The Dump by kenlaundra


The Dump:
A Visual Exploration of Illegal Dumping on Public Lands in Rural America

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									                                        The Dump:
A Visual Exploration of Illegal Dumping on Public Lands in Rural America
                                     Kenneth Laundra, Ph.D.

 I.   Scope of the Study                                 III. Dynamics of the Dump
       a. What is an illegal dump?                            a. Case study
       b. Public lands; Multi-state (2003-10)
       c. 300+ photographs                               IV. Why Dump?
       d. “Garbology”                                        a. Identities and the environment
                                                                 i. Land disputes
 II. Visual Sociology                                            ii. Social-psychology
      a. Visual sociology methods                            b. Environmental criminology
 III. Types of Dumps: A Content Analysis                 V.   Conclusions and Solutions
       a. Five types with unique features

                                  “What people do about their ecology
                               depends on what they think about themselves
                                   in relation to things around them.”
                                               -Lynn White
                                                   Visual Sociology
          Three Activities                            Becker: “Visual sociology, documentary photography, and
                                                         photojournalism, then, are whatever they have come to
1. Making visual representations                         mean, or been made to mean, in their daily use in worlds
          Society through imagery
                                                         of photographic work. They are social constructions, pure
2. Examining existing representations                    and simple. In this they resemble all the other ways of
          Studying images for info                      reporting what we know, or think we have found out,
3. Collaboration with actors                             about the societies we live in, such ways as ethnographic
          Producing visual representations              reports, statistical summaries, maps, and so on.”

   Banks, M. (n.d.) “Visual Research Methods.”                   Becker, Howard S. “Visual Sociology, Documentary Photography,
   in Social Research Update,                                    and Photojournalism: It's (Almost) All a Matter of Context .”                   Visual Sociology 10 (1-2), 5-14.

 Shohat and Stam: “As the quintessence of the negative, garbage can also be an object of artistic ju-
 jitsu and ironic reappropriation…a place of surprising juxtapositions...It is the place where used
 condoms, bloody tampons, infected needles, and unwanted babies are left: the ultimate resting place of
 all that society both produces and represses, secretes and makes secret.”
    Shohat, Ella and Robert Stam. 1998. “Narrativizing Visual Culture.” The Visual Culture Reader, ed. N. Mirzoeff. NY: Routledge.

Pink: “Photography, video and electronic media are becoming increasingly
    incorporated into the work of ethnographers: as cultural texts; as
    representations of ethnographic knowledge; and as sites of cultural
    production, social interaction and individual experience that themselves
   form ethnographic fieldwork locales.”
     Pink, Sarah. Doing Visual Ethnography. Sage Publications.                                                 Iron County, Utah
                                                                                                                 “cowboy cans”
                     5 Types of Illegal Dumping

    The Family Spring Fling                       The Construction Dump

The Appliance Plop            The Drive-By Dump             Teenage Wasteland
Roscommon County, MI                               Cowlitz County, WA

                       The Family Spring Fling

Roscommon County, MI                             Multnomah County, OR
Multnomah County, OR                                Iron County, UT

                        The Construction Dump

 Multnomah County, OR                           Cowlitz County, WA
Ottawa County, MI     i      Cowlitz County, WA


Ottawa County, MI           Multnomah County, OR
Cowlitz County, WA                   Multnomah County, OR

                     The Drive-by
  Iron County, UT                   Roscommon County, MI
                               Roscommon County, MI

 Roscommon County, MI

                                Multnomah County, OR

Multnomah County, OR
Other Findings…
Dynamics of the Dump

                       see entire letter here
                                        Why Dump?
I.   Perspectives on Nature
      a. Early romantic writers (Leopold, Jeffers, Whitman, Thoreau, Muir )
      b. Later ecocentric writers (Carson, Roszak, Abbey, Stegner, Williams)
      c. Deep ecology (Naess, Sessions, Devall)
II. Land Attachment
     a. Firey, Greider & Garkovich, Bridger, Edelstein & Kleese, Freudenberg
III. Model of Environmental Identity: Clayton & Opotow

                                 Influence of Social Identity
                        HIGH                                           LOW
     Social group identity is prominent             Individual experience is prominent

     Positions self in a social world               Positions self as interacting with nature

     Political reality is influential               Nature seen as apart from human activity

     Group focus                                    Individual focus
     Social conflict prominent                      Social conflict less prominent

                    Strong Environmentalists        Weak Environmentalists

“If we better understand what makes people passionate about the environment, we can understand the
psychological mechanisms capable of fostering protective environmental policies and behaviors.”
             -Clayton and Opotow. 2003. Identity & the Natural Environment. London: MIT Press
                                   Conclusions & Solutions
I. Visual Evidence/Garbology
    a. The obvious – too much stuff !
    b. Obstacles to a legal dump: fees, transportation & ignorance
II. Scholarly Evidence
     a. Attitudes & Identities
     b. Environmental Criminology
         i. The “geographical imagination” (Harvey, 1972)
         ii. Rhodes and Conly (1981)
               1) Public spaces over private property (the public advantage)
         iii. Altman (1975)
               1) Primary vs.secondary territories
“The point is that the environment provides shelter for acts of deviance as a necessary consequence of its ordinary ongoing struggle
to maintain itself, precisely as the forest provides shade…The trees no more intend to provide the shade immediately invaded by the
mosses and ferns, liverworts and wildflowers, than the farmer does who is erecting his barn provides a place behind which little
Children can smoke. But the trees and the farmer do not intend to do so either. It is a necessarily attendant consequence.”
                                                           -Wood (1981) in Environmental Criminology, Brantingham & Brantingham

III. Solutions
      a. Understanding the sediment: natural obstacles, lighting, deterrence and involvement.
      b. Understanding the sentiment: land attachments, education and engaged communities.
      c. Reconsidering the (entire) value of wild spaces.
References and Related Links

           The Dump Website

         Read the Entire Paper

             Kenneth H. Laundra, Ph.D.
      Department of Behavioral & Social Sciences
                 Millikin University

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