Microsoft SQL Server by rockstarhigh

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       Microsoft SQL Server
       Overview
       Microsoft’s SQL Server is one of the leading databases and represents 30% of the
       total database market. It is becoming very popular as a database for mission critical
       applications and is aggressively marketed by Microsoft as the preferred database for
       their enterprise software architecture.

       Architecture
       A typical Microsoft architecture includes a presentation layer (Web Server), logic
       layer (COM+ Application Server) and a database layer (SQL Server).


                                                                                  SQL Server
                                                             COM +
                                                             Application Server
                                           Web
                                           Server

        Web
        Clients




       Application Performance Management

       Managing performance of enterprise applications is a key factor in achieving
       productivity and satisfaction of end users and customers. The database has a major
       influence on the overall performance of the application and should therefore be tuned
       to deliver the business requirements.
       VERITAS i3™ for SQL Server guarantees the performance of SQL Server based
       applications. Co-developed with Microsoft, VERITAS i3™ for SQL Server gives
       businesses the Application Performance Management they need by proactively
       monitoring, analyzing, and tuning SQL Server databases.




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       MS architecture and buzzwords         Eedo Lifshitz                                     1
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       Glossary
                            Microsoft® .NET is a set of Microsoft software technologies for connecting
       .NET                 information, people, systems, and devices. It enables a high level of software
                            integration through the use of XML Web services—small, discrete, building-block
                            applications that connect to each other as well as to other, larger applications
                            over the Internet.

                            The .NET Enterprise Server family, Windows 2000 Server Family, accelerates
                            the integration of systems, applications, and partners using XML Web services
                            through the servers' deep level support of XML.



                            An ActiveX control is a component program object that can be re-used by
       ActiveX control      many application programs within a computer or among computers in a network.
                            The technology for creating ActiveX controls is part of Microsoft's overall
                            ActiveX set of technologies, chief of which is the Component Object
                            Model (COM).

                            ASP.NET (originally called ASP+) is the next generation of Microsoft's Active
       ASP.NET
                            Server Page (ASP), a feature of their Internet Information Server (IIS). Both
                            ASP and ASP.NET allow a Web site builder to dynamically build Web pages on
                            the fly by inserting queries to a relational database in the Web page.

                            C is a structured, procedural programming language that has been widely used
       C                    both for operating systems and applications and that has had a wide following in
                            the academic community

                            C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is viewed by many
       C++                  as the best language for creating large-scale applications. C++ is a superset of
                            the C language.

                            C# (pronounced "C-sharp") is a new object-oriented     programming
       C#
                            language from Microsoft, which aims to combine the computing power of C++
                            with the programming ease of Visual    Basic. C# is based on C++ and contains
                            features similar to those of Java.

                            Common Language Runtime. The CLR is a set of standard resources that
       CLR                  (in theory) any .NET program can take advantage of, regardless of
                            programming language.

                            Component Object Model (COM) is Microsoft's framework for developing and
       COM                  supporting program component objects. Whereas Microsoft's Object
                            Linking and Embedding provides services for the compound document
                            that users see on their display, COM provides the underlying services of
                            interface negotiation, life cycle management (determining when an object can be
                            removed from a system), licensing, and event services (putting one object into
                            service as the result of an event that has happened to another object).

                            COM+ is an extension of Component Object Model (COM), Microsoft's
       COM+                 strategic building block approach for developing application programs. COM+ is
                            both an object-oriented programming architecture and a set of operating
                            system services. It adds to COM a new set of system services for application
                            components while they are running, such as notifying them of significant events
                            or ensuring they are authorized to run. COM+ is intended to provide a model that
                            makes it relatively easy to create business applications that work well with the
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       MS architecture and buzzwords              Eedo Lifshitz                                             2
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                            Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS) in a Windows NT or subsequent
                            system. It is viewed as Microsoft's answer to the Sun Microsystems-IBM-Oracle
                            approach known as Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB).

                            DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model) is a set of Microsoft concepts and
       DCOM                 program interfaces in which client program objects can request services from
                            server program objects on other computers in a network. DCOM is based on
                            the Component Object Model (COM), which provides a set of interfaces
                            allowing clients and servers to communicate within the same computer (that is
                            running Windows 95 or a later version).

                            In computers, a dynamic link library (DLL) is a collection of small programs, any
       DLL                  of which can be called when needed by a larger program that is running in the
                            computer. The small program that lets the larger program communicate with a
                            specific device such as a printer or scanner is often packaged as a DLL program
                            (usually referred to as a DLL file). DLL files that support specific device operation
                            are known as device drivers.

                            A piece of code that operates as a single logical unit. A function is called
       Function             by name, accepts optional input parameters, and returns a status and
                            optional output parameters. Many programming languages support
                            functions, including C, Visual Basic, and Transact-SQL. Transact-SQL
                            supplies built-in functions, which cannot be modified, and supports user-
                            defined functions, which can be created and modified by users.

                            As a verb, to combine the contents of two or more tables and produce a result
       Join                 set that incorporates rows and columns from each table. Tables are typically
                            joined using data that they have in common. As a noun, the process or result of
                            joining tables, as in the term "inner join" to indicate a particular method of joining
                            tables.

                            Intermediate Language. Also known as MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate
       IL                   Language) or CIL (Common Intermediate Language). All .NET source code
                            (of any language) is compiled to IL. The IL is then converted to machine
                            code at the point where the software is installed, or at run-time by a Just-In-
                            Time (JIT) compiler.

                            IIS (Internet Information Server) is a group of Internet servers (including a Web
       IIS
                                      Transfer Protocol server and a File Transfer Protocol
                            or Hypertext
                                                                                   NT and
                            server) with additional capabilities for Microsoft's Windows
                            Windows 2000 Server operating systems. With IIS, Microsoft includes a set
                            of programs for building and administering Web sites, a search engine, and
                            support for writing Web-based applications that access databases.

                            A restriction on access to a resource in a multiuser environment. SQL Server
       Lock                 locks users out of a specific row, column, or file automatically to maintain
                            security or prevent concurrent data modification problems.

                            A function that performs an action by using a COM object, as in SQL-DMO,
       Method               OLE DB, and ActiveX Data Objects (ADO).

                            The Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS), called "Viper" while it was being
       MTS                  developed, is a program that runs on an Internet or other network server
                            with a Windows NT system and manages application and database
                            transaction requests on behalf of a client computer user. The Transaction
                            Server screens the user and client computer from having to formulate
                            requests for unfamiliar databases and, if necessary, forwards the requests
                            to database servers. It also manages security, connection to other servers,

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                            and transaction integrity.



                            In databases, one of the components of a database: a table, index, trigger, view,
       Object               key, constraint, default, rule, user-defined data type, or stored procedure.


                            A revolutionary concept that changed the rules in computer program
       Object-oriented      development, object-oriented programming (OOP) is organized around "objects"
       programming          rather than "actions," data rather than logic. Historically, a program has been
                            viewed as a logical procedure that takes input data, processes it, and produces
                            output data. The programming challenge was seen as how to write the logic, not
                            how to define the data. Object-oriented programming takes the view that what
                            we really care about are the objects we want to manipulate rather than the logic
                            required to manipulate them. Examples of objects range from human beings
                            (described by name, address, and so forth) to buildings and floors (whose
                            properties can be described and managed) down to the little widgets on your
                            computer desktop (such as buttons and scroll bars).

                            A data access application programming interface (API) that supports access to
       ODBC                 any data source for which an ODBC driver is available. ODBC is aligned with the
                            American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Organization for
                            Standardization (ISO) standards for a database Call Level Interface (CLI).


                            A dynamic-link library (DLL) that an ODBC-enabled application, such as Excel,
       ODBC driver          can use to access an ODBC data source. Each ODBC driver is specific to a
                            database management system (DBMS), such as SQL Server, Access, and so
                            on.



                            OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) is Microsoft's framework for a compound
       OLE
                            document technology. Briefly, a compound document is something like a
                            display desktop that can contain visual and information objects of all kinds: text,
                            calendars, animations, sound, motion video, 3-D, continually updated news,
                            controls, and so forth. Each desktop object is an independent program entity that
                            can interact with a user and also communicate with other objects on the desktop.
                            Part of Microsoft's ActiveX technologies, OLE takes advantage and is part of a
                            larger, more general concept, the Component       Object Model (COM) and its
                            distributed version, DCOM. An OLE object is necessarily also a component
                            (or COM object).

                            A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide rapid access
       OLAP                 to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is commonly stored in data
                            warehouses in a relational database.



                            A data processing system designed to record all of the business
       OLTP                 transactions of an organization as they occur. An OLTP system is
                            characterized by many concurrent users actively adding and modifying
                            data.



                            The SQL Server database engine component responsible for generating
       Query                efficient execution plans for SQL statements.
       optimizer


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       MS architecture and buzzwords              Eedo Lifshitz                                              4
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                            A system that organizes data into related rows and columns. SQL Server is
       RDBMS                a relational database management system (RDBMS).



                            A group of related fields (columns) of information treated as a unit. A
       Record               record is more commonly called a row in an SQL database.



                            The Transact-SQL statement used to return data to an application or
       Select               another Transact-SQL statement, or to populate a cursor. The SELECT
                            statement returns a tabular result set consisting of data that is typically
                            extracted from one or more tables. The result set contains only data from
                            rows that match the search conditions specified in WHERE or HAVING
                            clauses.



                            A language used to insert, retrieve, modify, and delete data in a relational
       SQL                  database. SQL also contains statements for defining and administering the
                            objects in a database. SQL is the language supported by most relational
                            databases, and is the subject of standards published by the International
                            Standards Organization (ISO) and the American National Standards
                            Institute (ANSI). SQL Server 2000 uses a version of the SQL language
                            called Transact-SQL.



                            A two-dimensional object, consisting of rows and columns, used to store data in
       Table                a relational database. Each table stores information about one of the types of
                            objects modeled by the database. For example, an education database would
                            have one table for teachers, a second for students, and a third for classes.


                            Web services (sometimes called application services) are services (usually
       Web Services         including some combination of programming and data, but possibly including
                            human resources as well) that are made available from a business's Web server
                            for Web users or other Web-connected programs. Providers of Web services are
                            generally known as application service providers. Web services range from
                            such major services as storage management and customer relationship
                            management (CRM) down to much more limited services such as the furnishing
                            of a stock quote and the checking of bids for an auction item. The accelerating
                            creation and availability of these services is a major Web trend.



                            XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a flexible way to create common
       XML                  information formats and share both the format and the data on the World
                            Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere. For example, computer makers might
                            agree on a standard or common way to describe the information about a
                            computer product (processor speed, memory size, and so forth) and then
                            describe the product information format with XML. Such a standard way of
                            describing data would enable a user to send an intelligent agent (a program) to
                            each computer maker's Web site, gather data, and then make a valid
                            comparison. XML can be used by any individual or group of individuals or
                            companies that want to share information in a consistent way.




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       MS architecture and buzzwords              Eedo Lifshitz                                               5

								
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