Manufacturing

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					   Manufacturing
Input
 Ingredients
Process
 Mixing, chopping, baking
Output
 End product-cake, biscuit, loaf of bread
Feedback
 Overcooked-cook for less, lower the temperature
Scales of production
 Manufacturers decide the scale of production depending on
  the number of products predicted to be sold and the shelf
  life.
 Just in time means that the materials are delivered to the
  factory just in time to be turned into the products for
  immediate dispatch to the shops.
 This means products don’t need to be stored in a factory. This
  cuts down waste and reduces risk of bacterial contamination.
Types of production
One off/Jobbing
 Is used to make specialist
  products such as cakes for
  weddings and birthdays.
 Can be costly
 Rely on skilled workers
 Generally don’t require
  special equipment.
Types of production
Batch Production
 Makes a specific quantity
  on a large scale of the same
  product such as biscuits or
  cakes.
 Usually done by one
  person or a team.
 The equipment used can
  make one or more product
  and workers need to be
  skilled.
Types of production
Continuous flow
• This is used to make products
  which are sold in large
  quantities and have a high
  shelf life. They are often made
  24 hours a day, seven days a
  week. Products include baked
  beans, biscuits,
cakes and crisps.
 Machinery can only be used for
  that product.
CAM is often used in this
  process.
Types of production
Automated manufacture
• May be included in
  continuous flow production
  lines. This method uses
  computers and helps to
  increases productivity, is safer
  for workers, more hygienic,
  assures final quality,
  measuring, weighing, cutting,
  shaping, critical control
  points are automatically
  tested.
Standard components
examples include grated cheese, pizza bases, ready made
pastry cases.
• Advantages                    • Disadvantages
• Save time                     • May forget to order and
• Can speed up manufacture          stop production
• Can use a less skilled        •   May need special storage
    workforce                       arrangements
•   Less cross contamination    •   May be more expensive
•   Less equipment needed       •   May not be up to standard
•   Less effort                 •   Same components may be
•   Ensures consistency of          used by other companies.
    product
      Consistent product
      A consistent product means producing something the same every time.

The use of machinery can help to do this
  as -
 It can be faster/need less workers
 Don’t need to be as skilled
 There is less human error
 It can be set at a certain speed or for a
  certain time.
 Eg using a mixer or electric deep fat
  fryer
 It can cut the same thickness.eg using
  cutters
 Use of standard components can
  ensure you get the same standard.
Using computers
CAD (computer aided design) and CAM (computer aided
manufacture)
• Advantages of using
    computers
•   No mistakes
•   Can run all day without a
    break
•   Save on labour costs
•   Removes human error
•   Can assess 1000s of
    products in minutes
•   Cab detect things that the
    human eyes cannot see.
Using computers
CAD
Computer aided design
• To design the physical
  appearance of a product
• To calculate the nutritional
  profile of a product
• To model the cost
• To calculate the shelf life
• To present sensory data like
  profiles
• To model a production
  procedure
• Produce packaging designs
Computer aided manufacture
Load cells                                Using computers
Measure the weight of ingredients and               CAM
   store the info on a computer so it
   knows when to reorder more.
Light refractor
Spots changes in colour such as bad
   crisps or burnt food
Light detector
Used to check the thickness of sauces.
Temperature
Takes and records critical temperatures
   of cooking and storing foods
Metal detector
Checks food for metal to makes sure
   safe to go to customer.
Flow charts
Flow charts usually have four symbols
 The terminator (Oval)
used at the start or the end
 Process (Rectangle)
What activity needs to be
  carried out
 Decision (Diamond)
Usually a question with a yes
  or no answer
 Arrows
which show the flow of the
  chart
Quality assurance and quality
control
 Quality in food is very
  important. Firstly it means
  the food is safe to eat and
  also it satisfies the
  customers needs.
 So every time you buy this
  product as a customer you
  know it is going to be
  exactly the same.
Quality assurance
 This simply means a
  guarantee of quality.
  Manufacturers assure their
  customers that the product
  will be of a consistent
  quality.
 The manufacturer does not
  want to loose this
  reputation as it may cost
  sales
    Quality control
 These are the checks which
  are carried out to check the
  quality of the product. They
  are done at the designing,
  manufacturing and end of
  manufacturing stages
Quality control will check-
 Size
 Shape
 Appearance
 Taste
 texture
      Tolerance
 Products need to be within a certain
  tolerance to be of an acceptable
  quality.
 So the size might be measured or
  the temperature taken. These
  measurements will need to be
  within a certain tolerance to be
  acceptable. So the temperature on
  these pies will need to be within a
  few degrees or the whole batch will
  be throw out, for safety reasons.
 Pizza may need to be between 21
  and 21.5 cm. Or it will not fit in
  the box.
Removing hazards
 Manufacturers have a legal
  requirement to make sure
  their product is safe to eat.
  When a new product is
  being designed a HAZARD
  ANALYSIS must be carried
  out. This means looking at
  what could go wrong and
  making a plan to stop it
  from happening.
 Types of hazard
Biological
 Salmonella, listeria, E coli
Physical
 Hair, metal, fish bones
Chemical
 Cleaning materials
       HACCP
       Hazard analysis and critical control points
To produce a HACCP chart the manufacturer
    Lists the processes involved in the making of
    the product.
 Identifies the areas where risk might happen.
 Decides which are critical to the safety of the
    consumer and plans how to reduce these risks
    using CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS.
 A check on a cooked food to make sure it has
    reached the correct temperature may prevent
    food poisoning in a customer
 CCPs check the food is safe to eat
 QCPs check the size and shape of the food for
    quality

				
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posted:8/23/2011
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