuals) can
                                          help IT companies gain competitive advantage over foreign
                                          competition
                                         NGA leadership boosts domestic IT employment.
                                         These issues are highlighted in “Framing a National Broadband Policy”
                                          by Robert Atkinson20 who describes the impacts on competitiveness of
                                          NGA, providing examples to illustrate the bullet points above:
                                         Using NGA as a platform, South Korea has become a “test bed” for
                                          next generation services and products including online games,
                                          educational software and consumer electronics. For example Samsung
                                          has become a world leader in broadband technology through exploiting
                                          its experience in Korea. Korea also has a thriving computer games
                                          sector with over 50% market share of online games market in China.
                                          By 2010, NCsoft the leading South Korean games exporter (which also
                                          has actively acquired production studios in the UK) forecasts that over
Page 28 - /The Climate for NGA




                                          70% of its revenues will come from exports.
                                         Corning, a leading fibre-optic technology company, has recently re-
                                          opened a mothballed plant in North Carolina to serve the increasing
                                          demand for fibre in the US. Other technology suppliers in the US are
                                          indicating expansion in employment opportunities as NGA networks are
                                          deployed.
                                 Finally, Atkinson indicates that US competitiveness is impacted at the level of
                                 the individual company by the availability of NGA; placing firms at a
                                 competitive disadvantage if they do not have access.
                                 20
                                   “Framing National Broadband Policy” by Robert Atkinson published in CommLaw
                                 Conspectus Vol 16, 2007 and available at: www.itif.org/index.php?id=118.


                                                                                                                    CBN
                                                                                                                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                  Next Generation Access
                                                                                  The national debate about “Next Generation Broadband Access” began in
                                                                                  earnest in 2006 with growing concern amongst industry insiders and
Regulatory & Political Climate                                                    government about the capacity of the current telecoms access network – the
                                                                                  part that links homes and businesses to local telephone exchanges – to deliver
This section deals with the overall policy and regulatory context for municipal   significantly higher bandwidth for new applications and services.
wireless and next generation broadband projects.                                  The existing access network is based on copper telephone lines which can only
                                                                                  carry high speed signals over comparatively short distances. A lack of capacity
The Rationale for Community & Municipal Wireless Projects                         in the access network will hamper the development of new video-based online
                                                                                  services for businesses, consumers and the public sector alike. We have also
Municipal and community-based wireless projects started to take off in the UK
                                                                                  noted the growing deployment of high speed fibre connections internationally
in 2003-2005, often as a way of providing basic broadband access in areas that
                                                                                  and provide several case studies in the previous section.
were not ADSL-enabled, or as a way of providing low cost services in urban
regeneration areas21. In early 2005 CBN identified over 500 local wireless
initiatives around the UK; 40% described themselves as social enterprises; 30%    Broadband Stakeholder Group – Pipe Dreams Report
were private companies; 10% public sector and 20% voluntary groups. Ofcom         The first serious attempt to analyse the situation was undertaken by the
noted the growth of these projects in its 2006 Nations & Regions report 22.       Broadband Stakeholder Group. BSG was set up by Government in 2001 to bring
More recently, as first generation broadband services have been extended and      together industry and public sector interests to inform the policy and
prices reduced, the rationale for community projects has changed. In more         regulatory environment.
rural areas wireless networks are still needed to extend coverage to areas        In April 2007 BSG published its report “Pipedreams? Prospects for Next
beyond the reach of ADSL. Urban projects may provide ubiquitous local             Generation Broadband Deployment in the UK”25. It does not make comfortable
coverage over a town centre, aiming to encourage visitors and business people     reading for those concerned with economic development and competitiveness.
(Norfolk & Norwich). Others are set up for more specific objectives; providing    Existing and planned access technologies will provide significantly higher speed
access to education on-line to low income households in the Community             services for only about 40%-50% of the population (ADSL 2+ delivering 8Mbps
Connected project in Kingston upon Thames 23 for example. Part of the             and above) and these are well short of the headline speeds predicted in a
rationale for projects like this is that, according to OFCOM statistics, 10% of   previous BSG report26 as a requirement for consumers and businesses by 2012 -




                                                                                                                                                                                Page 29 - /The Climate for NGA
the overall population do not have a telephone landline and this is skewed        only about 10% of the population will be able to get speeds of 20Mbps +. In
towards the lower socio-economic groups with 15% of C2DE households               Korea 90% of the population is connected to broadband with an average
compared to 5% of ABC1 being without a landline 24. By definition these people    advertised speed of 43Mbps; in Japan 50% of the population are connected,
cannot receive broadband over ADSL.                                               95% of homes will have fibre by 2010 and the average advertised connection is
                                                                                  90Mbps.27


21
   Manchester Eastserve at www.eastserve.com
22
   See www.Ofcom.org.uk/research/cm/nations/nations_regions/nations_regions.pdf
                                                                                  25
section 5.4.3                                                                        See www.broadbanduk.org for details
23                                                                                26
   Community Connected at e-voice.org.uk/comcon/                                     Predicting UK Future Residential Bandwidth Requirements -
24
   OFCOM Communications Market Report 2007,                                       www.broadbanduk.org/content/view/185/
                                                                                  27
www.Ofcom.org.uk/research/cm/cm07/uk/                                                The Guardian, 10/01/08


CBN
                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                 Currently the major players amongst the traditional telecoms operators have
                                 no plans to deploy FttP except on green-field sites. The reasons for this               “While the BSG recommends that the public sector should forbear
                                 reticence are defined narrowly and purely around the commercial drivers (for            from intervening to promote NGA deployment at this stage, it is highly
                                 understandable reasons). The cost of building out a new access infrastructure           likely that public sector support will be required in areas where
                                 across the UK is estimated at £10-15bn with 70% taken up by civil engineering           persistent market failure is most likely. Building on the Best Practice
                                 work. BT‟s 21CN project to upgrade the core network is costing £10bn and it             Guide published by the DTI and Ofcom in February 2007, further work
                                 does not believe that the financial markets, operating on short term horizons,          should be undertaken to identify and experiment in the development
                                 would support a major simultaneous investment in the access infrastructure.             of efficient and effective models for public sector interventions in
                                 The barriers to investment include uncertainty over consumer demand; the                collaboration with commercial stakeholders, government and the
                                 regulatory environment; uncertainty over the deployment and take up of new              regulator.”
                                 applications and services requiring significantly higher speeds; and a
                                 perception that consumers will be unwilling to pay a premium for higher             Again it is worth noting that an important driver for public sector intervention
                                 speeds. All of these should be read in the context of a required ROI in 3-5         will be the need to improve competitiveness in areas where the market is not
                                 years. However others argue that a new access infrastructure will last for 20-      only failing consumers but businesses as well.
                                 30 years and that investment decisions should be seen in that context as more
                                 of a utility investment.                                                            In the government reshuffle that took place when Gordon Brown became Prime
                                                                                                                     Minister Stephen Timms became Minister for Competitiveness at the new
                                 BT‟s willingness to invest in FttP in green-field sites largely reflects the        Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. Timms had been
                                 economics of operating services over fibre versus copper – it is cheaper to do      minister for broadband during the roll out of first generation services and
                                 so – but also reflects increasing demand from developers. The first major           understood the territory well. He immediately announced that he was making
                                 deployment is in the Ebbsfleet development where BT have just announced             NGA a key priority and in November hosted a high level summit of industry,
                                 that download speeds of up to 100Mbps will be available, equivalent to              RDAs and other actors to push forward the agenda. He has injected a sense of
                                 headline speeds in Japan, Korea and parts of Europe.                                urgency into the debate and is keen to foster new approaches that can break
                                                                                                                     the impasse.
                                 The only countervailing position in regard to existing communities has been
                                 Virgin Media‟s announcement of trials with the ambition of rolling our new
                                 technology (DOCSIS3) allowing speeds of up to 50Mbps to 70% of its customer
                                 base during 2008. However the cable footprint is only 50% of the UK population
Page 30 - /The Climate for NGA




                                 and as we note above and generally excludes businesses.
                                 The failure to invest because of uncertainty about consumer demand and
                                 appetite for premium services is depriving businesses of the benefits of NGA,
                                 particularly SMEs. Ironically it is likely that many businesses would be prepared
                                 to pay a premium for NGA.
                                 The BSG report suggested in April 2007 that the UK had about two years to
                                 work out what needs to be done to encourage next generation broadband roll-
                                 out. The report makes nine recommendations including one specifically on
                                 public sector interventions:




                                                                                                                                                                                          CBN
                                                                                                                       Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                    On the question of when investment should take place there are two very clear
Ofcom NGA Consultation                                                              and distinct camps. The Telco industry position can be summarised as “leave it
Ofcom became engaged during 2007 with a consultation on NGA that ended in           up to us to decide when and where to invest”. Those concerned about
December 200728. The consultation report is expected in late spring 2008.           economic development – including all of the RDAs (with the notable exception
Ofcom sought answers to five questions:                                             of the Scottish Government) disagree. The collective response to the question
                                                                                    of “when” by the RDAs is short and pithy:
      1. When do you consider it would be timely and efficient for next
         generation access investment to take place in the UK?
                                                                                         “The time is now.”
      2. Do you agree with the principles outlined for regulating next
         generation access?
                                                                                    This view is echoed strongly by the businesses represented by the CMA, to a
      3. How should Ofcom reflect risk in regulated access terms?                   lesser extent by the CBI and by major developers such as Titanic Quarter (a
                                                                                    subsidiary of Harcourt plc) responsible for redevelopment of the former
      4. Do you agree with the need for both passive and active access              Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast.
         remedies to promote competition?
                                                                                    The DC10/CBN position was informed by developments in other parts of
      5. Do you consider there to be a role of direct regulatory or public policy   Europe, notably Amsterdam CityNet (see the previous section) which is
         intervention to create artificial incentives for earlier investment in     supporting the build out of FttP for reasons of regional competitiveness.
         next generation access?                                                    Officials in Amsterdam have made it clear that they see the implementation of
The responses to the consultation have recently been published on the OFCOM         a 21st century telecoms infrastructure as a key driver of inward investment.
website29. The DC-10 Network of Digital Challenge local authority finalists         This is not only true of our near neighbours in the Netherlands and France.
(including Accelerate Nottingham) and the Community Broadband Network               Stephen Timms noted30:
submitted a joint response led by ONE Manchester. The English RDAs also
submitted a joint response coordinated by SEEDA. The Scottish Government                 “The UK has made good progress in recent years in delivering new
and Welsh Assembly Government responded as did other public sector bodies.               telecoms services, most notably broadband, but we face a significant
On the industry side major players like Alcatel-Lucent, BT, the BBC, Cable &             challenge in keeping pace with the European competition. We are
Wireless, KCOM (formerly Kingston Communications), Nokia-Siemens, O2, Thus,              witnessing Next Generation Broadband activities in German and




                                                                                                                                                                                  Page 31 - /The Climate for NGA
Tiscali and Yahoo! all responded. Wider business interests were represented by           French markets, but also in markets such as Bulgaria, Poland and
the CBI, the Communications Managers Association (with members in 1500                   Slovakia.”
large businesses), the UK Film Council and developers like Land Securities.




28                                                                                  30
     See www.Ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/nga/                                        From Stephen Timms‟ invitation to industry leaders to attend the Summit on 26th
29
     See www.Ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/nga/responses/                            November 2007.


CBN
                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                 The key issues for those involved in regional competitiveness and economic        Currently the major players‟ default expectation is that there will be a
                                 development were summed up well in the DC10/CBN response to Ofcom:                patchwork of next generation pilot schemes and trials emerging. This position
                                                                                                                   is summed up by BT:
                                      “We now need to move to a position of proactive public policy which
                                      provides an enabling framework for stakeholders at all levels, local,            “BT agrees with Ofcom that there is currently no general case for
                                      regional and national, to bring forward innovative proposals for trials,         direct public intervention in NGA investment given that the social
                                      demonstration projects and initial deployments.                                  value of higher bandwidth services is currently unclear. The public
                                      The UK has one last chance to play in this emerging „Champions                   sector should be looking at ways in which it can encourage the market
                                      League‟, it has the players lined up, a collaborative strategy for               to provide rather than seeking to deliver such services itself.
                                      winning and some great team coaching but the current regulatory                  However, there may be a case for funding by RDAs or local authorities
                                      approach is so cautious and risk-averse that the „players‟ are not               in certain regions, subject to those meeting Ofcom/BERR and state
                                      allowed onto the pitch. Meanwhile the competing teams are winning                aid guidelines. Such local initiatives potentially offer the opportunity
                                      game after game and, before too long, will probably make a bid to                to increase the UK fibre footprint and allow some technical and
                                      take over the pitch completely and buy most, if not all, of our team             commercial trialling.”
                                      players.”
                                                                                                                   These are precisely the conditions under which a number of public sector NGA
                                 The responses to Ofcom‟s fifth question about the role of regulatory or public    projects are being proposed. They aim to be pilots, experiments, projects that
                                 policy intervention tend to reflect the divergence in views between the narrow    the commercial sector will not invest in alone. The expectation is that through
                                 commercial interests of the Telcos and the wider concerns of the public sector    these projects the public sector can learn about how NGA can be developed,
                                 and a broader cross section of business. The public sector is already concerned   its economic and social outcomes; and a project in which its citizens can
                                 that without deployment of NGA the UK‟s competitive position may be               participate and benefit.
                                 damaged. Consequently, whilst not wishing to distort competition, it sees a
                                 role for public intervention to stimulate investment and to create pilot          The Ciao Review
                                 projects. The South Yorkshire Digital Region project is just such an example of   In the last government reshuffle Stephen Timms was replaced by Baroness
                                 creative public sector thinking and experimentation as is the Fibrespeed          Shriti Vadera. Supported by No.10 she initiated a review focused on the
                                 project in Wales. But seen from the narrower commercial perspective of the
Page 32 - /The Climate for NGA




                                                                                                                   investment issues undertaken by Francesco Ciao, an industry specialist
                                 Telcos, public intervention in advance of their own market decisions is           formerly with Cable & Wireless. Ciao is due to report in the autumn of 2008.
                                 unwelcome since it is likely to force their hand. They are not arguing that the   An important staging post in this review will be a conference in June jointly
                                 door should be completely closed; they just don‟t want a floodgate opened.        hosted by the BSG and OFCOM.




                                                                                                                                                                                         CBN
                                                                                                                    Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                   The recent case involving Amsterdam Citynet was resolved in favour of
State Aid Issues                                                                   Amsterdam in part because of the open and non-discriminatory nature of the
In response to public and private sector concerns about state aid in the context   proposed NGA network.
of broadband projects the DTI issued guidance to assist project promoters 31. By
following the guidance offered public sector agencies should not fall foul of          “The funding, in whole or in part by the public sector, of the capital
state aid rules.                                                                       assets of a private sector entity clearly raises potential state aid
Quoting from that document:                                                            issues. In these circumstances the Commission will move to the next
                                                                                       stage of its analysis and consider whether the public sector support
                                                                                       can be regarded as not amounting to state aid on grounds that it
         “State aid is funding from any level of Government or a public
                                                                                       represents a market economy investment. Under the “market
         body, including Regional Development Agencies and local
                                                                                       economy investor principle” it is possible for the public sector to
         authorities, which meets all four of the following tests:
                                                                                       make investments, such as capital injections, in private sector
                  by with or from state resources                                      undertakings, without them amounting to state aid, on the basis that
                  favouring a particular undertaking or the production of              a rational market investor would make such an investment on the
                  certain goods                                                        same terms. The risks and benefits to the public sector body making
                                                                                       the investment should be exactly proportionate, relative to other
                  distorting or threatening to distort competition
                                                                                       investors, for there to be no aid. Thus an arrangement where the
                  affecting intra-community trade.                                     public sector invests 30% of the capital but gets only 20% of any return
         In assessing whether public sector support for the establishment              would not be MEIP compliant. Additionally the Commission is very
         of a broadband network represents state aid the Commission                    unlikely to accept 100% public sector funding as being MEIP compliant.
         follows a several step analysis. The first issue it considers is              The MEIP approach can usually only be sustained where there is
         whether a project represents publicly owned infrastructure which              private sector co-investment which represents a substantial
         is open to all. The creation of such infrastructure does not give             proportion of the project.”
         rise to state aid issues because it is a common facility, such as a
         road or a bridge, which is not for the specific benefit of certain        In the Amsterdam Citynet case the commission concluded that the municipality
         undertakings.”                                                            participates in the project on the same terms as would a market investor,




                                                                                                                                                                               Page 33 - /The Climate for NGA
                                                                                   therefore no state aid is involved.
This last point is important when assessing the type of network to be              With some projects e.g. the South Yorkshire Digital Region and the North
implemented – i.e. whether it should be vertically integrated from the             Yorkshire Network (NYNET) special purpose vehicles were created to channel
infrastructure through to service provision, or an “open access” network           the state investment and manage the project.
allowing multiple service providers.




31
     This can be found at www.berr.gov.uk/files/file29835.pdf


CBN
                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                 One upshot of concerns about state aid can be artificial limitations on the
                                 service for instance by restricting the bandwidth available to users. An          Business rates & social enterprises
                                 example of this is the Norfolk & Norwich Openlink municipal wireless project      In the UK, telecommunications ducting is considered as “office space” for
                                 supported by EEDA, the County Council, and South Norfolk District Council. The    business rates purposes; while ducting lies unused it can be zero rated, but as
                                 main network covers the centre of Norwich and key locations in the east and       soon as services are provided the duct carries business rates. This is often cited
                                 west of the city. Usage is free but bandwidth is restricted to 1mbps for public   by operators as a serious barrier to investment in NGA networks.
                                 sector users and 256kbps for the general public, and the service cuts off after
                                 an hour, forcing users to log back on. This ensures that the free service is      However, adopting a social enterprise model has the potential at least of
                                 limited in comparison with private wireless hotspots. However arguably it         reducing the level of business rates. A charitable social enterprise may
                                 seriously limits the utility of the network.                                      automatically be entitled to an 80% reduction on business rates, and at the
                                                                                                                   discretion of the local authority the remaining 20% can be written off as well.
                                 By way of contrast, a social enterprise offering free wireless access is
                                 Boundless in Deptford, South East London32. In Boundless local businesses and     Other forms of non-profit social enterprises can, at the discretion of the local
                                 organisations have clubbed together to share their ADSL connections creating a    authority, also have their rates bill reduced or written off if the organisation is
                                 free wireless mesh network covering most of Deptford. The bandwidth               philanthropic or is “concerned with education, social welfare, science,
                                 available is limited only by the local DSL connections and limitations inherent   literature or the fine arts”. The models considered in this study could allow
                                 in any wireless network using wifi technology. Lewisham council made an           local authorities the option of reducing or eliminating business rates and so
                                 initial contribution to the project in 2004 under a pilot scheme but since then   improve the business sustainability of the network; with a unitary authority
                                 it has been run by the community on a co-operative basis with none of the         and four district council with such powers, there is ample scope to find a
                                 state aid issues affecting service performance or delivery.                       partnership agreement on this.


                                 DTI/OFCOM Best Practice Guide
                                 Further guidance was issued in February 2007 by the DTI and OFCOM in
                                 response to the development of public sector NGA projects 33.
                                 The key concern of the document is that ill-judged schemes risk distorting
                                 competition or deterring private sector investment and thus may fall foul of
Page 34 - /The Climate for NGA




                                 state aid rules.




                                 32
                                      See www.boundless.coop
                                 33
                                      Refer to www.Ofcom.org.uk/media/mofaq/telecoms/pbs/dti_pbs.pdf


                                                                                                                                                                                           CBN
                                                        Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                        During the development of this report, CBN interviewed Accelerate
                        Nottingham‟s partners and other local organisations to develop a more detailed
                        view of each organisation‟s own priorities and direction as well as a more
                        general perspective on the area. This section summarises some of these
                        interviews.




                        Accelerate Nottingham

6     The Partnership
                        Accelerate Nottingham was established to promote the benefits of technology
                        to the people of Greater Nottingham, and to help quantify the impacts it may
                        have for the city and region.
                        It is a partnership of local organisations with a broad range of technically
                        literate board members. As such they may form the main conduit for delivering
                        the proposals in this report.




                        Greater Nottingham Partnership
                        The GNP was formed in 1994 to improve partnership working across the
                        Greater Nottingham area, and to attract funding for regeneration projects. In
                        2002, it became the Sub-regional Strategic Partnership responsible for
                        delivering the regional economic strategy.




                                                                                                                   Page 35 - The Partnership
                        The core themes which cross all of GNP‟s work are:
                              Developing leadership
                              Economic diversity
                              Innovation
                              Connectivity – both digital and transport
                              Developing skills
                              Physical regeneration



CBN
                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                            GNP hosts Accelerate Nottingham.                                                    However, there is a sense that the extensive use of technology may have
                                                                                                                added to the local digital exclusion problems. The Academy is aware of this
                            There was a feeling that during the initial development of Diamond Cable that
                                                                                                                and is actively developing programmes to reach a wider audience. Currently
                            the city benefitted from the enhanced services; it helped to seed ideas for the
                                                                                                                they have around 600 devices in students homes, where parents can learn from
                            delivery of new services. Since the consolidation of the regional cable
                                                                                                                their children, but issues of access to connectivity persist.
                            operators into a single UK provider, there is perhaps a loss of that local focus.
                                                                                                                There are two key groups in society which are less likely to have access to a
                            Today the role for public intervention is about community access. While simple
                                                                                                                traditional phone line at home; a small group of high-income portfolio workers
                            access in libraries may not have worked, more imaginative and targeted
                                                                                                                and a larger group of low-income families. The hinterland of the Academy
                            programmes may attract better support and deliver greater impact. There is
                                                                                                                contains a large proportion of the latter group, where credit standing may
                            also the need to improve and evolve the way services are delivered; for
                                                                                                                prevent them from getting an affordable broadband service, or where their
                            example improved safety of outworkers from a ubiquitous wireless
                                                                                                                tenure leads to short stays at a given home.
                            infrastructure.
                                                                                                                Traditional infrastructures poorly serve this kind of community. For this
                                                                                                                reason, the Academy joined the Intel WiMAX trial. Wireless infrastructure can
                                                                                                                move more easily with the families, and a privately owned network can be
                                                                                                                offered to families in a more affordable package.

                            Djanogly City Academy
                            The Djanogly City Academy, in 2003, was one of the first of its type to open its    Building Schools for the Future
                            doors, replacing the Djanogly City Technology College and Forest
                            Comprehensive School. Today the Academy has approximately 1,700 students
                                                                                                                Building Schools for the Future (BSF) is the largest ever programme of
                            across two sites.
                                                                                                                investment in the fabric of schools, with the aim of rebuilding or remodelling
                            It is clear from the moment you enter the school that it takes its ICT specialist   almost every secondary school in England. Rather than focussing on a narrow
                            status seriously. Some 60% of the school‟s learning environment is available to     definition of school to include only the dedicated fabric of the building, BSF is
                            those students with broadband access at home, and during their life within the      looking at how education can be reformed using more appropriate buildings
                            school, each child has a tablet computer which travels with them from class to      linked with novel technologies.
                            class. The electronic learning environment is considerably more complete than
Page 36 - The Partnership




                                                                                                                A key part of the vision for Nottingham is to “ensure that a city-wide ICT
                            in many schools, pervading every aspect of the education process.
                                                                                                                structure is commissioned which can support 21 st century learning”. Some
                            For example, the teaching platform allows parents to view their children‟s          initial work has begun towards this with a WiMax trial at the Haddon Campus
                            progress online, and can link the teacher-maintained profile to the student‟s       with partners from Emman and Intel.
                            personal home-page, generating personalised content to support the individual
                                                                                                                It is clear that the timing and goals of the BSF programme in Nottingham
                            needs of each child; this content includes a rich mix of media, including peer
                                                                                                                dovetail very closely with the goals of this feasibility study.
                            content from YouTube.




                                                                                                                                                                                      CBN
                                                                                                                       Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Nottinghamshire Police                                                               EMDA
The police have been pioneering resource sharing with the County Council,            East Midland‟s Development Agency has the role of encouraging economic
tunnelling their services through the council‟s network; while the network           development across a diverse region, covering the three counties of Derby,
sharing is fairly limited at the moment, it is well understood that many police      Leicester and Nottingham, with the rural county of Lincoln and Northampton to
stations are also in areas where the council have offices, so there is a high-       the south.
degree of network overlap.
                                                                                     While there is a more limited focus on broadband as an infrastructure, there is
Today the police suffer from what can be termed “fire stationing” – where            support for programmes which can use technology to improve the impact and
officers base themselves at a police station so they have access to the              drive economic growth.
necessary information before they can attend an incident; after the call, they
return to the station to complete the paper work and prepare for the next call.
This reduces the time officers can spend engaging with the community and
gathering intelligence, and is a less than efficient use of police vehicles. There
was a feeling that a Fort Wayne model of hotspots (discussed earlier) may both
improve officer contact time with the community and reduce costs; a trial of
Blackberry‟s is underway.
                                                                                     Nottingham City Council
                                                                                     The city is focussing on five key industries:
                                                                                            Science & technology
                                                                                            Creative industries
Nottingham Contemporary                                                                     Retail
                                                                                            Finance & business services
The CCAN development, due to be complete in 2009, is building one of the
largest contemporary arts spaces in the UK. Aiming to be an important cultural              Public sector
and social resource for the people of Nottingham, CCAN also wants to embrace         The emphasis on the Science City and the reputation of the two universities is
innovation. They have a desire to use ICT to reach communities, taking the           key to the success here.




                                                                                                                                                                                  Page 37 - The Partnership
centre to the people, developing “virtual walkthrough” experiences at
community centres for example, and through an interactive video library of           There is a view that the Internet needs to be viewed as a utility, but that it
the exhibitions; in today‟s market, this requires considerable and expensive         hasn‟t achieved that status yet. While science-based businesses remain in
bandwidth, so CCAN would be keen to exploit a local next generation                  incubator sites, they have no problems accessing affordable and sufficient
broadband platform, both fixed and wireless.                                         bandwidth. However, there are reports that expanding businesses are finding
                                                                                     bandwidth is both more expensive and slower beyond university supported
                                                                                     locations.




CBN
                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                            The city has seven deprived areas, some of which abut major business              Emman
                            developments. The Netherfields area, for example, is next to the BioCity
                            campus. There is a concern that if the local community can‟t benefit from the
                            regeneration it may further isolate them. However, with a shortage of skilled     The joint academic network, SuperJanet, is owned and managed in the East
                            technicians, there should be an opportunity to encourage the community to         Midlands by Emman, a company limited by guarantee whose members are
                            find work in the new businesses.                                                  made up of the region‟s universities. The network is run by Nottingham Trent
                                                                                                              University. The network‟s core role is to provide academic access to
                            Further, there is a view that alternative access and delivery systems may be      SuperJanet, although they also provide general purpose Internet access for the
                            needed to reach people most in need of help. For example, wireless internet       schools of Derby, the Djanogly Academy, and to university incubator
                            access may provide an a more appropriate service to families living in short-     businesses.
                            term rented accommodation or where their credit status means fixed-line
                            telephony services are hard to obtain.                                            Their network consists of a “dark fibre” ring around the city and around the
                                                                                                              region, with spurs to individual locations. On these rings, the dense-wave
                            To help develop this process of new ubiquitous access, there was an attempt       division multiplexer (DWDM34) equipment is able to provide multiple 10 Gbps
                            by the ICT department to include next generation access infrastructure in the     connections. The fibre is largely rented on long-term leases from NTL (now the
                            planning guidelines for developers; akin to the Loma Linda example reviewed       business and carrier arm of Virgin Media).
                            earlier in this report.
                                                                                                              While their work is predominantly focussed on higher-education, the
                                                                                                              organisation is keen to support other public sector projects, and as such may
                                                                                                              provide to be the ideal platform on which to aggregate Accelerate
                                                                                                              Nottingham‟s partners‟ networks.


                            Nottinghamshire County Council
                            As with many county and unitary authorities today, the County Council is being
                            encouraged to adopt new ways of working and develop partnerships to help
                            deliver greater efficiency. As an ICT function, the focus is therefore on the
                            service and not the procurement and ownership; they are currently talking
                            with their neighbouring county councils about greater co-operation and sharing
Page 38 - The Partnership




                            of resources.
                            Some network sharing is already being done between the council and the
                            police force, allowing the police to tunnel through the council‟s network where
                            officers are stationed within council buildings. With security and modes of
                            working already tested, the groundwork for the partnership has been done.




                                                                                                              34
                                                                                                                   See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DWDM for a explanation


                                                                                                                                                                                  CBN
                                                                                                                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                     Their goal is to encourage development on sites which might otherwise be
                                                                                     considered marginal to traditional developers. As such anything which
                                                                                     improves the marketability of the projects would be welcome providing it
                                                                                     didn‟t add costs to otherwise marginal projects.
Rural Community Action
Based at Newstead, Rural Community Action (RCAN) supports local grass-roots
projects in Nottinghamshire‟s rural communities; for example through the
development of local parish plans.
Their work focuses on the full range of challenges faced by rural communities        Nottingham University Hospitals Trust
from isolation and a typically ageing population, to the struggle to sustain local
businesses and shops.
                                                                                     NUH is one of the largest hospital trusts in the UK, employing around 12,000
Specifically on Newstead, RCAN were keen to encourage better access to               staff and treating 750,000 out-patients each year and a further 180,000 in-
training opportunities. The UK Online centre is now closed, which may be             patients at its two main campuses. Their informatics department employs
impacting the take-up of the community‟s Cisco Academy – without a                   around 250 staff, providing telephony and data services across the city
grounding in technology it can be hard to see the relevance of more advanced         locations.
data communications skills. There are also issues for some of the local
                                                                                     They have two clear goals they are moving towards:
teenagers as the secondary school is some miles away so access to after school
activities is more restricted.                                                             Reduced capital requirement – treating people nearer their homes
                                                                                            while making best use of centralised clinical skills.
An area they have been developing is alternative sustainable models for village
shops. It becomes very difficult to sustain a community shop with a population             Linking to other agencies – working more closely with social care
much below 1,400 people. Broadening the role of the shop and the intelligent                providers, educationalists, mental health trusts, etc., while ensuring
use of technology may help this process.                                                    patient information is delivered safely to where it‟s needed and to the
                                                                                            right people.
                                                                                     The Trust is about to embark on a major redevelopment of the children‟s
                                                                                     hospital, and they are keen to see how ICT innovations might improve the
                                                                                     environment. For example, an improved bed-side patient device to deliver
Nottingham Regeneration Ltd




                                                                                                                                                                                Page 39 - The Partnership
                                                                                     video links to family homes.

NRL is perhaps an atypical urban regeneration company (URC). Its main focus is       Further interest was expressed in delivering information to patients in more
on the built environment of Nottingham, rather than a broader regeneration           appropriate ways; for example, the ability to deliver the “choose and book”
agenda. They have a series of largely business focussed sites at various stages      system to patients through their television, to help people without access to a
of development from BioCity, which is open for business, to the old Rolls Royce      computer benefit from the system.
site in Hucknall which is not expected to be online for perhaps 2-3 years.




CBN
                            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                            Bio City                                                                            They have major access problems in a variety of situations. For example Social
                                                                                                                Services workers funded by the PCT and the City share the same office but the
                                                                                                                City funded social workers are unable to access the COIN network. The schools
                            On the site of the Boots research facility in the centre of Nottingham, the         network doesn‟t permit health workers in schools to use VPNs through to COIN
                            BioCity is an innovation centre and incubator for healthcare and bioscience.        and N3, so in some schools the PCT is installing their own network connections.
                            The result of a major donation of land and equipment from BASF and funding
                            from EMDA and the EU, the site now houses more people than were working
                            during the Boots era.
                            In addition to the standard office space services, the centre also offers utility
                            access to specialist equipment, as well as on-site access to services such as       Nottingham Council for Voluntary Service
                            patent agents.
                            In the mould of “big companies can‟t innovate”, the centre encourages spin-         NCVS exists to enable the voluntary sector to contribute to the social,
                            out innovators. As these develop and grow, and may be re-integrated, the            economic and community development of Nottingham.
                            cycle becomes a sustainable ecosystem of innovation.                                The figures from the last survey (2003) show that In the Greater Nottingham
                            While there is ample supply of researchers, their main problem is in identifying    area there up to 4,600 voluntary and community sector organisations
                            skilled technicians. The centre has begun outreach programmes with local            employing between 2,600-3,600 staff. At least 100,000 volunteers and
                            schools to encourage children to consider this as an option for further             community activists are involved in the sector, contributing the equivalent of
                            education, with several hundred students visiting the site in the last year.        8,000 full time jobs. Approximately 800 organisations are involved in providing
                                                                                                                services or activity in learning and skills with at least 20,000 learning
                                                                                                                opportunities taken up the community.
                                                                                                                The group supports communities through the local area partnership, One
                                                                                                                Nottingham, and the New Deal for Communities (NDC) in Radford. NCVS have
                            Primary Care Trust                                                                  developed with others the Purple Zebra IT consultancy as a social enterprise in
                                                                                                                Mansfield to support voluntary groups and work with Eluse in the provision of
                            Three Primary Care Trusts cover the Greater Nottingham Partnership area. The        low cost recycled PCs.
                            Health Informatics group provide services to 17,000 workers in each of the          Most of the groups currently source their own network capability and NVCS
                            PCT‟s. They have combined the previous COIN (community of interest                  would like to develop a strategy for shared services and infrastructure for the
                            networks) from the eight former PCTs to match the new three PCT areas.
Page 40 - The Partnership




                                                                                                                whole of the voluntary sector.
                            They are focusing heavily on mobile working for clinicians (health workers
                            delivering services to patients including GPs, Nurses Health care workers etc.),
                            helping them gain access to patient records held on the TPP “SYSTMONE”
                            system, together with diary and email functions.
                            The current plan is to use 3G/GPRS and they have been trialling dongles from
                            Vodafone and O2, as well as WiFi were available. The new laptops they are
                            buying have a built in GSM modems with support for an internal SIM card which
                            does away with dongles.




                                                                                                                                                                                     CBN
                                                                    Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                   In this section we consider the importance of moulding the business case and
                                   vehicle to the function of the project. This is an aspect of many public projects
                                   which is perhaps less well considered in many international municipal projects;
                                   this omission can often be found at the root of failed municipal projects, or at
                                   least can be at the root of restrictions in the way business can be conducted
                                   (refer to the Norwich network example discussed earlier). Well conceived
                                   vehicles lead to a balance between the three key stakeholders in a project –
                                   financial investors, customers and staff – which in turn can have a positive
                                   impact on the long term success of the project.
                                   It is likely that the Nottingham area already has many of the elements


7
                                   necessary to deliver a broad technology base for the area:

      A Framework for the Future          The Greater Nottingham Partnership has an essential role as the focus
                                           for partnership working towards economic regeneration.
                                          Accelerate Nottingham has a more focussed role on the impact of
                                           technology in regeneration; is made up of essential partners at the
                                           right level to deliver new services and platforms; and has sound links
                                           to the creative industries
                                          Emman would be a fantastic resource to have in any region; to have it
                                           based in the City may be a critical catalyst for the project.
                                   The focus of this section then is to consider how these elements can be
                                   brought together and the missing ingredients added to deliver a framework




                                                                                                                               Page 41 - /A Framework for the Future
                                   which can sustainably and efficiently deliver both the internal and external
                                   needs of the partners.
                                   The diagram describes the necessary relationships to deliver regional services.
                                   While the GNP and Accelerate Nottingham are at its core, their key role is to
                                   act as a conduit to intelligently link the local creative industries and network
                                   delivery vehicles with policy and strategy people. This mechanism puts the
                                   local partnerships at the centre, co-ordinating and guiding activities rather
                                   than actively delivering solutions; this overcomes many of the state aid issues
                                   discussed in earlier sections, while also actively encouraging local economic
                                   activity.
                                   In order to formalise relationships and foster a sense that ICT is a natural
                                   partner for policy delivery, the recommendation is to develop a “Consumer
                                   Panel” made up of non-technical local community and strategic organisations.
                                   The role of this body is to guide and advise the ICT partnership on where the
                                   strategic use of ICT may be most usefully applied.


CBN
                                        Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                        Encouraging local innovation                                                        Delivering the platform
                                        Accelerate Nottingham‟s existing relationship with local creative industry          Delivering a complex telecommunications platform requires specialist
                                        organisations will be enhanced through this framework. With a role in actively      organisations with clearly defined roles. While Emman is a fantastic resource,
                                        initiating and directing projects, it will be possible to develop a network,        its exclusive role is to deliver regional backbone connectivity for its partners.
                                        offering its members commercial opportunities to develop and showcase               It is neither resourced nor technically well positioned to begin delivering
                                        innovative solutions, raising the profile of the Greater Nottingham area as a       connectivity to large numbers of localised connections. It makes very limited
                                        place of innovation beyond the narrow Web 2.0 image of the next generation          sense to change their position, so the recommendation is that a new vehicle,
                                        internet; to be a success this needs to redefine services beyond the current        jointly owned by the GNP and Emman partners, could be created to fulfil two
                                        debate of more a polished web environment and software as a service (SaaS).         key roles:
                                        The evolution of a next generation wireless and fibre solution will provide local          Firstly to translate requirements into technical designs
                                        innovators with the ideal platform on which to develop and trial new services –
                                                                                                                                   Secondly to procure or build the networks which can deliver bandwidth
                                        with the strategic role of this framework, the innovation will have direction
                                                                                                                                    from Emman POP‟s to where its needed locally.
                                        and focus.
                                                                                                                            The mission of the first role will be to become a centre of national excellence
                                        The formation of Fort Wayne style “iTeams”, initially made up of core partner
                                                                                                                            in positioning technology at the heart of local policy delivery. While the
                                        organisations but expanding as confidence and needs grow, will help translate
                                                                                                                            following section describes a series of potential projects to begin the journey,
                                        the guidance of the consumer panel in to focussed projects; creating
                                                                                                                            it is this translation function which forges a link between the community and
                                        essentially “skunk works”35, tasked with developing the understanding of ICT in
                                                                                                                            technologists, making ICT an important tool for policy makers. If the linkage
                                        policy delivery. While initially the core partnership with the “consumer panel”
                                                                                                                            cannot be created, this programme may be viewed as a useful but discrete set
                                        may be the main source of ideas, as experience and confidence grows in the
                                                                                                                            of hi-tech projects fulfilling isolated tactical goals.
                                        sector, these relationships and project teams will evolve to embrace the ideas
                                        of the creative sector, offering opportunities to test their own initiatives in a   Success will demonstrate through examples and dialogue that ICT can be a
Page 42 - /A Framework for the Future




                                        “living lab” environment, helping to realise the “clever city” and “science         powerful tool, helping deliver core policy initiatives beyond the core
                                        city” goals.                                                                        partnership. The local area agreement‟s vision of “one Nottingham, one plan”
                                                                                                                            could then be supported by one platform.




                                        35
                                             Refer to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skunk_works


                                                                                                                                                                                                  CBN
                                                                 Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                In Amsterdam it was possible to conceive of a single overarching case for
                                delivering a ubiquitous roll-out of a next generation broadband infrastructure.
                                Such a singular strategy is rarely possible so this report focuses on a more
                                pluralised approach linking the framework described in the previous section
                                with an initial set of focussed pilot projects which will deliver a county-wide
                                structure and approach for assisting future policy initiatives.




                                Greater Nottingham Network Co-operative

8     Concepts for the Future   One thing that became very clear during the course of the research was that
                                many of the GNP partners own and run networks with nodes in largely the
                                same areas. Aggregating each of these disparate networks onto a common
                                platform, while respecting needs for security, will clearly lead to substantial
                                financial savings for a number of the key partners, but it will also create some
                                immediate possibilities for improvements to service delivery and working
                                practices.
                                If a common network links all police stations, libraries, and council premises,
                                for example, there is an immediate opportunity to co-install multi-partner
                                wireless nodes covering much of the city and county. These wireless nodes
                                could provide services to all the partners as well as potentially the wider
                                community.




                                                                                                                            Page 43 - Concepts for the Future
                                Today the police consider themselves to be “fire-stationed”, where officers
                                base their work out of local stations where they are able pull down the
                                necessary information before attending an incident; they then return to the
                                station to complete any paperwork and prepare for the next call. A widely
                                available wireless network able to provide secure access to police computer
                                systems will immediately reduce the road miles per incident, with its
                                attendant environmental and financial savings, as well as allow officers to
                                remain closer to their communities. Such a model ought to deliver a clear
                                financial case as well as improve service delivery – a form of the Gershon36
                                ideal where savings and improvements go hand-in-hand.

                                36
                                   For the full Gershon report see: www.hm-
                                treasury.gov.uk/spending_review/spend_sr04/associated_documents/spending_sr04_eff
                                iciency.cfm


CBN
                                    Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                    There is also no need to limit this network to a WiFi hotspot model. OfCom               The region already has a network and an organisation which may be able to
                                    released a series of “pico-GSM” licences at the end of 2006 which could permit           offer the core connectivity for such a process. The East Midlands Metropolitan
                                    the city to run its own private GSM/GPRS network – while staff members are               Area Network Limited (Emman) is a local company based at Nottingham Trent
                                    within reach of a node, their use will be “on-net”, as if they were at their             University, which owns and runs a very high bandwidth regional network
                                    desk, and when they are further afield their handsets will roam onto a                   primarily to deliver connectivity for the region‟s Universities to the
                                    traditional mobile network.                                                              SuperJANET academic network. However, Emman also provides the schools of
                                                                                                                             Derby and the Djanogly Academy with their internet connections, and they
                                    Deprocurement                                                                            have expressed interest in extending their role to other public services.
                                    It is recommended that a process of “deprocurement” will achieve the                     This network already reaches the main teaching hospitals in the area, and
                                    optimum result for the GNP members; traditional aggregation leads to financial           geographically covers much of the city as well as Mansfield. Within the city
                                    savings by purchasing more for less from the same traditional suppliers while            many of the links are on dark fibre, provisioned using dense wave-division
                                    the goal of deprocurement is to develop less traditional relationships with              multiplexors – permitting multiple networks to co-exist on the same piece of
                                    alternative suppliers who can provide managed services over a form of                    fibre with no degradation of performance. On such links, assuming sufficient
                                    capitalised network.                                                                     free channels exist, it would be possible to provision a new network
                                                                                                                             specifically for local partnership working, keeping the network safely isolated
                                                                                     This approach not only reduces the      from the network‟s education function.
                                                                                     headline cost of the network but also
                                                                                     the cost of moves and changes           Emman is essentially a core network provider and not well configured to offer
                                                                                     improving flexibility; it offers an     end-user connections but they are well placed to provide regional transit
                                                                                     optimum environment on which to         bandwidth across the city and around the county; good network architecture
                                                                                      launch    novel     services;   and    lays down roles in a network, and keeping core network functions apart from
                                                                                                                                   first-mile customer management is normally good practice.
                                    encourages
                                    secure           co-
                                    operation        and
Page 44 - Concepts for the Future




                                    partnership
                                    working.




                                                                                                                                                                                                 CBN
                                                                                                                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


The proposal, therefore, is to develop a sister organisation which can develop
and manage the first-mile connections, akin to a local OpenReach organisation.
It is this organisation which would be responsible for developing the wireless
network, and overseeing the design, delivery and management of any NGA
networks – Emman would provide the backbone connectivity, drawing the
                                                                                  BioCity Outreach
various technologies and networks together, and linking them to external
services such as N3 and the Internet.                                             Nottingham has a long and illustrious history in the scientific field. The
                                                                                  discovery and development of Ibuprofen by Stewart Adams, with colleagues
This organisation will need to be a form of social enterprise representing the    John Nicholson and Colin Burrows, at the Boots research facilities was one of
key stakeholders in the project, and will become a focus for realising            several advances putting Nottingham on the world map for bio-research.
partnership ICT projects. This overcomes many of the state-aid issues discussed
in previous sections as well as encourages partnership working.                   In the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Nottingham is widely
                                                                                  regarded as one of the leading centres in the world. It's here that Professor
Further work needs to be done to map partner organisations‟ networks and to       Sir Peter Mansfield carried out his groundbreaking work earning him a Nobel
formalise a structure to manage the aggregated networks.                          Prize in 2003.
                                                                                  This recognition helped ensure Nottingham‟s credentials as one of the UK's six
                                                                                  “Science Cities”37. With Nottingham‟s international reputation and two world
                                                                                  class universities, science-based employers have few problems recruiting
                                                                                  research scientists to work in this rapidly growing sector. However, this success
                                                                                  has highlighted a national skills gap at technician level.
                                                                                  To compliment the expertise of research scientists being developed at the
                                                                                  local universities, there is a need to develop qualified laboratory technician at
                                                                                  NVQ levels. This has also been recognised as a problem in other regions of the
                                                                                  country with for example the Regional Development Agency for the South East
                                                                                  (SEEDA) has promoted a two year of BTEC Foundation Degree in Life Science




                                                                                                                                                                                Page 45 - Concepts for the Future
                                                                                  Laboratory Technology and Bio-Manufacturing at the Kent Science Resource
                                                                                  Centre, while the University of York (a fellow Science City) is offering a NVQ
                                                                                  targeted at lab technicians.
                                                                                  As noted elsewhere in this report, while Nottingham is one of the wealthiest
                                                                                  cities in the UK there is a great disparity between the knowledge economy
                                                                                  workers and many of the residents of the cities more deprived areas. If
                                                                                  Nottingham is to maintain its momentum as a Science City with a focus on bio-
                                                                                  research it needs to engage more of its population in the area.




                                                                                  37
                                                                                       See www.science-city.co.uk/


CBN
                                    Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                    The BioCity has an outreach programme which brings school children to see
                                    their work; several hundred children came on such visits last year. While such
                                    programmes may help encourage the brightest children to embark on degrees
                                    which may lead them to become the future researchers, there needs to be a
                                    defined path which encourages more children to take laboratory work as a
                                                                                                                       Health, learning & science
                                    career.
                                                                                                                       The Building Schools for the Future programme is seeking to redefine
                                    An NVQ or BTEC course aimed at lab technicians will create such a path, but        education and how it‟s delivered in the largest investment in secondary
                                    such courses typically contain considerable practical elements and require         education ever seen in England. While there is enormous scope to link the
                                    immersion in the subject. If either the local universities or the further          programme in any number of ways to the regeneration programmes of the city
                                    education colleges launched such a programme, it would be helped if students       and to think up imaginative ways of using ICT to assist in delivering both
                                    could be in proximity to the work of BioCity companies.                            simultaneously, the goal of this initial seed project is to focus on one small
                                    The recommendation is to include the BioCity campus in the development of          aspect to initiate this process.
                                    an NGA network, providing its tenants from incubator to established business       The University Hospital Trust is about to renovate the Children‟s Hospital. The
                                    with access to affordable and high-performance connectivity. The network           UHT has expressed a desire to offer improved bedside patient terminals which
                                    could then be extended with a WiMax solution, covering the immediate               offer more than a basic triple-play. This offers an opportunity to link the two
                                    hinterland such as Sneinton. In partnership with BioCity, the local schools, and   programmes – helping to redefine both education and patient services.
                                    a further education partner, the network could provide a flexible learning
                                    platform for local students wanting to embark on a career in science, helping      Children admitted to hospital lose out in many ways; they have reduced
                                    to create a fast-track programme for technician level apprentices.                 contact with family and friends, and their schooling may suffer; with a
                                                                                                                       tendency for more deprived families to suffer chronic illness, the impact can
                                                                                                                       be one which reinforces a perpetuating cycle.
                                                                                                                       While the hospital employs professional educationalists, this can never replace
                                                                                                                       the feeling of being in a classroom with school friends and a familiar teacher.
                                                                                                                       The proposal is to build on the work of the Djanogly Academy, in using
Page 46 - Concepts for the Future




                                                                                                                       technology to provide interaction and education beyond the classroom:
                                                                                                                             For children able to participate, telepresence and simpler video hook-
                                                                                                                              up will enable a child to participate in class lessons from their own
                                                                                                                              school.
                                                                                                                             Where lessons are missed, the opportunity to catch-up will be provided
                                                                                                                              using video archives of lessons.
                                                                                                                             The possibility of live-video tutorial sessions with their teachers will
                                                                                                                              also permit some opportunity to remain in touch with their own school
                                                                                                                              programme.
                                                                                                                             The same video technology can be used to allow friends and family to
                                                                                                                              “visit” children more often.




                                                                                                                                                                                            CBN
                                                                                                                  Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


The learning platform may also permit the creation of content sensitive           While nascent businesses remain in university incubator sites they have access
student homes-pages, allowing the teacher to set standard curriculum and          to the kinds of network capacity they need. As they expand to “grow-on”
student-specific material; a web environment can be used as effectively in a      space they often find that securing the same level of connectivity becomes
hospital ward as at home or in the school, and the use of keyword searches to     expensive and difficult to source. The proposal is to explore how the Emman
locate sources appropriate to the students needs will help ensure a student in    network might be offered to the new science park so all its tenants can benefit
hospital keeps up with classmates. Supplementing the traditional online           from the same level of connectivity often only available to incubators and well
education materials with interactive media from peer-level sources such as        established organisations.
YouTube will help make the learning process more effective to a child away
                                                                                  A concern of the NRL is that if the developers have to adopt the cost and
from school.
                                                                                  complexity of NGA then it may jeopardise the viability of the projects. The
By integrating this into the bedside terminal, along with TV and video, general   proposal here tests the much simpler case for installing a NGA network in a
internet access, and a telephone, the package can become a rich source of         green-field development using backbone connectivity already at the site. The
interaction and entertainment, keeping the child stimulated and in touch          cost of installing the network should be borne by a business case for the
through-out their stay in hospital.                                               network rather than by the developers; such a project should become a
                                                                                  valuable feature rather than a sunk cost.
While the causes of deprivation are complex and no single project will ever
eliminate the problem, a project such as this can be shaped to make an
impact. Children from deprived areas are more susceptible to chronic illness
and are more likely to spend periods in hospital. Even with professional
hospital-based educationalists, their education is bound to suffer. If this
becomes a repeated and long term impact, the child‟s work opportunities will
also become blighted, perpetuating the cycle.
The scope of this project is by no means a magic bullet, but it can be used to
chip away at the problem. When it is added to a wider pantheon of
strategically focussed projects, then there is a real opportunity to break the
cycle behind deprivation.




                                                                                                                                                                             Page 47 - Concepts for the Future
Extending the benefits
Nottingham Regeneration (NRL) is currently planning a medically focussed
science park adjacent to the hospital complex. While the Emman network
already ready reaches the campus, and the project outline so far is a
pathfinder for how it might help bring education and healthcare close
together, there is also an opportunity to extend the network into the new
science park.




CBN
                                    Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                                             It was these “punched cards” which Babbage incorporated into his designs for a
                                                                                                                             mechanical computer, and which Ada Lovelace used to develop her programs.
                                                                                                                             The same principal was adopted by Hollerith, later to become IBM, for their
                                                                                                                             calculators, forging the link to modern computer systems.
                                    Revolution Revisited
                                                                                                                             While much of this didn‟t necessarily happen on local soil, links to the
                                    It is well documented that organised resistance to impacts of the industrial             Nottingham area resonate throughout the history. This project provides an
                                    revolution began in Nottingham with the Luddite movement, being joined by                ideal opportunity to demonstrate the true lessons from the Luddite movement,
                                    their colleagues in the cloth industry in France whose practice of jamming               while positioning the Greater Nottingham area at the heart of the next
                                    looms with their clogs led to our word “saboteur38”. While often                         technological revolution – the movement to Next Generation broadband.
                                    misinterpreted as a general resistance to progress, Luddites more typically              Almost 200 years after the Luddite rebellion, technology is still often used to
                                    rallied against the menialisation of artisans‟ skills resulting from a very              achieve “more from less” – more output from lowering skills. A project in the
                                    particular and narrow application of new technology; to use lesser skills for            GNP area which can demonstrate how technology can deliver “more for less”,
                                    less income to produce greater profits.                                                  where it enables change more efficiently and effectively while empowering
                                    Into this backdrop Lord Byron‟s first child was born; the family seat at the time        people and enabling economic activity, will powerfully demonstrate the
                                    being Newstead Abbey in the north of the Greater Nottingham area. August                 lessons learnt before they are repeated anew.
                                    Ada Byron went on to become a pioneer in her field, whose impact is still felt           The village of Newstead, neighbouring the Byron families country seat, was a
                                    today. In adult life, as Ada Lovelace, she documented the work of Charles                coal mining community; one with a reputation of innovation and change. In
                                    Babbage and is widely credited as the world‟s first computer programmer with             1987 this heritage came to an end with the closure of the mine. While the
                                    her “code” to generate number sequences using Babbage‟s “Analytical                      regeneration of the village continues, after 20-years the community still faces
                                    Engine”; the US military named an early modern computer language after her,              considerable challenges.
                                    and her image can still be seen in Microsoft‟s
                                    hologram; the British Computer Society award an                                          A cursory look local data might suggest a thriving community but this masks a
                                    annual Lovelace Medal to people who have made                                            divide in the area – the hinterland around Newstead is an area of expensive
                                    a significant contribution to our understanding of                                       homes and higher incomes, but the village itself paints a somewhat different
                                                                                                                             picture. The unemployment level is almost double the national average, and
Page 48 - Concepts for the Future




                                    information systems.
                                                                                                                             more than one in five of the homes are registered to social landlords – six
                                    It was the introduction of the Jacquard Loom in                                          times that of the surrounding hinterland. Those in work are typically travelling
                                    both France and England that often became the                                            the 15km to Nottingham, with all the associated environmental impacts,
                                    focus of the unrest; and it is this which links the                                      because, while light industrial units now exist in the village, there are
                                    two parts of this history. The new loom design                                           insufficient local opportunities to sustain the community closer to home.
                                    from France meant that low-paid unskilled labour
                                    could be used to produce large quantities of cloth                                       Access to public services is also often challenging; the nearest medical centre
                                    with complex patterns. The secret to the                                                 is some miles away, and the lack of a local secondary school means access to
                                    Jacquard Loom‟s success was the use of paste-                                            after-school activities is more difficult. Rural Community Action, based at the
                                    boards containing punched holes (inset) which                                            Miners‟ Welfare Community Centre also pointed to the scale of villages like
                                    automated the process of creating the patterns.                                          Newstead, where a population of around 1400 homes is typically required to
                                                                                                                             sustain a village shop; with a little less than that, alternative models for
                                    38
                                      “sabot” is a French word for the traditional clogs typically worn by mill workers at   retaining the village shops is becoming necessary, with the nearest
                                    the time                                                                                 supermarket some miles away.


                                                                                                                                                                                                  CBN
                                                                                                                           Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Newstead at the speed of light                                                       Public Services
The proposal is to recapture the village‟s spirit of innovation and link it to the   Delivering any public services to communities like Newstead is typically
area‟s wider heritage, to create an exemplar of how technology can be used in        expensive and time consuming. However, examples exist from other countries
smaller communities to regenerate the economy and create opportunities –             (see Section 4) which clearly demonstrate that this can be helped considerably
even in more isolated communities.                                                   by access to next generation infrastructure.
Underpinning the proposal is a true Next Generation network based on a               The proposal is to initially concentrate on a programme of novel healthcare
ubiquitous fibre-to-the-home (FttH) solution; the relatively dense housing           services, developed in collaboration between the community, the Hospital
types of the village make this much less disruptive, and therefore less              Trust and the PCT.
expensive, than it might be in many rural villages, while creating a basis on
                                                                                               With the nearest medical centre some miles away, there is an
which to build a wide range of innovative services and opportunities.
                                                                                                opportunity to use a form of “telepresence”39 to reach the community.
The inset map demonstrates how relatively little engineering is required to
                                                                                               Trials of telemedicine and independent living technology will
reach the terraced houses to the north of the village; the dark red overlay
                                                                                                empirically test the efficacy and value of allowing people to remain in
lines show a possible fibre route linking the school to the Community Centre
                                                                                                the homes longer or of being remotely treated at home.
and the near-by terraced homes. The crescent layout of the main village, while
less dense, is equally suitable for efficient installation of fibre.                 There are also opportunities to build on this, especially by exploiting the
                                                                                     “Building Schools for the Future” programme and the local goals of removing
The goal will be to deliver a true NGA network, with initial connection speeds
                                                                                     the traditional bricks and mortar definition of schooling.
of 100 Mbps symmetrical, to as many homes, businesses and organisations as
want to join the project. Over this network will run a broad range of services
which take advantage of the high speed and the local control; on-net                 Community Services
bandwidth will essentially be a capital cost so the incremental cost of an           Newstead has a clear and vibrant community but it faces challenges. The goal
additional service is effectively zero.                                              of this project is to arm the community with a new set of technological tools to
                                                                                     better enable them to face those challenges together.
                                                                                     It is important to for the community to feel they have a stake in a project of




                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 49 - Concepts for the Future
                                                                                     this kind, developing an “us feeling”. The initial service suggestions build on
                                                                                     existing programmes; the local community will be empowered to evolve and
                                                                                     add to the services as their own confidence grows, ensuring the solution
                                                                                     closely meets their needs.




                                                                                     39
                                                                                          For a definition, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telepresence


CBN
                                    Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                    Lovelace Academy
                                    Today Cisco provides an Academy at the Community Centre, where local
                                    people can study towards a CCNA qualification. During CBN‟s interviews,
                                    comments were made that the programme was a fantastic opportunity which
                                    was often under-used because it was too technical and the target audience
                                    could not always see the relevance of advanced data networking to their lives.
                                    The proposal is to extend Cisco‟s work into a broader “Lovelace Academy” in
                                    honour of the localities links with the pioneer. The goal of the centre will be
                                    two-fold:
                                            Provide a broader training opportunity for the community, from first
                                             steps with a PC through to CCNA and beyond;
                                            Develop thinking and excellence in community-based “eWellbeing”,
                                             becoming one of the initial iTeams described in the previous section.
                                    With a local network on their doorstep, they will have access to the perfect lab
                                    on which to develop their new-found skills through hands-on work experience
                                    for CCNA graduates, offering the opportunity for local people to become
                                    engaged in the running of the services.
                                    By developing links with the Hospital Trust, the PCT and the Universities there
                                    is also a fantastic opportunity to develop a “living lab” environment for
                                    community-based services, demonstrating the lessons learnt from the Luddites
                                    by avoid a “more from less” impact from the technology, and replace it with a
                                    “more for less” ethos.
Page 50 - Concepts for the Future




                                                                                                                       CBN
                                                                                                                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                    The reason this has been defined as a project in this section of the report is
                                                                                    that the terms and content of the framework need to be constructed before
                                                                                    further projects are embarked on and it needs to be written as a partnership
                                                                                    project – garnering a local consensus and reflecting local priorities and colour.
Collaboration for the Future
                                                                                    As soon as the strategic goals and priorities have been agreed, the partnership
While the framework described in the previous section creates a model which         should define and form the initial iTeams. These are likely to include working
encourages partnership working towards the greater use of ICT in delivering         groups on a range of agendas from strategic infrastructure projects, such as
policy goals, it is important that a process exists which can adopt and develop     revisiting the planning rules for NGA in line with the Loma Linda case study, to
new projects, reinforcing the integrity of the overall framework.                   groups exploring specific cross-disciplinary healthcare and education agendas.
                                                                                    The goal being to maintain the momentum from the seed projects defined
Without this there is a very real risk that the programme will become a             here, with a set of follow-one partnership projects defined and ready to
collection of isolated projects, and new additions to the catalogue will not        implement.
help to sharpen the focus on the bigger strategic goals – rather they risk adding
complexity to the management processes and may blur the larger picture.
Between the standard project phases of formally scoping a potential project
and beginning define how it can be delivered there needs to be some
additional tests. For example:
         How does this project help to achieve a strategic goal?
         Does this project add clarity to the overall strategic vision?
         What is the social and economic value of the project?
         How does the project relate to existing programmes?
         Is the project sustainable within the pantheon of projects?




                                                                                                                                                                                Page 51 - Concepts for the Future
In order to apply such tests it is important that there is an agreed set of
strategic goals against which projects can be tested and a set of sustainability
criteria applied. One of the key roles of the “consumer panel” will be to
develop and offer advice on the policy focus of projects, and an initial piece of
work will be to create the first strategic agenda for the framework; it is
important this comes from policy makers and can be expressed in social and
economic terms rather than technical language.
The second group of tests focus on how projects interact and are made
sustainable. This needs to come from the programme owners rather than the
people running the projects, in this case the partnership.




CBN
                                   Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                              This section of the report considers the role of the technology and how it is
                                                                                              structured. With any sustainable technology solution, an understanding of the
                                                                                              requirements will have a critical impact on the nature of the technology and
                                                                                              how it is delivered. This section focuses on those macro impacts, starting with
                                                                                              a reflection on the role of technical architecture.




                                                                                              The Importance of Architecture

                                   9              Technical Architecture
                                                                                              There is often a temptation in technology projects to begin with the
                                                                                              technology and work backwards, leveraging the solution and business plan
                                                                                              around the limitations and characteristics of the underlying technology. In
                                                                                              reality successful projects do the reverse by starting with the requirements
                                                                                              and ultimately making technology choices based on a “proximity to the
                                                                                              business”.
                                                                                              Traditional network architects have a 7-layer model defining all the functions
                                                                                              of the network from the electrical signals to the interface with applications.
                                                                                              However, for such deep-rooted technologists its often useful to think of a
                                                                                              network as an eight-layer model – the seven OSI layers plus an essential
                                                                                              “human interface” which incorporates a whole host of relationships like
                                                                                              “customer”, “business”, “community”, “consumer”. How a technology handles
                                                                                              the eighth layer becomes all important; regardless of how removed a layer is,
                                                                                              if it‟s not possible to relate to this interface, then it‟s not adding value.
Page 52 - Technical Architecture




                                                                                              For an application developer this should be simple – they take a set of business
                                                                                              requirements and simply translate them into an electronic incarnation. The
                                                                                              database manager supports the application developer, so while they are a
                                                                                              little removed, there is a good middle-man. The server manager starts to have
                                                                                              a few problems – they are two layers removed, and their infrastructure is
                                                                                              starting to be shared with possibly conflicting requirements. Last of all, the
                                                                                              network manager is totally removed from the business function and is trying to
                                                                                              manage what is, by definition, a completely shared domain with highly diverse
                                                                                              requirements. How can the network retain some proximity to the business-end?




                                                                                                                                                                   CBN
                                                                                                                  Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


Designing and building a network requires the architect to find out about the      The traditional approach which skips the bit about “requirements” and jumps
needs and demands of “customers” and only then to work down through the            straight to engineering heaven leads to short investment cycles. The UK is
layers, taking on an understanding of how the applications behave and so           perhaps the archetype of the world's telecoms industry, so it is perhaps no
forth.                                                                             wonder that it also has one of the shortest investment cycles, expecting to
                                                                                   make a return on new broadband offerings in a matter of months.
No network manager ever became a Chief Information Officer. This is almost
entirely because few try to couple their work with the value-chain of the
business or to the people who will ultimately pay for services.
This is as true of public broadband networks as it is of private business
networks; users are often considered to be a necessary evil that disrupts the
smooth running of a network. In this world, new product sets germinate from
the smallest incremental change to an existing environment, seldom on a
commercial manager‟s desk, and much time and effort is spent trying to
control the disruptive influence of average customers.
However, taking the effort to understand the business-end pays real dividends
– the network budget becomes a valued investment in the future rather than a       In carefully linking network architecture to real world elements reduces the
sunk cost, and the architecture moulds itself to the needs of people rather        risks associated with taking a longer view of the investment. The 7-pillars
than expecting the users and applications to squeeze into the limitations of the   methodology (above) adopted by CBN ensures the network architecture is
network.                                                                           tightly and inextricably coupled to the needs of the community. This makes it
                                                                                   possible to adopt a long-term utility investment model.
In this world it is rarely possible to pick one technology and expect it to be a
universal solution. The traditional telecom's model of supporting a single         In order to minimise the risk and optimise the benefits of a telecoms
technology, ADSL for example, to the exclusion of all others can never bridge      investment it is essential to bridge the gap between the technical elements
the gap between technology and the real world. Technologies need to be             and the community requirements. For this reason the technical architecture
selected for their ability to deliver business, community, and customer            can be defined only after the community-level requirements and the business
benefit, and not the reverse.                                                      goals have been defined.




                                                                                                                                                                             Page 53 - Technical Architecture
As a result the network design will always be the last phase of a telecom's        For this reason, a high-level relative understanding of various models for
project, rather than the first, and is highly likely to incorporate a basket of    deploying technology is useful in appreciating the necessity to define the
open technologies carefully selected to meet the requirements of the previous      specific motives, social and business, for a community project at the outset.
phases including business planning and service definition. The necessity for
open or globally de facto standards ensures that the network can evolve as
technologies develop and as suppliers come and go out of favour; proprietary
or pre-selected solutions risk a more troubled evolution or possibly even a
foreshortened life.




CBN
                                   Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                                       When a network contains a mixture of technologies it is important for integrity
                                                                                                                       of the architecture to enforce roles. The recommendation is to develop a
                                                                                                                       series of these roles for each of the technologies:
                                   Technology roles                                                                           Fibre-to-the-premise    Installed where a densely populated target
                                                                                                                                                       audience requires reliable high-performance
                                   The scope of the project specifically seeks an understanding of the roles for                                       connectivity from fixed locations
                                   wireless and next generation broadband. In this section we look at how these
                                   elements can be bought together in a seamless framework.                                   WiMax                   Installed where a less densely populated
                                                                                                                                                       target audience requires good performance
                                   The traditional telecommunications market is constructed such that a given                                          from fixed locations
                                   technology can only be adopted if it has universal appeal – there is no room to
                                   adapt technologies to local needs. A project such as this, however, provides               WiMax                   Installed where a defined population requires
                                   greater scope to select from a basket of technologies chosen to meet the                                            good performance from mobile locations
                                   specific needs of the Nottingham people.
                                                                                                                              WiFi                    Installed where general access is required
                                   The report has focussed on two key technologies – fibre-based broadband, and                                        from mobile locations
                                   wireless connectivity. Without overstating the obvious, the key differences
                                   between the two technologies are that fibre can deliver much greater speeds
                                   and reliability but is tethered by the physical nature of the connection, while
                                   wireless is free from the constraints of a tangible, physical connection but will   Between these roles it is possible to define local access for all of the Greater
                                   provide lower speeds and less reliability.                                          Nottingham area, and almost any reasonable use of technology. And in
                                                                                                                       adhering to the roles, the resulting network will remain manageable and the
                                   Where a fixed connection is required, a fibre connection will always be             services well defined.
                                   superior but comes at a price. In today‟s market the initial role of fibre-based
                                   broadband is where the cost in installation can be minimised and where there        With a clear demarcation with Emman, providing the core and backbone
                                   is some certainty that the connection will be continuously used at a fixed          connectivity for the region, Greater Nottingham and Nottinghamshire as a
                                   location. The cost factor means that new-build projects and high-density            whole will have a solid and flexible platform on which to build for the future.
Page 54 - Technical Architecture




                                   housing areas will be more economic than retro-fitting fibre into lower density
                                   homes. An interesting impact of this is that it tends to favour lower-income
                                   areas with apartment blocks and terraced housing over more affluent areas
                                   with less dense housing.
                                   There is, therefore, a need for a complimentary technology to reach less dense
                                   areas and fro mobile use. Wireless technologies are more suitable for this role
                                   to offer mobile and nomadic services, as well as reach less densely built areas
                                   with symmetrical services more suited to interactive “on-net” applications. As
                                   the number of fibre connections grows, the role of wireless technology in fixed
                                   locations is likely to reduce but it is unlikely to be totally replaced by fibre
                                   connectivity.




                                                                                                                                                                                            CBN
                                                       Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                       Several key areas of work need to be undertaken in order to move forward
                       with the Next Generation Access and Municipal Wireless agendas.




                       Network Mapping
                       The existing partners‟ networks need to be mapped, specifically the buildings
                       and areas covered, to produce a comprehensive plan of the current networks.


10 Programme &
                       This was recommended at the recent ADIT seminar hosted by Accelerate
                       Nottingham. The County Council has offered to consider funding this work.



      Considerations
                       Service Delivery through a Special Purpose Vehicle
                       As we note above Emman is ideally placed to offer connectivity to a wider
                       range of partners, thus improving services and reducing costs but is not well
                       placed to deal with an increasing range and number of end users, nor with
                       creating innovative new services and applications.




                                                                                                                  Page 55 - Programme & Considerations
                       Therefore we propose the creation of a Special Purpose Vehicle, structured as
                       a social enterprise to foster a co-operative approach amongst project partners
                       and stakeholders. The role of the „Greater Nottingham Network Co-operative‟
                       will be to act as the interface between Emman - providing the backbone and
                       connection to the Internet and N3 - and an extended range of end users. It will
                       also manage the development of first mile connections to local organisations,
                       using WiFi/WiMax and fibre solutions as appropriate. Finally it will become the
                       focus for realising innovative, new ICT projects developed through the
                       partnership.
                       Further elaboration is required to determine the exact organisational form
                       whether company limited by guarantee (or shares), community interest
                       company or Industrial & Provide society. All are in common usage amongst
                       social enterprises.




CBN
            Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


            We recommend that business rates exemption is sought for this organisation            Baseline and Assessment
            from relevant local authorities.
                                                                                                  We recommend that a formal evaluation exercise be conducted including base-
                                                                                                  lining the existing situation. This will enable the partners to assess the
                                                                                                  economic and social impacts of individual projects and the overall programme,
            Create a Consumer Panel to Provide Focus and Monitor                                  and to adjust the approach accordingly. CBN can recommend relevant
                                                                                                  consultancies or academics that can undertake this work.
            Delivery
            In order to guarantee a high level of user engagement and feedback we
            recommend setting up a Consumer Panel to feed into the partnership. This will
            help to develop the „us‟ feeling that is vital to securing high levels of buy-in to
            community-based projects. Ideally the panel should be drawn from local non-
            technical VCOs and strategic service delivery organisations. Its role would be
            to act as a sounding board for the ICT partnership ensuring that maximum
            benefit can be derived from projects delivered. In addition we recommend the
            creation of cross functional „i-teams‟ to focus on specific sectors such as
            Health, Education and Social services.




            Wider relationships
            The existing partnership will need to be expanded to ensure that all the
            agencies and organisations involved in the area are catered for in the
            arrangements. Groups such as Local Strategic Partnerships, New Deal for
            Communities, Local Area Agreements and other regeneration groups all need
            to be catered for in order to gain universal acceptance of the programme, as
            well avoiding duplication of resources.
Page 56 -




                                                                                                                                                                     CBN
                                               Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


               The Community Broadband Network has a track record of delivering innovative,
               community-based broadband solutions in areas that are geographically hard to
               reach (remote, rural areas) or that suffer from urban deprivation.
               CBN was launched in the UK during January 2004 by the then Rural Affairs
               Minister Alun Michael and Broadband Minister Stephen Timms. CBN is a co-
               operative of community-run independent broadband operators, aiming to



11 About CBN
               encourage and support a diversity of broadband provision.
               During 2004-5 CBN supported over 100 local broadband projects with direct
               consultancy and mentoring, and provided online information and support for a
               further 200.
               Over the past two years the focus of the CBN members has shifted towards the
               provision of higher-speed next-generation broadband services, including
               higher-capacity wireless and fibre-optic networks. In 2006 CBN signed a joint
               venture agreement with Dutch consultancy Close the Gap which was
               responsible for conceiving, planning and delivering the OnsNet (“our net” in
               English) Fibre to the Home (FttH) project in the market town of Nuenen and
               then in Eindhoven. OnsNet is the most successful project of its type in the
               world in terms of consumer take up.
               There is an increasingly important role for community broadband projects even
               in areas where traditional service providers operate. Many member projects
               give something back to their local community, and are constantly innovating
               and evolving their service to the needs of their community.
               CBN is represented on the Executive of the UK Broadband Stakeholder Group,
               the body that brings together government, industry, RDAs and business to drive
               forward the broadband agenda. CBN is a member of the NOMAD Wireless Forum
               bringing together a range of public sector and private organisations active in
               promoting wireless initiatives. CBN is active in the Connected Neighbourhood
               Forum linking the 10 local authority Digital Challenge finalists. CBN‟s CEO was
               invited to join the high level summit organised by minister Stephen Timms in




                                                                                                          Page 57 - About CBN
               November 2007 to discuss policy on Next Generation Access in the UK.
               CBN‟s experience has attracted international attention and we are supporting
               community broadband development in Africa supported by UN-HABITAT.




CBN
                      Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                       Steve spent 25 years in marketing and business development with companies
                                                                                                       such as Evo-Stik, Cadbury Schweppes, and Digital Equipment Corporation, in
                                                                                                       the UK, Europe and the USA. Steve was also head of consulting with a
                                                                                                       consultancy company providing training, marketing and business consultancy to
                      CBN Consultancy Team                                                             the Telecoms and IT sectors since 1994. Steve has been heavily involved in new
                                                                                                       technologies since the 1980s and developed the Which Web Trader Scheme
                      The team that provided the thinking that went into the report included:          whilst working for the Consumers‟ Association, Which?Online ISP, and was
                                                                                                       involved in helping many start up e-commerce companies.
                      Adrian Wooster                                            CBN Board Member
                                                                                                       Steve has a degree in Mathematics and Geology and is a qualified professional
                      Adrian is a board director of CBN and the founder of GTC, where he specialises
                                                                                                       Yachtmaster.
                      in next generation broadband strategy and architecture.
                      Adrian has worked for almost 20 years in the international telecommunications
                                                                                                       Malcolm Corbett         CEO, Community Broadband Network
                      industry, and been actively involved in the community broadband movement         Malcolm has nearly 20 years experience in ICT business development. He led
                      for the past few years. His work on policy-based smart-edge networks gained      the team that set up CBN and has responsibility for CBN‟s key relationships in
                      international recognition.                                                       government, regions and with clients. Prior to founding CBN Malcolm was a
                                                                                                       director of Internet services co-operative Poptel where he gained extensive
                      Previously, he has been the Global Communications Architect for large Silicon
                                                                                                       experience in the technology needs of the private, public and voluntary
                      Valley corporations, and product strategist for a major competitive
                                                                                                       sectors. He is active in the social enterprise sphere and was the founding Chair
                      telecommunications operator. In 2004 he formed GTC; an organisation which
                                                                                                       of Social Enterprise London. In 1999 Malcolm co-invented the global Internet
                      focuses on developing innovative technology projects with a focus on their
                                                                                                       domain .coop, thus creating the Internet identity for the world‟s co-operative
                      impact on communities both domestically and in international development
                                                                                                       sector.
                      work.
                                                                                                       Malcolm is a member of the Executive of the UK Broadband Stakeholder Group.
                      Steve Spillane                                             CBN Board Member      He also serves on the Nomad Wireless Forum, the Connected Neighbourhood
                      Steve is the founder and director of Village Internet and Broadband Ltd, which   Forum and was a participant in the high-level NGA Summit chaired by the
                      was set up in February 2002 to provide broadband to rural communities unable     minister, Stephen Timms.
                      to get access to fixed line broadband. Steve has worked with rural
                      communities to enable them with Broadband and provide community web              Brian Condon               Founder Complexity Partners, CBN board member
                      sites, including obtaining grant support from Regional Development Agencies,     Brian has over 15 years experience as a consultant and business developer.
                      County and District Councils. Steve is currently working on projects using
                      Broadband to facilitate social inclusion with the Community Broadband            His work includes negotiating telecoms joint ventures in Ukraine, scenario
Page 58 - About CBN




                      Network.                                                                         planning for business and government at PA Consulting Group and leading
                                                                                                       business development activity and client relationships as Managing Director of
                                                                                                       Close Brothers Corporate Finance. In 2003, he founded Complexity Group and
                                                                                                       joined the board of the Community Broadband Network.




                                                                                                                                                                            CBN
                                                                               Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


He now works across the private and public sectors problem-solving and
advising on decision-making in complex environments. He specialises in
strategy formulation and implementation and in resolving the dilemmas
inherent in making strategy work in human terms. Brian has extensive
knowledge of the broadband scene internationally, and until recently edited
the highly respected technology review “Cook Report Europe”. He leads on
CBN‟s relationship with the Dutch consultancy Close the Gap, responsible for
the hugely successful OnsNet project in Nuenen and Eindhoven. Brian also set
up an experimental satellite/wireless community network in Conyer, Kent. He
has a PhD in Physics from the University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.




                                                                                                                                          Page 59 - About CBN
CBN
                      Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                      Recent Projects
                      CBN has advised a wide spectrum of clients on a wide variety of projects in the
                      NGA and Wireless environments, ranging from understanding of the possibility
                      and the economic proposition to the detailed architecture and delivery.
                      Below is just a sample of the recent work we have carried out including
                      wireless technology and NGA projects.
Page 60 - About CBN




                                                                                                        CBN
                                                                                                                Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




Do you know CBN?                                                                 Contact

CBN supports, promotes and develops community-owned broadband schemes.           To enquire further about how CBN's expertise may help your project, contact
                                                                                 Malcolm Corbett:
         We have directly helped around 100 projects throughout Great Britain
                                                                                              0845 456 2466
         We have over 200 members regularly contributing
                                                                                              m.corbett@broadband.coop
         We develop strategic thinking in Next Generation services and
          architectures                                                                         Skype “malcolmcorbett”
         We work with partners to deliver advanced and exciting community                    c/o FAB Services, Enterprise House
          services
                                                                                                Manchester Science Park
                                                                                                Lloyd Street North
Consulting Services
                                                                                                Manchester, M15 4EN
CBN blends social and technical consulting to maximise the impact on
community initiatives and projects.                                                             UK


Events
CBN's network of visionary thinkers and in-house expertise ensures CBN
organised events are always stimulating and exciting.




                                                                                                                                                                           Page 61 - About CBN
CBN
                     Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study


                                                                                                           Alan Srbljanin       Advisor - Transport &      EMDA
                                                                                                                                Communications
                                                                                                           Ian Griffiths        Director                   EMMAN - Nottingham
                                                                                                                                                           Trent University
                                                                                                           John Cheeseborough   Network Manager            EMMAN - Nottingham
                                                                                                                                                           Trent University
                                                                                                           Ian Simons Game      Director                   Games City
                                                                                                           Martin Gawith        CEO                        Greater Nottingham
                                                                                                                                                           Partnership


                     12 Appendix
                                                                                                           Paul Tarttelin       Enterprise Account         Intel Corporation
                                                                                                                                Manager
                                                                                                           Chris Horner         Chief Information          NHS PCT‟s
                                                                                                                                Officer                    Nottinghamshire Health
                                                                                                                                                           Informatics Service
                                                                                                           Ian Smith            Strategy & Partnerships    NHS PCTs
                                                                                                                                Manager                    Nottinghamshire Health
                                                                                                                                                           Informatics Service
                                                                                                           Paul Martin          Acting Director of ICT     Nottingham City Council
                                                                                                           Alison Simpson       Project Manager            Nottingham City
                                                                                                                                                           Regeneration
                                                                                                                                                           department
                                                                                                           Helen Voce           CEO                        Nottingham Council For
                     A - Organisations                                                                                                                     Voluntary Services
                                                                                                           Marc Cole & Louise   CEO & Project Manager      Nottingham
                     The following is a list of organisations interviewed during our research:             Seymour                                         Regeneration Limited
                     Ian Lockwood                     Project Manager           Accelerate Nottingham      Steve Sankey         Director ICT               Nottinghamshire County
                                                                                                                                                           Council
                     Peter Godwin                     Director                  Accelerate Nottingham
                                                                                                           Robert Crowder &     CEO & Project Manager      Nottinghamshire Rural
Page 62 - Appendix




                     Nick Gostick                     Incubator Manager         BioCity                    Raquel Quinn                                    Action
                     Anna Mimms                       Director                  Broxtowe Estate Skills &   Martin Rinvolucri    Lead - Building Schools    Nottingham City council
                                                                                Training (BEST)                                 for the Future
                     Gary Smerdon-White               Director                  CCAN                       Andrew Fearn         Director of ICT Services   Nottingham NHS
                     Darren Laurie                    Account Manager           Cisco Corporation                                                          Hospitals Trust
                     Sonni Sharma                     Assistant Principle       Djanogly City Academy      Martin Hanson        Director ICT               Nottinghamshire Police
                                                                                                           Graham Allen         MP & Chairman              One Nottingham


                                                                                                                                                                         CBN
      Accelerate Nottingham – NGA & Wireless Feasibility Study




                                                                 Page 63 - Appendix
CBN

				
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