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					LEARNING OUTLINE
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4 Pillar of TQM
Basic Definitions

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Productivity
8 Quality Management Principles

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LEARNING OUTLINE
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Quality Control and Quality Assurance Deming's Principles PDCA Cycle

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WHAT IS QUALITY?
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Fitness for Purpose
Meeting Requirements

Meeting Customer Needs / Expectations Delighting Customers Right First Time, All The Time Affordable
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WHAT IS QUALITY?
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Reliable Durable On Time Delivery Meeting the Specifications Comparative Safety Availability
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WHAT IS QUALITY?
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Fitness for purpose or use
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Juran

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Quality is conformance to the requirements.
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Crosby

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Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer, present and future
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Deming
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DEFINITIONS
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Process; An activity or operation which uses resources (inputs) and converts it into product. Examples includes Stiching Knitting Weaving Painting
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DEFINITIONS
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Product; Result of a process, can be tangible which have a physical form or Intangible product. Knitted Garmet Weaved Cloth Graduate students

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DEFINITIONS
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Process Approach
Any activity that receives inputs from the previous process or directly and converts them to output, the identification of interaction and their management is referred as a Process Approach.

INPUT

A

PEOCESS

A

OUTPUT A / CONTROL B INPUT B OUT PUT B INPUT C MECHANISM B OUTPUT C

PROCESS

B

PROCESS

C

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DEFINITIONS
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Productivity
It is the ratio of output to input of resources Labor Productivity of April = Total Production of April/Wages of April Energy Productivity of April = A/Electricity bill of April
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The Operations System

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Manufacturing Organizations
Use operations management in the transformation process of turning raw materials into physical goods.  They produce tangible items like Garments, Home appliances and Cars.
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EXAMPLES
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Nishat Textiles LG Honda DG Khan Cement Sony
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Service Organizations
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Use operations management in creating nonphysical outputs (intangible products) in the form of services (the activities of employees interacting with customers)

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EXAMPLES
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Banking Sector (ACBL, HBL, MCB) Hospitals Universities (PU, UET) Colleges Legal Services
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Origins of Quality approaches to Production
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Inspection/Testing (1920) Quality Control (1934) Quality Assurance (1972) Quality Management (1982) Six Sigma (1996)

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Inspection/Testing
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Segregating bad and good products Time consuming It involves very high costs

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Quality Control (QC)
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It involves techniques and activities aimed at monitoring a process and eliminating causes of unsatisfactory performance. QC=Inspection + Corrective actions The operator (production personnel) is responsible for QC of process and products.
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QUALITY CONTROL
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“It involves analytical techniques and activities aimed at monitoring a process and eliminating causes of unsatisfactory performance for the prevention of defects” We control the fluctuations in the product
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PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS
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Manufacturing of Refrigerators Temp of oven = 150 C Compressor Pressure = 2 bars Ambient Temp = 40 C Temp of machines = 170 C Pressure of head machine = 3 bars
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Quality Assurance (QA)
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Quality Assurance addresses the entire life cycle of a product, starting from the initial product design to final inspection, reliability in use and customer satisfaction.
QA=QC+ Preventive actions + customer satisfaction
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Quality Assurance (QA)
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Quality Assurance addresses the entire life cycle of a product, starting from the initial product design to final inspection, reliability in use and customer satisfaction.
QA=QC+ Preventive actions + customer satisfaction
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QUALITY ASSURANCE?
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Quality Assurance; All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or services will satisfy given quality requirements.

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QUALITY ASSURANCE
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Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled
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QUALITY ASSURANCE
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Analysis and eliminators causes of problems

of

root

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Planning and prevention

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The Quality Assurance Model
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Quality Assurance addresses the entire life cycle of a product, starting from the initial product identification to final inspection, reliability in use and customer satisfaction. The emphasis is towards improvement of the process capability ,detection and prevention of non-conformance.
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Quality Management
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The activities of the management which determines company quality policy, objectives and responsibilities of every employee. Share the vision, Share the responsibilities and Shares the rewards when objectives are achieved.
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8 QM Principles
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Customer focus Leadership Involvement of people Process approach

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8 QM Principles
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Systems approach to management Continual improvement Factual approach to decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

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Conceptual Questions
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Which system is better QC or QA. Write your comments Why Productivity is more important as compared with production Draw the process approach diagram for any university and automobile company

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New Concepts
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Operator will produce and also check the quality. Operator is responsible for taking corrective and preventive actions. Now operator is responsible for controlling the variations in the product.

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Actions Taken when things go wrong
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Development and implementation of systems like ISO 9001:2000 JIT, KANBAN, Lean Mfg TPM POKA YOKE (Mistake proofing) Productivity tracking software's and tools.
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Actions Taken when things go wrong
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Quality Circles Kaizen (continuous improvement) Employee empowerment

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International Standards
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ISO 9001:2000 (QMS) ISO 14001 (EMS) SA 8000 (Social Accountability) ISO 17025 (laboratory Mgt) ISO 18001 (Health and Safety)
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Benefits of Standards
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Improving the productivity Improved Customer satisfaction Strong Marketing tool Increased the capabilities of employees Increase in Exports of products which in return is beneficial for the country

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Deming's Principles (14)
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Plan for the long-term future. Never be complacent concerning the quality of your product. Find out whether your problems are confined to particular parts of the production process or stem from the overall process itself.
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Deming's Principles
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Train workers for the job that you are asking them to perform. Raise the quality of your line supervisors. Drive out fear. Encourage departments to work closely together rather than to concentrate on departmental or divisional distinctions. Make top managers responsible for implementing these principles.
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Deming's PDCA Cycle
Start

Action

Plan
Progress

Check

Do

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Conceptual Questions
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Why customer satisfaction is important Write inputs, product and process for the following companies 1- College 2- Millat fan 3- Askari Bank Comparison between QC & QA (With 2 examples)

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Conceptual Questions
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Why supplier relationship management is important for any company Why it is important to understand Process Approach Comparison between four pillars of TQM and 8 QM Principles

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posted:7/30/2009
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