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					                                       INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
            Stephanie Crawford ● Project & Report: Applied ID Project ● ● 6/25/09


                                                                                                   th     th
      This instructional program will be designed to meet technology literacy readiness skills for 7 and 8
      grade students ranging from 12-14 years at Blacksburg Middle School. The instruction will be designed
      for the target population enrolled in the Introduction to Technology Education course. These students with
      various learning abilities and minimum hands-on skills are placed in Technology Education for 18 weeks
      to discover and explore new interests and abilities related to technology. Montgomery County Public
      Schools are fully inclusive classrooms.

      During this class, these students will investigate transportation technologies that will impact future
      decisions and consequences. Students will explore power and transportation technologies by designing,
      constructing, and testing a working model of a CO2 powered dragster car. Students will gain technology
      literacy readiness skills in order to live in a world emerged in technology.

      The CO2 Dragster unit is a fun and exciting activity that allows students to explore the design process,
      while learning basic engineering principals such as aerodynamics, drag, gravity, and Newton's Laws of
      Motion. CO2 dragsters are model racing cars that use carbon dioxide cartridges for propulsion. Students
      start by brainstorming ideas through thumbnail sketches, and then develop their ideas into orthographic
      projections (2D sketches that include the top, front, and side view). Students take their designs and
      create a computer aided three dimensional model of their dragster using Autodesk Inventor parametric
      design software. Throughout the process of creating a dragster, students must follow specific design
      requirements and utilize basic measuring skills. After passing several safety tests, students construct
      actual full size models out of basswood or balsawood using traditional woodworking tools. After applying
      paint and polyurethane to their cars, students test their car design in actual class racing competition.
      Finally the students complete a feedback writing assignment on the unit, and complete an assessment on
      the design principals learned throughout the unit.

      This instructional design will focus on just one aspect of this unit- the computer aided design of the 3D
      model using Autodesk Inventor. Inventor is a three dimensional parametric solid modeling software for
      creating 3D mechanical models. For this instructional need, students will apply problem-solving skills,
      group dynamics, research, and use their knowledge couples with common sense to design a develop a
      3D computerized model of their dragster design.

      Goal Statement: Given a list of design requirements, Technology Education students at Blacksburg
      Middle School will use Autodesk Inventor to design a three dimensional solid model of a CO 2 dragster car
      that meets 100% of the design requirements.

      My Technology Education class is an all inclusive classroom, with learners that are typically 83% White,
      7% Asian, 7% Black, and 2% Hispanic. Technology Education is an elective class without state tested
      standards of learning, thus; the majority of students are average to below average learners, with
      approximately half the class identified as having special needs or behavioral issues.
Through this instruction program the learner will be able to design a 3D computer aided model of a
dragster. The Virginia Career and Technical Education Department has identified this as competency
DTE8482.010 and DTE8482.011.

Students will be expected to bring a pencil to class and will be seated 1-2 students per computer
(depending if they are working with a partner). Visual and auditory aides such as computerized tutorials,
handouts, instruction wipe-off board, and LCD image projection will be used to assist learning. Every
student’s participation is mandatory. Learners will be applying their knowledge of various engineering
principles by designing (and eventually constructing, and testing) a model CO2 dragster car. The students
will be expected to brainstorm design ideas, create at least 9 thumbnail sketches, and draw orthographic
projection following design constraints prior to designing their models in Inventor. The following will be
available equipment and materials for this activity:

          Computer (CPU, mouse, monitor, mousepad)
          Autodesk Inventor 10.0 software
          Inventor Tutorial
          Assess to HP LaserJet 9800 11”x17” printer

Students final 3D model will be evaluated based on the following criteria:

Criteria                                                                                Possible Points
Top View
    2D sketch of the top view of dragster design meeting 100% design                   10pts
    Extruded 3D model of top view 2D sketch to 2.5 inches.                             10pts
CO2 Hole
    New 2D sketch created on the YZ plane with CO2 hole drawn using given              10pts
       design constraints.
        Ø .75”
        1” from the top
        Centered horizontally
    3D extrusion created from a 2D sketch of a CO2 hole that removes
       material 2 inches deep into the current solid model.                             10pts

Side View
     New sketch created on the XZ plane of a solid model with the side view            10pts
        drawn that meets all design requirements
     Create a 3D extrusion from a 2D sketch of the side view that intersects
        the current solid model.                                                        10pts
For Shell Car Designs Only
Shell the bottom face of their dragster to a thickness of .2”
Axle Holes
     New sketch created on the XZ plane of a solid model with two identical            10pts
        circles following given design constraints:
         Ø .2”
         Distance from bottom: 1/8” – 3/8”
         Distance from front/back: ¼” – 4”
             Extrude the 2D sketches of the axle holes to cut through the current solid
              model.                                                                             10pts
       Round Edges (optional step)                                                               10pts
           Round edges to desired radius using the fillet tool on the modify tab

       Saved                                                                                     10pts
       Part is saved to h;/drive with the file name yourlastname_dragster.ipt.
                                                                                 Total Points    100pts

       As Dick, Carey, and Carey define “Intellectual skills are those that require the learner to do some unique
       cognitive activity- unique in the sense that the learner must be able to solve a problem or perform an
       activity with previously unencumbered information or examples.” My goal requires problem solving, a
       higher-order rule part of the intellectual skill domain. My goal is a well-structured intellectual skill whereas
       the learner will be required to follow rules, apply a number of concepts, and solve problems in performing
       the goal. The learner will be given design requirements and constraints in which they have to follow 100%
       in order to race their cars. Additionally, student will be using Motor skills when they physically use a
       computer to draw their designs.

                                Goal Statement
                     Given a list of design requirements,
                Technology Education students at Blacksburg
                 Middle School will use Autodesk Inventor to
                 design a three dimensional solid model of a
                CO2 dragster car that meets 100% of the design

`                                                        4                                                                        9
                                                     Redesign to                                                              Redesign to
                                                        meet                                                                     meet
                                                     constraints                                                              constraints

                                                       No                                                                       No

                    1                2                  3                         5                6               7               8
                  Open           Draw 2D          Meets design Yes             Extrude        Create new       Draw 2D       Meets design Yes
                Inventor         sketch of       requirements?                 the top        sketch on        sketch of    requirements?
                Software         top view                                       view           YZ plane        CO2 hole

                                                                      Redesign to

                  10                 11               12                    13                     15            Shell         17
                Extrude          Create new          Draw              Meets design Yes         Extrude         bottom        New
                CO2 hole         sketch on           side             requirements?          side view to        (shell     sketch on
                                  XZ plane           view                                      intersect       cars only)   XY plane

                                   Redesign to


                  18                   19                      21             22             23
                Sketch            Meets design Yes          Extrude         Round           Save
                 axle            requirements?                axle          edges           work
                holes                                        holes

       1.7                   1.6                   1.5                    1.4                 1.3                1.2             1.1
    Complete             Learn forces         Understand              Understand          Complete 9         Hand draw      Memorize all
     Intro to             applied to          orthographic             isometric          thumbnail          dragster w/       design
    Inventor             dragster car          projection                views             sketches         orthographic    requirements
     Tutorial                                                                                                projection

       The learners are various 6 grade middle school students from the town of Blacksburg ranging from 11 –
       13 years old. These students with various abilities and interests are placed in Technology Education for 9
       weeks as part of an Introduction to Technology Education elective class. This full inclusion classroom is
       comprised of male and female students with various socio-economic backgrounds. Learners are 83%
       White, 7% Asian, 7% Black, and 2% Hispanic. I usually have at least one ESL (English as a second
       language) student per class. Technology Education is an elective class without state tested standards of
       learning, thus; the majority of students are average to below average learners, with approximately half the
       class identified as having special needs or behavioral issues.

       These students will need certain entry behaviors to achieve success for this instructional goal. These
       behaviors include the ability to read, ability to follow directions, ability to perform basic hands on skills,
       exhibit good listening skills, ability to work with other peers, and the ability to perform basic drawing

       Learners have a positive attitude towards exploring a new type of transportation technology. They will be
       excited to design and construct their very own unique model of a dragster design. Typically learners will
       want to jump to the construction stage without putting the necessary thought into the design. Dragster
       cars is a topic that learners are very interested in and motivated to learn about. Students are fascinated
       with the dragster races, especially once they see example videos of other students racing their cars.
       Students will find it very satisfying when they successfully complete the goal.

       Students with the necessary entry skills for this lesson should feel very confident that they could perform
       this goal. This class will encompass a full spectrum of learners in which the majority of learners will have
       the ability level to achieve the desired learning outcomes. The target population will have various learning
       styles with a willingness to explore new modes of learning. These learners are used to a lecture type of
       class and do not have a lot of experience with problem based learning. However, instruction will be
       designed to accommodate all styles of learners. Instruction will include visual aides, auditory, and
       tactile/kinesthetic segments to stimulate all learners. Students will have varying attitudes towards school,
       but the majority of students enjoy Technology Education and the hands on application of knowledge.
       Most students have success in my classroom, even those who sometimes do not succeed in other areas.
       Because they tend to enjoy the activities and have a lot of excitement, enthusiasm, and success, learners
       will gain a more positive attitude regarding the school. My enthusiasm as a technology education teacher
       and high expectations for all learners tends to positively affect the class.

       The group analysis regarding the learner characteristics was obtained through observation of learners in
       the performance and instructional contexts, through school records and data, and through on site
       discussions and interactions with the learners. Being a schoolteacher, I an immersed in the learners’
       environment on a day-to-day basis and have the opportunity to get to know the students.

       After designing their 3D model dragsters on the computer, students take their designs and turn them into
       reality. The next step of this unit is creating the dragster by hand in the Technology Education lab using
       various traditional woodworking tools. They must first pass two different safety tests with 100% accuracy
       before advancing. Learners can expect to receive support from their teacher (SMEs) and peers during
       this process. Our classroom will be open minded and accepting of others ideas and designs. Students will
       be exposed to real world applications of various dragster cars around the world. However, if learners use
       this knowledge in the real world, I would expect for them to rely on independent research and other
       company employees for organizational support. As a fifth year schoolteacher, I have not observed the
       learners in real world settings. It may be many years before these 6 graders enter the real world.
       However, I believe the learner will be able apply the skill of problem solving in many real world settings.
       Problem solving has been defined in many ways. One simple yet meaningful definition describes a
       problem as a need which must be met need could include, among other things, the need to understand
       the forces of nature (science), to alter the environment (technology), or to use scientific knowledge to alter
       the environment (engineering). When the students actually construct the dragster there will be numerous
       physical constrains, such as access to the track, monetary expenses, environmental limitations, etc.
       The use of their new skills will depend on the area they would work in. If they were an engineer/designer
       for a dragster car team, they would most likely be using various technologies such as technical drawing
       software such as Inventor. Their new skills would greatly be effected by which part of the country they
       were working in since dragster vehicles are currently being designed and constructed all over the world.
       The learner could be working independently or in a team if they were actually designing a dragster car in
       the real world. However, they would need to come up with individual ideas and work well with others to
       have success. As a schoolteacher, I have not visited the site to observe someone who may design
       dragsters, but I do have an in depth video showing behind the scenes with Michael Andredi. Therefore,
       this information regarding the performance context is theoretical based on my experience and expectation
       of the application of this skill.


       Instruction will occur in the Technology Education classroom at Blacksburg Middle School. The facility
       includes a room with six worktables for projects and instruction, and then 14 computer stations. A
       company called DEPCO designed these computer stations for a modular learning environment. Our
       facility also includes a wood shop and finishing room that are connected to our main room that include
       various power tools such as a bandsaw, drill press, table saw, etc. The classroom is also equipped with a
       teacher station, large wipe off board, and TV with Avery key (will display teacher’s computer on TV).
              The site includes tools and other items that are necessary for the learning of the goal. Specifically for
              designing a computer aided dragster car, the students will be allowed to use the computers with no more
              than two students at a station. The workshop will be off limits during this activity. During instruction, the
              wipe off board and teacher computer/TV will be used for visuals. For this activity, the learners will have
              access to the following equipment: computer, workbook, individual notebook, paper, and pencil.

              The learning environment does not adequately simulate the eventual work environment. My classroom is
              designed around the DEPCO modular computer stations and there is no way to change the layout or
              design of the room unless the entire room was cleared and rewired/networked. Also, my classroom is
              designed and decorated in an exiting colorful way to stimulate middle school students and keep their
              attention. The eventual work environment varies from student to student, so this aspect was not
              considered in the design.

              The information regarding the learning context was obtained from my observation while teaching in the
              learning environment over the past year.


  Skill          Performance Objective              Assessment Item(s)
          T      Given a list of design
                 requirements, Technology
                                                                                         Some            Majority of
                 Education students at
                 Blacksburg Middle School will                                         sketches        parts sketched           All parts
                 use Autodesk Inventor to design
                                                                                        drawn &        2D & extruded       sketched 2D &
                 a three dimensional solid model
                 of a CO2 dragster car that meets                                       extruded        3D , meets          extruded 3D ,
                 100% of the design
                                                                       No design      meets some           most                 meets all
                                                                            drawn     requirements     requirements         requirements

                                                                             0             1                   2                  3

          1      Using the computer, open                                                            Yes (1)           No (0)
                 Autodesk Inventor and start
                 a new English.ipt part file.        Start new .itp file?

          2      Using the draw tools, create                                                        Yes (1)           No (0)
                 a 2D sketch of top view of
                 your dragster car that meets        Top view drawn to scale?
                 all design requirements.
          3      Using the one previously                                                            Yes (1)           No (0)
                 selected top view, be able
                 to determine if design              Length: 8-12 inches?
                 meets all of the
                 specifications of the given         Width at front axle: 1 – 1.5”?
                 problem.                            Width at back axle: 1.25 – 1.5”?
                                                     Width all other: .5”?
4    If design does not meet the                                           Yes (1)   No (0)
     specifications, be able to
     redesign to meet all           Length: 8-12 inches?
                                    Width at front axle: 1 – 1.5”?
                                    Width at back axle: 1.25 – 1.5”?
                                    Width all other: .5”?

5    Use the extrude profile                                               Yes (1)   No (0)
     command and create a
     solid model from the top       Extruded 2.5” solid model?
     view 2.5” in height.
6    Create a new sketch on YZ                                             Yes (1)   No (0)
     plane of part design.
                                    Is a new sketch created on YZ plane?

7    Using the draw tools, create                                          Yes (1)   No (0)
     a 2D sketch of your CO2
     hole on the YZ plane of        2D sketch of CO2 hole on the YZ
     dragster car that meets all
                                    plane drawn?
     design requirements.
8    Using the previously drawn                                            Yes (1)   No (0)
     CO2 hole, be able to
     determine if design meets      Diameter: .75”
     all of the specifications of
     the given problem.             Distance from top: 1”
                                    Centered horizontally

9    If design does not meet the                                           Yes (1)   No (0)
     specifications, be able to
     redesign to meet all           Diameter: .75”
                                    Distance from top: 1”
                                    Centered horizontally

10   Use the extrude command                                               Yes (1)   No (0)
     to cut the CO2 hole a
     distance of 2” into the 3D     Is CO2 hole cut 2.0” into solid?
11   Create a new sketch on XZ                                             Yes (1)   No (0)
     plane of design.
                                    Is a new sketch created on XZ plane?

12   Using the draw tools, create                                          Yes (1)   No (0)
     a 2D sketch of your side
     view on the XZ plane of        2D sketch of side on the XZ plane
     dragster car that meets all
     design requirements.
13   Using the previously drawn                                                    Yes (1)       No (0)
     side view, be able to
     determine if design meets        Length: same as top view
     all of the specifications of
     the given problem.               Minimum thickness: .5”
                                      Distance around CO2 hole: min 1/8”
                                      Height: 1.5-2.5”

14   If design does not meet the                                                   Yes (1)       No (0)
     specifications, be able to
     redesign to meet all             Length: same as top view
                                      Minimum thickness: .5”
                                      Distance around CO2 hole: min 1/8”
                                      Height: 1.5-2.5”

15   Use the extrude command                                                           Yes (1)      No (0)
     to intersect the side view a
     distance “all”                   Side view extruded intersecting model

16   Using the shell command,                                                          Yes (1)      No (0)
     select the bottom plane and
     shell to inner distance of .2”   Inner shell applied to bottom plane of .2”
     (for shell car designs only).
17   Create a new sketch on XY                                                         Yes (1)      No (0)
     plane of the design.
                                      New sketch created on XY plane

18   Using the draw tool, sketch                                                       Yes (1)      No (0)
     two identical axle holes on
     the XY plane of the design       Two axle holes drawn
     that meets all requirements.
19   Decide if design meet                                                             Yes (1)      No (0)
     design requirements
                                      Two identical axle holes drawn
                                      Diameter .2”
                                      Distance from the bottom of car: 1/8” –
                                      Distance from the ends: ½” – 4”

20   If design does not meet the                                                       Yes (1)      No (0)
     specifications, be able to
     redesign to meet all             Two identical axle holes drawn
                                      Diameter .2”
                                      Distance from the bottom of car: 1/8” –
                                      Distance from the ends: ½” – 4”

21   Save design to h:/drive                                                           Yes (1)      No (0)
     using the file name
     “yourlastname_dragster.ipt”      Design saved with proper file name
1. Sequence and Clustering of Objectives

CLUSTER          OBJECTIVES                                                TIME
1                Prerequisite Skills                                       Taught in Prior
                 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7                         lessons, will
                                                                           review first
                                                                                                 Day 1: 1 full
2                Starting a new design                                     2 minutes
                                                                                                 class period
3                Top View                                                  30 minutes
                 2, 3, 4, 5
4                CO2 Hole                                                  15 minutes
                 6, 7, 8, 9, 10                                                                  Day 2: 1 full
5                Side View                                                 25 minutes            class period
                 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
6                Shell Solid                                               10 minutes
7                Axle Holes                                                20 minutes            Day 3: 1 full
                 17, 18, 19, 20, 21                                                              class period
8                Round Edges                                               10 minutes
                 22, 23

2. Pre-Instructional, Assessment, and Follow-Through Activities

                                 th       th
The dragster unit is one of the 7 and 8 graders favorite projects, so they are very motivated during this
unit. They are especially excited for the opportunity to go into the lab and make an actual dragster. This
motivates them to get through the engineering design aspect of the project. However, sometimes
students want to jump right into constructing their project without adequately designing it. By showing
them previous projects and videos of their peers working on the same activity (and testing the Maglev
vehicle) will show them that the activity is manageable and interesting, while giving them the motivation to
thoroughly go through the design process of this activity. They will gain confidence just knowing their
classmates performed this activity. It is very satisfying when they finish their project and it works great,
which usually 95% of students will be able to make a vehicle that will finish the race.

The learner will know what is expected from them after going over the terminal objective and through the
specifications and requirements. They will know exactly what I expect from them, as everything will be
listed on a “Design Requirement” handout. We will also be reviewing a few entry behaviors to make sure
everyone is one the same page. This activity will simulate a real world authentic activity that comes as
close to a real world scenario as possible.
Student Groupings and Media Selection:
Students have the opportunity to work individually or with a partner for this activity. I will have various
media selections to grab the students’ attention and to help clarify the expectations. I will screen shots of
final dragster designed in Inventor, and show how this design and the final design match up by show
video of their peer testing their dragsters.

I will not have a formal pretest, but I will review the entry behaviors and discuss prior knowledge of the
Practice Tests:
There will not be a practice test, but students will complete basic Inventor tutorials before designing their
This is a project-based portfolio, so their final design will be included in a portfolio to be graded.
Student Groupings and Media Selection:
Students will be working 1-2 per group, however; every student will be responsible for his/her own
Memory Aids:
A design requirement worksheet will be handed out to every student so they can reference back to the
design constraints. Also, the design tutorial will be available on every computer.
Students will transfer their knowledge about Inventor that they learned from completing the Intro to
Inventor tutorials to this dragster design.
Student Groupings and Media Selection:
Students will be working 1-2 per group, however; every student will be responsible for his/her own


        Existing materials are available that will match up with my instructional strategy. I have developed a lot of
        the instructional materials myself when previously performing this activity and continue to make changes
        to them as needed. The materials that will be used during the design and construction of the dragster are
        located in the classroom for easy access. My classroom is equipped with a TV that hooks up to an Avery
        Key to display my teacher monitor, or a projector on a cart with a screen mounted on the wall. Also, I
        have a large wipe off board in the front of the room.

        For my instructional strategy, I focused on the computer aided design aspect of the dragster car.
        However, there are numerous other parts to this unit like research, thumbnail sketching, construction, and
        testing the dragster. Thus, I have developed various instructional materials for this unit. For example, I
        have PowerPoint presentations, a dragster website with all the information needed, handouts, and lesson
        plans. I have used the following materials to develop these materials:

                 1. Computer software: Macromedia Dreamweaver, Macromedia Flash, Microsoft Word,
                     Microsoft PowerPoint, NetOP Management System

                 2. Technology Education Lab (to develop prototypes and models)

                 3. Resources: Internet, books, videos, other teachers

        My role in the development of the instruction, as a public education teacher, is the developer and
        instructor of the material. Luckily, I do have lots of resources (other TechEd teachers around the country)
        that I can contact when developing my instruction. I teach at Blacksburg Middle School and regularly
        keep in touch with my Technology Education professors from my undergraduate education at Virginia
        Tech. Also, the Technology Education teacher at Christiansburg Middle School is a wonderful resource
        because she has been teaching for a very long time and she is very close in proximity. I am also involved
        in numerous organizations (like International Technology Education Association and Technology Student
        Association) that give me access to wonderful resources and intelligent people. I go to conferences
        annually to keep these connections and continue learning about updated materials.

        As a public education teacher, I will be the delivering the instruction. However, I do share my materials
        with my fellow Technology education teachers who often use my materials as part of their curriculum. I
        find my role as an educator more of a facilitator of knowledge where the students explore and learn with
        my guidance. I stay active in any activity that we are working on- but I rarely am in front of the class
        “lecturing.” My classes are hands on with a lot of projects and career exploration (I have DEPCO modules
        where the students will learn through self guided tutorials and activities independent of an instructor.) It all
depends on the activity we are working on and the group of students that I have. I am always changing
things up to accommodate all of my learners and stay involved and up-to-date.

I have taught the dragster design for the last four yeats, and try to make the unit better every time I teach.
Learning Inventor for this Instructional Design made my unit correspond with the high school.


Education program at Blacksburg Middle School.

 Criteria of Merit Evaluation results from an expert review in the Technology Education Field

A Technology Education teacher with experience in using the software Inventor will evaluate the project
using a Criteria of Merit (COM) checklist checklist that I develop. The criteria of merit will include the
following information:

1. Appearance                                              Yes     No     Comments
Overall appearance is well designed
Screens are easy to read
Graphics are well designed and rendered to enhance
Background and text are pleasing, compatible and
easy to read
Graphics are consistent, appropriate and
designed to optimize learning
Colors are used in an effective way
Multimedia appears to be directly related to
stated purpose and learning goals
2. Functionality                                           Yes     No     Comments
Tutorials loaded properly
All links worked properly
Navigated through the tutorials with ease
Instructions simple to follow
Navigation worked properly- back forward & home
3. Content                                                 Yes     No     Comments
Presented in a logical sequence
Appropriate for target audience
Graphics appropriate for the content
Objectives clearly stated
Presents accurate information
Steps are easy to follow
All information relates to the stated purpose and
learning goals
Aligned with Virginia CTE Competencies
Effective in meeting stated objectives
4. Usability                                               Yes     No     Comments
Instructions are clear and easy to follow
Tutorial is correct size so that it will fit on computer
screen to view as you work in Inventor
Self paced guide
Presents information in an organized manner
Being that the project will be competed in the middle of summer, I will rely on at least one of the following
teachers for this evaluation:

       Jim Irby, the Blacksburg High School Technology Teacher
       Charles Dela Cuesta, Fairfax Technology Education Teacher
       Cary Dunn, Christiansburg High School Technology Education Teacher
       Chris Morris, James Madison Middle School Technology Education Teacher

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