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The Human Speech Apparatus

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					                                  5/28/2010




ENG4820: History of the English
Language with Dr. Getty


Summer 2010
Week 2: Phonetics, Continued




The Human Speech Apparatus




                                         1
                                                                                        5/28/2010




  Manners of Articulation
                                            Stop or Plosive:
                                            Oral and nasal cavities are completely 
                                            closed off. No air comes out of the head 
                                            until the stop/plosive is released
                                            until the stop/plosive is released
                                            poor – bore – tore  – door – core – gore 

                                            Fricative:
                                            Two parts in the oral cavity are brought 
                                            close enough together to create 
                                            turbulence in the air stream coming out 
                                            of the lungs, creating ‘white noise.’
                                            four – Thor – sore – hair 

                                            Nasal:
Voicing:                                    The mouth is completely closed off but 
The vocal chords are brought together       the velum is lowered, allowing air to 
closely enough to start vibrating against   come out through the nose.
each other, creating a buzzing sound.       mere – near – hang
poor – bore – swift – swivel




  We Need a Better Alphabet
  We need an alphabet
  that …
  •Can be used to represent any
  sound in any language, including
  any possible sound we might not
  yet have encountered
  •Allows a one-to-one relationship
  between symbols and sounds –
  not one-to-many, many-to-one,
  etc.
  •We’ll be taking a tour through this
       inventory,
  vast inventory concentrating on the
  sounds attested in English.
  •From now on, we’ll represent
  phonetic symbols in [square
  brackets] and spelled words in
  <angled brackets> or in italics.




                                                                                               2
                                                                              5/28/2010




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: English Sounds




                                   water                              uh-oh
                                                            hang



            think       this   share       treasure




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: English Sounds
                                 Voicing:
                                 Say in a continuous loop: ha‐ha‐ha

                                 Here’s what’s happening

                                 Nasal vs. Oral:

                                 Say in a continuous loop: Bob, Mom

                                 Your velum rises and closes off the nasal 
Stop vs. Fricative
                                 cavity when you say Bob. It lowers when 
                                 cavity when you say Bob It lowers when
pin – fin ban – van  
                                 you say Mom
tin – sin too – zoo 
                                 Now hold your nose and try again: Bob, 
Front to Back
                                 mom.
pin – tin – kin
fall – tall – call  




                                                                                     3
                                                                                                                                             5/28/2010




   Feeling Out the Points and Manners
   of Articulation: English Sounds
Try It Out:

Which best describes the sounds hinted at
Which best describes the sounds hinted at 
by the bolded letters?




               Voicing                   Place of Articulation                                   Manner of Articulation
                            Voiceless




                                                                                                            Fricative
                                                                   veolar


                                                                               veolar
                Voiced




                                                      ental
                                            bial




                                                                                                                         Nasal
                                                                                         Velar
                                                                             Post‐




                                                                                                    op
                                          Lab




                                                                                                  Sto
                                                                 Alv


                                                                             alv
                                                     De
 plans
 planks
 planks
 planks
 planks




   Feeling Out the Points and Manners
   of Articulation: English Sounds
Try It Out:

Which best describes the sounds hinted at 
Which best describes the sounds hinted at
by the bolded letters?



              Voicing                   Place of Articulation                                    Manner of Articulation
                          oiceless




                                                                                                          ricative
                                                               lveolar


                                                                            alveolar
               oiced




                                                    ental
                                         abial




                                                                                                                        Nasal
                                                                                         elar
                                                                             ost‐




                                                                                                  top




                                                                                                                                      y
                                                                                                                                 IPA Symbo
                                                   De
              Vo

                         Vo




                                                                            Po


                                                                                        Ve
                                        La



                                                              Al




                                                                                                         Fr
                                                                                                 St




plans         X                                               X                                          X                       [z]
planks                   X              X                                                        X                               [p]
planks        X                                                                         X                               X        [ŋ]
planks                   X                                                              X        X                               [k]
planks                   X                                    X                                          X                       [s]




                                                                                                                                                    4
                                                                                                                        5/28/2010




   Feeling Out the Points and Manners
   of Articulation: English Sounds
Try It Out:

Which best describes the sounds hinted at 
Which best describes the sounds hinted at
by the bolded letters?




              Voicing              Place of Articulation                           Manner of Articulation
                       Voiceless




                                                                                             cative
                                                     Alveolar


                                                                   eolar
              Voiced




                                              ntal
                                     bial




                                                                                                        sal
                                                                           Velar
                                                                   st‐




                                                                                   Stop
                                                                alve
                                            Den




                                                                                                      Nas
                                                                                          Fric
                                   Lab




                                                                Pos
 three
 there
 rinsed
 rented
 climb




   Feeling Out the Points and Manners
   of Articulation: English Sounds
Try It Out:

Which best describes the sounds hinted at
Which best describes the sounds hinted at 
by the bolded letters?



              Voicing              Place of Articulation                           Manner of Articulation
                        oiceless




                                                                                            icative
                                                       veolar


                                                                  veolar
               oiced




                                             ental
                                   Labial




                                                                                                       asal
                                                                            elar
                                                                 ost‐




                                                                                     op
                                                                                   Sto
                                                     Alv


                                                                alv




                                                                                                      Na
                                            De
              Vo

                       Vo




                                                                                          Fri
                                                                Po


                                                                           Ve




 three                 X                    X                                             X                   []
 there        X                             X                                             X                   [ð]
 rinsed                X                             X                             X                          [t]
 rented       X                                      X                             X                          [d]
 climb                                                                                                        Gotcha!




                                                                                                                               5
                                                                                  5/28/2010




   Feeling Out the Points and Manners
   of Articulation: English Sounds
Okay. So much for the tidy part.
Li   i              i b i         h     bl     b l
Linguists use competing but interchangeable symbols
and terms to represent a number of sounds:

The postalveolar fricatives [ʃ] and [Ʒ], as in share and measure
•Also called alveopalatal
•Also represented as [š] and [ž] respectively
•Hudson uses this notation. I’ll mostly use the classical IPA. 

English also has a class of sounds that combine the articulations of stops and 
English also has a class of sounds that combine the articulations of stops and
fricatives: the affricates. IPA notation treats these as two separate sounds. 

Stop      Fricative    Affricate        IPA Representation Otherwise
too       shoe         chew             [tʃ]               [č]
do        measure      judge            [dƷ]               [ ǰ]




   Feeling Out the Points and Manners
                    Non-
   of Articulation: Non-English Sounds




                                                                                         6
                                                                           5/28/2010




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: The Approximants
These are sounds that get in the way of the air coming 
out of the lungs, but not enough to cause trouble…
Lateral approximants:           [l]    leave, yellow, evil
Retroflex approximants:         [r]    red, Mary, ever
    ‘Retroflex’ describes the tip of the tongue, which is 
    bent backwards  to point up almost straight to the 
    hard palate.
    In American English, the retroflex approximant 
    In American English, the retroflex approximant
    functions as a vowel: bird, ever, vertical
Glide approximants:             [w]  way, sewer, few
                                [j]    yes, payer, say




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: The Vowels




Think of the space inside your mouth as a sort of trapezoid. Most of the
sound of a vowel depends on where in this trapezoidal space the highest
point of your tongue finds itself.




                                                                                  7
                                                                           5/28/2010




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: The Vowels
On the vertical axis, we 
also use these terms:

            High, tense
               High, lax
             Mid, tense


                 Mid, lax


                    Low

Think of the space inside your mouth as a sort of trapezoid. Most of the
sound of a vowel depends on where in this trapezoidal space the highest
point of your tongue finds itself.




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: The Vowels
Most varieties of English only use a fraction of vowel space…


            High, tense
               High, lax
             Mid, tense


                 Mid, lax


                    Low




                                                                                  8
                                                                                                                             5/28/2010




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: The Vowels
Most varieties of English only use a fraction of vowel space…
Front Vowels, Close (High) to Open (Low):
[i]    see, beat, teen
[I]    sip, bit, tin
[e]    say, bait, taint    Our Lonely Central Vowel:
                           [ə]     done, up, sun
[]    said, bet, ten
[æ] sad, bat, tan
Back Vowels, Close (High) to Open (Low):
[u]    soon, boot, too
       soon boot too
[ʊ]    foot, book, took
[o]    so, boat, tone            For many of you, especially if you
                                 grew up West of the Mississippi or
[ɔ]    saw, bought, collar       south of St. Louis, these two vowels
[ɑ]    sod, pot, caller          are indistinct.




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: The Vowels
          Veritcal Axis:                                                      Horizontal Axis:         Lips
          Tongue Height
                                                      Open‐Mid / 
                                       Close‐Mid / 
                       Close‐Lax  / 




                                                                                                                 Unrounded
                                       Mid‐Tense 
          High‐Tense




                                                                                                       Rounded
                       High‐Lax




                                                      Mid‐Lax
          Close  / 




                                                                    Open / 




                                                                                      Central
                                                                              Front




                                                                                                Back
                                                                    Low




three
true
since
cabin
pain
uncle
sent




                                                                                                                                    9
                                                                                                                                        5/28/2010




  Feeling Out the Points and Manners
  of Articulation: The Vowels
        Vertical Axis:                                                      Horizontal Axis:         Lips
        Tongue Height




                                                    Open‐Mid / 
                                     Close‐Mid / 
                     Close‐Lax  / 




                                                                                                               Unrounded
                                     Mid‐Tense 
        High‐Tense




                                                                                                                           IPA SYmbol
                                                                                                     Rounded
                     High‐Lax




                                                    Mid‐Lax
        Close  / 




                                                                  Open / 




                                                                                    Central
                                                                            Front




                                                                                              Back
                                                                  Low
three      X                                                                 X                                      X       [i]
true       X                                                                                   X        X                  [u]
since                  X                                                     X                                      X       [I]
cabin                                                               X        X                                      X      [æ]
pain                                    X                                    X                                      X      [e]
uncle                                                 X                              X                              X      [ə]
sent                                                  X                      X                                      X      [ε]




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