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Perilla leaf What is Rosmarinic Acid?Super Function of RosA,Rosmarinic Acid? seminal trace...Red Perilla leaf Extracts.Perilla Seed Extracts,Rosemarinic Acid 10%20%UV.20283-92- 5.Rosemary acid.M.W.C18 H16O8.Red Perilla leaf Stem Extracts.Sclareol,CAS 515-03-7.... What is Rosmarinic Acid and the botanical origin Purple Perilla? What is Rosmarinic Acid? Chemical Name:Cinnamic acid,3,4-dihydroxy-,2-ester with 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid. CAS No.:20283-92-5. Molecular Formula:C18H16O8. Molecular Weight: 360.34 Synonyms: Benzenepropanoic acid,alpha-((3-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy)-3,4- dihydroxy-;3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid 2-ester with 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid;R-(+)-2-(3,4- Dihydroxycinnamoyloxy)-3-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid;Rosemary acid;Rosmarinic acid;(R)-a-[[3-(3,4- Dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2E-propenyl]oxy]-3,4- dihydroxy-benzenepropanoic acid. Safety:Certified by FDA as public food material (GRAS,21 CFR Chapter 21,part182). NoHarm to health. Stability:Good stability,stable in high temperature(180 deg C). What is Rosmarinic Acid and the botanical origin Purple Perilla? Main constituents and Phytochemicals of Purple Perilla: Traditional Medicinal Uses of Purple Perilla: Rediscovery of Perilla frutescens as medicinal plant and vegetable with health promoting properties: Perilla frutescens Extract enriched for polyphenolic phytochemical rosmarinic acid, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans: Effect of oral treatment of Perilla frutescens and its constituents on type-I allergy: Rosmarinic acid inhibits epidermal inflammatory responses: anticarcinogenic effect of Perilla frutescens extract in the murine two-stage skin model.: Metabolome analysis of anthocyanin-producing Perilla frutescens and an Arabidopsis mutant: Common perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton.) as a perspective immunomodulator: Lipoxygenase Inhibitors as Potential Cancer Chemopreventives: Perilla leaves Increase the tolerance of the body against pollen: Purple Perilla Rosmarinic Acid and its application dosage: Medical functions of Rosemarinic Acid: Effects of Perilla Seed Extract: Application of Perilla leaf: Rosemarinic Acid Safety & Toxicology: Research update of Perilla related.: Basic Info of the botanical origin Purple Perilla? Botanical Source:Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt.(leaf);Perilla Green or Purple Perrila. Dry leaf of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var. crispa (Thunb.) Hand.-Mazz.; or Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. var.acuta (Thunb.) Kudo. Scientific Name:Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. var. arguta (Benth.) Hand. - Mazz. Synoms: Dentidia nankinensis; Ocimum frutescens; Perilla arguta; Perilla frutescens var. japonica; Perilla nankinensis; Perilla ocimoides;Chinese basil;Rattlesnake Weed;Perilla frutescens Britton;Lamiaceae-heimo;Perilla crispa;Perilla- Purple;Wild coleus. Common name:Folium Perillae, English Name: Perilla Leaf;the purple-leafed variety Perilla Red;Purple common perilla Leaf. Note:Rattle the dry seed stalks of a wild plant called perilla and you may think a rattlesnake is nearby. That's how the plant got one of its names - rattlesnake weed - but it is also called beef steak plant, wild basil and summer coleus. It grows widely in the Ozarks and can be used as a food and flavoring. Family:lamiaceae Life cycle:annual Plant Part Used: Leaf Medicinal Name:Caulis Perillae Common name:beafsteak mint Name Difference: Perilla frutescens: Perilla Mint; Beef-steak plant; Purple Mint; Copper leaf Perilla ocimoides: Chinese Basil; Common names extracts:Perilla Leaf Extract,Folium Perillae Extract,Perilla frutescens (L. ) Britt. Extract;Purple Perilla Plant Extract; Origin:The plant is native to South East and East Asia,major China, to north America and Europe.Asia. It is a traditional crop of China, India, Thailand, and other Asian countries. Used plant part:There are two variants of Perilla frutescens grown in China: The var. crispa, called ZiSu, has attractive, crispate foliage and is grown for the aromatic leaves, which may be green perrila or red perrilla. The leaves are always used fresh, but can be frozen. The other variant is frutescens known as white perrila. It is valued for the oil extracted from the seeds, which is used for food supplement. Occasionally, the dry seeds find use as a spice. Annual herb with purple foliage, spikes of lavender flowers in summer. It self-seeds abundantly in our garden, which makes for quite a display of massed plants. It's easy to pull up, though, and doesn't spread itself very far from the mother plant, so it really never becomes a nuisance. Sensoric quality: Aromatic but difficult to describe; the fragrance reminds me of cinnamon and anise or licorice. The taste is similar, but with a marked adstringent component. As with many other plant of the same family, olfactory characteristics are quite variable and depend, besides genetic factors, also on soil and climate. Main constituents and Phytochemicals of Purple Perilla: Major Phytochemicals of Perilla oil: Pinene, Camphene, Myrcene, Limonene, Humulene, Caryophyllene, 3-Octanol, 1-Octen-3-ol, Linalool, Terpineol, 10-Pinanol, Perillyl alcohol, Phenylethyl alcohol, 10-Pinanal, Perillaldehyde, Benzaldehyde, Carvone, Linalool oxide,1-perillaldehyde;1-perilla- alcohol;elshottzia ketone. Perilla leaves contain about 0.2% of an essential oil, which varies widely in composition. Several different chemotypes are known: PA (see below) is the only is the only one of culinary value; the others are PK (main component perilla ketone, minor components isoegomaketone and perillene), EK (main component elsholzia ketone, minor component naginata ketone), PL (main component perillene, minor components citral, perilla ketone, isoegomaketone), PP (phenylpropanoids: myristicin, dillapiol, elemicin, safrole) and C (main component citral, minor components perillene, perilla ketone, isoegomaketone). There is also a type rich in rosefurane, which might have potential as a cheaper substitute for rose oil in perfumery. Perilla flowering plants: In the most frequently cultivated chemotype (PA), the main component is perillaldehyd (p-menthadien- 1,8(9)-al(7), 75%) Its minor constituents are limonene (13%), linalool, Beta-caryophyllene, l- menthol, limonene, Alfa-pinene, perillene (2-methyl- 5-(3-oxolanyl)-2-pentene) and elemicin. Perillaldehyd can cause skin allergies. The C type is a potentially interesting source of citral, a pleasantly lemon-scented material much used in the flavour and perfume industries; see lemon myrtle for more on lemony flavours and citral. The PP type may also gain importance as a source of simple phenylpropanoids in the pharmaceutical industry. The high myristicin content makes this plant considerably toxic. The dominating constituents of the remaining types are monoterpenoid furanes, often ketones. Some of these, e.g., isoegomaketone, are severe pneumotoxins that have caused fatal poisoning in cattle repeatedly. The PK type must be considered a toxic plant that has no use in kitchen. The oxime of perilla aldehyd (perillartin) is about 2000 times sweeter than sucrose; it is used as an artificial sweetener in China. Perilla seeds contain a drying oil (40%) with high content of multiply unsaturated fatty acids (60% ¦Á- linolenic acid, 15% both linoleic and oleic acid); their medicinal value is sometimes matter of great exaggeration. Lastly, perilla contains the pseudotannins and antioxidants typical for the mint family; see hyssop for details. The reddish-purple colour of some cultivars is caused by an anthocyan pigment called perillanin chloride. Traditional Medicinal Uses of Purple Perilla: Asian herbalists prescribe perilla for cough and lung afflictions, influenza prevention, restless fetus, seafood poisoning, incorrect energy balance, etc. Studies of perilla volatile oil have revealed that distinct chemotypes of perilla have dramatically different biological effects. Besides its pharmaceutical applications, Perilla plays an important role in Asian cuisine;Beefsteak Plant, the English name of Perilla, is used to prepare and preserve meat. Its lemon-like, sweetish taste makes Perilla, and Perilla Red in particular, an interesting ingredient. Rediscovery of Perilla frutescens as medicinal plant and vegetable with health promoting properties: Chinese medicine has used Perilla frutescens for centuries, either alone or in combination with other herbs. Recent scientific studies have shown its antiallergic, anticancerogenic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative effects. Different plant components may be used. Perilla essential oil, because of its antimicrobial and antibacterial action, is not only applied to medicine, but also to preserve food. The 'fatty' oil of Perilla has been shown to inhibit the growth of some types of cancer while alpha-linolenic acid of Perilla is nearly as effective as fish oil in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Especially cultivars with violet leaves called Perilla Red show high antioxidative capacity due to their anthocyan and flavonoid content. Besides its pharmaceutical applications, Perilla plays an important role in Asian cuisine;Beefsteak Plant, the English name of Perilla, is used to prepare and preserve meat. Its lemon-like, sweetish taste makes Perilla, and Perilla Red in particular, an interesting ingredient. Perilla frutescens Extract enriched for polyphenolic phytochemical rosmarinic acid, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans: Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, suppresses allergic immunoglobulin responses and inflammation caused by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in mice. However, few placebo-controlled clinical trials have examined the efficacy and safety of polyphenolic phytochemicals for treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases in humans. The present study determined whether oral supplementation with rosmarinic acid is an effective intervention for patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR). In this 21-day, randomized, double-blind, age- matched, placebo-controlled parallel group study, patients with mild SAR were treated daily with extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid (200 mg [n=10] or 50 mg [n=9]) or placebo (n=10). Patients recorded symptoms daily in a diary. Profiles of infiltrating cells and concentrations of eotaxin, IL- 1beta, IL-8, and histamine were measured in nasal lavage fluid. Serum IgE concentrations and routine blood tests were also examined. As compared with placebo supplementation, supplementation with extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid resulted in a significant increase in responder rates for itchy nose, watery eyes, itchy eyes, and total symptoms (P<0.05). Active treatment significantly decreased the numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils in nasal lavage fluid (P<0.05 vs. placebo). Patients reported no adverse events, and no significant abnormalities were detected in routine blood tests. In conclusion, extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid can be an effective intervention for mild SAR at least partly through inhibition of PMNL infiltration into the nostrils. Use of this alternative treatment for SAR might reduce treatment costs for allergic diseases. Effect of oral treatment of Perilla frutescens and its constituents on type- I allergy: Perilla frutescens Britton (perilla, Labiatae) is a medicinal herb prescribed in formula effective for allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. Study research was conducted to evaluate the anti- allergic effect of orally administered perilla decoction and to identify the active constituents using mice ear- passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-reaction, which is one of the animal models for type I allergy. Perilla decoction significantly suppressed PCA- reaction, and the inhibition % at the dose of 500 mg/kg was 43%. The perilla decoction contains 5.3% of luteolin 7-O- [beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide], 1.6% of apigenin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta- glucuronide], 0.49% of scutellarin, and 2.5% of rosmarinic acid (weight of compound/dried weight of perilla decoction %), respectively. When these constituents were orally administered to mice at the dose equivalent to 500 mg/kg of perilla decoction, rosmarinic acid and apigenin 7-O-[beta- glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide] significantly suppressed PCA-reaction, and their inhibition % was 41% (p<0.01) and 32% (p<0.05), respectively. Since the inhibition % or perilla decoction and rosmarinic acid were nearly equal, the anti-allergic effect of perilla decoction depends primarily on rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid inhibits epidermal inflammatory responses: anticarcinogenic effect of Perilla frutescens extract in the murine two- stage skin model.: Perilla frutescens extract showed marked reduction on tumorigenesis in a murine, two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. In this model, cancer is initiated by application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by application of 12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Following tumor initiation with DMBA, topical application of a perilla-derived fraction (PF) at doses of 2 mg/mouse/application resulted in significant inhibition of tumorigenesis. The efficacy of each fraction was correlated with rosmarinic acid (RA) and luteolin concentration. Topical application of perilla extract (PE) that contained 68% RA or an equivalent amount of commercially available RA showed nearly identical antiinflammatory activity 5 h after TPA treatment. Application of luteolin had less anti-inflammatory activity. Marked neutrophil infiltration was observed in TPA-challenged skin by histological examination using hematoxylin-eosin. This change was greatly reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil recruitment, was also increased in TPA-challenged skin and was significantly decreased in the PE and RA treated groups. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA expression levels were reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. TPA-induced increases in synthesis of the chemokines KC and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 were significantly decreased by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 levels were slightly increased 5 h after TPA treatment. These levels were only numerically decreased in the PE and RA treated groups. However, induction of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was obviously reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Reactive oxygen radical production, detected as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and lipid peroxide, by double treatment of TPA was reduced by pre-treatment with PE or RA. Production of 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine, which was detected immunohistochemically, was also induced by double treatment with TPA. This adduct was barely visible in PE or RA treated mice. Thus, we conclude that part of the anticarcinogenic effects of P.frutescens extract is due to RA via two independent mechanisms: inhibition of the inflammatory response and scavenging of reactive oxygen radicals. Metabolome analysis of anthocyanin-producing Perilla frutescens and an Arabidopsis mutant: An anthocyanin-producing medicinal plant, Perilla frutescens, has two chemo-varietal forms, anthocyanin-producing red form and non-producing green form. We have extensively studied on gene expression in these two forms. Metabolome analysis was carried out with these two forms of P. frutescens by high Performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), capillary electrophoresis(CE) and LC for amino acid analysis. We also investigated the metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana pap1-D mutant and transgenic lines expressing pap1 cDNA, a Myb family gene. There was a striking difference in anthocyanin accumulation; however, there were no quantitative and qualitative differences in flavonols. No remarkable differences were observed in the level of rosmarinic acid, the main polyphenol compound, and primary metaabolires such as amino acids and organic acids between two forms. The metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana pap1- D mutant and transgenic lines expressing pap1 cDNA showed that both pap1-D mutant and the transgenic lines over-accumulated cyanidin-type anthocyanins. The extensive metabolite profiles of these plants indicated that the content of quercetin-type flavonols increased; whereas that of kaempferol-type metabolites decreased. Common perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton.) as a perspective immunomodulator: Common perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton) is a new perspective annual medicinal dead-nettle family (Lamiaceae Lindl.) plant Its medicinal raw material and preparations produced of it are characterised by the variety of pharmacological effects: desensitizing, antimicrobial, anti tumorous, and antioxidative. This species was introduced from the East Asia and cultivated in many European, Asian, and North American countries. Lipoxygenase Inhibitors as Potential Cancer Chemopreventives: Research and experiment proved that lipoxygenase (LO)-catalyzed products have a profound influence on the development and progression of human cancers. Compared with normal tissues, significantly elevated levels of LO metabolites have been found in lung, prostate, breast, colon, and skin cancer cells, as well as in cells from patients with both acute and chronic leukemias. LO-mediated products elicit diverse biological activities needed for neoplastic cell growth, influencing growth factor and transcription factor activation, oncogene induction, stimulation of tumor cell adhesion, and regulation of apoptotic cell death. Agents that block LO-catalyzed activity may be effective in preventing cancer by interfering with signaling events needed for tumor growth. In fact, in a few studies, LO inhibitors have prevented carcinogen-induced lung adenomas and rat mammary gland cancers. Rosmarinic acid,linoleic acids all good Lipoxygenase Inhibitors, and could find from perilla leaves and perilla seeds. Perilla leaves Increase the tolerance of the body against pollen: A natural alternative for allergies Food supplement containing extract of Perilla frutescens,formulas contains a high quality herbal extract of Perilla frutescens, which helps increase the tolerance of the body against pollen, dust and other materials causing allergic reactions. Purple Perilla Rosmarinic Acid and its application dosage: 1.Origin,Effective Content: 1.Originº completely soluble in water and natural anti-oxide essentials compound;extracted from Labiata kind plant herb Perrila(Red Perilla Leaves); 2.Effective Contentº:Rosmarinic Acid 10%HPLC,or Rosmarinic Acid 20%UV, Rosemarinic Acid has good characters to remove free waste and bases and anti- inflammation function. 3.Characters:Certified by FDA as public food material (GRAS,21 CFR Chapter 21,part182) High activity;a lot of kinds,apply and used as Nutraceutical and special food material. Completely soluble in water;could be used directly in water and other solutions; Antioxidation ability better than VC, at least 20 times Suggestive dosage 0.02%~~0.04%(200~~400ppm), in GMP conditions;no highest dosage limited 2. dosage in doving food£morning and evening wheat flake;cacks;sapor sorce;first soluble: Rosemarinic Acid in water;then got the solution into material when mixing round,the best result could be got when added before heating . Usage:Suggestive Dosage of Rosmarinic Acid Doving Food:cookies;flimsy cack;confectionery,etc;0.01~~0.07% Morning Cornmeal pound;etc.0.01~~0.05% Nosh:0.02~~0.08% Shalad;bechamel;etc:0.02~~0.1% Soup material:0.03~~0.1% Spray Dried food:0.03~~0.1% Mixed flavouring:0.04~~0.08% Confectionery biscuit materials for food:0.03~~0.07% Dried pet fodder:0.04~~0.01% 3. Dosage in meat,fish,sea-food: Applying Field...Dosage Method: Puoltry Meat:twisting meat or banger: 0.02~~0.06% of total weight of meat, First soluble in water; added the solution during crashing or mixing. Poultry piece: 0.02~~0.06% of total weight: Dissolve Rosemarinic Acid in halogen solution or salt water,marinating; 0.03~~0.07% of total weight: First soluble in water; added the solution during crashing or mixing. Pork;banger or twisting meat: 0.03~~0.08% of total weight: First soluble in water; added the solution during crashing or mixing. Beef;banger or beef meat: 0.03~~0.08% of total weight: First soluble in water; added the solution during crashing or mixing. Beaf piece: 0.03~~0.06% of total weight: Dissolve Rosemarinic Acid in halogen solution or salt water,marinating or clashing dehydrated meat 0.04~~0.08% of total weight: First soluble in water;added the solution during crashing or mixing. Fish and seafood: 0.01~~0.04% of total weight: Dissolve Rosemarinic Acid in halogen solution or salt water,marinating or clashing Medical functions of Rosemarinic Acid: Rosemarin is Labiata kind plant and could be used as herb medicine with full plant, taste sour,Taste good and good for stomach;has functions of smoothing nerve and calming down;used for curing headache and nerve weakness. More functions proved to have, such as killing bacteria;good for ladies in menopause;strenthening pallium controlling ability; and with good calming;hypnosising;anti- convulsion;adjusting blood pressure;and more other functions Also widely used as aroma;health caring food ,nutrition supplying and daily-chemical industry. Effects of Perilla Seed Extract: Perilla Seed Extract, derived from Perilla frutescens, a traditional chinese herb, has been used in folk medicine for years. Recent studies have shown that Perilla Seed polyphenols regulate allergic diseases due to 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity and suppression of histamine release from mast cells. The functional compounds of Perilla Seed Extract are flavonoid aglycons such as luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, and rosemarinic acid. It is known that the antioxidative activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of flavonoid aglycons are stronger than that of corresponding glycosides. Studies have shown that Perilla Seed Extract inhibits the growth of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic microorganisms which in turn reduces plaque formation and acid production, helping to prevent dental carries. Perilla Seed Extract also reduces inflammation of the gingiva improving periodontal disease conditions. Perilla Seed Extract is an ideal, all natural addition to tooth paste and mouthwash. Application of Perilla Leaf: 1. Inducing sweat, relieving external symptoms and facilitating the flow of lung-qi to relieve coughing: The purple perilla is used to treat common colds caused by wind-cold, to relieve common cold with headache as well as coughing caused by wind-cold and thin sputum, and to alleviate asthma, feelings of fullness in the chest and nasal obstruction or sneezing due to attack of pathogenic wind-cold. 2. Promoting circulation of qi to alleviate stagnation in the spleen and stomach: It is used to treat nausea, vomiting, or vomiting during pregnancy due to the stagnation of qi in the spleen and stomach. 3. Removing fish or crab Toxins: It is used to treat abdominal pain, vomiting, or vomiting with diarrhea resulting from eating fish or crabs. Cooking the leaves or stems with fish or crabs can prevent poisoning or allergy. It is often used in combination with ginger. Modern Researches: Perillaldehyde is the main ingredient of purple perilla leaves. Synonyms:dihydrocuminyl aldehyde;4-(1-methyl ethenyl)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde;4- isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde;para- mentha-1,8-dien-7-al;perilla aldehyde 1. Its oral decoction or extraction can relieve fever. 2. It can increase the secretion of digestive juices, promote the peristalsis (successive waves of involuntary contraction passing along the walls intestines) and forcing the contents onward of the stomach and intestines, reduce the secretion of the bronchus and alleviate spasms of the bronchus. 3. Its active ingredients contain perillaldehyde, which can raise the blood sugar. 4. The water decoction of this herb contains volatile oil which can inhibit colibacillus, shigella dysenteriae or staphylococcus. Rosemarinic Acid Safety & Toxicology: Acute toxicity(LD50):Rosemarinic Acid LD50:lethal dose,50 percent kill. Intravenous. Rodent-mouse. 561mg/kg. Details of toxic effects not repeated other than lethal dose value. Reference: DRFUD4 Drugs of the Future.(J.R.Prous,S.A.,Apartado de Correos 540,08080 Barcelona,Spain) V.1-1975/76- volume(issue)/page/year:10,756,1986.
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