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					Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                                            1
H-1B Visas CP


H-1B VISAS CP SHELL 1 / 2........................................................................................................ 2
H-1B VISAS CP SHELL 2 / 2........................................................................................................ 3

SOLVENCY ................................................................................................................................... 4
SOLVENCY ................................................................................................................................... 5
H-1B VISAS KEY 1 / 3 .................................................................................................................. 6
H-1B VISAS KEY 2 / 3 .................................................................................................................. 7
H-1B VISAS KEY 3 / 3 .................................................................................................................. 8
SEMICONDUCTORS KEY TO SPACE ....................................................................................... 9

CHINA MIL MOD ADD-ON 1 / 2 .............................................................................................. 10
CHINA MIL MOD ADD-ON 2 / 2 .............................................................................................. 11
LIEBERMAN ADD-ON TOP LEVEL INTERNAL ................................................................... 12
LIEBERMAN ADD-ON – UAV POD ......................................................................................... 13
LIEBERMAN ADD-ON – CRUISE MISSILES POD ................................................................ 14

AFF: NANOTECH BAD POD 1 / 2............................................................................................. 15
AFF: NANOTECH BAD POD 2 / 2............................................................................................. 16
AFF: A2: CHINA ARGS .............................................................................................................. 17
AFF: A2: COMPETITION ARGS (ALSO ANS. CHINA) ......................................................... 18
AFF: A2: HEGE ARGS ................................................................................................................ 19
AFF: A2: ECON ARGS................................................................................................................ 20
AFF: A2: ALT NRG ARGS ......................................................................................................... 21
AFF: A2: LIEBERMAN ‗03 ........................................................................................................ 22
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                 2
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                                          H-1B VISAS CP SHELL 1 / 2


Business Wire (staff) 10/3/2000
[―H-1B Passage in Senate A Win for Semiconductor Industry; Industry Urges House to Pass Legislation and Send to
White House for Signature.‖ online @ http://www.thefreelibrary.com/H-
1B+Passage+in+Senate+A+Win+for+Semiconductor+Industry;+Industry...-a065715597, loghry]

The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) was pleased to see today that the U.S. Senate overwhelmingly
passed legislation that would expand the number of H-1B visas for highly skilled workers to 195,000 each year for
the next three years. The SIA urges the U.S. House of Representatives to move quickly to approve this legislation
and send the bill to President Clinton for his signature. "The passage of this H1B legislation has been a top
priority for the semiconductor industry this year and we are pleased to see it receive strong bipartisan support in
the Senate," stated George Scalise, president of the SIA. "The bill passed today will give U.S. chip companies the
ability to hire the highly skilled workers they need to maintain competitiveness, while granting significant
protections to American workers." The H-1B visa allows employers to hire highly trained foreign nationals for
up to six years -- a majority of H-1B workers hired by the semiconductor industry have either Masters or
PhDs in scientific fields related to chip design or manufacturing. Under current law, a cap of 115,000 visas
granted each year will go down to 107,500 next year and to 65,000 in 2002 unless Congress enacts new legislation.
Semiconductor manufacturers and other high tech companies have been strong advocates for raising the visa limits
and improving the green card process of hiring foreign nationals.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                      3
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                                           H-1B VISAS CP SHELL 2 / 2

SECOND, Semiconductors key to space colonization
Gene Kranz (former NASA flight director, who worked on the Apollo, Gemini and Skylab programs, and a former
director of mission operations at Johnson Space Center) 5/14/2008
[―Silicon Valley, the moon and Mars‖ lexis, loghry]

NASA hosts a forum today in San Jose to preview its ambition to return America to the moon and propel us to Mars
and beyond. The setting is ideal - in the heart of Silicon Valley. Much of the innovation and creativity in the
nation's space program over the past 50 years can be tied directly to Silicon Valley, a model for technical
progress and economic growth. There's a tradition of space research leading to advances in commercial
technology, and of commercial technology benefiting space research. This reciprocal relationship is as strong
as ever today, bolstering this nation's position as a powerhouse of innovation. Leading-edge research The
collaboration is evident at NASA/Ames Research Center in Mountain View. Ames is carrying out leading-edge
research in high-performance computing, networking, advanced number-crunching software, visual displays, 3-D
graphics and artificial intelligence. Work is also under way on tele-operations - linking the human touch to the work
of a robot far off Earth - as well as telepresence that allows a person to feel as if he or she is actually present in a
different place or time. Projects like these have the potential to create "disruptive technologies" benefiting
humankind. The efforts support NASA's aeronautical and space agenda, but they also have the potential to be spun
off into commercial technologies. Ames also runs a cooperative laboratory, dubbed CoLab, in which partnerships
between space agency projects and tech-savvy communities are fostered. In collaboration with Bay Area
entrepreneurs, CoLab is developing open-source software, permitting teams of NASA and non-NASA participants
to brainstorm and execute new initiatives in what's being called "participational space exploration." For example, the
social networking site and virtual community Second Life has been used to engage the public in space exploration.
In yet another collaboration, Ames and Google have signed a Space Act Agreement to work together on a variety of
challenging technical problems ranging from large-scale data management and massively distributed computing to
human-computer interfaces. Ames is located amid the high-tech companies, universities and laboratories that define
Silicon Valley. It's natural that Silicon Valley would be at the forefront of blending space exploration with
cutting-edge information technology work. Space meets cyberspace. There's been a long and rich history of
space research leading to advances in commercial technology, with much of the spinoff benefits evident in the
valley. Reaching for the moon in the 1960s was not only a challenge for NASA, but also for early
semiconductor companies. Integrated circuitry had to be "space-qualified." That standard called for
extremely high-quality electronics, packing more power than ever before while being packaged in ultra-small
formats. As companies perfected production techniques, prices for integrated circuits dropped. Apollo's
legacy The Apollo program helped spur developments from cordless tools and hospital monitoring equipment to
water purification technologies. Even the Apollo flight simulator - which used a fraction of the computing power of
today's Microsoft Xbox or Nintendo game systems - can be linked to the popularization of video games, now a
multibillion-dollar industry. NASA marks its 50th anniversary this year. It's a good time to reflect on the trailblazing
space research that both drew from and helped stimulate this country's technological aptitude. Bringing space down
to Earth, for the benefit of our economy, productivity and knowledge, can boost U.S. leadership in an increasingly
competitive world.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                     4
H-1B Visas CP


Dewey & LeBoeuf (Semiconductor Industry Association) March 2009
http://www.choosetocompete.org/downloads/Competitiveness_White_Paper.pdf, loghry]

U.S. semiconductor producers continue to dominate world semiconductor sales, holding a market share of 48
percent in 2008, and are the undisputed technological leaders. Most of their worldwide installed manufacturing and
R&D capability is located in the United States. However, U.S. semiconductor industry investment in
manufacturing and R&D inside vs. outside the United States has declined during the past decade. These
trends are forecast to continue over the next five years, given current government policies and economics.
Perhaps the most significant development is that competitive pressures have led U.S. companies to establish an
increasing proportion of their advanced wafer fabrication facilities (―fabs‖) outside the United States or to rely
on foreign foundry facilities rather than invest in new fabs in the United States. Because manufacturing process-
related R&D must be conducted in a manufacturing environment, those research activities migrate to the countries in
which the new fabs are located. Semiconductor product design-related research and development, on the other hand,
is not linked to manufacturing sites. Yet a growing percentage of the U.S. industry‘s design-related R&D is also
being located in other countries, reflecting a variety of factors, which include cost, availability of human
resources and government policy. The location of state-of-the-art wafer fabrication facilities is increasingly a
function of the incentives packages put together by governments to attract semiconductor investment based on a
recognition of the economic stimuli those investments foster. A state-of-theart fabrication plant now costs $3 billion
or more, but incentives (usually consisting of a mix of tax breaks and grants) commonly defray over $1 billion of the
plant‘s cost over a ten year period. As a practical matter, any U.S. semiconductor management answerable to its
shareholders must establish a new fab in a location that offers this type of incentive package or risk becoming less
competitive vis-à-vis a competitor who receives such incentives. In other words, government incentives play a
decisive role in determining the geographic location of advanced wafer fabrication facilities, and thus indirectly
determine the location of the process R&D associated with that facility. Design R&D (related to the design of
semiconductor devices rather than the processes for manufacturing chips) requires the availability of highly
educated, skilled scientists and engineers, which in turn depends on the existence of strong research universities. The
United States is generally acknowledged to have the world‘s best system of research universities in the physical
sciences and electrical engineering disciplines that are relevant to the semiconductor industry. However, today over
50 percent of students graduating from U.S. universities with master‘s degrees and over 70 percent of those
graduating with PhD degrees in science and engineering fields applicable to the semiconductor industry are
foreign nationals. U.S. immigration policy – in particular, quotas that have not been updated since 1990
which result in long waits for permanent residence status (i.e., green cards) – deters many of these talented
scientists and engineers from remaining in the United States after graduation. In order to fully benefit from
this talent pool, U.S. semiconductor firms have established research centers outside the United States where
foreign nationals can be employed in a manner that is not subject to U.S. immigration restrictions. Foreign
governments have encouraged this trend by providing incentives to U.S. firms to conduct R&D locally, by
strengthening their university infrastructure, and by establishing semiconductor-specific manpower promotion
programs. The decline in the share of R&D spending in the United States from 86.2 percent to 77.8 percent over the
last decade has benefited Europe and the ROW (India, Israel, Singapore, Malaysia, etc.), rather than toward Korea,
Taiwan and China, where chip manufacturing is increasing most rapidly. This shift reflects the impact of foreign
governmental policies aimed at attracting high-skilled activity, as well as the low cost of conducting design R&D in
some jurisdictions. In addition, pockets of special skills or creative talent in areas such as modeling can best be
accessed by establishing a design center where the talent resides. The lack of adequate intellectual property
protection serves as a negative incentive with respect to conducting R&D in some countries, most notably in China
but also in Korea and Taiwan to some extent. However, a substantial proportion of the directional shift in U.S.
semiconductor R&D spending during the past decade can be attributed to the impact of government policies,
including foreign government incentives and U.S. immigration rules.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                             5
H-1B Visas CP


Dino Perrotti (American Engineering Careers) 9/25/2007
[―The H-1B Battle: The war within IEEE‖ online @
http://blogs.computerworld.com/the_h_1b_battle_the_war_within_ieee, loghry]

Some activists warned that IEEE was using the engineers as pawns to push legal immigration for engineers in
addition to guest worker programs. At the time, it was hard for most to believe that such a conspiracy existed.
Now, almost a year later it is revealed that the chief proponent of H-1B visas, the SIA (Semiconductor Industry
Association) has joined with IEEE-USA to support more green cards for foreign nationals with the caveat that
they are fast-tracked. In other words, any foregn national who has a job offer at the time of graduation, gets
an instant green card. American engineers feel betrayed. Is it possible that IEEE used these engineers as pawns
as part of a grander scheme? Suddenly this slow-track green card alternative to H-1B guest visas has turned
into an instant green card for every STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) graduate.
(IEEE = The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                   6
H-1B Visas CP

                                              H-1B VISAS KEY 1 / 3

Dewey & LeBoeuf (global law firm, more than 1,100 lawyers in 26 offices in 15 countries) 2009
[―MAINTAINING AMERICA‘S COMPETITIVE EDGE,‖ report prepared for the Semiconductor Industry
Association, online @ http://www.choosetocompete.org/downloads/Competitiveness_White_Paper.pdf, loghry]

Immigration policy. U.S. immigration policy has also played an important role in R&D locational decisions by
U.S. semiconductor firms. Increasingly, graduates from U.S. universities with master‘s and PhD degrees in science
and engineering relevant to the semiconductor industry are foreign born. Foreign nationals comprise half of the
master‘s degree candidates and 71 percent of the PhD candidates graduating from U.S. universities in the
engineering fields needed to design and manufacture integrated circuits and other semiconductor devices. 62
Indeed, most engineering PhD graduates from U.S. universities received their bachelor‘s degrees in other countries.
See chart 19. The leading university, Tsinghua University in Beijing, had 421 students who went on to earn PhD‘s
from U.S. universities in 2006, which was greater than the 241 students from all California universities combined.
At the same time, the number of these U.S.-educated graduates who are able to obtain green cards
(permanent residency) is limited by U.S. immigration policy, and the number of foreign nationals with the
requisite scientific and engineering skills who can stay in the United States pursuant to temporary H-1B visas
is similarly limited. 63 Taken together, these restrictions serve to inhibit U.S. semiconductor firms from
growing research programs in the United States that depend on being able to hire the best and the brightest
talent. U.S. semiconductor companies seek permanent resident status for 97 percent of their H-1B hires. The
industry is currently seeking permanent residency for about 3,800 employees, of which almost 1400 were hired
three or more years ago. While these numbers are relatively small in absolute terms, they belie the important role
that foreign workers play in the success of U.S. semiconductor companies. 64 These foreign born but U.S.
educated professionals play an important role in performing the research to continue to increase the density
of circuits on each chip, finding ways to lower manufacturing costs, developing and launching new products,
and providing applications expertise to help customers to design-in new semiconductors in their electronic
systems. These foreign workers are therefore vital to the success of semiconductor companies. Furthermore,
by lending their particular talents, these foreign employees are creating jobs in other parts of U.S. companies, such
as in administration and production.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                   7
H-1B Visas CP

                                              H-1B VISAS KEY 2 / 3

Eddie Sweeney (Chair Semiconductor Industry Association Semiconductor Workforce Strategy Committee)
[―NEED FOR GREEN CARDS FOR SKILLED WORKERS‖ CQ Congressional Testimony, lexis, loghry]

We are approaching a critical crossroad. The semiconductor technology advances that have enabled the
information age are projected to end around 2020 as we reach the physical and other limits of our ability to
pack more circuits on each semiconductor chip using current technology. At that point, revolutionary new
nanotechnologies will be needed. The basic research discoveries on which these new technologies depend must
be made today if the technologies will be available for commercialization about a decade from now. Simply
put, as we approach the fundamental limits of the current technology which has driven the high tech industry,
the country whose companies are first to market in the subsequent technology transition will likely lead the
coming nanoelectronics era the way the U.S. has led for half a century in microelectronics. Immigration
reform plays a critical role in ensuring that America earns this leadership position. With this broader context in
mind, I would now like to move to the specifics of the immigration issue, focusing on three specific topics: --The
critical role that immigrants play in maintaining U.S. leadership and how U.S. immigration policy is undermining
our ability to compete; --SIA's work with the IEEE-USA to develop a consensus position on green card reform, and
--SIA's support for the H.R. 5882, H.R. 5921, and H.R. 6039. Immigrants play a critical role in maintaining U.S.
leadership, yet U.S. immigration policy undermines our ability to compete The number of foreign engineers hired
by the semiconductor industry is relatively small - about 1,628 new H-1B hires (as opposed to lateral hires) in
2007. The number would, of course, be larger if the H-1B was not subject to a cap, but even in past years
when the cap was substantially higher, the industry's H-1B hires were around 3,000. The relatively small
numbers belie the important role that foreign workers play in the success of the semiconductor companies.
Foreign nationals comprise half of the masters and 71 percent of the PhDs gradating from U.S. universities in
the engineering fields needed to design and manufacture the complex circuits that are embodied in silicon
chips. They play an important role in performing the research to continue to increase the density of circuits on each
chip, finding ways to lower manufacturing costs, developing and launching new products, and providing
applications expertise to help customers to design-in new semiconductors in their electronic systems. By lending
their particular talents, our foreign employees are creating the jobs in other parts of the company such as
administration and production.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                             8
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                                            H-1B VISAS KEY 3 / 3

National Academy of Engineering (Committee on the Offshoring of Engineering) 2008
[The offshoring of engineering: facts, unknowns, and potential implications, p. 164, google books, loghry]
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                                                    9
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                                              SEMICONDUCTORS KEY TO SPACE

Geoffrey A. Landis (scientist now working at the NASA Glenn Research Center) 2/2003
[―Colonization of Venus‖ online @ http://itwas.gg/space/VenusColony_STAIF03.pdf, loghry]

A robot to explore the surface of Venus will require new technologies; specifically, it will require
electronics, scientific instruments, power supplies, and mechanical linkages designed to operate at a temperature above 450 C—hot enough to
melt the solder on a standard electronic circuit board. This will require devices made from advanced semiconductor materials,
such as silicon carbide, or even new approaches, such as micro-vacuum tube electronics. Such materials are now being developed in the
laboratory. In addition, for a fully immersive virtualreality, high-bandwidth virtual-presence technologies will have to be developed, as well as
highly capable exploratory robotics. While the human explorers could live in a habitat/laboratory in orbit
around Venus, a better location for exploration is an aerostat habitat. Teleoperation from the
atmosphere allows near “real time” operation with minimum time delay, giving a virtual presence
on the surface. An atmospheric habitat has an advantage over an orbital habitat of advantages of gravity (90% of Earth surface gravity)
and atmospheric protection against cosmic radiation (same equivalent mass as Earth's atmosphere), and the presence of useful atmospheric
gasses, including carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Breathing oxygen for life support can be easily provided by
separation of oxygen from atmospheric carbon dioxide, either by zirconia electrolysis or by Sabatier processes. So it
should be possible to explore the surface of Venus remotely from an aerostat habitat . An atmospheric
location for the habitat has the addition advantage that it will be easy to bring samples up from the surface to be analyzed in the habitat. The
atmospheric pressure is high enough that both airplanes (Landis 2001) or balloons could lift samples (assuming, of course, that the vehicles are
adapted for high-temperature and pressure operation).
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                   10
H-1B Visas CP

                                        CHINA MIL MOD ADD-ON 1 / 2

ICAF (The Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense Univ.) Spring 2010
[―Final Report Electronics Industry‖ online @
http://www.ndu.edu/icaf/programs/academic/industry/reports/2010/pdf/icaf-is-report-electronics-2010.pdf, loghry]

China‘s strategy to generate economic growth relies on high technology manufacturing as a strategic element
to achieve its ambition for global leadership in technological innovations. 56 To achieve this, China has pursued
national policies supporting investments in science and technology infrastructures, educational facilities, and
research and development.57 Indeed, the Chinese government provides substantial financial incentives such as
tax holidays and subsidized infrastructure to foreign and domestic semiconductor firms.58 China‘s national
focus has promoted high technology manufacturing as a key pillar of its economy and has allowed its
semiconductor manufacturing section to attain capabilities that are within one or two generations of the
current leading semiconductor technology.59

Clair Brown & Greg Linden (UCB) 5/1/2008
http://web.mit.edu/is08/pdf/BrownLinden_ITEC_CWTS.pdf, loghry]

China and India present an interesting contrast in their approaches to development in high-tech industries. India has
developed expertise that primarily complements the activities of developed countries, especially the U.S. We saw
this in India‘s development of design centers that primarily undertook lower-end activities in the design flow or
updated legacy designs. China has undertaken a more ambitious route of supporting startups that would
compete directly with semiconductor companies globally, and of developing a foundry business that would
compete with established foundries, especially in Taiwan. Chinese companies have become the manufacturing
center of the world, and this is true in electronics as well as across a wide array of industries.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                 11
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                                        CHINA MIL MOD ADD-ON 2 / 2

Andrew K. Semmel & (Ph.D. Executive Director) Lori Esposito Murray (Ph.D. Senior Advisor) July 2002
[―The National Security Implications of the Economic Relationship between the United States and China‖ China
Security Review Commission. Report to Congress of the U.S. online @
http://www.uscc.gov/researchpapers/2000_2003/reports/ch10_02.htm, loghry]

The China market for semiconductor equipment was about $1.2 billion in 1999 and the Semiconductor Industry
Association estimates that it will grow to $7 billion by 2003. China is now the most dynamic and fastest-growing
market for such materials since, at present it produces only about 10 percent of what it needs. Thus, while much of
the technology industry has faced steep downturns in the last year, China launched many new projects.43 Chinese
manufacturers are beginning to narrow the gap between U.S. and Chinese semiconductor manufacturing
technology, the direct result of transfers of European, Japanese, and U.S. integrated circuit production
technology to manufacturers in China. China is expected to become the world‘s third largest user of
microelectronics by 2005. Though the Mainland‘s chip market, at $11.4 billion, is the largest in Asia, current chip
production meets only about 20 percent of demand. Consequently there is a boom in the development of
semiconductor manufacturing projects:
Among China‘s highest priorities is the development of an indigenous microelectronics industry. According to
DOD, "A cutting-edge domestic microelectronics sector will support both military and commercial modernization in
China. China‘s increasing emphasis on development of very large-scale integrated circuits will have direct
application in future military systems, for example, advanced phased-array radars."44
As in other high-tech sectors, China has experienced problems converting its domestic designs into components for
reliable weapons systems. As a result it continues to target sensitive and controlled technology abroad. On May 3,
2001, U.S. Customs and the Department of Commerce Export Control Enforcement officers raided the Orlando,
Florida, office of the firm Means Come. The firm was investigated for the illegal export of radiation-hardened
integrated circuits to China without appropriate export licenses. These chips are particularly critical for missile
and satellite development programs. National Security Implications. China is engaged in a comprehensive
military modernization effort. It has determined which technologies it requires to accomplish its strategies
and missions, and has implemented a program to acquire the capabilities and technologies needed to achieve
its goals. China‘s objective is to be self-sufficient in the production of weapons it deems vital to its national
interests. A China self-sufficient in the production of state-of-the art power projection systems such as the SU-27
and SU-30MKK, and the continued acquisition of Kilo-class submarines will seriously affect operational decisions
of the U.S. and its allies in the region. In time, China hopes to be able to effectively exploit several elements of
asymmetric warfare and assassin‘s mace weapons systems, to counter U.S. technological superiority. The impact on
U.S. operations will be dependent on the ability of the United States to understand China‘s programs and the current
success of U.S. research and development programs for countering such programs.
Moreover, China is actively acquiring sensitive technologies to improve its commercial industrial base and to
significantly enhance its military capabilities to better challenge U.S. influence in Asia. While not a current or
imminent threat, China will at some point soon have the capability of seriously degrading U.S. capabilities and
its operations in the South China Sea. If China can more successfully integrate a modern industrial base with
interoperable forces and advanced weapons systems and capabilities, U.S. operational force strategies will have to
be scrupulously reexamined.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                             12
H-1B Visas CP

                                  LIEBERMAN ADD-ON TOP LEVEL INTERNAL

Joe Lieberman (Senator!) 5/5/2003
INDUSTRY‖ online @ http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2003_cr/s060503.html, loghry]

The Pentagon's Advisory Group on Electron Devices (AGED)                   has warned that the Department of Defense
(DoD) faces         shrinking advantages across all technology areas due to the                rapid decline of the U.S.
semiconductor industry, and that            the off-shore movement of intellectual capital and industrial
capability, particularly in microelectronics, has impacted            the ability of the U.S. to research and produce the
best      technologies and products for the nation and the war-fighter.                 This global migration has also been
discussed in a recently       released National Research Council/National Academy of               Sciences report on the U.S.
semiconductor industry, which           details the significant growth in foreign programs that         support national and
regional semiconductor industries. This           support is fueling the structural changes in the global        industry, and
encouraging a shift of U.S. industry abroad. Studies have shown that numerous advanced defense
applications now under consideration will require high-end                  components with performance levels beyond
that which is        currently available. These cutting-edge devices will be            required for critical defense
capabilities in areas such as       synthetic aperture radar, electronic warfare, and image           compression and
processing. Defense needs in the near future           will also be focused on very high performance for missile
guidance ("fire and forget"), signal processing, and          radiation-hardened chips to withstand the extreme
environments of space-based communications and tactical               environments. There are profound needs for much
more advanced           onboard processing capabilities for unmanned aerial vehicles                 undertaking both
reconnaissance and attack missions, for              cruise missiles and ballistic missile defense, and for [[Page
S7469]]        the infrastructure that connects these systems. As the              military transforms to a "network-
centric" force in the        future, the DoD's Global Information Grid will demand                  extremely high-
performance computation to overcome the                 technical barriers to a seamless communication network
between terrestrial 24 and 48 color optical fiber and              satellite platforms transmitting in 100+Mbps wireless.
Such       performance will also be necessary for "last-mile"          extremely high-speed connectivity to platforms and
to the     soldier in the field, as well as for the high-speed        encryption requirements for a secure communication
system.       Intelligence agencies will increasingly need the most             advanced chips for very high-speed signal
processing and data          analysis, for real-time data evaluation, for sensor input and              analysis, and for
encryption and decryption.            As studies for DARPA have indicated, the next several             generations of
integrated circuits, which emerge at roughly           eighteen-month intervals as predicted by Moore's Law, offer           the
potential for exponential gains in defense war-fighting           capability. It is erroneous to believe that future U.S. war-
fighting capability will be derived from chips one or two           generations behind current state-of-the-art technology.
Many        of the integrated circuits and processing platforms that are          coming in to use, and which are at the heart
of DoD defense         strategies, are clearly at the cutting edge in their       capabilities.     With the dramatic new
capabilities enabled by rapidly           evolving chip technologies, DoD and the intelligence agencies              will need
to be first adopters of the most advanced             integrated circuits, and will be increasingly dependent on
such chips for a defense and intelligence edge. If the             ongoing migration of the chip manufacturing sector
continues        to East Asia, DoD and our intelligence services will lose             both first access and assured access
to secure advanced chip-          making capability, at the same time that these components are              becoming a crucial
defense technology advantage. Informed             elements of the intelligence community therefore have made             clear
that relying on integrated circuits fabricated outside         the U.S. (e.g. in China, Taiwan and Singapore) is not an
acceptable national security option.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                 13
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                                      LIEBERMAN ADD-ON – UAV POD

Kenneth Anderson (staff) 3/8/2010
[―Predators Over Pakistan‖ online @ http://www.weeklystandard.com/articles/predators-over-pakistan, loghry]

Targeting terrorists and militants with Predator drone strikes is one campaign promise President Obama has kept to
the letter. Missiles fired from remote-piloted ―unmanned aerial vehicles‖ (UAVs) at al Qaeda and Taliban
leadership steadily and sharply increased over the course of 2009. Senior U.S. military and intelligence
officials have called them one of the most effective tactics available to strike directly at al Qaeda and the
Taliban. Indeed, CIA director Leon Panetta says that drones are ―the only game in town in terms of confronting
or trying to disrupt the al Qaeda leadership.‖ There is every reason to believe him.
In January 2010 alone, a dozen strikes were launched just in the Pakistani tribal region of Waziristan. With the
beginning of the promised offensive against the Taliban in Afghanistan, Predator attacks have likewise surged
against targets in Pakistan, concurrent with moves by Pakistani intelligence to detain Taliban leaders, and also
concurrent with the extensive use of UAVs on the battlefield in the Afghan offensive (primarily as an urban
surveillance tool but also for missile strikes). Obama promised that his administration would go after al Qaeda and
Taliban in their refuges in Pakistan—with or without the permission of the Pakistani government, he pointedly
said—and so he has done.
The aggressive expansion of the Predator targeted killing program is the Obama administration‘s one
unambiguous innovation in the war against terrorists. The adaptation of UAV surveillance craft into missile
platforms took place as an improvisation in 2002 under the Bush administration—but its embrace as the centerpiece
of U.S. counterterrorism operations belongs to Obama. It is not the whole of it—the Obama administration has
expanded joint operations with Pakistan and Yemen, and launched commando operations in Somalia against
terrorists. But of all the ways it has undertaken to strike directly against terrorists, this administration owns
the Predator drone strategy. It argued for it, expanded it, and used it, in the words of the president‘s State of
the Union address, to ―take the fight to al Qaeda.‖

Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                    14
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                              LIEBERMAN ADD-ON – CRUISE MISSILES POD

Robert Ross (professor of political science at Boston College, an associate at the John King Fairbank Center for East
Asian Research at Harvard University and senior advisor in the security studies program at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology) Fall 2005
[―Assessing the China Threat,‖ The National Interest, online @ http://www.cerium.ca/IMG/pdf/Ross_-
_Assessing_the_China_Threat_-_National_Interest.pdf, loghry]

Moreover, the United States is strengthening its deployments in East Asia. Over the past five years the
Pentagon has moved attack submarines and cruise missiles to Guam. The Air Force is building an operations
center on Guam to serve the entire Pacific. It plans to form a strike force there, with six bomber aircraft and 48
fighters redeployed from continental U.S. bases, as well as twelve refueling aircraft, supplementing U.S.
carrierbased aircraft and U.S. aircraft in Japan. The Air Force also plans to deploy Global Hawk unmanned
reconnaissance aircraft on Guam. The U.S. Navy plans to deploy to Japan an advanced aircraft carrier to replace the
Kitty Hawk and has allocated funding for deployment of a second carrier in East Asia. The Navy is also converting
Trident ballistic missile submarines into platforms for stealth cruise missiles to be deployed in the western
Pacific. All of these measures contribute to long-term U.S. sea control throughout East Asia. ALTHOUGH
U.S. infiuence is declining in South Korea and Taiwan, Washington has never defined the Korean Peninsula or
Taiwan as places vital to U.S. security. Our policy of "peaceful resolution" toward both the Korean and Taiwan
conflicts acknowledges this. Indeed, Secretary Rumsfeld seems eager to move even faster to downgrade the U.S.
force presence in South Korea than regional politics requires. On the other hand, the United States has long defined
U.S. dominance in maritime Southeast Asia as vital to U.S. security. So far, the rise of China does not threaten this
interest. Moreover, despite the growth of Chinese economic infiuence, U.S. strategic partnerships in maritime East
Asia are stronger than ever. So far, the United States has responded well to the rise of China. It has maintained its
deterrent and stabilized the regional order. But the greatest challenge to the status quo and the greatest contribution
to the rise of China as a maritime power may well be shortcomings in U.S. defense policy. Recent attention to the
Pentagon's inability to acquire planned numbers of next-generation aircraft carriers and fighter planes, and the
escalating costs of these programs, is disturbing. As Secretary Rumsfeld observed, "Something's wrong with the
system." In addition, deployment of U.S. forces in hostilities in peripheral areas weakens our presence in East Asia.
If the United States gives China the opportunity to displace the U.S. presence, it will grab it. The United
States should be under no illusion that China will be content with the status quo should its relative power
increase. But if the United States does what it can and should do—if it strengthens its regional military
presence and continues to modernize its forces—it can maintain its maritime dominance, its deterrent
capability, the regional balance of power and U.S. security.

Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                   15
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                                        AFF: NANOTECH BAD POD 1 / 2

Eddie Sweeney (Chair Semiconductor Industry Association Semiconductor Workforce Strategy Committee)
[―NEED FOR GREEN CARDS FOR SKILLED WORKERS‖ CQ Congressional Testimony, lexis, loghry]
We are approaching a critical crossroad. The semiconductor technology advances that have enabled the
information age are projected to end around 2020 as we reach the physical and other limits of our ability to pack
more circuits on each semiconductor chip using current technology. At that point, revolutionary new
nanotechnologies will be needed. The basic research discoveries on which these new technologies depend must
be made today if the technologies will be available for commercialization about a decade from now. Simply
put, as we approach the fundamental limits of the current technology which has driven the high tech industry, the
country whose companies are first to market in the subsequent technology transition will likely lead the coming
nanoelectronics era the way the U.S. has led for half a century in microelectronics. Immigration reform plays a
critical role in ensuring that America earns this leadership position.
With this broader context in mind, I would now like to move to the specifics of the immigration issue, focusing on
three specific topics:
--The critical role that immigrants play in maintaining U.S. leadership and how U.S. immigration policy is
undermining our ability to compete;
--SIA's work with the IEEE-USA to develop a consensus position on green card reform, and
--SIA's support for the H.R. 5882, H.R. 5921, and H.R. 6039.
Immigrants play a critical role in maintaining U.S. leadership, yet U.S. immigration policy undermines our ability to
compete The number of foreign engineers hired by the semiconductor industry is relatively small - about 1,628
new H-1B hires (as opposed to lateral hires) in 2007. The number would, of course, be larger if the H-1B was not
subject to a cap, but even in past years when the cap was substantially higher, the industry's H-1B hires were
around 3,000.
The relatively small numbers belie the important role that foreign workers play in the success of the
semiconductor companies. Foreign nationals comprise half of the masters and 71 percent of the PhDs
gradating from U.S. universities in the engineering fields needed to design and manufacture the complex
circuits that are embodied in silicon chips. They play an important role in performing the research to continue to
increase the density of circuits on each chip, finding ways to lower manufacturing costs, developing and launching
new products, and providing applications expertise to help customers to design-in new semiconductors in their
electronic systems. By lending their particular talents, our foreign employees are creating the jobs in other parts of
the company such as administration and production.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                16
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                                       AFF: NANOTECH BAD POD 2 / 2

Nick Bostrom & Milan Cirkovic (Ph.D, Director of the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University & Ph.D,
research associate of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade) 2008
[Global Catastrophic Risks, p. 24-25, loghry]
Molecular nanotechnology would greatly expand control over the structure of matter. Molecular machine systems
would enable fast and inexpensive manufacture of microscopic and macroscopic objects built to atomic
precision. Such production systems would contain millions of microscopic assembly tools. Working in parallel,
these would build objects by adding molecules to a workpiece through positionally controlled chemical reactions.
The range of structures that could be built with such technology greatly exceeds that accessible to the
biological molecular assemblers (such as ribosome) that exist in nature. Among the things that a nanofactory
could build: another nanofactory. A sample of potential applications:
• microscopic nanobots for medicaluse • vastly faster computers • very light and strong diamondoid materials • new
processes for removing pollutants from the environment • desktop manufacturing plants which can automatically
produce a wide range of atomically precise structures from downloadable blueprints • inexpensive solar collectors •
greatly improved space technology • mass-produced sensors of many kinds • weapons, both inexpensively mass-
produced and improved conventional weapons, and new kinds of weapons that cannot be built without molecular
A technology this powerful and versatile could be used for an indefinite number of purposes, both benign and
Phoenix and Treder review a number of global catastrophic risks that could arise with such an advanced
manufacturing technology, including war, social and economic disruption, destructive forms of global
governance, radical intelligence enhancement, environmental degradation, and ‗ecophagy‘ (small nanobots
replicating uncontrollably in the natural environment, consuming or destroying the Earth‘s biosphere). In
conclusion, they offer the following rather alarming assessment:
In the absence of some type of preventive or protective force, the power of molecular manufacturing products
could allow a large number of actors of varying types – including individuals, groups, corporations, and
nations – to obtain sufficient capability to destroy all unprotected humans. The likelihood of at least one
powerful actor being insane is not small. The likelihood that devastating weapons will be built and released
accidentally (possibly through overly sensitive automated systems) is also considerable. Finally, the likelihood of
a conflict between two [powers capable of unleashing a mutually assured destruction scenario] escalating
until one feels compelled to exercise a doomsday option is also non-zero. This indicates that unless adequate
defences can be prepared against weapons intended to be ultimately destructive – a point that urgently needs
research – the number of actors trying to possess such weapons must be minimized.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                  17
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                                             AFF: A2: CHINA ARGS

Ari Levy & Ian King (staff) 12/16/2010
[―Silicon Valley Venture Investors Lose Taste for Chips‖ online @ http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-12-
16/silicon-valley-no-longer-reflects-name-as-investors-shun-chips.html, loghry]

Silicon Valley has lost its appetite for silicon. While venture capitalists are pouring money into social networking,
e-commerce and online-game companies, investments in chipmakers are close to a 12-year low. And yet
semiconductors -- made from silicon wafers -- provide the brains for everything from computers and mobile
phones to nuclear missiles. At issue is the expense to get a startup off the ground. Chipmakers spend millions
developing and testing their designs before they even know if an idea is viable. Those costs have pushed the industry
abroad to countries that offer tax incentives and subsidies unmatched in the U.S. Meanwhile, the expense of starting
software and Internet companies has actually gone down, thanks to cheap Web-based programs and services.
―There are no lack of ideas, but it‘s becoming harder and harder to find investors,‖ said Ken Lawler, a general
partner at Battery Ventures in Menlo Park, California, who has invested in chip companies such as MaxLinear Inc.
and Calxeda Inc. ―It takes too much money and too much time.‖ That contrasts with China, whose role as a
manufacturing hub for semiconductors is helping it play a bigger role in design and innovation. The
country‘s worldwide share of chip- related patents is expected to rise to 33 percent this year from 22 percent
last year, according to a November report from PricewaterhouseCoopers LLC. Time for Concern? ―The U.S. has
got a lot to be concerned about from a global competitiveness perspective,‖ said Matt Cowan, co- founder of venture
capital firm Bridgescale in Menlo Park, who formerly worked in corporate development at Intel Corp. Venture
financing of U.S. semiconductor companies dropped 36 percent through the first three quarters of this year to
$894.9 million, down from $1.39 billion in the same period in 2008, according to data from the National Venture
Capital Association. Last year, venture capitalists invested a total of $863.8 million in chip companies, the lowest
level since 1998. First-time venture investments in chip companies accounted for 1.1 percent of total initial
funding this year, the smallest category among 16 industry groups tracked by the NVCA. Software companies
received the highest amount, with 17 percent. In the past two years, venture capitalists and other investors have
piled hundreds of millions of dollars into social-networking companies such as Facebook Inc. and Twitter Inc.,
online-game maker Zynga Game Network Inc. and Web-coupon provider Groupon Inc. Each is valued in the
billions. Less Sexy Additionally, a new class of so-called super-angel investors has emerged that‘s focused
primarily on funding early- stage Internet startups. ―Semiconductors aren‘t as sexy, you don‘t get the
valuations, and you don‘t get the multiples,‖ said Manuel Henriquez, chief executive officer of Hercules
Technology Growth Capital Inc., a Palo Alto, California-based firm that provides debt financing to startups.
―There‘s no semiconductor activity out there.‖
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                      18
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                            AFF: A2: COMPETITION ARGS (ALSO ANS. CHINA)

Martha C. White (staff) 12/16/2010
[―Solyndra‖ online @ http://www.slate.com/id/2278200/pagenum/all/#p2, loghry]
In July, Solyndra brought in Harrison, a 30-year veteran of the semiconductor industry, to run the show and
squeeze as much efficiency as possible out of the new factory. In evolutionary terms, semiconductors for
electronics—which are manufactured from the same raw material as the wafers that go into solar panels—are
solar cells' closest living relative. While a lot of semiconductor production has moved overseas, the United
States is still a viable player in the market. Manufacturing chips and related products is something we've
historically been very good at, and we've continued to be good at it even after foreign companies turned up
the competitive heat. Solyndra's uniquely designed solar modules cost more than their flat-panel counterparts, and
for most of the company's history, it has taken a loss on every module it sells just to build up enough critical mass to
lower its per-unit production costs. (Since the fixed costs of running a factory are so high, more output means those
costs are spread across a greater number of items.) Ben Bierman, executive vice president for operations and
engineering at Solyndra, says the new factory and its high-tech robots will go a long way toward lowering costs by
increasing the speed of production. The new building was essentially constructed around Solyndra's production line,
so everything is configured for the greatest efficiency. They've also got the space to plan ahead by, for example,
storing spare parts near the more temperamental machines so they can be fixed quickly if they break down, avoiding
bottlenecks. Over the next few years, Solyndra predicts the dollar value of its exports will continue to rise to
roughly $250 million by 2013, but the percentage of revenue from exports will go down to about 50 percent from
the 75 percent it's at today. Europe is considered a more mature market for solar energy, whereas the United States
has barely been tapped. Shayle Kann, managing director for solar research at GTM Research, says America's
percentage of the global market is only 6.5 percent; as a result, Solyndra and other domestic solar manufacturers are
primarily exporters right now. The main reason demand is so strong in regions like Europe is that several national
governments have offered generous incentives for adding solar capacity to the electrical grid. Solyndra's Bierman
also says that Europe's strict land-use rules make its rooftop-mounted systems an easier sell. By comparison, the
United States offers a tax credit to businesses that install solar systems, a much less appealing incentive. (If your
business took a hit in the recession and hasn't turned a profit, your tax burden will have vanished, which makes a
credit worthless. An alternate incentive that let companies apply for a grant instead of a credit expires at the end of
this year.) Incentives at home and abroad have strict cutoffs and deadlines. This gives Solyndra another advantage,
since a customer racing the clock to claim a credit or grant can have its system up and running much faster than a
conventional solar system could be installed. There was plenty of debate about Solyndra's huge loan guarantee,
which dovetailed in the media and among policymakers into the question of whether the government should offer
support to solar manufacturers in general. In the long run, the answer to that question is almost certainly yes. For the
moment, solar products are a viable export, and the United States is a net exporter, shipping $723 million
overseas last year. We even benefit when solar panels are made in other countries, since the United States is a
leading producer and exporter of polysilicon, a solar panel "building block" that's also a core element in the
manufacture of semiconductors. The United States' potential to become a solar manufacturing powerhouse is
even greater further into the future, at which point domestic demand is expected to rise sharply. According to
a new report issued by the Solar Energy Industries Association, about half of the cost of a solar-power system comes
from the installation, wiring, and other on-site tasks—in other words, jobs that can't be outsourced. A solar
manufacturing sector that grows in an export-led market will be well-placed to satisfy domestic demand at
reasonable costs, keeping American homes and businesses from turning to Chinese-made panels. As for
Solyndra, "The big question is can they drive their cost down quick enough to scale," says GTM Research's Kann.
Although Solyndra's budget-slashing goals are aggressive, manufacturers of conventional solar panels—especially
in China—are also reducing their costs in order to cut prices even further. "It's a moving target," he says Harrison
promises that Solyndra is moving fast enough to catch up to competitors, hopefully with the help of some additional
support from the government in the way of incentives to get homes, businesses, and utilities to install solar systems.
He ticks off a list of possibilities—tax credits for investing in and using renewable energy that don't expire after only
a few years, feed-in tariffs, financing for renewable energy projects—but he says Solyndra is also prepared to fight it
out on the strength of its product alone if necessary. Harrison believes American manufacturers like Solyndra can
still compete by focusing on design and technological superiority instead of just on price. The key, he says, is
"innovation, creativity, and differentiation, not purely commodity.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                             19
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                                           AFF: A2: HEGE ARGS

Richard Van Atta (Project Leader Institute for Defense Analyses) January 2007
[―Export Controls and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base‖ online @ www.acq.osd.mil/ip/docs/ida_study-
export_controls_%20us_def_ib.pdf, loghry]

For the purposes of this sector study, the ―semiconductor industry‖ comprises firms producing semiconductor
materials, semiconductor manufacturing equipment (SME), and semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs).1
Worldwide revenues in 2005 were $31 billion, $34 billion, and $227 billion, respectively. The semiconductor
industry is widely viewed as ―strategic,‖ supporting economic growth through innovative clusters of
electronics and broader information technology (IT) firms (such as in ―Silicon Valley‖), as well providing high
value-added exports and high-wage employment. Beyond the economic importance of the semiconductor industry,
today‘s dominant US conventional military capabilities derive from the US Department of Defense‘s relative
success in fostering and exploiting semiconductor-based computer, communication and sensor networks for military
purposes. Advantage in ―network centric warfare,‖ based on advanced electronics, is assumed in much current US
defense strategy and planning. While electronics and IT are critical to US military capabilities, the most
advanced ICs today play a relatively small role, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) is a niche player in
the market. With a few exceptions in areas such as sensors and intelligence systems, the ICs embedded within
today‘s most advanced military systems tend to be far from commercial state-of-the-art. Nevertheless, the US
government has sought to prevent adversaries from accessing the most advanced ICs, SME and materials through
the CCL, administered by the US Department of Commerce. Radiation hardened ICs used in nuclear and space
systems are controlled by the Department of State through the ITAR. US export controls are coordinated
internationally through the ―Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use
Goods and Technologies,‖ which came into force in 1996 as successor to the Soviet-era ―Coordinating Committee
for Multilateral Export Controls‖ (CoCom).
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                              20
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                                           AFF: A2: ECON ARGS

Industry Market Trends (staff) 12/13/2010
[―Weekly Industry Crib Sheet: U.S. Trade Gap Narrows‖ online @

Semiconductor executives expect to see solid increases in both sales and workforce growth in 2011, despite the
uneven economic recovery, according to a global survey conducted by U.S. audit, tax and advisory firm KPMG
The survey, conducted in collaboration with the Semiconductor Industry Association, found that 78 percent of
semiconductor executives expect revenue to grow by more than 5 percent next year; 39 percent of industry
execs expect their company's semiconductor revenue to increase by 10 percent or more in the next fiscal year.
Survey respondents identified the top drivers of revenue growth for 2011: wireless handsets and other
wireless communications devices (68 percent); consumer products (65 percent); and computing (55 percent).
More executives also believe industrial products (43 percent) and automotive products (38 percent) will be
important revenue drivers over the next year.
Meanwhile, 29 percent of respondents forecast workforce growth of greater than 5 percent, up from 23 percent
in 2009 and 17 percent in 2008, reflecting increased confidence in the resilient semiconductor industry.
"Our findings show an industry that expects moderate growth next year, which is extraordinary in the
context of an uneven global economic recovery," Gary Matuszak, KPMG Global Chair for the Information,
Communication and Entertainment practice, said in a statement. "The continuing demand for electronic products
ranging from tablets to smartphones, and an increased demand for technology integration in automobiles will
buoy semiconductor manufacturers as the economy fluctuates." However, 53 percent of respondents anticipate
the semiconductor cycle will peak within the next 12 months.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                21
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                                          AFF: A2: ALT NRG ARGS

LARRY D. SPEARS (Contributing Writer, Money Morning) 12/20/2010
[―Alternative Energy Forecast: Why Investors Will Finally Start to Profit in 2011‖ online @
http://moneymorning.com/2010/12/20/alternative-energy-forecast-investors-profit-in-2011/, loghry]

Although most states and local government entities are eager for new developments, the approval process can be
arduous, and there are often problems with overlapping jurisdictions and regulations. In California and the
rest of the Southwest, developers often have to deal with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as well as
state and federal energy officials. The same applies to some wind-energy sites. The Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) can also create some roadblocks. Tandy McMannes, vice president of business development for
Abengoa Solar Inc., told the San Francisco Chronicle that his company's solar plant in San Bernardino County had
to meet more than 200 specific environmental conditions to gain approval. "We're a solar plant, and we have 67
conditions for air quality," McMannes said. And the "process is expensive, and the conditions of certification are
onerous." Expensive tests are also required before a new solar or wind project can even be considered to ensure the
proposed sites have ample average wind speeds or get enough annual sunshine. In addition, since many of the best
wind and solar sites are in remote locations, developers have to have advance deals in place for power
transmission and distribution - a situation complicated by the fact that the end-purchaser of the power frequently
doesn't control the transmission lines or power grid in the project area. The push to meet mandates for AE use
could also create both demand and pricing problems. In some of the areas best suited for wind and solar
production, current and proposed projects are capable of producing far more electricity than the utilities in
the area need or can use, meaning it will have to be resold and transmitted through already loaded power
lines. Even though that represents excess supply over demand, sharp hikes in prices are possible - a projected jump
of 16.7% in California by 2020 - because the government mandates will force utilities to buy from renewable energy
producers even when cheaper power is available from traditional sources. One final note: The potential for gains
in the AE sectors in 2011 may be more likely to come from mergers and buyouts than operations. The U.S. is
the global leader in energy and power industry mergers and acquisitions (M&A), according to the Thomson
Reuters Investment Banking Scorecard. Through mid-November, the industry had seen 642 deals worth $418.2
billion in M&A activity, up 50% from the same time in 2009. Oil giant Chevron Corp. (NYSE: CVX) had been
particularly active, using buyouts to achieve quick expansion into the clean-energy market.
Wyoming Forensics Institute 2011                                                                                 22
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                                           AFF: A2: LIEBERMAN ‗03


                 A. AS OF 2010 THE U.S. HAS PLENTY OF UAVs – IT‘S NOT THE NUMBER OF
Andrew Callam (International Affairs Review) Winter 2010
[―Drone Wars: Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles‖ online @ http://www.iar-gwu.org/node/144, loghry]
The Obama Administration has dramatically increased the number of CIA drone attacks since taking office.
Under President Bush, the CIA carried out only 2 strikes in 2006 and 3 in 2007. In July 2008, Bush increased the
number of drone strikes, totaling 34 attacks in 2008. Most of the key CIA personnel from the Bush Administration‘s
drone program remain, but the Obama Administration has far outpaced its predecessor in the frequency of drone
strikes. By October 19th, 2009, the CIA had conducted 41 strikes under President Obama, compared with the
same number over three years under former President Bush. CIA drone strikes under the Obama
Administration show no signs of abating. The agency has conducted 11 strikes in Pakistan during the first month
of 2010.

UPI (united press international) 12/11/2010
[―Japan will strengthen missile defense‖ online @ http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2010/12/11/Japan-
will-strengthen-missile-defense/UPI-17951292109010/, loghry]
TOKYO, Dec. 11 (UPI) -- Japan says it will expand its network of land-based U.S. Patriot PAC-3 missiles to
better defend against North Korean ballistic missiles. The plan is detailed in Japan's annual white paper on
national defense, which should be adopted by the end of 2010, RIA Novosti reported. The missiles are deployed at
three air bases in Japan, but additional systems will be placed on all major Japanese islands, the document
said. North Korea became one of Japan's biggest security concerns after it test-fired a long-range ballistic missile
over Japan in 1998. The concern grew after North Korea conducted a series of ballistic missile tests in July 2006,
followed by an underground nuclear test three months later, the report said. Japan is one of a dozen countries to
choose the combat-proven Patriot missile system as a major component of their air and missile defense
programs. North Korea's medium-range ballistic missiles have a range of more than 800 miles.

Sergei Balmasov (staff) 12/17/2010
[―Will S-500 system be good against Minotaur IV?‖ online @ http://english.pravda.ru/world/americas/17-12-
2010/116250-s_500_minotaur-0/, loghry]
The threat of the appearance of hypersonic weapons in the Armed Forces of the United States requires
adequate measures from Russia, which will include the development of space defense system and the fifth
generation air defense system, experts believe. The USA already has development prototypes of such weapons.
It particularly goes about the ARRMD program - Affordable Rapid Response Missile Demonstrator - by DARPA
(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). The program stipulates the development of hypersonic guided air-
to-ground and ship-to-shore long range missiles. In May 2010, the United States tested two pilot items of the
hypersonic cruise missile. Minotaur IV was one of them. According to experts' estimates, the missile is capable
of striking targets in any part of the globe within just one hour.

Bryan Charlebois (staff) 12/18/2010
[―WikiLeaks and whistle blowing‖ online @ http://www.thestar.com/opinion/letters/article/908421--wikileaks-and-
whistle-blowing, loghry]
With the ongoing disclosures of sensitive internal documents by WikiLeaks, American intelligence services
are engaged in a futile race to contain the dissemination of information they deem a threat to their national
security. But the essential characteristics of the Internet itself, its encompassing availability and immediate
access to information, have rendered this battle lost.

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