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The circuit

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					Take-off and the circuit
                 Take-off
   Take-off is the phase of flight in which
    an aircraft goes through a transition
    from moving along the ground
    (taxiing) to flying in the air.
An F/A-18 Hornet takes off from the USS Kitty Hawk
(CV-63).
          Nose Wheel Aircraft.
 For normal take-offs, the aircraft should
  be carefully aligned with the runway
  centre line.
 Ensure that the nose wheel is centred.
 Power should be applied by opening the
  throttle smoothly but positively.
 Keep the ailerons and elevator in the
  neutral position.
 As the take-off roll commences, gradually
  move the elevator control back to lighten
  the weight on the nose wheel.
 As the speed of the aircraft approaches
  that required for takeoff, raise the nose to
  the take-off attitude.
 Premature or excessive raising of the nose
  will delay take-off because of the
  increased drag.
 Keep straight by concentrating on a
  reference point at the far end of the
  runway and maintain directional control
  with smooth rudder pressures.
 Keep the wings level with aileron control.
 When the aircraft lifts off the ground, it
  should keep its best rate of climb airspeed
  and allowed to accelerate.
 The best rate of climb speed should be
  maintained until a safe height is reached.
 Light aircraft should maintain full power
  until at least 500 feet above the ground.
 The combination of full power and best
  rate of climb speed gives an additional
  margin of safety in that altitude is gained.
             Ground effect
 This is due to the effect of the ground. As
  a general rule the results of ground effect
  can be detected up to a height equal to
  one wing span above the surface.
 Ground effect results in decreased induced
  drag; thus, making it possible for an
  aircraft to become airborne at less than
  normal airspeeds.
 The density of the air plays an
  important part in the take-off
  performance of an aircraft.
 Cold, dry air is denser than hot,
  moist air, and the denser the air, the
  better the performance. Factors to
  remember about air density at
  airports are:
Airport elevation high, air less dense = reduced performance.
Ambient air T high, air less dense = reduced performance
Relative humidity high, air less dense = reduced performance.
Combination of 1, 2, and 3 = poor performance
             The circuit
 The   International Civil Aviation
  Organization (ICAO) terminology for
  the circuit is "Aerodrome Traffic
  Circuit."
 It is defined as: "The specified paths
  to be flown by aircraft operating in
  the vicinity of an aerodrome."
 The basic pattern of the circuit remains
  fixed, but its orientation is determined by
  the heading of the runway in use at the
  time.
 A plan view of the circuit shows that it is
  rectangular in shape and has the following
  components:
    1.   Take-off.
    2.   The cross-wind leg
    3.   The downwind leg.
    4.   The base leg.
    5.   The final approach.
   In actual practice, at controlled airports it
    is customary for pilots and controllers to
    omit the word "leg" when referring to the
    circuit components,
    – e.g.: "Burton tower / ALPHA, BRAVO, CHARLIE
      / downwind;" "ALPHA, BRAVO, CHARLIE /
      Burton tower / report turning base."
   It is recommended that the downwind call
    be when the aircraft is abeam the control
    tower.
 Unless  special conditions exist and
  there is authorized advice to the
  contrary, all circuits are left hand;
  therefore, all turns within the circuit
  are left turns.
 In addition, unless otherwise
  authorized, all normal circuit heights
  are 1,000 feet above ground level.
 After take-off there will be a straight climb
  into wind, normally to a height of 500 feet,
  and then a 90 degree turn cross-wind.
 The cross-wind leg is a continuous climb
  to circuit height and the A/C leveled off.
 Then a 90 degree turn brings the aircraft
  onto the downwind leg.
 The downwind leg is flown so as to track
  parallel with the intended landing path.
 On the downwind leg any necessary pre-
  landing checks are made.
 When past the downwind boundary an
  appropriate distance, another 90 degree
  turn is made onto the base leg.
 When within gliding distance of the
  landing area the throttle is closed and the
  aircraft is put into a glide.
 Just before reaching the intended line of
  the final approach, another 90 degree turn
  is made onto final approach and the
  aircraft is kept in line with the centre of
  the runway until the landing is completed
                  spacing
 It is extremely important that the position
  of other aircraft in the circuit, particularly
  those that are ahead of you in the pattern.
 Maintain suitable spacing between your
  aircraft and the one ahead to allow that
  aircraft time to land and taxi clear of the
  runway.
 If you crowd the preceding aircraft it may
  be necessary for you to execute a missed
  approach and "go around."

				
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posted:8/23/2011
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