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A REVISW OF RECORDS OF SPIDER BITES ON HUMANS IN NEW ZEALAND

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					 A REVISW OF RECORDS OF SPIDER BITES ON HUMANS I N NW ZEALAND
                                                    E
              INCLUDING SOME PREVIOUSLY UNPUBLISHED RECORDS

                                        M. O'DONNELL
                       Plant Health Diagnostic Station
                     M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e & F i s h e r i e s
                                          LINCOLN

The s e r i o u s e f f e c t s o f t h e b i t e o f t h e K a t i p o s i d e r ( ~ a t r o d e c t u s
k a t i p o P o w e l 1 ) a r e w e l l known.        H o r n a b r o o k ( l 9 5 1 ~g i v e s a d e t a i l e d
h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w and t h e Department o f H e a l t h p u b l i s h e s p e r i o d i c
s t a t i s t i c a l information i n t h e i r publications(see references).
I n t h e p e r i o d 1967-76 t h e r e were 2 3 c a s e s o f h o s p i t a l i s a t i o n
following katipo bites.                   D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d t h e r e were a f u r t h e r
1 4 c a s e s of h o s p i t a l a d m i s s i o n s f o l l o w i n g b i t e s by o t h e r s p i d e r s
(usually unidentified).                    The p o t e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e d - b a c k
s p i d e r (L. h a s s e l t i T h o r e l l ) a s a d a n g e r t o humans i f i t becomes
e s t a b l i s h e d i n New Z e a l a n d i s w e l l documented. ( S u t h e r l a n d and T r i n c a ,
1978. )
Most s p i d e r s p o s s e s s p o i s o n g l a n d s and a r e c a p a b l e o f b i t i n g humans
provided t h e i r c h e l i c e r a e a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y powerful t o p e n e t r a t e
human s k i n b u t b e c a u s e o f b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s , some s p i d e r s w i l l
n o t b i t e a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n i n s e c t s c a u g h t i n t h e i r webs.    There
a r e however, a few r e c o r d e d i n s t a n c e s i n New Z e a l a n d o f s p i d e r s .
o t h e r t h a n k a t i p o , b i t i n g humans w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . (Myers,
1 9 2 7 , C h a m b e r l a i n , 1 9 4 7 i n W a t t , 1971 ) T h e s e were:

                Dipoena b l a t t e a U r q u h a r t ( T h e r i d i i d a e )
                Hexathele h o c h s t e t t d Ausserer
                Porrhothele antipodiana Walckenaer(Dip1uridae)
                I x e u t i c u s s u b f a s c i a t u s (syn. 1 . m a r t i u s ) S i m o n ( ~ e s i i d a e )
                Cambridgea f o l i a t a Koch ( ~ t i ~ h i d i i d a e )

I n a d d i t i o n . b a t t d e s c r i b e s t h e e f f e c t s o f b i t e s on h i m s e l f bv
a M i t u r p a s p . ( C l u b i o n i d a e ) and Dysdera c r o c a t a Koch ( ~ y s d e r i d a e ) .
F o r s t e r and F o r s t e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) add Araneus p u s t u l o s u s Walckenaer a n d
A . t r a n s m a r i n a syn. A . b r o u n i T A r a n e i d a e ) . More r e c e n t l y Sunde
( 1 9 8 0 ) d e s c r i b e s f o u r c a s e s from t h e Auckland r e g i o n o f b i t e s from
Lempona c y l i n d r a t a Koch ( ~ n a p h o s i d a e ) .

Recent submissions t o t h e P l a n t Health D i a g n o s t i c S t a t i o q s a t
Auckland, L e v i n and L i n c o l n h a v e c o n f i r m e d t h e a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f
some o f t h e above s p e c i e s a n d have p r o v i d e d a few a d d i t i o n a l r e c o r d s
as follows:

        (1)      C h i r a c a n t h i u m s t r a t i o t i c u m Koch ( C l u b i o n i d a e )
                 On 26 J a n u a r y 1979 a 2$ v e a r o l d bv was a d m i t t e d
                 t o the Christchurch hosprtal overnight following a
                 b i t e on t h e hand.               The boy was s a i d t o be p l a y i n g
                 w i t h s p i d e r webbing when t h e s p i d e r r u s h e d o u t a n d
                 b i t him. The b i t e was i n i t i a l l y p a i n f u l a n d p a r t
                 o f t h e hand s w e l l e d up.                A number o f s p e c i e s o f
                 t h i s g e n u s a r e known o v e r s e a s t o i n f l i c t p a i n f u l b i t e s
                 w i t h s e v e r e e f f e c t s . (R R F o r s t e r , p e r s . corn).
                 A n o t h e r C l u b i o n i d , a M i t u r g a zp. h a s been r e c o r d e d t w i c e
                 i n New Z e a l a n d , i n f l i c t i n g b i t e s .     In contrast the
                 n a t i v e Uliodon s p ( C l u b i o n i d a e ) was r e c o r d e d a s b i t i n g
                 a man a t Wanganui on 1 2 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 w i t h no a p p a r e n t
                 effect.
         (2)      Unidentified Salticidae
                  I n Auckland on 27 March 1 9 7 9 a p e r s o n ( a g e a n d s e x
                  unknown) was b i t t e n , r e s u l t i n g i n s w e l l i n g a n d
                  p u s t u l e s around s i t e of b i t e .

         (3)      Trite ~ ~ ( s a l t i c i d a e )
                                                             1
                  A t D a n n e v i r k e on 1 2 A ~ r i l 9 8 3 a woman was b i t t e n
                  on t h e l e g r e s u l t i n g i n s w e i l i n g and p a i n .
                  E b e l i n g ( 1 9 7 5 ) r e c o r d s one c a s e of a b i t e by a S a l t i c i d
                  i n t h e United S t a t e s .

        ( 4       S t e a t o d a sp. ( l h e r i d i i d a e )
                  S i n c e 1981 t h e r e h a v e b e e n t h r e e r e c o r d s from t h e
                  Auckland a r e a o f minor b u t p a i n f u l b i t e s .

I n addition f u r t h e r records a r e a v a i l a b l e fron species already
          bite:
                  Araneus o u s t u l o s u s ( A r a n e i d a e )
                  F i v e r e c o r d s h a v e been r e c e i v e d i n c l u d i n g two
                  when a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was c a u s e d .       Overseas c a s e s
                  of h i t e s a r e r e c o r d e d from th'e USA from a n A r a n e u s s p .
                  ( 2 b e l i n g , 1 9 7 5 ) a n d from A u s t r a l i a from       A . transmarinus
                  (Southcott 1973).

                  Dysdera c r o c a t a ( D y s d e r i d a e . )
                  T h e r e a r e f o u r r e c o r d s of b i t e s i n c l u d i n g one from
                  Auckland where a a a n was b i t t e n r e s u l t i n g V i n s w e l l i n g
                  and s e v e r e p a i n .     Cook ( 1 9 6 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t " D y s d e r a
                  i s one of t h e few s p i d e r s t h a t w i l l a t t a c k r a t h e r
                  t h a n r e t r e a t from m o l e s t a t i o n .      This aggressiveness
                  combined w i t h t h e i m p o s i n g s i z e o f t h e C h e l i c e r a e ,
                  h a s g i v e n Dysdera a n u n d e s e r v e d r e p a t a t i o n " .        Mascord
                  (1970) s t a t e s t h a t s e v e r a l s e v e r e b i t e s h a v e been r e c o r d e d
                  fron t h i s species i n Australia.
                  Lampona c g i i n d r a t a ( G n a p h o s i d a e )
                  k f u r t h e r r e c o r d o c c u r r e d i n Auckland on 1 0 May 1 9 8 3
                  when 2 members of a f a m i l y were b i t t e n . Symptoms w e r e
                  s a i d t o be d i a r r h o e a , s e v e r e i t c h i n g , r e d d e n i n g a n d
                  s w e l l i n g o f t h e body.         T h i s s p i d e r h a s a l s o been r e s p -
                  o n s i b l e f o r severe b i t e s i n A u s t r a l i a (Hascord, 1970).

A n o t h e r c a s e of a b i t e from a M i t u r g a s p . was o b t a i n e d from a n
a r t i c l e i n T r e e l i n e ( 1 9 8 1 ) which d e s c r i b e s a f e m a l e s c h o o l t e a c h e r
b e i n g b i t t e n when s h e was on M t F y f f e n e a r K a i k o u r a . The symptoms
w e r e d e s c r i b e d a s d i z z i n e s s and n a u s e a and s h e was h o s p i t a l i s e d
f o r f o u r hours.
The d a n g e r s from s p i d e r b i t e s i n New Z e a l a n d can be p u t i n p e r s -
p e c t i v e by comparison w i t h A u s t r a l i a .               Two d e a t h s from k z t i p o b i t e s
were r e p o r t e d i n New Z e a l a n d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Both r e c o r d s
a r e s e c o n d hand and t h e d e a t h s o c c u r r e d many y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e
d a t e s o f t h e r e p o r t s . (Hornabrook , 1 9 5 1 ) . As f s r a s can be
a s c e r t a i n e d (Department o f H e a l t h , Occesioaal p a p e r 19, 1982) n o
o t h e r d e a t h s from s p i d ' e r b i t e s h a v e been r e c o r d e d i n NZ. Ey
c o n t r a s t , i n A u s t r a l i a , A t r a x r o b l i s t u s Cambridge (Sydney f u n n e l
web s p i d e r ) h a s been r e s p o n s i b l e o f 1 0 d e a t h s c p t o 1 9 7 3 . No
s p e c F f i c a n t i v e n e n e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a g a i n s t t h i s s p i d e r (Mascor?,
1 9 7 O i . . The r e d b a c k s p i d e r i L . h a s s e l t i ) was r e s p c n s i b l e f o r 1 3
d e a t h s up t o 1959 i n A u s t r a l i a .            An a n t i v e n o m t o t h i s s p i d e r
h a s now been p r o d u c e d and h a s p r e v e n t e d f u r t h e r d e a t h s , Mascord
a l s o records severe b i t e s fron Australian spiders not established
i n %Z, i n c l u d i n g A . f o r n i d a b i l i s Rainbow ( t r e e f u n n e l web s ~ i c ! e r ) ,
S e l e n o c o s m i a c r a s s i p e s ( B i r d e a t i n g s p i d e r ) . The v i o l i n s p i d e r
 ( L o x o s c e l e s r e c l u s a ) G e r t s c h , which h a s r e c e n t l y become e s t a b -
l i s h e d i n A u s t r a l i a h a s been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many u n-p l e a s a n t b i t e s
                                                                                 -
i n t h e USA ( E b e l i n g , 1 9 7 5 ) .

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t I x e u t i c u s r o b u s t u s Koch which i s
e s t a b l i s h e d i n p a r t s o f t h e N o r t h I s l a n d h a s n o t been a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h b i t i n g r e c o r d s i n N Z a l t h o u g h i t h a s been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
s e v e r e b i t e s i n A u s t r a l i a . (Mascord, 1 9 7 0 )

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

                               r
P e r m i s s i o n from M P S D a l e , O f f i c e r i n Charge, Auckland P l a n t
H e a l t h D i a g n o s t i c S t a t i o n ; and M D C M Manson, E n t o m o l o g i s t ,
                                                     r
L e v i n PHDS, t o p u b l i s h r e c o r d s from t h e i r specimen f i l e s i s
much a p p r e c i a t e d .




Anon 1 9 8 2 M e d i c a l I m p a c t o f I n s e c t s and A r a c h n i d s i n New
     Z e a l a n d , 1967-1 976. DzpanLrnenf o t .!!ealth, N Z , O c c a n i o n a e
     P a p e a No.19.

Anon 1981 Once b i t t e n . .         .   Tneeline.        I n f o r m a t i o n ?Jews o f t h e
     NZFS. No 6 ( 2 )

C h a m b e r l a i n G 7947 Arachnoidism a s a p p l i e d t o New Z e a l a n d
        S p i d e r s ; a p r e l i m i n a r y n o t e . Recondn o t t h e Auckeand
        I n n i . f i u n e m . 3 ( 3 ) ; 157-1 59.

Cook J A L 1 9 6 5 A c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e b i o l o g y o f t h e B r i t i s h
     S p i d e r s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e g e n u s Dysdera. O i k o n 1 6 : 20-25

E k l l i n g W 1975      Urban Entomology.            U n i v e n n i i y of   Cueitomzia      695pp
F c r s t e r R 9 , F n r s t e r L I! 1 9 7 3 New Z e a l a n d S p i d e r s . An I n t r o d u c t i o n .
         c o e e i n n , Aucktund     2 5 4 pp.
Hcrnabrook R I:r 1951 S t u d i e s i n p r e v e n t a t i v e h'ygiene from
     t h e Otago Medical S c h o o l . The K a t i p o S p i d e r . N Z fled 2 .
     50: 131-138.

M ~ j c o r dR 1970 A u s t r a l i a n S p i d e r s i n Colour.           A.H t A.M      Reed
       S y d n e y . 11 2 pp

Myers J G 1 9 2 7 E t h n o l o g i c a l n o t e s on some New Z e a l a n d
     S p i d e r s . NZ 2 . S c i e n c e T e c h . 9 ( 3 ) :129-136.

S c ~ t h c o t tR V 1 9 7 3 S u r v e y o f I n j u r i e s t o Man by A u s t r a l i a n
        T e r r e s t r i a l A r t h r o p o d s . P u U i n h e d &y Aufhoa 1 6 5 pp.

Ssnde     R G 1 9 8 0 Lampona c y l i n d r a t a ( A r a n e a e :             ~na~hosidae)
        A n o t e . N Z t n f o m o l . 7 ( 2 ) 3175-176

S c t h e r l a n d S K T r i n c a J C 1978        S u r v e y o f 2144 c a s e s o f Red-back
          spider bites i n Australia,               1963-76. fled 2 A u n t . 2: 620-623

K a t t J C 1971 The t o x i c E f f e c t s o f t h e b i t e o f               a   Clubionid
        S p i d e r . N Z L n i o m o e . 5 ( l ) : 87-90.

TZE WETA 1 9 8 3 6 ( 2 ) 72-74

				
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