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									                                                                                                                        architecture for humanity
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                                                                                                                      biloxi model home program
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Biloxi Model Home program.
Architecture for Humanity would like to thank                                  all of the families, architects,
engineers, and construction professionals of the Biloxi Model Home Program. This book is dedicated to them and
                                                                                                                  table of contents
to all of the residents of East Biloxi Mississippi, whose love for their community made this work possible.
                                                                                                                   Page 06 ............ Biloxi Model Home Program
We also dedicate this book to our client David Desporte and to all                                                 Page 24 ............ Home Studies
those who lost their lives during the storm.
                                                                                                                   Page 60 ............ Design Details

                                                                                                                   Page 82 ............ Conclusions

In August of 2005, the coast was struck by Hurricane Katrina, the largest       honestly say that without the help of Architecture for Humanity, East Biloxi   In September 2005, Oprah Winfrey did a show live from the Gulf Coast just      and rehabilitate 70 additional homes that had been seriously damaged. But
natural disaster ever known to the United States. Two months before the         would be a much more dismal place. We have been able to rehabilitate           days after Hurricane Katrina had destroyed the area. People across the         their proposal went much farther than that: We could see they were also
storm, I was elected to the Biloxi City Council. Immediately after the storm,   over 600 homes in the area with the help of our building and financial         country and around the world saw the devastation and desperate condi-          rebuilding hope in a community that in many ways had been discounted for
I formed what is now called the Hope Coordination Center to help the area       partners. The Hope Coordination Center, the Gulf Coast Community               tions facing those fortunate enough to survive the storm. Oprah made a         years prior to the storm.
known as East Biloxi. East Biloxi is the poorest section of Biloxi and was      Design Studio, and Architecture for Humanity have produced a model for         promise to never forget the families displaced by Hurricane Katrina and
completely decimated by the storm. Three thousand homes were com-               rebuilding after the storm that is now spreading across the Gulf Coast.        committed $10 million of her own money to build homes and help rebuild         It’s been three years since Hurricane Katrina came ashore. In that time
pletely destroyed by the storm and the remaining homes were completely                                                                                         lives. And then she invited her viewers to join the effort by contributing     more than 600 severely damaged homes have been rebuilt, thousands of
inundated by flood waters.These were horrible times.                                                            Bill Stallworth, East Biloxi                   their dollars to Oprah’s Angel Network. Donations at all levels came pour-     hurricane survivors living in East Biloxi have been helped, and seven model
                                                                                                                Coordination, Relief and                       ing in, totaling more than $15 million.                                        homes now stand as a testament to sustainable design and innovation in
 However, as I have said many times, the storm was an opportunity for God                                       Redevelopment Agency, July 2008                                                                                               the wake of unimaginable devastation.
to show his great mercy and bring about changes in the area that were                                                                                          As the Angel Network looked for ways to make best use of these funds, we
sorely needed. East Biloxi received help from hundreds of organizations.                                        Bill Stallworth is a Biloxi city council-      made frequent trips to the Gulf Coast and met with many community lead-        Oprah’s Angel Network is very proud to be involved in these efforts and
Through what I call a divine appointment, I met Kate Stohr, co founder of                                       man and the executive director of the          ers and volunteer organizations that were struggling to begin their rebuild-   in the unique partnerships that went into creating them. By supporting
Architecture for Humanity. We found common ground and formed a part-                                            East Biloxi Coordination, Relief, and          ing efforts amongst all the loss and despair. Nearly every area we visited     Architecture for Humanity, the Gulf Coast Community Design Studio, the
nership that has lasted to this day. Through Kate’s contacts, we were able                                      Redevelopment Agency, also known as            was still reeling from the devastation, and hope was in short supply.          Hope Coordination Center, and the countless volunteer groups working in
to obtain a grant from Oprah’s Angel Network. The collaboration of these                                        the Hope Coordination Center.                                                                                                 the area, an entire community has been given a voice in how their homes
partners and others has facilitated the rebuilding of hundreds of homes in                                                                                     In October, 2005 we drove down Division Street in East Biloxi to meet with     and neighborhoods should be rebuilt. East Biloxi is proof that when resi-
the area. As a part of the grant received from the Oprah’s Angel Network,                                                                                      Architecture for Humanity and the newly formed East Biloxi Coordination,       dents and organizations work together, communities have the opportunity
Architecture for Humanity and the Hope Coordination Center were able to                                                                                        Relief, and Redevelopment Agency. At the time they were working out of a       to come back--sometimes stronger than they were before the storm.
look at the many challenges that were facing us. Our biggest obstacles                                                                                         church that had been flooded by the storm and was serving as a makeshift
                                                                                                                                                               recovery operations center. Color coded maps of East Biloxi were up on                                        Gregg Sherkin, Oprah’s Angel Network,
were 1) new height elevations from government regulators, and 2) the chal-
                                                                                                                                                               the walls, phones were ringing constantly and there was steady flow of                                        July 2008
lenge of building homes safer, more efficiently, and yet affordably.
                                                                                                                                                               Vietnamese, African American, Caucasian and Latina/Latino people---all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Gregg Sherkin is a Program Officer for
Architecture for Humanity rose to the occasion with the Biloxi Model Home                                                                                      residents of the community---coming and going and getting questions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Oprah’s Angel Network leading projects
Program. The program rebuilt seven new homes at various height eleva-                                                                                          answered about how they could begin to rebuild. There was an organized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             throughout the Gulf Coast and South
tions, and investigated new building design techniques that would make                                                                                         optimism to this chaos that was unlike anything else we had seen in other
homes stronger and more efficient. Architecture for Humanity also gave                                                                                         hurricane impacted areas. It was apparent that something special was
a small grant to The Gulf Coast Community Design Studio of Mississippi                                                                                         in the works that was firmly based in the belief that East Biloxi could be
State University to help create a design studio within our housing recovery                                                                                    rebuilt.
                                                                                                                                                               In the weeks and months that followed we kept in close contact with Kate
There were so many lessons learned from this experiment. Utilizing the                                                                                         Stohr, Sherry-Lea Bloodworth, David Perkes and Bill Stallworth as they
new design techniques from the program, the Center has rebuilt 35 homes                                                                                        developed and formalized plans to rebuild in East Biloxi. Their proposal
and currently has about 35 others in various stages of construction. I can                                                                                     requested $3.3 million of Angel Network funds to build six model homes
“This is someThing all archiTecTs should experience.
 iT opens your eyes To undersTanding whaT The need
 is: a ThoughTful house ThaT inspires and doesn’T
 break The bank.” —program direcTor michael groTe

the biloxi model home program
                                                                                                                  Facing Page: Program
Two years, seven homes, and thousands of                                                                          client Jeanette desporte
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Architecture for Humanity is a
                                                                                                                                                                                                   501(c)3 charitable organization
new reasons to hope                                                                                               and her daughter on
                                                                                                                                                                                                   that seeks architectural solutions
                                                                                                                  the porch of her new
Architecture for Humanity established the Biloxi Model Home Program in                                                                                                                             to humanitarian crisis and brings
                                                                                                                  home. the home’s most
the fall of 2006 as a pilot program to assist residents of East Biloxi in meet-                                                                                                                    design services to communities
                                                                                                                  notable feature is a
ing the challenge of rebuilding their city. East Biloxi was one of the hardest                                                                                                                     in need. We believe that where
                                                                                                                  wheelchair ramp which
                                                                                                                                                                                                   resources and expertise are

                                                                                                                                               Photo credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
hit areas of the Gulf Coast—over 90% of the neighborhood’s housing stock                                          travels up through the
was damaged or destroyed.                                                                                                                                                                          scarce, innovative, sustainable
                                                                                                                  center of the home. Top:
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and collaborative design can
                                                                                                                  Program partners and
In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, many East Biloxi residents feared that                                                                                                                           make a difference. By tapping a
new building codes required by the city of Biloxi would dramatically
                                                                                                                  volunteers in spring
                                                                                                                                                                                                   network of professionals willing to
increase the cost of rebuilding by forcing them to elevate their homes,                                           2006, shortly af ter
                                                                                                                                                                                                   lend their time and their talents
ultimately making it impossible for them to return home. The Biloxi Model                                         efforts began. Bottom:
                                                                                                                                                                                                   to helping those who would not
Home Program addressed these concerns by inviting architects from                                                 in fall 2007, Mississippi
                                                                                                                                                                                                   otherwise be able to afford their
around the nation to design and build sustainable, hurricane-resistant,                                           Governor Haley Barbour,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   services, we support community
affordable homes that met new construction standards and height eleva-                                            center, in red polo shirt,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   development, help communities
tions required by the city. This forced the program to face full-on the dif-                                      visited East Biloxi’s Hope
                                                                                                                                                                                                   rebuild after disaster and provide
ficult challenges of funding, designing, and constructing an elevated home.                                       coordination center.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   pro bono design services to
Architecture for Humanity’s efforts with the Biloxi Model Home Program                                                                                                                             community partners around
took a long-term view of recovery for the neighborhood of East Biloxi by                                                                                                                           the world. through the power
refining building techniques and improving methods for elevating homes                                                                                                                             of professional design, we build
in hurricane-prone communities. The goal of the program was not only to                                                                                                                            safer, more sustainable and highly
provide design services and financial assistance for the construction of                                                                                                                           innovative structures--structures
homes, but also to test the latest in materials research, disaster mitigation,                                                                                                                     that become assets to their
and sustainable building techniques. The program was a chance to set                                                                                                                               communities and ongoing symbols
high standards for new construction in the area and establish a set of best                                                                                                                        of the ability of people to come
practices that can be used going forward.                                                                                                                                                          together to envision a better

                                                                                                                                                Photo credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
                                                                                                                                                                                                   future. our vision is one of a world
The pilot program was unique in that it offered families the opportunity to                                                                                                                        where designers innovate globally
work one-on-one with architects and design professionals. It approached
                                                                                                                                                                                                   to build housing, schools, clinics
rebuilding through standardizing design processes, methods, and partner-
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and other essential infrastructure
ship strategies—as opposed to standardizing a single design.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   locally. We believe that this can
                                                                                  Photo credit: Leslie Schwarts

It was our belief that by setting high standards of design and construction                                                                                                                        be achieved not by replicating
we could not only help families come home, but rebuild equity in the com-                                                                                                                          a design that was successful
munity by building back better.                                                                                                                                                                    in one situation in another, but
                                                                                                                                                                                                   by encouraging locally-inspired
                                                                                                                                                                                                   designs and by enabling these
                                                                                                                                                                                                   solutions to be shared and freely
                                                                                                                                                                                                   adapted by all. Architecture for
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Humanity has 47 chapters in six

Timeline to be placed below this line.

about east biloxi
The neighborhood of East Biloxi has a rich and varied history beginning with
its settlement in 1699 as part of French Louisiana. Many of East Biloxi’s
12,000 pre-Katrina residents had long-standing ties to the community and
lived in family homes that had been passed down from generation to genera-
tion. For the most part, families who had inherited their properties owned
the homes outright. Because they did not hold a mortgage on the property,
many did not carry flood insurance, a requirement of mortgages on proper-
ties in flood zones. Many older Biloxi residents remember the effects of
Hurricane Camille, which devastated this area in 1969. Hurricane Katrina
was weaker than Camille at landfall, but was a larger and slower-moving

                                                                                  Credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
storm, leading to a higher storm surge. Unfortunately, many of Biloxi’s
residents who experienced Camille believed Katrina to be less of a threat.                                                                                                                                                Path of Hurricane Katrina, August 2005

East Biloxi has always been home to a variety of groups and cultures that
make the community of East Biloxi uniqe. The neighborhood contains
almost all of the city of Biloxi’s landmarks, museums, and tourist attractions,
including the Ohr-O’Keefe Museum of Art, the historic downtown civic center,
and Mary Mahoney’s restaurant, where one can see the flood levels from
hurricanes Betsy and Camille marked on the walls.

East Biloxi’s residents are employed in three main areas: the military,
shrimping, and tourism. Most of the tourism jobs are through the local
casino industry. The state of Mississippi has the third-highest gaming
revenues in the country, behind only Nevada and New Jersey. The vast

                                                                                                                               Credit: Google Maps, Inset: Wikipedia
majority of the gaming revenue earned by the state comes from casinos
located along the waterfront in East Biloxi, yet families in the surrounding
neighborhoods struggle.

East Biloxi residents suffer from a higher poverty rate than any other area in
the city of Biloxi. Twenty-two percent of the households living in the flood-
plain on the Biloxi peninsula have incomes less than 150% of the federal
                                                                                  Credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio

poverty line, and most families live on less than $26,000 per year. East Biloxi
has dealt with issues of crime and drug activity in the past and even before
the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, the neighborhood suffered from a lack
of affordable housing and employment opportunities.

In short, as in many other areas along the Gulf Coast, the effects of
Hurricane Katrina in East Biloxi exaggerated already difficult social and
economic conditions.

                                                                                                                                                                       Photo credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio

Timeline to be placed below this line.

after the hurricane
Harrison County Mississippi was one of the hardest hit areas on the Gulf
Coast, and East Biloxi was one of the hardest hit areas of Harrison County.                                                                                                                                                                                    “it was all destroyed, not just
The storm took 53 lives. In East Biloxi, 3000 homes were destroyed and                                                                                                                                                                                          my property, everything in
4000 more homes were severely damaged. Businesses, schools, churches,                                                                                                                                                                                           this area. it didn’t miss no
and other infrastructure were also destroyed as a result of the storm.                                                                                                                                                                                          one. we didn’t get help right
In East Biloxi and throughout the Gulf Coast, Hurricane Katrina had                                                                                                                                                                                             away; nobody could get to
a greater impact on African-Americans, children, the elderly, and the                                                                                                                                                                                           us. when you take away the
disabled than on other populations. African Americans made up about 44%                                                                                                                                                                                         bridges, we’re just an island.
of all Katrina victims region-wide, and nearly half of all persons age 65 or                                                                                                                                                                                    it didn’t seem like it would
older living in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina reported a disability.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                be possible to be cut off from
The damage patterns observed in East Biloxi were typical of other hur-                                                                                                                                                                                          the rest of the world the way
ricanes, including damage caused by high winds, coastal flooding from                                                                                                                                                                                           it was—i mean, helicopters
storm surge, high-velocity water flows, damaging waves, and intense                                                                                                                                                                                             or something. it didn’t seem
rainfall. The storm surge waters that flooded East Biloxi were forceful but

                                                                               Phot credit: Architecture for Humanity
quickly receded, unlike New Orleans where levee system failures trapped                                                                                                                                                                                         like it should happen in
water like a bowl.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              america the way it happened.

                                                                                                                        Credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                they left us out, i’m telling
Much of the neighborhood’s housing stock had been built long before a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                you... right after, it was the
building code was adopted by the city. Many homes had been battered by
previous storms and were poorly maintained. Older construction methods                                                                                                                                                                                          one time it didn’t matter how
left homes exposed to uplift forces from surging waters, which twisted                                                                                                                                                                                          much money you had. don’t
them up off their foundations or in many cases swept them away entirely.                                                                                                                                                                                        get me wrong, it wasn’t very
Homes that maintained their structural integrity through the surge suffered                                                                                                                                                                                     long until money started
water damage and causing mold growth after the waters receded.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                making a dif ference again.
After the storm, families managed the best they could, moving in with                                                                                                                                                                                           but i n t hose t h r ee or fou r
extended family or staying away entirely until they could receive help. By                                                                                                                                                                                      days, no one was better than
August 2008, approximately 75% of the 2200 standing homes in East Biloxi                                                                                                                                                                                        the next.” client richard Tyler
had been repaired and are occupied. And on the neighborhood’s 2500
vacant lots, an estimated 100 to 200 new homes have been built, includ-                                                                                              Facing page and right: over 50% of East
ing the seven homes of the Biloxi Model Home Program. Recovery efforts                                                                                                                                                                                         “months later, it looked like
                                                                                                                                                                     Biloxi’s homes were a complete loss, as

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
continue, now three years after the storm.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      t he s t or m h a d ju s t c om e
                                                                                                                                                                     were many local churches and the i-90
                                                                                                                                                                     bridge that connected the East Biloxi                                                      t h r ough , except for t he
                                                                                                                                                                     peninsula with nearby ocean Springs.                                                       casinos and restaurants...
                                                                               Photo credit: Wikipedia

                                                                                                                                                                     Above: A survey of damaged homes in                                                       You could see the force of
                                                                                                                                                                     the neighborhood nine months af ter                                                        the storm surge everywhere.
                                                                                                                                                                     the storm. note the devastation in the                                                    You could tell there was an
                                                                                                                                                                     easternmost sections of East Biloxi                                                        absence of a lot of the normal
                                                                                                                                                                     (marked in blue).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                things that make up a small
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                city.” architect marlon black well

Timeline to be placed below this line.

a unique collaboration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Biloxi Model Home                     on Gulf coast provided housing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  for Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Program partners                      volunteers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the mission of the Hope               Warnke Community Consulting,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Coordination Center is to support     designs and implements practical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the individuals, families, small      solutions to assist nonprofit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            businesses, and neighborhoods         organizations in achieving their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            of East Biloxi, Mississippi as        missions and addressing the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            they rebuild their community in       challenges confronting the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the wake of Hurricane Katrina.        communities they serve. Warnke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the center provided case              community consultants assisted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            management and other support to       the Hope coordination center and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the Biloxi Model Home Program.        its partners by structuring the $3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  million community loan fund that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ECD, one of the nation’s leading      helped finance the Biloxi Model
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            community development                 Home Program and the repair and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Financial institutions, provides      reconstruction of more than 100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            financial products and services       other homes in the community.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            in the Arkansas, Louisiana and
Photo cedit: Architecture for Humanity and Leslie Schwartz                                                                                                                                                                                  Mississippi and tennessee. Ecd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            provided financial counseling to
One of the brightest spots in the post-Katrina landscape of East Biloxi is        With funding from individuals donations—$25 to $75 each—Architecture         For the better part of the first two years after the storm, the Hope         participating families.
the East Biloxi Coordination Relief and Redevelopment Agency (EBCRRA),            for Humanity provided seed funding establish a partnership between           Coordination Center borrowed space from a church and its staff worked on
now known as the Hope Coordination Center. Established by Biloxi city             the Hope Coordination Center and the Gulf Coast Community Design             folding chairs. In April 2007, it moved into permanent space designed by
councilman Bill Stallworth days after Hurricane Katrina, the center began         Studio. Architecture for Humanity also reached out to Warnke Community       Gulf Coast Community Design Studio.                                          Gulf Coast Community Design
its work by distributing relief supplies. At the same time, Architecture          Consultants to work with the center to support its growth and develop a                                                                                   Studio is an outreach of
for Humanity began canvassing the areas seeking community groups                  model for financing the reconstruction that lay ahead.                       In addition to housing staff of Architecture for Humanity and GCCDS, the     Mississippi State university
and local architects with which to partner. In East Biloxi, Architecture for                                                                                   center quickly became a second home to many other groups working             School of Architecture, Art +
Humanity found both.                                                              Together, the four groups worked to secure long-term funding that would      in the area. These groups included faith-based volunteer organizations,      design and uses professional
                                                                                  not only support the Biloxi Model Home Program discussed here but also       university groups, Vietnamese support groups, community development          faculty and staff to provide design
Sherry-Lea Bloodworth, a volunteer, happened upon the Hope                        the repair of dozens more partially damaged homes.                           organizations and many others.                                               services to communities impacted
Coordination Center days after the storm as she helped families evacuate.                                                                                                                                                                   by Hurricane Katrina. GccdS
Two months later, the the agency was distributing supplies,and had begun          Today the Hope Coordination Center stands out as a successful model for      The Biloxi Model Home Program is just one result of this unique collabora-
                                                                                                                                                               tion. It owes its success to the partners listed to the right and to many    partnered closely on the Biloxi
organizing volunteer groups by blocks to clear storm debris. This was a           post-disaster recovery along the Gulf Coast. It has worked with volunteer
                                                                                                                                                               more who offered assistance and support.                                     Model Home Program, identif ying
highly innovative approach that was already showing results.                      groups and other partners to undertake a wide range of community
                                                                                  renewal efforts from bringing neighbors and volunteers together to remove
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            sites, sharing information in
At Bloodworth’s suggestion, Architecture for Humanity came to visit               debris after the storm, to identifying vacant properties, to clearing and                                                                                 addition to collaborating to design
East Biloxi in October 2005 and invited David Perkes of Mississippi State         revitalizing neighborhood parks.                                                                                                                          two of the homes.
University School of Architecture, Art + Design to join us. Perkes was
working to establish an extension of the university’s community design            The Hope Coordination Center is not a standalone organization, but a         Left to right: the Hope coordination center houses the East Biloxi           Hands On Gulf Coast is a
studio on the Gulf Coast to be closer to the recovery effort.                     meeting point where key players in the rebuilding effort in East Biloxi,     coordination relief and redevelopment Agency (EBcrrA), Gulf coast            volunteer agency that provides
                                                                                  from governmental groups to volunteer organizations to nonprofits meet       community design Studio (GccdS) and Architecture for Humanity;               opportunities for Gulf coast
At the time, roads remained impassable, bridges had collapsed, gas sta-           and come together. With in-house case management and construction            EBcrrA caseworkers at their desks; Architecture for Humanity Biloxi
tions were closed, and Internet connectivity was non-existent. Volunteers         management staff, the center acts as a clearinghouse for financial aid and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            residents and people from
                                                                                                                                                               Model Home program manager Michael Grote in the design studio; a             around the world to participate
slept in tents or in their cars. Working toilets, much less a working office or   counseling, architectural design and engineering services and support
                                                                                                                                                               blackboard designed by GccdS honors volunteer groups that helped with        in the rebuilding effort. Hands
a recovery center, seemed a long way off. Nevertheless, this first meeting        from volunteer groups, all under one roof.
led to a rewarding collaboration that has lasted to this day.
                                          earlY efforts
                                          Shortly after the storm, Bill Stallworth and the Hope Coordination Center         “there were lots of people coming around the neighborhood
                                          worked quickly to establish a grid system of East Biloxi’s neighborhoods,         [after the storm]. You don’t know if it’s legit, if people were
                                          assigning a target area on the grid to each of the many relief organizations       really trying to help... i said we wanted to rebuild but we
                                          that poured into the area wanting to help. This was a critical early step          were waiting for stuff to come through, and she said she
                                          because it allowed the relief groups to work quickly within the community
                                                                                                                             would put me on the list. then someone from architecture
                                          with a minimum of confusion and overlap. The grid system was also a huge
                                          help to caseworkers at the Hope Coordination Center because they knew
                                                                                                                             for humanity called. after four or five people came out and
                                          which relief group to turn to when families visited the center asking for help.    talked to us, it was clear it was legit.” client andre robinson

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                          Another critical early step was undertaken by volunteers from Hands On Gulf
                                          Coast. Hands On Gulf Coast quickly realized that the many volunteer groups        partnership with Sustainable South Bronx to provide safety training for vol-
                                          working in the community of East Biloxi were having difficulty recognizing        unteers participating in rehabs. During the initial surveying, mapping, debris
                                          local landmarks and finding their way around the city. The group took time        removal, and demolding from January through September 2006, no serious
                                          out from other relief efforts to put up temporary street signs throughout East    injuries were recorded among East Biloxi volunteer groups.
                                          Biloxi. This small effort sped the recovery process enormously, allowing vol-
                                                                                                                            In the summer of 2006, as volunteer groups were wrapping up debris
                                          unteers to identify properties, set up meeting locations, and in general, get
                                                                                                                            removal and demolding, Architecture for Humanity helped establish
                                          around the city faster to help more people. Meanwhile, through the winter of
                                                                                                                            construction management operations at the Hope Coordination Center. That
                                          2006, volunteer efforts to clear debris and demold houses in preparation for
                                                                                                                            summer Architecture for Humanity Biloxi Model Home Program director
                                          rehabbing were in full swing.
                                                                                                                            Michael Grote also established a Building 101 training program to prepare
                                          In January 2006, the GCCDS undertook a property survey to ascertain               local volunteer leaders for further rehab and rebuilding efforts. Grote’s                                                  design services. If we encountered obstacles, we would not have to
                                          ownership and occupancy and began community planning efforts to identify          program, jokingly called Mike’s Building Fun Time, covered the basics of                                                   backtrack to the earlier selection stage of the program and begin the design
                                          priorities for rebuilding. Architecture for Humanity then brought 60 volun-       housing construction, how homes stand up, the basics of mechanical, elec-                                                  process while other homes were already in construction. Having alternates
                                          teers to East Biloxi during spring break in March of 2006, and together with      trical, and plumbing systems, and why building practices are standardized                                                  also left the program open to building more homes if more funding became
                                          the GCCDS, canvassed every single property in the target area of East Biloxi      (“Don’t do this or the house will fall down kinds of things,” says Grote). The                                             available. Of the eight families selected as either participants or alternates,
                                          to determine each property’s damage level and the homeowners interest in          classes began in late summer 2006 and are still being taught into 2008. The                                                one family dropped out, and a total of seven homes ended up relieving
                                          rebuilding.                                                                       original six-part class series was trimmed to two hour-long sessions, and                                                  funding from a variety of sources. Program tools, including forms, evaluation
                                                                                                                            Grote estimates he’s trained hundreds of volunteers this way.                                                              guidelines, and selection procedures were developed and shared with the
                                          Through the winter and spring of 2006, while volunteer groups began rehab-                                                                                                                                   Hope Coordination Center, the GCCDS, and other groups engaged in the
                                          bing homes, Architecture for Humanity explored funding options looking            Meanwhile, the partners worked together to develop a holistic approach                                                     rebuilding effort.
                                          ahead to new construction. Architecture for Humanity also arranged to send        to rebuilding that would include not only the rehabilitation of the area’s
                                          a trainer certified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in       partially damaged housing stock, but also a program to help build affordably
                                                                                                                            at elevation. After six months of development, we were funded by Oprah’s
                                                                                                                            Angel Network in June of 2006. Work began on the Biloxi Model Home
                                                                                                                            Program shortly thereafter--nearly a year after the storm hit ground. We
                                                                                                                            spent the summer of 2006 identifying prospective families and surveying
                                                                                                                            possible home rebuilding sites in East Biloxi. Caseworkers at the Hope
                                                                                                                            Coordination Center created a pool of potential clients from door-to-door
                                                                                                                            surveys within the community. The family selection process for the program

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
                                                                                                                            was rigorous and helped to establish standards for providing services based
                                                                                                                            on need. More than 100 lots where initially investigated for property owner
                                                                                  Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                            information, lot status before the storm, primary residence, and ability to
                                                                                                                            contact the property owner. Households were ranked by need. A review
                                                                                                                            panel of community members and representatives of each partnering organi-
                                                                                                                            zation selected five families and two alternates to participate in the program
                                                                                                                            in a blind review process to ensure fairness and prevent favoritism.                                                       Facing page: An early hand-drawn grid of East Biloxi divides the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       neighborhood into target areas for different nonprofit groups, as
                                                                                                                            We debated whether or not to choose alternates and develop designs for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       volunteers perform an initial damage survey. Above: Biloxi Model
                                                                                                                            these families without funding in place to build their homes. In the end
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Home Program director Michael Grote leads a Building 101 class.
                                                                                                                            we erred on the side of hope. At a minimum, these families would receive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Right: Volunteers gear up for neighborhood rehabilitation projects.
rebuilding requirements
and challenges
In the aftermath of the storm, families faced many obstacles to rehabbing
and rebuilding their homes. Many professionals and groups were eager to
                                                                                                                              The National Flood Insurance Program
help families along the Gulf Coast rebuild their homes and several large-                                                     FEMA introduced the National Flood Insurance Program in the late 1960’s,
scale urban planning studies were initiated. These planning initiatives,                                                      and the program now includes nearly 20,000 communities across the
however, did not address the questions that residents themselves faced                                                        United States and its territories. This program is aimed at reducing the
when they returned to their destroyed properties and began to untangle                                                        escalating costs of repairing damage to buildings and their contents
the complex rebuilding requirements established by FEMA for assessing                                                         caused by floods by requiring communities to implement sound floodplain
the viability of a structure and for determining the elevation requirement for                                                management plans, enabling property owners to purchase flood insurance,
new structures.                                                                                                               and by creating construction standards to mitigate the effects of flooding.
Families faced three basic questions:                                                                                         In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, many funders required families to partici-
1. Is it safe to rebuild on my lot?                                                                                           pate in the National Flood Insurance Program to receive financial aid. This
2. How will the new building codes and flood elevations affect me?                                                            meant that they needed to meet the building requirements of the program,
3. If I rebuild, what can I afford to rebuild?                                                                                which in turn meant elevating their homes.
The single biggest hurdle to rebuilding East Biloxi was money. Federal and
state reimbursements were applied slowly and erratically and involved
complicated rules and applications. A significant proportion of homeown-
ers in Biloxi were under insured or uninsured against what the insurance
calls “water-driven” (versus wind-driven) damage. Furthermore, many
homeowners discovered that due to spiking property values, labor costs,
and the price of materials, insurance policies purchased before the storm
did not cover the full cost of the damage to their homes. Even with the
variety of public and private financing assistance programs available,
thousands of families faced a gap between what they could afford and the
cost of construction.

                                                                                 Credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
Equally daunting for families wanting to rebuild were the new flood eleva-
tions proposed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
for the City of Biloxi. FEMA requires homeowners in flood zones to rebuild
elevated homes to prevent damage in future storms, and also as a zone
for requiring participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. After
Hurricane Katrina, FEMA proposed new Advisory Base Flood Elevations
(ABFE) for the City of Biloxi which were considerably higher than the

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
original 1984 Base Flood Elevations (BFE) for Biloxi. Under the new ABFE
regulations, the entire neighborhood of East Biloxi was now designated a
flood zone, meaning that all rebuilt homes would need to be elevated. How
high a home needed to be elevated depended on where the home fell on
the ABFE map. Every foot of additional elevation meant additional costs.
All of the Biloxi model homes were built to the more stringent ABFE levels
to ensure that our families would meet requirements for inclusion in the
National Flood Insurance Program.

Given the obstacles to rebuilding and the inherent risk associated with
building in a community vulnerable to hurricanes, many questioned
whether or not it made sense to support residents efforts to rebuild on
their properties. Yet absent a relocation program, East Biloxi’s residents                                                                                                                                                                                Left: A diagram developed by the GccdS helps homeowners understand how the amount of damage to their home
had little choice but to stay. Relocating homeowners from their community,                                                                                                                                                                                and the home’s location will impact their rebuilding efforts. Above: A map developed by the GccdS illustrates how
their neighborhood, and their homes would be a fatal blow to an already-                                                                                                                                                                                  high new homes in East Biloxi must be elevated to meet new Advisory Base Flood Elevation levels. rebuilt homes in
reeling community.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        East Biloxi needed to elevate from 3 to 15 feet to meet new requirements.
financing a rebuild
East Biloxi families seeking help to rebuild their homes faced many
financial hurdles which prevented them from accessing aid despite the bil-
lions of dollars of financial assistance flowing into the area. Many funders,
                                                                                                                                                                                                         GRANTS         Timetable            Amount           Purpose                 Comments                                          Source

seeking to minimize their risk and maximize their impact, restricted their                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Federal Emergency
funding to “unmet needs” or provided grants of materials rather than cash.                                                                                                                                                                                    Covers emergency        Funds provide limited support and are
This meant that families could access certain types of financial aid only if                                                                                                                                                                                  rental housing costs    typically used for relocation expenses,
                                                                                                                                                                                                         EMERGENCY      Weeks after the      Approx $5000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and immediate home      mortgage payments, food, shelter, clothing,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Agency, Enterprise
they had already begun to rebuild. The refrain: “No, no, you give first...”                                                                                                                                             storm                per family                                                                                 Corporation of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                         GRANT                                                repairs (roofs, mold    personal necessities and less often put
In response to this financial Catch-22, Architecture for Humanity enlisted                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Delta, other non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              infestation)            towards repairs.
the help of Warnke Community Consultants and Enterprise Corporation of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  profits
the Delta to create a program that would enable families to begin rebuild-

                                                                                Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
ing while they applied for other financial aid. The solution was a revolving
community loan fund. Revolving loan funds are pools of money lent or                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Homeowners unsure of which materials to
granted to community members for economic development. They are gen-                                                                                                                                                                                                                  buy to rebuild need professional advice. Ma-
erally managed at the local level. As the loans are repaid, or “recaptured,”
                                                                                                                                                                                                         MATERIALS                                            Allows families to      terials were obtained through a sponsoring
they are made available for new loans to community members. Typically                                                                                                                                                   Months after the                                              nonprofit group, which purchased materials
revolving loan funds are used to support small business development in                                                                                                                                   GRANT and      storm through to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Varied, up to    purchase materials                                                        Salvation Army, Faith
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             approx $10,000   needed to rehab and     on behalf of the family complicating the pro-     based groups
developing countries where access to capital is limited. In this case, we                                                                                                                                VOLUNTEER      present                                                       cess. Materials grant lends itself to volunteer
adapted the model to support the rebuilding effort in East Biloxi.                                                                                                                                                                                            rebuild their homes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         LABOR                                                                        labor pool rather than free market construc-
Here’s how it worked: Families received a loan, however, there was no                                                                                                                                                                                                                 tion services as typically general contractors
interest charged on the loan and families were not required to make loan                                                                                                                                                                                                              purchase materials.
payments. Instead, a lien was placed on the property. If homeowners sold
their home within five years, the loan would be recaptured at the time of                                                 And program documents used to establish the revolving loan fund were
the sale. Each year that homeowners remained in the house thereafter a                                                    shared freely to support larger rebuilding efforts along the Gulf Coast.
portion of the loan would be forgiven. If they stayed in the home for ten                                                                                                                                                                                                             Homeowners apply through case managers
years or more, the entire loan would be forgiven.
                                                                                                                          The approach was not hurdle-free. Federal financial aid programs adminis-      UNMET                                                                        to qualify. Aid comes in the form of grants or
                                                                                                                          tered by the Mississippi Development Authority (MDA) took up to two years                                                           Helps families who
                                                                                                                          and in some cases longer to make its way to families. Most families in East
                                                                                                                                                                                                         NEEDS          End of year one                                               low/no interest loans. Funds were intended        Red Cross and
These “forgivable loans,” also called “recoverable grants,” covered the                                                                                                                                                                                       had begun to
entire cost of construction. In this way the loans allowed families to begin                                              Biloxi did not qualify for phase 1 of the MDA’s Homeowner Grant Program.       GRANT          and year two after   Appox $10,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rebuild finish needed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to bridge the gap after families had begun        other nonprofit
                                                                                                                          Although more families qualified for phase 2 of the program, which had         and GAP        the storm                                                     construction with funds received from state       organizations
rebuilding while they applied for financial assistance from other sources                                                                                                                                                                                     work.
                                                                                                                          fewer restrictions, families waited a long time for their applications to be                                                                                and federal sources, but most families
(see chart, right). And because the funding was structured as a loan                                                                                                                                     FINANCING                                                                    recieved government aid after the fact.
instead of a grant, families were still eligible for other types of assis-                                                processed. Statewide, as of mid-July 2008, nearly 70% of families in the
tance. Later, as money was released to families from private and federal                                                  state’s Homeowner Grant Program are still waiting for their phase 2 funds.
assistance programs, loan funds could be recaptured and returned to
                                                                                                                          These delays had serious implications for our program. As construction
the revolving fund. A program participation agreement stipulated that if
                                                                                                                          costs escalated, it took longer to recapitalize the loan fund. This slowed                                                                                  When families are rebuilding their homes,
a family received financial aid from another source, the family would be
                                                                                                                          our work and forced us to find other sources of funding to subsidize the                                                                                    they must have the majority of the needed
required to turn those funds over to the program to help repay the original
                                                                                                                          construction of the homes. Also, because the various grant programs of         FEDERAL                                                                      funds in hand to begin construction. As
loan. Persuading families that the “loan” was more like a grant took some                                                                                                                                DISASTER
                                                                                                                          the MDA were directed to homeowners only, and because homeowners                                                                                            a result, although these federal and state
thought. Case managers stopped calling it a “forgivable loan,” and called                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Federally earmarked
it a “no-pay” loan instead. This simple turn of phrase better helped families
                                                                                                                          had to meet a number of requirements to qualify, organizations such as the     RECOVERY       Two years after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      grants represented a significant portion of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        funds administered
                                                                                                                          Hope Coordination Center were forced to approach the rebuilding effort                        the storm through                     Covers part of the      the construction budget, processing delays
understand how the loan affected them.
                                                                                                                          household by household rather than block by block.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         FUNDS                               $30,000 and                                                                                by Missisippi
                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Mississippi   to                                    cost of rebuilding      of more than a year dramatically slowed the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             $60,000                                                                                    Development
The revolving loan fund was seeded with a $3 million grant from Oprah’s                                                                                                                                                 present                                                       recovery effort. To qualify for phase one,
                                                                                                                          When homeowners did receive further financial aid, from either the MDA or      Homeowner                                                                                                                      Authority
Angel Network. Part of the fund supported new construction, including the                                                                                                                                                                                                             families needed to live in the flood zone,
                                                                                                                          from private sources, many were understandably reluctant to use the funds      Assistance
Model Homes; the rest funded rehab of partially damaged homes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        demonstrate owner occupancy, and carry
                                                                                                                          to repay the lien on their homes to recapitalize the revolving loan fund. In   Program)
                                                                                                                          part, this was because families feared they would not have funds to pur-                                                                                    homeowner insurance. These requirements
Financial assistance was coupled with design services and construction
                                                                                                                          chase appliances or furniture. When possible we responded by releasing a                                                                                    disqualified most East Biloxi applicants.
management to support the homeowner throughout the rebuilding process
and enable them to take advantage of materials grants and volunteer labor.                                                portion of the funds to provide a furniture grant to the families.

the biloxi model home fair

Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

To jump start the Biloxi Model Home Program, Architecture for Humanity                                               Chung Nguyen of MC 2 Architects                                               “it was like an architectural f lea market. we were
invited a number of established local and national firms to create proposals
                                                                                Participating architecture firms     Houston, TX                                                                    hustled into a tent, this big disaster tent, and
for homes that met the new challenges of disaster mitigation in the post-       Brett Zamore Design                                                                                                 set up at tables, and the public and the families
Katrina environment. In August 2006 these firms participated in a Model                                              PHATT Collaborative
                                                                                Houston, TX                                                                                                         all came. we were really having to sing for our
Home Fair held at the Salvation Army tent in East Biloxi. The event was                                              Miami, FL
                                                                                                                                                                                                    supper, answering questions aout the wind, how’s
open to the public and also served as a vehicle for participating families to                                        ROCKHILL and ASSOCIATES                                                        it going to stand up... we made it fun. we joked,
meet and talk with the architects one-on-one.                                   Memphis, TN
                                                                                                                     Lecompton, KS                                                                 ‘okay, now, this is called the porchdog house. if
For many in East Biloxi, both clients of the program and the general            Guild Hardy Architects, PA                                                                                          you pick this one, it comes with a porch dog.’ and
                                                                                                                     STUDIO GANG ARCHITECTS
public, the Model Home Fair was the first opportunity to see what new           Biloxi, MS                                                                                                          they’d laugh and go back to us, ‘i got two of those
                                                                                                                     Chicago, IL
elevated homes in their community might look like with new building                                                                                                                                 already!’ so it was fun- it showed them we knew a
                                                                                Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
codes and elevation requirements in effect. Architects displayed their
proposed designs for typical East Biloxi sites and a model of each home.        Jackson, MS                                                                                                         little bit about the culture.” marlon blackwell
Participating families were told to ask lots of questions and later rank the                                         the model home fair invited all local residents to view new designs for
                                                                                Huff + Gooden Architects             elevated homes. Far left: Architect Marlon Blackwell reviews his design
design teams with which they wished to work. The seven participating            Charleston, SC
                                                                                                                                                                                                   “we were hawking our wares, hoping somebody
families did not identify themselves to the architects as future clients, so                                         for the Porchdog house with future client richard tyler and his son            would pick us... the thing that impressed me
the architects pitched their solutions to and answered questions from a         JBHM Architects, PA                  Zarek. Left, top: Partipating architects gather af ter the fair. Far right:    was how candid people were. i don’t think i’d
wide range of community members, not just the seven families. There were        Biloxi and Jackson, MS               architect Maurice cox of cP+d Workshop reviews his design concept.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    experienced that before.” ray huff
no formal presentations, a deliberate choice intended to put clients and
architects on an equal footing. Architects talked with potential clients and    Marlon Blackwell Architect
community members one-on-one in the hope of creating a richer experi-           Fayetteville, AR
ence for all involved.
                                                                                CP+D Workshop
                                                                                Charlottesville, VA

“people say, ‘whaT kind of house is This?’ and i Tell
 Them, ‘This is a good house—a good, sTurdy house.
 iT’s a miracle; iT’s a blessing. ThaT’s whaT iT is.”
— clienT karen parker

                              HoME StudiES
the biloxi model homes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Credit: Marlon Blackwell Architect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Credit: Huff & Gooden Architects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Credit: Studio Gang Architects
        Credit: Brett Zamore Design

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Credit: CP+D Workshop
                                                                               Credit: MC 2 Architects

                                                                                                                                                  Credit: MC 2 Architects
                                      Parker Home                                                        Nguyen Home                                                        Tran Home                                                      Desporte Home                                                             Odom Home                                                                   Robinson Home                                                                 Tyler Home
                                      Brett Zamore Design                                                Chung Nguyen, MC 2 Architects                                      Chung Nguyen, MC 2 Architects                                  CP+D Workshop                                                             Studio Gang Architects                                                      Huff & Gooden Architects                                                      Marlon Blackwell Architect
                                      Houston, TX                                                        Houston, TX                                                        Houston, TX                                                    Charlottesville, VA                                                       Chiacago, IL                                                                Charleston, SC                                                                Fayetteville, AR

                                      4 Bedroom, 2 Bath, 1415 sq. ft.                                    4 Bedroom, 3 Bath, 2046 sq. ft.                                    3 Bedroom, 2 Bath, 1750 sq. ft.                                3 Bedroom, 2 Bath, 1400 sq. ft.                                           Gulf Coast Community Design                                                 3 Bedroom, 2 Bath, 1600 sq. ft.                                               3 Bedroom, 2 Bath, 1500 sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Studio, Biloxi, MS
                                      ABFE: 18 Feet (7 feet above grade)                                 ABFE: 19 feet (10 feet above grade)                                ABFE: 19 feet (10 feet above grade)                            ABFE: 19 Feet (10 feet above grade)                                                                                                                   ABFE: 18 Feet (5 feet above grade)                                            ABFE: 19 Feet (10 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3 Bedroom, 2 Bath, 1400 sq. ft.
                                      Foundation: Treated wood columns                                   Foundation: Concrete pier on                                       Foundation: Treated wood columns                               Foundation: Driven pile                                                                                                                               Foundation: Treated wood driven pile                                          Foundation: Steel frame on
                                      on concrete piers on continuous                                    spread footing with wood columns                                   on concrete piers on spread footing                                                                                                      ABFE: 20 Feet (13 feet above grade)                                                                                                                       concrete foundation
                                      footing                                                                                                                                                                                              Structure: 2x wood framing, engi-                                                                                                                     Structure: 2x6 wood framed
                                                                                                         Structure: 2x6 wood framing, 2x6                                   Structure: 2x6 stud framing                                    neered wood floor system                                                  Foundation: Treated wood driven pile                                                                                                                      Structure: Wood framing on steel
                                      Structure: 2x6 wood infill framing                                 tounge and groove decking and                                      between columns, roof trusses,                                                                                                                                                                                       Materials: HardiePlank siding,                                                frame, wood floor trusses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Materials: HardiePlank siding,                                            Structure: 2x Wood Framing,                                                 clerestory polycarbonate windows,
                                      between columns, roof trusses                                      finish floor diagonally laid, roof                                 2x6 tongue and groove decking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           EnergyStar windows, bamboo                                                prefab wood trusses                                                         soy-based spray foam insulation,                                              Materials: Galvalume metal siding,
                                      Materials: HardiePlank siding,                                                                                                        Materials: HardiePlank siding,                                 flooring, soy-based spray foam                                                                                                                        aluminum windows, bamboo floor-                                               EnergyStar windows, soy-based
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           insulation, galvalume panel roof                                          Materials: HardiePlank siding,
                                      bamboo flooring, galvalume panel                                   Materials: HardiePlank siding, 2x6                                 EnergyStar windows, 2x6 tongue                                                                                                                                                                                       ing, Galvalume metal roof & siding                                            spray foam insulation, bamboo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     EnergyStar windows, soy-based
                                      roof                                                               T&G finish floor, aluminum windows,                                and groove finish floor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            flooring, metal hurricane shutter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Zoning: RS–5 single family                                                spray foam insulation, engineered                                           Zoning: RS–5 single family
                                                                                                         30 yr architectural shingles                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          system, steel frame
                                      Zoning: RS–5 single family                                                                                                            Zoning: B–2 community business                                 residential                                                               wood flooring                                                               residential
                                      residential                                                        Zoning: RS–5 single family                                         Lot Dimensions: 50’ frontage                                   Lot Dimensions: 50’ frontage                                                                                                                          Lot Dimensions: 67’ frontage x                                                Zoning: RS–5 single family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Zoning: RS–5 single family
                                      Lot Dimensions: 105’ frontage x                                    residential                                                        x 113’ deep                                                    x 112’ deep                                                                                                                                           135’ deep                                                                     residential
                                      100’ deep                                                          Lot Dimensions: 100’ frontage x                                    Setbacks: 25’ front, 5’ east, 12.5’                            Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ side, 25’ rear                                                                                                                Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ side, 25’ rear                                        Lot Dimensions: 57’ frontage x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lot Dimensions: 50’ frontage
                                      Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ side, 25’ rear                             210’ deep                                                          west, 10’ rear                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     45’ deep
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     x 124’ deep
                                                                                                         Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ side, 25’ rear                                                                                            Notable For: Creative integration of                                                                                                                  Notable For: Hurricane-resistant                                              Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ side, 25’ rear
                                      Notable For: Adaptable, modular                                                                                                       Notable For: Maximizing space on                               wheelchair accessibility throughout,                                      Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ side, 25’ rear                                      clerestory windows that allow
                                      system; potential for in-law expan-                                Notable For: Design focused upon                                   a small lot; $65/sq ft. construction                           including a ramp system, passive                                                                                                                      ample day lighting to main living                                             Notable For: Porch concept flexibly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           cooling, rainwater harvesting,                                            Notable For: Pinecone inspira-
                                      sion; minimal cutting of standard                                  existing oak tree canopy as a social                               costs; large, wrap around porch for                                                                                                                                                                                  areas. The home also has a driven                                             integrating privacy and publicity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           integration of house and landscape                                        tion, connection between indoors
                                      wood members; minimal waste.                                       gathering space and an outdoor                                     socializing with neighbors inspired                                                                                                                                                                                  pile foundation with 2”x6” wood                                               between house and street; steel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and out, passive cooling using
                                                                                                         kitchen.                                                           by homeowner’s self-built FEMA                                                                                                                                                                                       stud framing and shallow sloped                                               frame construction and steel siding,
                                      Cost: $177,500; $125 per sq. ft.                                                                                                                                                                     Cost: $186,000; $133 per sq. ft.                                          breezeways, screened porches and
                                                                                                                                                                            trailer deck system.                                                                                                                                                                                                 metal roof.                                                                   shutter design; two-story living area
                                                                                                         Cost: $169,100; $83 per sq. ft.                                                                                                                                                                             windows for cross ventilation
                                                                                                                                                                            Cost: $125,500; $72 per sq. ft.                                                                                                                                                                                      Cost: $173,100; $108 per sq. ft.                                              Cost: $197,350; $132 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cost: $158,200 ; $113 per sq. ft.

architectural problem solving
Rethinking design response in a post-                                           Building code and regulatory                                                   Reweaving the social fabric                                                    These sites addressed the two most common elevation scenarios in East
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Biloxi following Hurricane Katrina.
Katrina context                                                                 considerations                                                                 How would elevating a home 12 feet off the ground affect the neighbor-         Site A: Lot size is 50’ x 170’ oriented on an east/west axis in the longer direction.
                                                                                                                                                               hood streetscape, its vital porch culture, and the crucial interconnect-       Street fronts the eastern lot lineZoned RS-5 by the city of Biloxi
Architecture for Humanity focused not only on rebuilding, but also on           Regulations in Biloxi were in flux, as new flood research and coastal con-     edness of East Biloxi blocks? How would new designs make homes                 Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ sides, 25’ rear
rethinking the way we design buildings. Typically, architects begin design-     struction research constantly reworked outdated regulations. Throughout        accessible for the wheelchair-bound? The elderly? What about affordability,    Zoned AE by National Flood Insurance Program and FEMA
ing in response to the needs of a specific client and a chosen site. In an      East Biloxi, these new codes required that homes be built stronger and         and ease of maintenance over time? What about changes in family size, or       Base Flood Elevation (BFE) is 6’ above grade (The elevation of the first habitable
effort to increase the scalability and applicability of the design proposals,   safer than ever before. All new homes had to be elevated from flooding, in     the addition of an in-law unit? Designers were challenged to be sensitive to   floor may be no less than 6’ above grade.)
Architecture for Humanity inverted this typical design scenario. With the       some areas up over 12 feet off the ground. New designs were forced to                                                                                         Typically, sites with a BFE near 6’ are in neighborhoods with existing homes that
                                                                                                                                                               these social factors as part of the design criteria. Architects and families   survived Hurricane Katrina but sustained severe damage.
help of local building officials and team members on the ground, the            address the complexities of shear, uplift, weathering, erosion, ventilation,   worked together to translate design constraints into design opportunities,
organization developed a median of criteria around which to design. Two         window protection, and accessibility. New FEMA regulations reclassi-           and in turn, each of these homes emerges with creativity, collaboration,       Site B: Lot size is 50’ x 170’ oriented on an east/west axis in the longer direction.
sample sites were chosen along with three possible family scenarios             fied East Biloxi’s properties as either Coastal (V) or Inland (A). Coastal V   and a lasting social, contextual ingenuity.                                    Street fronts the eastern lot line.
sampled from demographic surveys conducted after the storm. In addition,        properties, subject to flooding and waves, were forced to meet additional                                                                                     Zoned RS-5 by the city of Biloxi
each home design was restricted to less than 1600 square feet, with total       engineering criteria. Properties in the A category were still subject to                                                                                      Setbacks: 20’ front, 5’ sides, 25’ rear
construction costs less than $110,000. This challenge to designers meant        severe flooding, but not coastal wave forces. This required that many                                                                                         Zoned AE by National Flood Insurance Program and FEMA
that homes had to be affordable, safe, and most of all, adaptable and           homes be designed to not only withstand hurricane winds of 140mph, but                                                                                        Base Flood Elevation (BFE) is 12’ above grade (The elevation of the first habitable
responsive to social and contextual specificities of a unidentified future      also hurricane wave forces.                                                                                                                                   floor may be no less than 12’ above grade.)
client and site. Each architectural firm that participated in the model home                                                                                                                                                                  Typically, sites with a BFE at 12’ exist in neighborhoods that have experienced near
                                                                                Designs were also required to address the complex tropical coastal climate                                                                                    complete destruction as a result of Hurricane Katrina.
fair had to propose a design for each of the two sites and clearly demon-
strate how their designs thoughtfully adapted to each of the three family       of East Biloxi. The home designs had to balance the vital necessities of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Typical Client Scenarios:
scenarios. After being selected by a family, architects had the opportunity     shade, fresh ventilation, quality daylighting, moisture, and extreme weather                                                                                  An elderly female/male resident living alone
to rework the design in collaboration with their client. This unique design     protection for decades to come.                                                                                                                               A married couple with four children
delivery model produced affordable, sustainable, and reproducable--                                                                                                                                                                           An extended family with two or more unmarried adults and two children
designs--even as they catered to the needs of individual households.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Regulatory criteria: National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), Special Flood Haz-
In addition to the challenge of contextual sensitivity and adaptability, all                                                                                                                                                                  ard Area (SFHA), Base Flood Elevations (BFEs) and Advisory Base Flood Elevations
                                                                                                                                                               Below: Site A and Site B, two typical building sites in East Biloxi. these     (ABFEs), FEMA V-zone or A-zone (coastal or inland flooding scenarios), International
designs faced a strict host of regulatory, environmental, and financial                                                                                        photos were given to participating architects in the early stages of the       Building Code 2003, ICC Energy Code 2003, SSTD 10-99 Hurricane Building Code,
constraints, and most importantly, the sensitivity of re-designing homes                                                                                       program to use as they developed their design concept.                         1999, including specifications for bracing, strapping, and nail patterns.
that embraced existing cultural and neighborhood values.

Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PA R K E R H O m E
                                                                                                                                                       IN THE ARCHITECT’S WORDS
                                                                       The Parker family
                                                                       Karen Parker is a single mother of six. Her oldest two daughters are in         HAzARD mITIGATION FEATuRES: The home is engineered to withstand
                                                                       school at nearby universities, while her youngest four are busy with their      hurricane force winds up to 140 mph. Two rows of 6x6 wood columns
                                                                       middle school and high school sports teams. Karen has worked in the field       which are anchored to concrete piers 24-inches above grade are
                                                                       of early childhood education at Keesler Air Base for over 20 years. Karen       placed at 8-foot intervals along the outer length of the structures and
                                                                       was renting a house in East Biloxi and was in the process of moving into        run vertically through the entire structure of the house up to the roof.
                                                                       her late grandfather’s home and transferring the deed into her name when        The exterior of the home is streamlined to afford protection from
                                                                       the home was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. This unfortunate accident of       storm winds. There are no roof overhangs protecting from possible
                                                                       timing made her ineligible for state financial aid as she could not prove she   uplift. Roof trusses, designed for the unique steep roof pitch, also
                                                                       was an owner occupant of the house when Katrina struck.                         protect the home from interior pressure and uplift. Windows are
                                                                                                                                                       modestly sized to allow for plywood blinds.
                                                                       The design
                                                                       The Blox is a long, narrow, rectilinear wood-frame structure inspired by two
                                                                       Southern prototypes: the shotgun and the dogtrot. Constructed from stan-        AFFORDABILITy: At a cost of $137 per ft 2, the Parker home’s
                                                                       dard wood members and common construction materials with a minimum              affordability lies in the simplicity of wood frame construction and
                                                                       of cutting, the Blox is a flexible kit of parts that can be customized easily   the modest finishes. The simple diagram of its section allows for a
                                                                       to the particular needs of a family. Just
                                                                       as a train can be assembled by adding
                                                                       or removing individual cars, a Blox house     “the actual process was challenging—you learn so much.
                                                                       can be planned by choosing just the right
                                                                       elements to meet the space needs of
                                                                                                                     it’s full-on; they involve you. i learned how they constructed
                                                                       its residents. The basic Blox module is       it and why, from the foundation to the roof.” karen parker
                                                                       16-feet wide and is elevated above flood-
                                                                       hazard levels on two rows of wood piers,
                                                                       placed at 12-foot intervals along the                                           repetitive construction process from start to finish. The home is
                                                                       outer length. The main module contains                                          designed around modest, off-the-shelf materials: two types of roof
                                                                       the kitchen, dining, and living areas, plus                                     trusses, three types of standard sized windows, two door sizes and
                                                                       bedrooms for Karen and her younger
                                                                                                                                                       standard cabinets. As an option for long term affordability, the studio
                                                                       sons, while across a covered walkway
                                                                                                                                                       unit has the potential to convert to a rental for additional income.
                                                                       in the studio unit are two bedrooms for
Credit: Brett Zamore Design; Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                       Parker’s daughters.
                                                                                                                                                       SuSTAINABILITy: Roof trusses and floor beams are prefabricated
                                                                       The narrow and linear aspect of the                                             off-site and then shipped to the site, minimizing waste. Galvanized
                                                                       Blox House and its component porches                                            roofing was selected for its longevity and also to reflect the harsh
                                                                       allow the Parker family to experience a                                         heat of the summer. Windows promote cross-ventilation and allow
                                                                       more direct relationship to their natural
                                                                                                                                                       the homeowner to regulate light and circulation. The underside of the
                                                                       surroundings. Even with the height-
                                                                                                                                                       home is insulated with soy-based foam insulation, providing insulation
                                                                       above-grade requirements, outdoor
                                                                                                                                                       and a vapor barrier against the sub-floor. Prefab cabinets do not
                                                                       living spaces on porches and regularly spaced windows along the length of
                                                                       corridors afford constant views to private gardens, play areas, and public
                                                                                                                                                       contain formaldehyde, and the bathroom tile is LEED-certified.

                                                                       The simplicity of the house in its shape is reminiscent of the many typolo-
                                                                       gies of homes that line the Gulf coast. Its modern modesty fits right in to
                                                                       the East Biloxi landscape.
                                                                                                                                                                                        “karen’s main concern during the design process was the
                                          parker                                   The construction process
                                                                                                                                                                                         narrowness of the home: 16 feet. she didn’t want to feel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Parker Home Specs

                                                                                   This house was the first to go into construction after the storm. We opted                                                                                                Architect: Brett zamore Design
                                                                                   for volunteer labor to save time and money, but the use of volunteers did
                                                                                   not come without challenges. Scheduling was a major hurdle—contractors
                                                                                                                                                                                         as if she was living in a fema trailer. living in a space           Houston, TX.

                                          plan                                     find it difficult to oversee volunteer schedules, and the labor force avail-
                                                                                   ability and skill level changes week to week. The level of sophistication
                                                                                   of many the of the designs also proved to be a challenge to the use of
                                                                                                                                                                                         that was 10 feet wide for over two years had been painful.
                                                                                                                                                                                         i promised her this wouldn’t be the case.” brett Zamore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Brett zamore began his training
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             as an undergrad at yale university
                                                                                   volunteer labor. Coordinating a timeline for donated construction materials                                                                                               (1994) and received his masters
                                                                                   was also difficult.                                                                                                                     METAL ROOF                        of Architecture at Rice university
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FELT UNDERLAYMENT                 School of Architecture (1999). Brett
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             has worked for the renowned offices
                                                                                   What we learned                                                                                                                         1/2” COOL-PLY DECKING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BATTED INSULATION                 of michael maltzan Architecture in
                                                                                   The slope of the roof and the related interior vaulted ceiling added a                                                                  MANUFACTURED SCISSOR TRUSS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Los Angeles, California and Carlos
                                                                                   premium to the cost of construction. We chose a screw-down metal roof                                                                   5/8“ GYPSUM BOARD                 Jimenez Studio in Houston, Texas. In
                                                                                   to get the most from the premium paid to roof at the required slope, an                                                                                                   2003, Brett established Brett zamore
                                                                                   atypical 16 over 12 pitch. The interior 12 over 12 slope and 13-foot ceilings                                                                                             Design. Work can be viewed at www.
                                                                                   created a dramatic and important vaulted space in the main living spaces,                                                                                                 brettzamoredesign.com
                                                                                   but also meant a higher cost for installing the interior drywall. Some interior                                                         GALVANIZED ALUMINUM GUTTER
                                                                                   spaces called for 8’ doors--a custom-made item that we paid a premium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6” HARDIE PLANK SIDING O/         Engineer: Carlos A. Gutierrez, PE of
                                                                                   for. Slight changes to the pitch of the roof and and the addition of tran-                                                              5/8” BUILDING FELT O/             CSF-PE Service Consulting Engineers,
                                                                                   soms over standard-sized doors could make the design more affordable                                                                    PLYWOOD SHEATHING O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BATTED INSULATION                 www.csfengineers.com
                                                                                   while maintaining ceiling height for cooling the home and the striking visual
                                                                                   appeal of tall entrances and ceilings.                                                                                                  2X6 STUD WALL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1/2” GYPSUM BOARD                 Contractors: Volunteer labor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BIOBASED SPRAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FOAM INSULATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Landscape designer: Brett zamore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6X6 THROUGH COLUMN                Design
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2/4 PRESSURE TREATED SOLE PLATE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2 2X12 GIRDER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           TJI FLOOR JOIST                   ABFE: 18 feet (7 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           3 2X12 STRINGERS @ PERIMETER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Hard cost: $135,920
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BAMBOO FLOOR O/                   money/materials grants: $41,577.59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FELT UNDERLAYMENT O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1 1/8” PLYWOOD SUB FLOOR          Total costs: $177,498; $125 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SONO TUBE FOUNDATION              True cost: $145,000; $102 per sq. ft.
                                                   Photo credit: Leslie Schwartz
  Credit: Brett Zamore Design

                                                                                                                                                                     Credit: Nicole Joslin
Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NGuyEN HOmE
                                                                                                                                      IN THE ARCHITECT’S WORDS
                                                         The Nguyen family
                                                         Upon returning home after the hurricane evacuation, Cong Nguyen, a           mITIGATION FEATuRES: The two homes designed by Chung Nguyen
                                                         shrimp boat mechanic, found that his house had floated 50 feet away and      of mC2 Architects, the Nguyen home and the Tran home, are more
                                                         into to the middle of their street. In their new home, the Nguyen family     resistant to hurricanes than traditional wood frame houses. They are
                                                         most desired space to grow and room to breathe. Cong and his wife, Oanh      engineered to withstand 140 mph winds and are raised 9-feet above
                                                         Luong, have four teenage children: three boys, Danh, Phu, and Qui; and       grade to meet FEmA regulations. metal clips and hurricane straps
                                                         one girl, Bach Yen. For two and a half years after the storm, Cong and his   are specified at every truss, column, and wall to resist uplift during
                                                         family cooked meals outside in a makeshift kitchen because the FEMA          strong winds, and the homes’ plywood sheathing is nailed using the
                                                         trailer the family had was too small and got too hot.                        nail pattern recommended by FEmA regulations.

                                                         The design
                                                         The new Nguyen Residence is a shifted,
                                                         double bungalow arranged to embrace
                                                         the existing oak tree located in the center
                                                                                                         “we were the only vietnamese architects in the group.
                                                         of the property. It was under this tree         the families needed our help understanding the program,
                                                         that Cong cooked egg rolls and shrimp
                                                         fried rice for more than 30 team mem-           putting their trust in the program. i don’t think the
                                                         bers from Architecture for Humanity and
                                                         MC2 Architects during their first site visit.
                                                                                                         vietnamese families in east biloxi expected this kind of
                                                         The design of the new Nguyen home               help. there was definitely a level of comfort that these two
                                                         puts that beloved oak at the center of a
                                                         large back porch, outdoor kitchen area,          families shared with us.” chung nguyen
                                                         and vegetable garden. The familiy will
                                                         continue to grow much of their own food
                                                         on the property.                                                             AFFORDABILITy: Both the Nguyen and the Tran homes cost less
                                                                                                                                      than $83 per square foot with help from generous donations. The
                                                         The home is organized into two
                                                                                                                                      homes use off-the-shelf members and other materials that are locally
                                                         sleeping bungalows connected by a
                                                                                                                                      available, and streamlines traditional wood framing techniques,
                                                         living room, dining room, and kitchen.
                                                                                                                                      cutting labor costs. The structure of the homes is designed as a
                                                         The front bungalow houses the master
                                                         bedroom and master bath, while the
                                                                                                                                      modular system that can be installed as a kit of parts. The kit of parts
                                                         back bungalow contains three bed-                                            members can be mass-produced or repeated. Finally, the homes use
                                                         rooms and two baths for the children.                                        a 2 x 6 inch tongue and groove sub-floor as the finished floor, saving
                                                         The kitchen opens both to the dining                                         time and material.
Credit: MC 2 Architects; Photo credit: Alan Richardson

                                                         room and the back porch, which rings
                                                         the oak tree and is large enough to                                          SuSTAINABILITy: The homes use passive solar design principles
                                                         be a room in itself. The Nguyens can                                         proven by past vernacular examples. Windows encourage cross
                                                         simply slide the kitchen doors open and carry the food directly outside.     ventilation and minimize the use of air conditioning while offering
                                                         The family looks forward to enjoying family dinners on the back deck         good security. Low-maintenance, durable HardiePlank siding is used
                                                         underneath the oak tree for years to come.                                   throughout the homes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 “the home is designed for cooking outside and eating
                                          nguYen                                   The construction process
                                                                                                                                                                                                 outside. cong’s outdoor kitchen has the whole works.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Nguyen Home Specs

                                                                                   This was the first project put out to bid with a general contractor. This
                                                                                   structural system is similar to that of the Parker home, except it uses a 6’ x 6’
                                                                                   spread footing for each pedestal. Through soils testing, we learned the soils
                                                                                                                                                                                                  he can deep fry, he can do everything he wants to do,             Architect: mC 2 Architects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Houston, TX. Chung Nguyen, Chuong

                                          plan                                     here were naturally wet and had a much smaller bearing capacity. As a fix,
                                                                                   we poured mud slabs using a 3500 psi pea gravel and slurry mix, then, the
                                                                                   next day, set steel reinforcing bars and poured the footings and pedestals.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 everything he can do inside.” chung nguyen                         Nguyen, Jason Logan, Joe Kellner

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ASPHALT SHINGLE                    The Nguyen brothers, Chuong Q.B.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2 LAYERS FELT PAPER
                                                                                    The structural system has treated 6 x 6 columns on a 12’ x 18’ bay which                                                                     1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and Chung Q.B., were born in Saigon,
                                                                                   continue through to the top plate of the stud wall. This column system is                                                                     BATTED INSULATION                  Viet Nam in 1961 and 1962. During
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5/8” GYPSUM BOARD CEILING          the years following their formal
                                                                                   emphasized by the exterior siding treatment, which on the 12’ bay side
                                                                                   allows for the installation of a 1 x piece of trim at each column. This make                                                                  2X10 ROOF FRAMING                  education, the brothers worked and
                                                                                   the infill siding very clean and easy, as there is little to no cutting of the sid-                                                           2X6 FRAMING                        traveled throughout the u.S., Europe
                                                                                   ing material and there are no butt joints. A unique feature to the structural                                                                                                    and Asia. In 1997, Chuong and Chung
                                                                                   system is the use of 2 x 6 (tongue & groove) floor decking in lieu of 3/4”                                                                                                       created their design/build firm mC 2
                                                                                   plywood/osb. Not only is this a stronger material, it can also serve as the                                                                                                      Architects in Houston, TX.
                                                                                   finished floor. The premium paid to replace plywood/osb for this subfloor is                                                                  2X6 DOUBLE TOP PLATE               www.mC2Architects.com
                                                                                   made up for by not purchasing and installing a finish floor material.                                                                         BATTED INSULATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2X6 STUD WALL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1/2” GYPSUM BOARD WALLS            Engineer: Carlos A. Gutierrez, PE of
                                                                                   What we learned                                                                                                                               2X6 TONGUE & GROVE NAILED          CSF-PE Service Consulting Engineers,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 DIAGONALLY SAND & SEAL TO FINISH   www.csfengineers.com
                                                                                   Chung Nguyen of MC2 Architects has developed a very viable affordable
                                                                                   model for construction and did not loose architectural spirit in the process.                                                                 BATTED INSULATION

                                                                                   Two small detail modifications would make the design of this home repli-                                                                      2X12 TREATED FLOOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Contractors: House Calls
                                                                                   cable in many parts of the Gulf Coast region: 1) a driven pile system, which                                                                  JOISTS W/JOIST HANGER              Construction Co., 228-436-9030
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 @ 16” OC
                                                                                   would have been a more affordable system to deal with the soil conditions
                                                                                   and the shallow water table at the home site, and 2) a simple modification                                                                                                       Landscape architect: Paul
                                                                                   to the order in which we build the main floor beams and girders.                                                                              HARDIE PLANK SIDING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hendershot Design
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 VAPOR BARRIER                      www.paulhendershotdesign.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 feet (10 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2X6 SOLE PLATE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 3 2X10 STRINGERS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hard cost: $119,765
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    money/materials grants: $49,346
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 6X6 TREATED THROUGH PILE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Total costs: $169,119; $82 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2 2X8 TREATED DIAGONAL BRACING     True cost: $155,500; $76 per sq. ft.
                                                   Photo credit: Leslie Schwartz
  Credit: MC 2 Architects

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2’6” SONO TUBE FOUNDATION

                                                                                                                                                                         Credit: Nicole Joslin
Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 TRAN HOmE
                                                                   The Tran family                                                               local building requirements required a lot of collaboration with Architecture
                                                                                                                                                 for Humanity staffers. “The best thing about Architecture for Humanity is
                                                                   Hiep Tran and his wife Lang Tho Do, both in their mid 60s, immigrated         that they were able to cut through the red tape and make the connections
                                                                   to the United States from Vietnam under the Humanitarian Operation            with the local government. That was all in place for us, so we could focus
                                                                   Program, helping families of veterans who fought on the American side         on what we do best with the design,” explains Chung Nguyen.
                                                                   during the Vietnam War. They have lived in Biloxi for over 10 years and had
                                                                                                                                                 Getting to know the Nguyen and Tran families and helping them home
                                                                   just paid off their mortgage when Hurricane Katrina destroyed their home.
                                                                                                                                                 was a life-changing process for the architects. “My view of architecture
                                                                   Both Mr. and Mrs. Tran were due to retire in late 2005, but Katrina changed
                                                                                                                                                 has changed quite a bit since the program,” says Chung Nguyen. “It’s the
                                                                   those plans; the couple has returned to work in the shrimping industry
                                                                                                                                                 emotional part of it--you know that you can make a difference. With all of
                                                                   to help pay for new expenses due to the storm. The Trans have grown
                                                                                                                                                 the lessons that we’ve learned, we hope that these two homes can serve
                                                                   children in the area who may at times live at home with their parents.
                                                                                                                                                 as a model for the future development of Biloxi.”

                                                                   The design
                                                                   The Tran property is a small corner lot that measures 50’ by 100’ with a
                                                                   25’ setback in the front and smaller setbacks around the other perimeters,
                                                                   leaving a only small allowable building area. To fit the constraints of the
                                                                   site, the architects designed a single long bungalow made up of two mod-
                                                                   ules. The home’s front module contains
                                                                   the living room, dining room and kitchen,
                                                                   while the back sleeping module contains        “thank you to architecture for humanity. east biloxi
                                                                   three bedrooms, two baths, and a small
                                                                   utility room. Diagonally-laid tongue-and-       residents [need] architecture for humanity to make a better
                                                                   groove floors throughout strengthen the
                                                                   structure and saved on construction costs.
                                                                                                                  life, to make it different in the community.” hiep Tran
                                                                   After the storm, Mr. Tran had collected
                                                                   hurricane debris from the surrounding
                                                                   neighborhood to build a large porch
                                                                   alongside his FEMA trailer, which

                                                                                                                                                                    not final
                                                                   doubled the family’s space for cooking
                                                                   and other chores. Inspired by Mr. Tran’s
                                                                   resourcefulness, the architects designed
Credit: MC 2 Architects; Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                   a large porch wapping around the entire

                                                                   southwest corner of the house. The new
                                                                   L-shaped porch faces both Division and
                                                                   Collier streets and is shaded by a large
                                                                   and welcoming magnolia tree that survived
                                                                   the storm. The porch not only provides
                                                                   much-needed shade but will allow the
                                                                   Trans to relax in the breeze and interact with their neighbors.

                                                                   For the architects, the most difficult part of the design process was deal-
                                                                   ing with the shortage of labor. “The casinos get all of the subcontractors,
                                                                   rather than the family housing projects,” says Chung Nguyen. Another
                                                                   hurdle to overcome was the distance from the design offices to the
                                                                   construction site. “We wish we were closer to learn from our mistakes and
                                                                   help make the process more efficient. Even so we traveled to Biloxi six or
                                                                   seven times during the construction,” says Chung Nguyen. Negotiating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   “our approach was to use design to solve problems in the long
                                                                          tran                             The construction process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   term. fema is not very flexible. when you’re small and you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tran Home Specs

                                                                                                           The Tran house suffered from major delays due to a handful of factors,
                                                                                                           including poor, wet soil conditions for driving piles (similar to problems
                                                                                                           encountered at the nearby Nguyen home) and scheduling issues with the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   work on this scale, you can be nimble.” chung nguyen               Architect: mC 2 Architects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Houston, TX. Chung Nguyen, Chuong

                                                                          plan                             contractor. The local contractor, a neighborhood community member who
                                                                                                           also lost his home in the storm, was contracted to build both the Nguyen
                                                                                                           and Tran homes. After suffering long delays, we faced the difficult ques-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ASPHALT SHINGLE ROOF O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2 LAYERS FELT PAPER O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nguyen, Jason Logan, Joe Kellner

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING         The Nguyen brothers, Chuong Q.B. and
                                                                                                           tion of whether to try to replace this contractor on the project. In the end,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chung Q.B., were born in Saigon, Viet
                                                                                                           Architecture for Humanity’s program manager didn’t see a large upside to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BATTED INSULATION              Nam in 1961 and 1962. During the
                                                                                                           removing the contractor from the project, instead we stepped in to help
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5/8” GYPSUM BOARD CEILING      years following their formal education,
                                                                                                           manage the remaining work and available funds to prevent further delays.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the brothers worked and traveled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       PRE-FAB WOOD TRUSS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      throughout the u.S., Europe and Asia. In
                                                                                                           What we learned                                                                                                                             2X12 TRIPLE BEAM               1997, Chuong and Chung created their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      design/build firm mC 2 Architects in
                                                                                                           The importance of asking more questions at the outset in order to bet-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       6X6 TREATED THROUGH PILE       Houston, TX. www.mC2Architects.com
                                                                                                           ter plan for and understand our contractor’s schedule was an important
                                                                                                           lesson, particularly when multiple projects are running concurrently with
                                                                                                           the same contracting team. The Tran home benefited from lessons learned                                                                     2X6 DOUBLE TOP PLATE           Engineer: Carlos A. Gutierrez, PE of
                                                                                                           on the Nguyen project, as the two homes are similar in detailing and overall                                                                2X6 TONGUE & GROVE NAILED      CSF-PE Service Consulting Engineers,
                                                                                                           construction process. The delays experienced had little to do with the                                                                      DIAGONALLY SAND & SEAL         www.csfengineers.com
                                                                                                           design, and we feel the simplicity of this home has the potential to make for                                                               TO FINISH, ACTS A STRUCTURAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BRACING, DECKING AND
                                                                                                           a very replicable model for affordable housing along the Gulf Coast.                                                                        FINISHED FLOOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Contractors: House Calls Construction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Co., 228-436-9030
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BATTED INSULATION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2X12 TREATED FLOOR             Landscape architect: Paul Hendershot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       JOISTS W/JOIST HANGER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       @ 16” OC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Design, www.paulhendershotdesign.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2X6 STUD WALL                  ABFE: 19 feet (10 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BATTED INSULATION

                                                                                                                             not final
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1/2” GYPSUM BOARD WALLS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hard cost: $102,890
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      money/materials grants: $22,594
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       HARDIE PLANK SIDING O/         Total costs: $125,484, $72 per sq. ft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       VAPOR BARRIER O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING         True cost: $119,650, $68 per sq. ft.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3 2X10 STRINGER
Credit: MC 2 Architects

                                                                                 Credit: MC 2 Architects

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2 2X8 TREATED CROSS BRACING

                                                                                                                                                                                           Credit: Nicole Joslin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2’6” SONO TUBE FOUNDATION

                          Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESPORTE HOmE
                                                                                                                                         IN THE ARCHITECT’S WORDS
                                                         The Desporte family
                                                         The Desportes have longstanding ties to East Biloxi. Despite husband            HAzARD mITIGATION FEATuRES: The Desporte Ramp-House is
                                                         David’s worsening congestive heart failure, he managed to stay active           designed to respond to FEmA’s new flood elevations. By raising the
                                                         playing music for his church and enjoying his many children and grand-          living level 10 feet above grade, the occupants are protected from the
                                                         children in the area. Since the storm, the family has gone through a lot.       risk of hurricane flooding and water can move freely under the house,
                                                         Through it all, David’s only concern was to see that his wife Jeanette had      safeguarding the structure’s integrity. The ramp makes the house
                                                         the home she deserved. David reached this goal and was able to move into        completely handicap-accessible and also constitutes an additional
                                                         his completed home just two days before he passed away in April of 2008.        safe exit route.
                                                         Jeanette now lives in her home with her daughter and granddaughter.
                                                         Nearby family members visit often.
                                                                                                                                         AFFORDABILITy: The Desporte Ramp-House is a small house on a
                                                                                                                                         narrow lot, designed for an elderly couple to age in place. The main
                                                         The design                                                                      unit has 1150 ft2 of enclosed heated and cooled space, in order to
                                                                                                                                         keep its cost within budget range. Covered and screened porches on
                                                         This project demonstrates how the demands of wheelchair accessibility
                                                         and the new FEMA construction standards can be integrated into the
                                                                                                                                         three sides will provide 400 ft2 for additional activities at a lesser
                                                         design of new homes in the traditional
                                                         neighborhoods of East Biloxi. It meets
                                                         the challenge of entering a residence at
                                                                                                      “my home has got to be the most beautiful thing you’ve ever
                                                         an elevation of 10 feet by creating a ramp    seen! it’s weird for my neighborhood, but it’s beautiful.
                                                         that gently takes one up and through the
                                                         site to the main living level above. CP+D    it’s long and it has a lot of windows... it’s got a washer and
                                                         Workshop partnered closely with Gulf
                                                         Coast Community Design Studio to refine
                                                                                                       dryer and two more bedrooms—and you go up ten feet to
                                                         the design.                                   get inside!”        desporte
                                                         The house is shaped by this movement
                                                         into the elevated living space. The ramp                                        cost. The short-span wood frame construction can be built with
                                                         moves up through the center of the                                              traditional methods and local labor.
                                                         house, an unusual solution that creates
                                                         a dynamic and accessible path for both
                                                         able-bodied and wheelchair-bound                                                SuSTAINABILITy: The Desporte Ramp-House is designed with a
                                                         residents. An adjacent screened stair                                           number of sustainable features which derive from local building
                                                         meets the elevated screened porch. The                                          traditions, addressing orientation, natural ventilation, and shading
                                                         screened stair/porch ventilates through                                         from the sun. Deep-set porches protect the interior of the house from
Credit: CP + D Workshop; Photo credit: Leslie Schwartz

                                                         a clerestory screen opening and can                                             direct sun exposure on the east, south and west sides. A screening
                                                         be opened into the house with interior                                          system of horizontal slats define the porch perimeter and further
                                                         windows, providing fresh air movement.                                          protects from direct sunlight. The interior ceiling height of 13 feet
                                                         The ramp and stair activate an open                                             at the north wall allows for the insertion of a series of operable
                                                         ground level porch underneath the living                                        clerestory windows to provide natural cross ventilation of all spaces.
                                                         area. The floor of the raised terrace is made of steel grating to allow both    In addition to these features, all the materials and components of the
                                                         rain and filtered sunlight onto the ground for a shade garden. The kitchen,     house, from the cement fiber siding to the HVAC units, were proposed
                                                         living room and bedroom open out onto the terrace. The L shaped roof col-       to respond to a wide range of sustainability criteria.
                                                         lects rain water which is stored in an elevated cistern to provide gardening
                                                         water. Perhaps, most importantly, a 300 ft2 accessory living area has been
                                                         integrated into the main home, providing the opportunity for possible rental
                                                         income at a later time.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               the architects were giving us ideas...f looring, what
                                                                        desporte                     The construction process
                                                                                                                                                                                                               furniture to put in, ‘cause you know we lost everything...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Desporte Home Specs

                                                                                                     The first challenge this house faced came long before the first bit of dirt was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CP+D Workshop, Charlottesville, VA,
                                                                                                     moved. It was a challenge at the Zoning and Planning office. Two major
                                                                                                     components of the design attempted to challenge current local requirements.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               they talked about the building and how our electrical bill      maurice Cox and Giovanna Gaifione-Cox;

                                                                        plan                         The first was the use of land up to the property line to build the ramp, which
                                                                                                     required permanent structure and foundation outside of the zoned building
                                                                                                     setback. The second was the use of a detached accessory dwelling unit.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               would be down.” Jeanette desporte                               Gulf Coast Community Design Studio,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Jody Rader and David Perkes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ASPHALT SHINGLE ROOF O/
                                                                                                     Both of these issues relate to common questions for homeowners rebuilding                                                                  2 LAYERS FELT PAPER O/         maurice D. Cox is an Associate
                                                                                                     in the area: How does one with limited mobility get into a home 10-feet off                                                                1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Professor of Architecture at the
                                                                                                     the ground? And can rental income help a family afford the cost of keeping                                                                                                university of Virginia, School of
                                                                                                     and insuring a home?                                                                                                                       BATTED INSULATION              Architecture. He recently completed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5/8” GYPSUM BOARD CEILING
                                                                                                     We knew the solutions to these issues would require a leap of faith from                                                                                                  eight years on the Charlottesville
                                                                                                     local officials. After a few rounds of rejections, we found a compromise that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PRE-FAB WOOD TRUSS             City Council and served as mayor of
                                                                                                     still addressed these needs. In the end, we were not able to build an acces-                                                               2X12 TRIPLE BEAM               Charlottesville from 2002-2004. He
                                                                                                     sory rental unit and instead integrated this unit into the main home. The final                                                                                           now serves as the Director Design at
                                                                                                     ramp design featured some smart solutions that were able to preserve most                                                                  6X6 TREATED THROUGH PILE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the National Endowment for the Arts in
                                                                                                     of the integrity of the original design. A plan to use a landscaped berm as                                                                                               Washington D.C.
                                                                                                     part of the ramp was abandoned due to setback requirements and cost.                                                                                                      www.communityplanningdesign.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2X6 DOUBLE TOP PLATE

                                                                                                     There were other changes to the design of the house made in the planning                                                                   2X6 TONGUE & GROVE NAILED
                                                                                                     phase. Gabion walls were removed, and we decided against using Structural                                                                  DIAGONALLY SAND & SEAL         Engineer: Roger Roepke, PE Black Rock
                                                                                                     Insulated Panels (SIPs) for the main structure of the floor and roof systems                                                               TO FINISH, ACTS A STRUCTURAL   Engineering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BRACING, DECKING AND
                                                                                                     because of the cost of SIPs compared to traditional framing. Also, the use                                                                 FINISHED FLOOR
                                                                                                     of mini-split HVAC units came at a premium too high to afford. Once the
                                                                                                     design was finalized, we began construction in December 2007. The home                                                                     BATTED INSULATION              Contractors: Cox & Carr Construction
                                                                                                     was constructed very quickly due to its simple detailing and materials.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2X12 TREATED FLOOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                JOISTS W/JOIST HANGER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                @ 16” OC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Landscape Architect: Paul Hendershot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Design, www.paulhendershotdesign.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2X6 STUD WALL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BATTED INSULATION              ABFE: 19 feet (10 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/2” GYPSUM BOARD WALLS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hard cost: $144,813
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                HARDIE PLANK SIDING O/         money/materials grants: $41,211
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VAPOR BARRIER O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING         Total costs: $186,024, $133 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               True cost: $149,200, $107 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 2X10 STRINGER
Credit: CP+D Workshop

                                                                                                                                                                                       Credit: Nicole Joslin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 2X8 TREATED CROSS BRACING
                                                                                   Leslie Schwartz

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2’6” SONO TUBE FOUNDATION

                        Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ODOm HOmE
                                                                                                                                                        home and a long side porch along the south side of the house that can
                                                                        The Odom family                                                                 be accessed from each of the three bedrooms. In order to meet budget-
                                                                        Louise Odom and her family had been living in Biloxi for 57 years and in        ary constraints, the in-law flat planned for the back of the property was
                                                                        their home for 21 years prior to Katrina. Louise is a single mother. Her        removed from the final design and a number of other modifications were
                                                                        23-year-old daughter, Kishma, studies child development at Jeff Davis           made.
                                                                        College. They both help take care of seven-year-old Dajontae, Louise’s
                                                                        grand-nephew, who is entering the second grade (His request: a computer
                                                                        for his room in his new home.) Pre-Katrina, nearly every property on their
                                                                        street belonged to Louise’s relatives. While many of her cousins and
                                                                        siblings are coming back, Louise is the first to rebuild and hopes to inspire   IN THE ARCHITECTS’ WORDS
                                                                        more family members to return to their community. During construction,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    not final image
                                                                        Louise lived first in a FEMA trailer, which made her sick, and later in a
                                                                        Mississippi cottage.
                                                                                                                                                        HAzARD mITIGATION FEATuRES: The home features a driven wood
                                                                                                                                                        pile foundation with a stacked floor system. The detail is similar to
                                                                                                                                                        foundations found in other communities along the Gulf Coast. This
                                                                        The design                                                                      system is fast, economical, and very strong and has been adopted by
                                                                        The Odom home, because of its high
                                                                        elevation requirements and the original
                                                                        intention to include an in-law flat rental     when i was living in the fema trailer, i was struggling. i
                                                                        unit, was one of the most challenging
                                                                        homes in the program. The Gulf Coast
                                                                                                                       was crying every day. i have some friends, and we would
                                                                        Community Design Studio partnered              get together and sit out in the dark—there wasn’t any lights—
                                                                        with Studio Gang Architects to refine
                                                                        the design, which evolved greatly from         and just be company for each other.” louise odom
                                                                        the original concept and required new
                                                                        thinking and a new approach.
                                                                                                                                                        the GCCDS as a typical detail for homes. manufactured trusses were
                                                                        The original design for the Odom family                                         used for some of the longer interior spans that open up the rooms of
                                                                        uses the pine cone as an inspirational                                          the house.
                                                                        organic model and investigates the venti-
                                                                        lation potential of vernacular architectural
                                                                                                                                                        AFFORDABILITy: The design employs common construction techniques
Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanit; Model: Studio Gang Architects

                                                                        elements like breezeways, prefab trusses,
                                                                        and operable shutters. A main breezeway                                         making it comparably affordable at $113 per ft 2 .
                                                                        was designed to bring cool air into the
                                                                        sleeping chambers, and perimeter veran-                                         SuSTAINABILITy: The house is flanked on the south side with a long
                                                                        das (deepest on the south and east) both                                        side veranda which has access from each bedroom. The overhang
                                                                        shade the house and offer indoor-outdoor                                        for the veranda helps shade the south windows during the summer
                                                                        living options.                                                                 months, keeping the heat gain down while allowing natural light into
                                                                        The prefabricated trusses were designed                                         the house. The front entry of the house is through a screened porch.
                                                                        to provide ample space under the floor for utilities and create interior        These outdoor spaces add protection from direct sun and solar
                                                                        height to effectively ventilate the interior spaces through the stack effect.   heat gain. The entire home is insulated with soy-based spray foam
                                                                        Operable shutters were designed to be closed along the porch perimeter          insulation. We created a conditioned space in the attic, which helps
                                                                        to protect the house during hurricane season and could be opened                the mechanical system work less while still controlling the humidity.
                                                                        regularly to capture prevailing breezes and meet the occupants’ desires for     In addition, we chose ceramic tile and a glueless floating engineered
                                                                        shade and privacy.                                                              wood flooring to cover the entire house floor. We also used a low VOC/
                                                                                                                                                        low odor paint that is made of acrylic, which means adhesion is not
                                                                        Although the design evolved greatly, the final design respects many of          an issue, as it can be with other products. The range and furnace are
                                                                        these elements, including a large screened porch along the front of the         natural gas and other kitchen equipment is EnergyStar rated.
                                                                                  A design evolution
                                                                                  The Pinecone home’s original design, shown at left, was innovative in a
                                                                                  number of ways, from the geothermal HVAC system to the use of tapered
                                                                                  wood piles and prefab trusses. The Pinecone project team from Studio
                                                                                  Gang Architects left no stone unturned in their attempt to find a way to
                                                                                  incorporate these innovations affordably. One of the biggest obstacles was
                                                                                  the 13-foot elevation requirement. “It was almost like building two struc-
                                                                                  tures,” explains architect David Gwinn. “The cost of the home, of course,
                                                                                  but also the cost of all the work just getting the house 13 feet in the air.”

                                                                                                                                                                   Credit: Gulf Coast Design Studio
                                                                                  Structural connections between the foundation and the trusses proved
                                                                                  complex to install, and it was challenging to find an affordable solution for
                                                                                  keeping exposed trusses from corroding in the harsh, moist salt air. Using
                                                                                  stainless steel to make all the structural connections for the floor and parts
                                                                                  of the roof was not affordable.

                                                                                  The design specified tapered column/pile supports, but it proved infeasible
                                                                                  to drive a tapered pile fat end down. The operable louvers and clerestory
                                                                                  windows were elegant but also involved a lot of detail work, for example
                                                                                  to make a proper seal in the event of a hurricane. And the shutter systems
                                                                                  proved too expensive—something that was an obstacle for several of the
                                                                                  model home designs. We had difficulty accessing the skilled labor needed
                                                                                  to do the work for the geothermal HVAC system, and the system was dif-
Credit: Studio Gang Architects

                                                                                  ficult to afford for just a single house.

                                                                                  The team worked hard to overcome these obstacles, but after several pric-
                                                                                  ing sessions, we reluctantly decided the Pinecone was not going to hit our
                                                                                  price point. Architecture for Humanity and the GCCDS worked to incorpo-
                                                                                  rate many ideals from the original Pinecone house. This process gave us
                                                                                  opportunities to integrate lessons learned about structural and foundation
                                                                                  systems into the final home’s design, shown in two different stages at right.

                                 “louise brought such optimism to the table, which was
                                  remarkable after seeing the total devastation of her
                                  neighborhood. as she showed us around, she kept saying,

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Credit: Gulf Coast Design Studio
                                 ‘here’s my neighbor’s place, i hope they move back in...

                                                                                                                                                                   Credit: Gulf Coast Design Studio
                                 i hope my cousin can move back in.’ her hope for the
                                  future was always very close in our minds as we worked.”
                                 david gwinn, studio gang architects

                                 Photo Credit: Architecture for `Humanity staff
                                                 What we learned                                                                                         “when the house is done, the first thing i’m going to do is       Odom Home Specs
                                                 The Odom home taught us a great deal about what was and was not                                         have my pastor come over and bless the house. and then
                                                 affordable, and though some of the obstacles to the original design were
                                                 not overcome, this creates the opportunity to continue testing new thinking
                                                                                                                                                         i’m going to cook up a whole lot of food!” louise odom            Studio Gang Architects, Chicago,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           IL: Jeanne Gang, David Gwinn, mark
                                                 and new approaches on other homes.                                                                                                                                        Schendel, Kara Boyd; Gulf Coast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Community Design Studio, David
                                                 There was respect and admiration from the GCCDS design team for the                                                                        ASPHALT SHINGLE ROOF O/        Perkes and Price Taggart
                                                                                                                                                                                            2 LAYERS FELT PAPER O/
                                                 very sensitive gestures of the original design, including a long side veranda                                                              1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING
                                                 and a large screened porch in the front of the house, with a front stair
                                                 rising through that space that increased the home’s connection to the                                                                                                     Studio Gang offers design service
                                                 outdoors. Studio Gang Architects and the GCCDS also made concerted                                                                         BATTED INSULATION              with a commitment to excellence.
                                                                                                                                                                                            5/8” GYPSUM BOARD CEILING
                                                 efforts to render the underside of the building integrated with and as                                                                                                    Jeanne Gang established the practice
                                                 elegant as the rest of the structure.                                                                                                      PRE-FAB WOOD TRUSS             in 1998 with a focus on combining
      Phot Credit: Leslie Shwartz

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sustainability and good design. Good
                                                                                                                                                                                            2X12 TRIPLE BEAM
                                                 The final evolution of the Odom home design kept the generous front porch                                                                                                 design stems from intelligence,
                                                 and screened it in. It also preserved one of the side verandas with a deep                                                                                                creativity, good communication,
                                                 overhang. The use of conventional HVAC over geothermal, the choice of off-                                                                 6X6 TREATED THROUGH PILE       enthusiasm, and hard work. Studio
                                                 the-shelf residential windows over storefront or other more expensive units,                                                                                              Gang Architects is recognized
                                                 and the use of more conventional framing systems all helped to make the                                                                    2X6 DOUBLE TOP PLATE           for these qualities throughout all
                                                 end project affordable.                                                                                                                                                   phases of architectural design from
                                                                                                                                                                                            2X6 TONGUE & GROVE NAILED
                                                 The desire to innovate and explore new materials and methods must be                                                                       DIAGONALLY SAND & SEAL         programming and schematic through
                                                                                                                                                                                            TO FINISH, ACTS A STRUCTURAL   construction. www.studiogang.net
                                                 balanced with a great deal of flexibility and open-mindedness. In the                                                                      BRACING, DECKING AND
                                                 end, success came in choosing to focus on a single innovative aspect to                                                                    FINISHED FLOOR
                                                 explore—the integration of the outdoors—and committing to fully executing                                                                                                 Engineer: Roger Roepke, PE Black
                                                 that one aspect, as opposed to losing the budget by attempting several                                                                     BATTED INSULATION              Rock Engineering,
                                                 challenging ideas at once.                                                                                                                                                www.blackrockengineering.com
                                                                                                                                                                                            2X12 TREATED FLOOR
                                                                                                                                                                                            JOISTS W/JOIST HANGER
                                                                                                                                                                                            @ 16” OC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Contractors: Cox & Carr Construction
                                                                                                                                                                                            2X6 STUD WALL
                                                                                                                                                                                            BATTED INSULATION              Landscape architect: Paul Hendershot
                                                                                                                                                                                            1/2” GYPSUM BOARD WALLS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Design, www.paulhendershotdesign.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ABFE: 20 feet (13 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                                                                                            HARDIE PLANK SIDING O/
                                                                                                                                                                                            VAPOR BARRIER O/
                                                                                                                                                                                            1/2” PLYWOOD SHEATHING         Hard cost: $103,479
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           money/materials grants: $54,575
      Phot Credit: Leslie Shwartz

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 2X10 STRINGER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Total costs: $158,230, $113 per sq. ft.

                                                                                                                                 Credit: Nicole Joslin
                                                                                                                                                                                            2 2X8 TREATED CROSS BRACING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           True cost: $145,175, $89 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2’6” SONO TUBE FOUNDATION

Photo Credit: Architecture for `Humanity staff
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ROBINSON HOmE
                                                                                                                  IN THE ARCHITECT’S WORDS
                                   The Robinson family
                                   Audrey and Andre Robinson have both made a life out of volunteering            HAzARD mITIGATION FEATuRES: The Robinson home is engineered
                                   to help others. Andre works for FEMA in logistics and has become his           to better withstand hurricane force winds. The polycarbonate
                                   mother’s caretaker as she battles breast cancer. Their home had been           clerestory windows that wrap around the house have 200 times
                                   in the family for three generations spanning almost 80 years. The home         greater impact resistance compared to typical glazing.
                                   would have likely survived Hurricane Katrina if an 18 wheeler truck parked
                                   nearby had not slammed into the home, destroying it.
                                                                                                                  AFFORDABILITy: Straightforward structural systems using primarily
                                                                                                                  off-the-shelf materials keep costs down to approximately $108 per
                                   The design                                                                     square foot.
                                   The Robinson home creates a set of “in-between” zones between
                                   the landscape and the building and between the inside and outside.
                                   Perimeter vegetation helps connect the home with the surrounding
                                   landscape despite the obstacle of the
                                   home’s elevation. The strategy for the
                                   interior spaces was created with flex-       “we liked the whole deck atmosphere of the house. we
                                   ibility at heart: expansion, contraction,
                                   tension, and inclusion. Opportunities
                                                                                wanted to be different. it’s not like every other house. it’s
                                   for interaction are built into the design,   kind of like a beach house, but back in the neighborhood.”
                                   making it easy to be in one space and
                                   feel connected to another. In-between
                                   zones can be reconfigured and activities
                                   can overlap.
                                                                              andre robinson

                                                                                                                  SuSTAINABILITy: The fiber cement panels used for the exterior
                                                                                                                                                                                          not final image
                                   Large porches along the front and                                              cladding are durable and affordable. Properly insulated metal roofing
                                   side of the home allows for singular                                           is another sustainable, affordable component of the design. The
                                   activities and moments of respite. The                                         metal roof reduces energy consumption by lowering the cooling
                                   porches provide shade and protec-                                              loads. It is a highly durable product, has a high reclamation rate,
                                   tion from the heat of the day. And                                             and is recyclable. The polycarbonate clerestory windows are high-
                                   views from the porch and through the                                           performance, aesthetically appealing, energy efficient, and allow
                                   windows draw the landscape up into
                                                                                                                  for soft natural light. They are also recyclable. The landscape
                                   the house.
                                                                                                                  plan assists in solar protection within the house and in absorbing
                                   The house features post and beam                                               harmful emissions into the atmosphere. Over a dozen new trees
                                   construction with polycarbonate siding.                                        have been placed on site, and the gardens help create a harmonious
                                   The roofing is a low-slope metal roof                                          environment inside and out.
                                   system on prefabricated roof trusses.
                                   Clerestory windows made of impact-resistant glazing and impact-
                                   resistant polycarbonate sheeting allow soft natural light to float down into
                                   the interior spaces.
Credit: Huff & Gooden Architects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             “it’s important that the housing celebrates the potential of
                                                                             robinson                                  The construction process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             biloxi, that it looks forward to creating a new community.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Robinson Home Specs

                                                                                                                       The Robinson project is a very long narrow house with a sleek roofline.
                                                                                                                       The roof is simple in form but was challenging to build due to its subtle
                                                                                                                       slopes. This project also needed to address sensitive family issues to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             during the design process, it was very important to us            Huff + Gooden, Charleston, SC: Ray
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Huff, Jaimie Abel, Connie J. Kaplan

                                                                             plan                                      determine whether a 3 bedroom or 2 bedroom home could be built. In the
                                                                                                                       end, the importance of the 3rd bedroom to the family required us to face
                                                                                                                       the budget head-on and and make decisions that would save us the money
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             that it not look like a reaction to the storm, that it not look
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             buttressed or fortified...we didn’t want it to be stigmatized     Ray Huff and mario Gooden formed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Huff + Gooden Architects LLC in
                                                                                                                       we needed to make the house as large as it was. Suggesting a change to
                                                                                                                       the foundation system from poured concrete columns to driven wood piles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             as a replacement house.” ray huff                                 1997 as a collaborative architecture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               practice dedicated to the design
                                                                                                                       helped save some of the money needed to make the third bedroom a real-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and exploration of architecture
                                                                                                                       ity. The Robinson family also contributed some of their own funds to allow                                                             METAL ROOF O/
                                                                                                                       the third bedroom to remain part of the design.                                                                                        FELT UNDERLAYMENT O/             and its relationships to culture and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PLYWOOD SHEATHING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              BIOBASED SPRAY                   www.huffgooden.com
                                                                                                                       What we learned                                                                                                                        FOAM INSULATION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2X10 ROOF JOIST
                                                                                                                       The major lessons underscore the importance of a common starting point                                                                                                  Engineer: 4SE Inc., www.4seinc.com
                                                                                                                       for issues of affordability. The Robinson design went through a number of                                                              DUO-GARD CLEAR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              STORY WINDOWS
                                                                                                                       edits to streamline the design and bring it into the range of what was pos-
                                                                                                                       sible budget-wise. We exchanged several materials, fixtures, and details                                                                                                Contractors: Cox & Carr Construction
                                                                                                                       for more simple replacements while attempting to preserve the original
                                                                                                                       spirit of the design. Windows were changed from storefront-style windows,                                                                                               Landscape architect: Paul Hendershot
                                                                                                                       which integrated with the clerestory windows above, to more conventional                                                               3 2X10 HEADER                    Design, www.paulhendershotdesign.
                                                                                                                       residential units at conventional sizes. The roofing material was changed
                                                                                                                       from a standing seam metal roof to a screw-down corrugated metal panel                                                                 4X8 HADRIE PANELS O/
                                                                                                                       to maintain the budget while keeping the basic design. The final lesson                                                                VAPOR BARRIER O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PLYWOOD SHEATHING
                                                                                                                       was the clerestory windows, which were generously donated to the project                                                                                                ABFE: 18 feet (5 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                       and would not have been affordable otherwise. The desire for unconven-                                                                 FINISHED FLOOR O/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              UNDERLAYMENT O/
                                                                                                                       tional materials must be tempered with the need for affordability from the                                                             PLYWOOD DECKING
                                                                                                                       beginning of the design process.                                                                                                       2X6 WOOD FRAMING                 Hard cost: $118,758
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              BIOBASED SPRAY                   money/materials grants: $54,382
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              FOAM INSULATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Total costs: $173,140, $108 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/2” GYP BOARD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               True cost: $159,500, $98 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2X10 FLOOR JOIST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 2X12 WOOD GIRDER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8X8 DRIVEN PILE
Credit: Huff & Gooden Architects

                                                                                        Photo credit: Leslie Shwartz

                                                                                                                                                                                                     Credit: Nicole Joslin
                                   Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       T y L ER H O m E
                                                                                                                                                      its own access from the rear stair. Upstairs, a bunk room has capacity for up
                                                                    The Tyler family                                                                  to four children and sits adjacent to a space that can serve as a play area, a
                                                                    Richard Tyler has lived in Biloxi his entire life and works as a commercial       sitting area, or a small study.
                                                                    and residential painter. Tyler inherited the home he lived in prior to Katrina,   The PorchDog shutter systems are unique to this house, and allow the entire
                                                                    a home that survived Camille in 1969. During Katrina, the waters rose high        building to be closed off to inclement weather and respond to daily climate
                                                                    in his neighborhood. His home was destroyed by a church floating into the         and solar needs.
                                                                    home and knocking it down. He lives with two of his sons, Richard Jr. and
                                                                    Zarek. Zarek, then just 14, swayed his father’s decision making in favor of
                                                                    the PorchDog design at the model home fair.
                                                                                                                                                      IN THE ARCHITECT’S WORDS
                                                                    The design
                                                                                                                                                      HAzARD mITIGATION FEATuRES: The house presents solid north- and
                                                                    The proposition of raising a home 12 feet above the ground introduces             south- facing walls against the coastal wind and operable east and
                                                                    several issues that challenge the traditional notion of the Gulf Coast            west façades to the street and rear yard. The west façade’s three
                                                                    streetscape and affiliated porch culture. Among these is the very concept of      large roll-up shutters can be raised and lowered independently for
                                                                    having a porch that is an extension of the
                                                                    interior space. In addition, the massing of
                                                                    a proportionally tall house speaks more          “when i looked at the book the architect had, the houses
                                                                    of isolation than of the construct of a
                                                                    meaningful social space. The PorchDog             he’d built, they all looked just so beautiful from the inside.
                                                                    house addresses these challenges while
                                                                    providing the requisite protection from a
                                                                                                                     there’s lots of light and it feels so open. outside, it looks
                                                                    potential Category 4 storm surge event.          like something from the Jetsons... it’s got a porch all the
                                                                    The PorchDog house is a refuge that              way around; that’s probably my favorite part.” richard Tyler
                                                                    still opens itself to the social structure of
                                                                    the city. While the house is raised above
                                                                    the ground and essentially open at the                                            shading and protection, and the East side’s operable shutter system
                                                                    ground level, it incorporate a small stoop,                                       protects the glazing with independently sliding louvered panels. The
                                                                    entry stair, enclosed storage volume, a                                           steel structure is designed to absorb the force of a Category 4 storm
                                                                    parking area, and a stair descending from                                         surge event and the floor level has been raised to meet new FEmA
                                                                    the rear deck. The PorchDog house is                                              standards for flooding. Additionally, all materials below the 12-foot
                                                                    designed for any East-West facing site                                            flood line are rot and moisture resistant, durable, and able to be
Credit: Marlon Blackwell Architect; Photo credit: Leslie Schwartz

                                                                    regardless of slope and/or vegetation. The                                        repaired if damaged.
                                                                    house presents solid North and South
                                                                    facing walls against the coastal wind and                                         AFFORDABILITy: The house has a structural steel frame and metal
                                                                    operable East and West façades to the                                             skin that aren’t normally practical for affordable housing; however,
                                                                    street and rear yard that can be closed in                                        the savings in construction time and life-cycle cost make it a viable
                                                                    threatening weather. The primary interior                                         solution. The small footprint and stacked plan reduces site impact,
                                                                    spaces access two separate porches. On                                            decreases foundation size, and makes it adaptable to a variety of sites.
                                                                    the street side, both the primary master bedroom above and the great room
                                                                    below enjoy controlled exposure to the street. In contrast, a tall rear porch
                                                                                                                                                      SuSTAINABILITy: The entire house is designed around the use of
                                                                    connects the outside with the dining, sitting and sleeping spaces inside.
                                                                                                                                                      structural steel and wood stud infill. The structural components,
                                                                    Through simple plan manipulation, the PorchDog house offers a wide range          skin, are prefinished, durable, and do not rot or mold. The exterior
                                                                    of living configurations. The room in the southwest corner of the downstairs      shutters are reduce glare and solar heat gain, and operable windows
                                                                    plan can be a bedroom, a master bedroom, a home office, or a “granny flat.”       throughout take advantage of coastal breezes. Soy-based foam
                                                                    Moving the hallway door west of the bathroom to the eastern side of the           insulation makes an eco-friendly and air-tight enclosure, and one of
                                                                    bathroom creates a master suite or an entirely separate unit complete with        the primary interior finishes is bamboo.
                                                                                                                                                                           “when we met with richard to allow him to make
                                                tYler               The construction process
                                                                                                                                                                           adjustments to the design, he was very passive. later that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tyler Home Specs

                                                                    This home lived many lives before the first shovel of dirt was dug. The
                                                                    design of the project required lots of heavy gauge steel, and we spent
                                                                    many months exploring alternative building systems and materials such
                                                                                                                                                                           day, when we went to his home, he relaxed with us. we              marlon Blackwell Architect,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fayetteville, AR

                                                plan                as metal building components and light-gauge metal framing. We finally
                                                                    settled on a concrete footing with driven wood subpiles supporting metal
                                                                    columns. This home suffered from some construction delays due to lead
                                                                                                                                                                           explained that we were down here to streamline it for him
                                                                                                                                                                           and his family. and he said, ‘whatever you do is better            About the Architect: marlon Blackwell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              was born in munich, Germany in
                                                                    times for certain specialty materials not typical of affordable housing and
                                                                    due to the difficulty in planning work schedules around lead times. At press
                                                                                                                                                                            than what i have now.’... this is a client who just wants a       1956. He is an architect and tenured
                                                                    time, the target move-in date for Richard and Zarek is October 2008.                                   place to live. it’s like, wow, okay.” architect marlon blackwell   professor at the university of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Arkansas in Fayetteville, Arkansas.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Work produced from his private
                                                                    What we learned                                                                                                                      METAL ROOF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              practice, marlon Blackwell, Architect,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              has received national and international
                                                                    It proved to be only marginally more expensive to build a two-story struc-
                                                                    ture as opposed to a single story. The house pushes the limit structurally                                                           BIO BASED SPRAY                      recognition through AIA design awards
                                                                                                                                                                                                         FOAM INSULATION
                                                                    and requires several components for which we pay a premium, including                                                                                                     and several architectural publications.
                                                                    the steel foundation, the shutter systems at the front and rear, and large                                                           11-7/8” TJI 150 WOOD                 www.marlonblackwell.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                         I-JOISTS @ 16“ OC
                                                                    expanses of glass, which also necessitated additional structural strength
                                                                                                                                                                                                         2X4 WOOD FRAMING
                                                                    modifications. Moving forward, we believe there is an opportunity to                                                                 BIOBASED SPRAY                       Engineer: Roger Roepke, PE Black Rock
                                                                    explore other approaches to steel frame construction to help it become a                                                             FOAM INSULATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Engineering; Tatum Smith Engineering,
                                                                    viable, affordable choice for homes in this region.                                                                                                                       Inc., www.tatumsmith.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                         FINISHED FLOOR 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                         18” PARALLEL CHORD
                                                                                                                                                                                                         WOOD TRUSSES                         Contractors: Cox & Carr Construction
                                                                                                                                                                                                         METAL SHEATHING

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Landscape architect: Paul Hendershot
                                                                                                                                                                                                         FINISHED FLOOR 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Design www.paulhendershotdesign.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                         BIOBASED SPRAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                         FOAM INSULATION

                                                                                                                                                                                                         18” PARALLEL CHORD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ABFE: 19 feet (10 feet above grade)
                                                                                                                                                                                                         WOOD TRUSSES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hard cost: $116,500
                                                                                                                                                                                                         CONCRETE BLOCK                       money/materials grants: $80,852
                                                                                                                                                                                                         STORAGE UNIT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Total costs: $197,352, $132 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         HSS8X4X1/4 COLUMN WITH
     Credit: Marlon Blackwell Architect

                                                                                                                                                                                                         12X12X1/2 BASE PLATE                 True cost: $197,000, $132 per sq. ft.

                                                                                                                                                   Credit: Nicole Joslin
                                                        AFH Staff

Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
“There’s someThing very imporTanT abouT helping
a person back inTo a home. iT’s noT JusT, ‘hey, you
 geT plan b, Two bedrooms and a baTh.’ There are
a whole loT of Things ThaT geT ignored when you
 do ThaT, Things like handicap ramps and oTher
accommodaTions for The nexT sTep in a fa mily’s
 life.” —mich a el groTe

                           dESiGn dEtAiLS
                                          Sustainability in architecture, as in most subjects, is a concept that is                                                     to realize insurance savings vary from insurance company to insurance          edge energy efficient products in the marketplace, so we chose smart
                                          dependent on context. Our definition of sustainability, in the context of the                                                 company and have unfortunately proven to be a challenge to incorporate         but relatively low-tech energy efficient products in the areas of insulation,
                                          Biloxi Model Home Program, was rooted in a long-term view of the survival                                                     into our designs. As housing recovery centers and the GCCDS learn more         appliances, and mechanical systems.
                                          of a particular home.                                                                                                         about this issue, however, they hope to pass along insurance savings to
                                                                                                                                                                        new homeowners.                                                                Convention was often our best design partner when we faced issues of
                                          This definition of sustainability takes into account both questions of ethical,                                                                                                                              sustainability and affordability. Convention is the result of a slow, conserva-
                                          sound building practices and questions of long-term affordability. We ask                                                     Sustainable choices were not always clear and did not always come easy         tive approach to what works and continued, incremental improvement of
                                          not only “Will this home sustain past the next storm?” but “What condition                                                    during the design process. Meeting our budget goal for the initial construc-   methods and processes. These principles aren’t sexy, but they’re what get
                                          will this home be in ten years from now, or 50 years from now?” Simply                                                        tion of the homes sometimes came at odds with our other goal of long-          homes built.
                                          put, there were two main, related challenges for this program: elevating                                                      term affordable living. Making smart choices was a balancing act. Overall,
Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                          homes to new flood zone elevations, and building homes strong enough to                                                       we focused our limited resources on two tangible goals: durability and
                                          resist hurricane force winds. Wind load factors compound the challenge                                                        energy efficiency. We knew we could not afford many of the most cutting-       Below: the nguyen Family in their garden.
                                          of elevating a home because of the need to resist greater forces further
                                          away from the point at which the home is anchored to the ground. We
                                          addressed these issues, often going beyond the necessary code, without
                                          creating a premium for the work.

                                          Sustainability to us also means rebuilding within the existing infrastructure
                                          of East Biloxi. This is not only where our clients live, but where they go to
                                          school, attend church, and share time with their families and their neigh-
                                          bors. The prospect of developing new affordable housing for East Biloxi
                                          residents in a more traditional model, such as a greenfield development on
                                          a site away from the homeowners property, puts a low value on community
                                          and the social networks that survive even a disaster of the magnitude of
                                          Hurricane Katrina. While developing on a single property away from the
                                          existing community may have offered a small amount of savings, those
                                          savings disappear when one takes a broader, more long-range view of the
                                          cost of this type of development, factoring in issues such as time spent
                                          away from the family commuting to school and work, the difficulties of
                                          implementing affordable transportation systems, and the costs of gasoline
                                          consumption. We chose instead to rebuild on the homeowners existing lots.
                                          This lot by lot infill development approach took more thought in terms of
                                          the legal and financial structure of the program, but allowed us to preserve
                                          the fabric of the community.

                                          For us, affordability was as important as sustainability. The designs in the
                                          Biloxi Model Home Program could not burden homeowners with additional
                                          costs when we knew their budgets were already strained due to the storm,
                                          its aftermath, and the impact on the local economy and job market. We
                                          wanted our families to be secure in the knowledge that they would be able
Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                              Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                          to live in these homes as long as they wanted to, and that they would be
                                          able to afford their electricity bills, their gas bills, their insurance, and the
                                          routine maintenance the home requires. At every stage, we asked our-
                                          selves if we could see our clients living comfortably and affordably in their
                                          homes well into the future. Energy efficient choices, including often insulat-
                                          ing the homes to above what was required by code, sometimes involved
                                          higher up-front costs but were the right choice to make. In addition,
                                          design choices that made these homes stronger and more storm-resistant
                                          could, in a few cases, help the homeowner save money on flood and wind
                                          insurance. The complex elevation and building requirements necessary
As discussed in Chapter 1, collaboration was an overall key to success of the                                                  sides of trucks as he traveled in the neighborhoods. Grote’s best advice is
Biloxi Model Home Program. This collaboration extended beyond the staff of                                                     to start asking and calling around, and keep one’s ear to the ground. “It’s
the Hope Coordination Center to the engineers, contractors, building supervi-                                                  tough terrain out there,” says Grote. “Contractors don’t make a lot of money
sors, and other construction professionals of the program.                                                                     building just one house—that’s taking on a lot of liability and risk. I heard a lot
                                                                                                                               of ‘good luck, buddy’ when people saw the budget we had to work with. I got
Engineer Roger T. Roepke, PE, of Black Rock Engineering says that the                                                          blown off a lot.”
success stories of the Biloxi Model Home Program all involved these critical
elements:                                                                                                                      Laying the groundwork and reaching out to local contractors happened well
                                                                                                                               before the model homes were ready to break ground—in some cases, up
1. A design that used conventional building materials. “Reinventing the wheel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                               to a year ahead of time. “We can’t roll up in town with all these designs, be
is time consuming and costly,” says Roepke. “Different is not always better.”                                                  ready to build, and expect that it’ll happen and happen on budget,” says
                                                                                                                               Grote. Getting local contractors involved early allows time for collaboration
2. A collaborative approach that got local contractors involved early in the
                                                                                                                               and discussion. “The contractors will be really honest—they’ll say ‘this will be
process and offered them clear ways to share their input. “The collegial
                                                                                                                               more expensive because of this,’ “ explains Grote. “There’s often a separation
atmosphere brought out many cost effective and timely solutions. Ideas from
                                                                                                                               that happens between the architect and engineer and the contractor. But
local contractors were often faster, cheaper, and stronger than the original,”
                                                                                                                               this is a process where everyone involved needs to have an equal seat at the
says Roepke.
                                                                                                                               table,” says Grote.
3. Architects and engineers taking the time
to explain why. “When you tell a designer         it’s clearly a difficult process and you have to be willing
or a builder that there’s 20,000 pounds
of lateral force on a building, it gets their     to compromise. You have to embrace the obstacles, figure
attention,” says Ropeke.
                                                  out what’s most important to the project, and push that
4. Flexibility and honesty. Engineers,
architects, and builders need to be able to
                                                  one thing... embrace the necessity of the economics. the
rely on input from others and focus on the        budget’s not a negative; it’s a positive. some beautiful things
overall goal of getting families home. The
ability to adapt designs based on feedback        can be done because of it.” david gwinn, studio gang architects
from local contractors and engineers is
important. “That’s the give and take—
hearing someone else say to you, ‘that’s a good idea, but it won’t pencil’ isn’t
easy but it’s important,” says Roepke.

5. When something works—like driven wood pile foundation systems—stick
with it. “After about a year on the program, we learned how to install a cost

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity
effective foundation system,” Roepke explains. “Every time we tried to do
something else, we blew the budget.”

Lessons from local contractors
                                                                                     Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Photo Credit: Architecture for Humanity
One of the most challenging aspects of the Biloxi Model Home Program has
been labor. When volunteer labor isn’t used, local contractors must be found
who can do the job on time and on budget. Because there is still so much
rebuilding to be done in the area, it’s very difficult to connect with contractors
who are willing and able to get houses built. Affordable housing comes at the
bottom of the pay scale behind projects like bridges, casinos, and condos.

Biloxi Model Home program manager Mike Grote dove into the process of                                                                                                                                                                                          Facing page: Engineer roger ropeke works out solutions with the construction
finding local contractors early on after the storm. He asked around while                                                                                                                                                                                      management team at their Hope coordination center offices. Above and right:
on job sites doing rehabs, and literally jotted down phone numbers off the                                                                                                                                                                                     the wood pile driving equipment at work.
                                 Foundations are the first line of focus for elevated homes. The Biloxi           The soil variation from site to site was evident. For example, the Parker                                                                                                                          We worked out three distinct foundation methods and found driven wood
                                 Model Home Program professionals explored different foundation materi-           foundation was dug with ease. The soil stayed intact and compact for work                                                                                                                          piles provided the best combination of strength and cost-efficiency.
                                 als for reasons of performance, aesthetics, building code requirements,          below grade.

                                                                                                                                                                                               Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                 and, most of all budget. We discussed solid concrete columns, steel                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Concrete pedestal on footing
                                 columns on concrete footings, driven wood piles, wood columns on con-            The Nguyen and Tran homes’ soil was very loose and wet. The footings                                                                                                                               This structural system, designed with CSF Engineering in Houston and
                                 crete footings, and nearly everything in between. There were three distinct      filled with water, and we needed to pour a mud slab to get the footing dry                                                                                                                         Chung Nguyen of MC2 Architects of Houston, was used on the Nguyen, Tran
                                 issues that came into play: 1) structural requirements 2) waterproofing,         enough to pour.                                                                                                                                                                                    and the Parker Residence. We used 6’ x 6’ spread footing or a 4’ continu-
                                 according to specifications from the National Flood Insurance Program,                                                                                                                                                                                                              ous footing for each pedestal to bear on. Each column was connected
                                 and 3) budget. Not surprisingly, the budget issue was the main limiting           Bracing                                                                                                                                                                                           to the pedestal via a “wet set” hold down anchor, and each column ran
                                 agent.The overall goal was always to present a model of affordability,                                                                                                                                                                                                              continuously through the walls of the house to the top plate of the exterior
                                 sustainability and aesthetics.                                                   The higher a home is elevated, the greater the need to brace the founda-                                                                                                                           wall. This system created a stronger frame and a stronger connection from
                                                                                                                  tion system. The bracing transfers lateral loads to the foundation in an                                                                                                                           wall to floor to foundation.
                                                                                                                  effective manner.
                                 East Biloxi’s Geology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Concrete foundation with steel columns
                                                                                                                  Typical bracing for our homes consisted of Knee Bracing and ‘X’ bracing.
                                 The typical soil in East Biloxi is a loose sand and silt composition with a                                                                                                                                                                                                         This system was used on the Tyler home and was designed to minimize the
                                 very shallow water table, sometimes only a few feet below grade. This soil                                                                                                                                                                                                          number of points the building would bear on. By doing this, the required
                                 type makes driving piles an easy choice for foundations.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            load-bearing and lateral load capacity of the columns rose. Using steel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     columns became a necessity due to the required capacity.
                                 These types of soils, common in coastal areas, tend to be susceptible to
                                 scour or erosion. Driving a pile many feet into the ground is a safeguard                                                                                                                                                                                                           The foundation for this design requires large footings with heavy mats of
                                 against the erosion of the soil supporting the foundation. If the soil sup-                                                                                                                                                                                                         reinforcing bars and bolts for the steel to connect to. Reinforcing bars and
                                 porting a foundation is compromised, it could easily mean a total structural                                                                                                                                                                                                        bolts are much larger than average. With routine maintenance, this is very
                                 failure. This happened to many structures close to the shoreline of East                                                                                                                                                                                                            strong and stable system over time, but it is difficult to construct in a cost-
                                 Biloxi due to wave action during the storm.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         effective manner for affordable housing models.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Driven wood piles

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Credit: Huff + Gooden Architects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     This structural system, refined for East Biloxi through a collaboration of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     contractors, engineers and designers, was used on the Desporte, Robinson,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and Odom homes. It has the ability to drive in most soils, does not disturb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the natural soil condition and compaction, and doesn’t require excavation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Driven piles are about 1/3 less expensive than the least expensive masonry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     foundation. The system is structurally strong and easy to detail to the floor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     system. Piles are driven at least 8 ft into the ground, sometimes deeper,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         robinson home, driven wood pile foundation detail. diagrams not to scale.   depending on how high the home is elevated. This offers scour protection.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wood piles must be coated with either ACQ or CCA, both types of wood

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     If desired, a flat concrete slab poured around the piles underneath the house
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     will stiffen connections and offer additional protection against scour. The

                                                                                                                                                                                               Photo credit: Architecture for Humnaity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     budget did not allow for this slab work in the initial construction phase, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the home remains extremely strong and safe without it due to the fact that
Credit: Black Rock Engineering

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the load on the piles was calculated with a safety factor of three.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Piles can be repaired cost effectively in the event of another catastrophic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     storm. The normal method is to cast a sister pile in concrete next to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     original driven wood pile.
                                  Knee brace (desporte home)                                     cross brace (odom home)                 Knee brace (odom home)
                                  diagrams not to scale.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Driven wood piles have become the preferred foundation method for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     architects of the Gulf Coast Community Design Studio.
                                                                floor sYstems
                                                                                                           The Biloxi Model Home Program tested two different types of floor                                                                            Tongue-and-groove subfloors
                                                                                                           systems and several different floor materials. We found a stacked floor
                                                                                                           with a hold down system offered a number of distinct advantages. We                                                                          Chung Nguyen of MC2 Architects used a flooring system in which a 2x6
                                                                                                           also tested a unique rotated tongue-and-groove subfloor that increased                                                                       pine tongue-and-groove subfloor, rotated 45 degrees to the joists below, is
                                                                                                           stability and saved money.                                                                                                                   used as the finished floor. This diagonal orientation created an attractive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        visual effect while minmizing material and increasing lateral stability.
                                                                                                           In-line framing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Engineered lumber
                                                                                                           This is the most typical system because it is the most straightforward in

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Nguyen Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
Tran Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff

                                                                                                           terms of following building code requirements. This system consists of                                                                       Engineered lumber is desirable for its highly predictable dimensional regu-
                                                                                                           beams and joists in the same plane, ie, the joists are hung to the side of                                                                   larity and its load-bearing efficiency. It is also sustainable, as it is made of
                                                                                                           beams with galvanized joist hangers. The joist hangers serve as a hold                                                                       recycled wood products. Engineered lumber is more expensive, but a small
                                                                                                           down connection and protect against joist roll.                                                                                              cost savings is realized because not as much is used to build an equivalent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        product and because the lumber does not warp or bend when its moisture
                                                                                                           Stacked floor with hold-down system                                                                                                          content fluctuates. Over time, engineered wood will likely become cheaper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in the marketplace as raw wood resources become more expensive.
                                                                                                           This system puts the beams below the joists so that the joists bear on top
                                                                                                           of the joist and do not hang from the side of the beam. This allows for                                                                      We used engineered wood in the floor systems of the Parker and Desporte
                                                                                                           much greater flexibility in the creating the the layout of the home. Outdoor                                                                 homes. The use of engineered TJI, and wood I-joists allowed us to frame
                                                                                                           decks can often be integrated on the same beams that the home bears                                                                          at 19.2” o.c. rather than 16”o.c. It also afforded us large cantilevers in the
                                                                                                           on. This method also creates an alternative hold-down and roll protection                                                                    Desporte project.
                                                                                                           system by creating a block that holds each individual floor joist down at
                                                                                                           each beam. We named this block the Jimbo Block after contractor James
                                                                                                           “Jimbo” Carr of Cox & Carr Construction, who used this system in the Gulf
                                                                                                           Coast community of Galveston, TX.

                                                                                                           Black Rock Engineering, Architecture for Humanity, and the Gulf Coast
                                                                                                           Community Design Studio, and local contractors collaborated to refine the
                                                                                                           detail for the hold-down block in various structure locations.
Desporte Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nguyen Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
                                                                                                                                                                                          Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
                                                                                                                                         2X10 BLOCK       2X10 JOISTS
                                                                                Credit: Black Rock Engineering

                                                                                                                                         EACH JOIST

                                                                                                                                           2X6 J-BLOCK EACH JOIST

                                                                                                                   2X12 STRINGER
                                                                                                                 DOUBLE OR TRIPLE

                                                                                                                   JIMBO BLOCK DETAIL
                                                                                                 detail of Jimbo Block, diagram not to scale.
                                                                                                             WALL TO STRINGER CONNECTION
                                                         wall assemblies                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    shear walls
                                                         Elevated homes typically sit on top of piers which are anchored into the                                    This assembly requires 2x6 framing for the exterior walls. 2x6 framing                                          Shear walls have become a buzzword in the residential construction
                                                         ground, leaving the house vulnerable to uplift or rotation under high winds.                                allows room to insulate to R-19, a higher value of insulation than required.                                    lexicon in Biloxi. Shear walls are walls built to help stiffen a home against
                                                         The design and engineering team for MC2 Architects created a design                                                                                                                                                         lateral loads, such as wind. Shear walls, both exterior and interior, are vital
                                                         which extends the piers up the height of the exterior walls, strengthening                                  We believe this assembly offers many advantages for elevated homes in                                           to the structural performance of a home in this hurricane zone.
                                                         the house and creating more direct load paths. This system was also used                                    hurricane-prone areas.
                                                         on Brett Zamore’s design of the Parker home.                                                                                                                                                                                To allow for cross ventilation in Biloxi’s hot summer weather, buildings are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     typically long and narrow. Because of the narrowness of the vernacular
                                                         This wall assembly was designed by Carlos Gutierrez PE of CSF                                                                                                                                                               building type, interior shear walls are necessary to meet the hurricane-
                                                         Engineering Inc in Houston, TX and Chung Nguyen of MC2 Architects in                                                                                                                                                        force wind load rating of 140 MPH
                                                         Houston, TX

                                                         The system is designed around the idea of combining a uniform and point
                                                         load system. The uniform load is the typical platform-framed stud wall, and
                                                         the point loads are the 6x6 columns running between sections of the stud
                                                         walls to the top plate. The columns extending up from the ground become
                                                         a part of the stud wall and transfer the load directly to the foundation. The
                                                         columns stiffen the connection from walls to floors and, below the floor
                                                         system, they integrate strategic points of bracing the house .

                                                                                                                                                                                           Nguyen home - Photo credits: Architecture for Humanity
Parker home - Photo credits: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                              Tran home - Photo credits: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Credit: Black Rock Engineering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     desporte Home shear wall plan (shear walls marked in red) and cross-sections, diagrams not to scale.
                                                        roof assemblies
                                                                                                                                  In order to maintain our budgets, we felt it was important not to reinvent    Overhangs
                                                                                                                                  the wheel when it came to roofing assemblies. Roofs were built with typical

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for
                                                                                                                                  off-the-shelf materials. Our main materials used here were 2x dimensional     The need for overhangs was a subject of debate among the Biloxi Model
                                                                                                                                  lumber framing and manufactured wood trusses. The choice between the          Home architects and builders. One view was that the homes needed over-
                                                                                                                                  two depended simply upon performance and budget considerations.               hangs to shade and cool the buildings in the hot climate of the Gulf Coast,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                despite the fact that overhangs can make the home more susceptible to
                                                                                                                                  Sheathing                                                                     uplift forces. Others thought safety considerations overruled the need for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                shade, opting for designs without overhangs.
                                                                                                                                  We required at least a 5/8” thick roof deck for sheathing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Both the Parker home and the Odom home feature south side shading but
Nguyen Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                                  For shallow sloped roofs, we chose to use a higher-performing synthetic       solve the design problem differently (see photo).

                                                                                                                                  roof underlayment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ultimately, the question of how to provide shade while keeping the home
                                                                                                                                  For typical roof pitches (4 in 12 to 8 in 12), we used 30-yr architectural    wind resistant came down to a question of budget. The design problem
                                                                                                                                  asphalt shingles.                                                             can be solved technically. But the real challenge, and the reoccurring

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Odom Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                lesson of this program, is how to solve design problems technically while
                                                                                                                                  Where pitches were too steep or too shallow, we selected screw-down           balancing the constraints of budget, context, and sustainability.
                                                                                                                                  metal panels.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                To vent or not to vent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Venting attic spaces has been a standard practice for a very long time.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Venting allows for air flow and a more balanced temperature and humidity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                level between outside and inside the attic space. We found, however, that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                this practice is not necessarily better for affordable homes along the Gulf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coast for a number of reasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The HVAC equipment and HVAC duct work are often located in the attic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                space. On very hot humid days, the HVAC system works in a hot, harsh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                environment, increasing wear and tear on the equipment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Locating the HVAC equipment and duct work in the attic means that dew
                                                                                                                                                                                                                and condensation can collect in the middle of the wall structure and also
                                                                                                                                                                                                                along the duct work. To address this concern, in some cases we chose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                not to vent the attic space, making a tight vapor barrier around the entire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                envelope of the house and addressing all possible infiltration points.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the Gulf Coast climate, this approach lowers the moisture content of the
Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                          Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                interior air while still allowing the house to breathe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                We found the use of a soy-based spray foam insulation to be optimal for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                homes in this area. It allowed us to create a moisture-tight envelope but

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                doesn’t create a moisture problem on the interior of the house.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Unwanted moisture on the interior of the home is most often the result of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                too tight a construction, which doesn’t allow the HVAC system to effec-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                tively dehumidify the inside air

                                                        Durable, affordable siding materials                                           Doors and windows                                                                                                                       The issue of impact resistant windows
                                                        We have yet to find a match in price or performance to cement fiber board      We found we had many durable, affordable choices within the existing                                                                    The hurricane code requires all glass to be impact resistant. If non impact
                                                        siding from James Hardie Building Products. It is durable, easy to maintain,   marketplace for doors and windows from companies such as Mayfair and                                                                    resistant glass is used, then the code requires operable shutters. And
                                                        and can take a beating from storm events. Cement fiber board siding was        ThermaStar by Pella. We focused on off-the-shelf or easily manufactured,                                                                if shutters are not used, homeowners nail plywood sheathing over glass
                                                        the primary siding for six of the Biloxi model homes and was used on the       affordable selections that met the required pressure ratings for wind loads                                                             windows for debris protection in the event of a hurricane.
                                                        seventh but not as the primary exterior finish.                                and energy efficiency.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               We generally found that the cost of operable shutters or impact resistant
                                                        We found that vinyl siding was not a preferred building material along the                                                                                                                                             glass was too high for the homes in this program. The shutters specified
                                                        Gulf Coast due to issues of maintenance and lack of structural capability.                                                                                                                                             for the Tyler, Tran, and Nguyen homes are more integral to the design, and
                                                        The product can break down in harsh UV light, common to this area of the                                                                                                                                               we are attempting to find a way to afford shutters for these home. The

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                        coast. In performing cleanup after the hurricane, we found that vinyl siding                                                                                                                                           design and height of the glass windows on these homes makes it difficult
                                                        made up a large portion of the debris.                                                                                                                                                                                 to nail plywood over the glass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               DuoGard polycarbonate clerestory windows
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The Robinson home has clerestory windows which create lots of oppor-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tunities for diffuse natural daylight. This makes the home not only more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               inviting but also more energy efficient. Clerestory windows windows keep
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               UV and solar heat gain down and make artificial lighting unnecessary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               during the day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Polycarbonate windows are impact resistant and do not require plywood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               sheathing in the event of a hurricane.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               There is normally not room in the budget for this kind of premium window.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Their use here was made possible through an in-kind donation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Robinson Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Desporte Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity
Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                        energY effeciencY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         accessibilitY
                                                        Affordability does not end with the initial construction costs of a home.                                                             moisture in the hot, humid air. If a moisture barrier is not carefully created,                                                As with many other elements of the design process, accessible design
                                                        One of the main goals of the Biloxi Model Home Program was to focus on                                                                a dew point may be created in the middle of the wall, leading to unwanted                                                      in our model homes forced a careful balance between needs, desires,
                                                        energy efficiency as a way of keeping down the monthly costs of running                                                               moisture within.                                                                                                               and cost. All of the model home designers were aware of aging in place
                                                        the home. For our families, the costs of running a home are nearly as                                                                                                                                                                                                concerns, and the majority of the designs featured open floor plans,
                                                        important in their monthly budget as their mortgage payment.                                                                          We chose EnergyStar rated kitchen appliances: refrigerators, electric                                                          low-barrier or barrier-free entries and interior thresholds, larger bathrooms
                                                                                                                                                                                              ovens, dishwashers, and microwaves.                                                                                            and kitchens, and wider doorways and hallways. Taking the time in the
                                                        Good insulation, moisture control, and the use of energy efficient appli-                                                                                                                                                                                            design stage to consider these features makes a relatively small impact on
                                                        ances should result in a direct energy savings of 30-50% for our homes,                                                               The last major focus for overall energy efficiency was on the mechanical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the overall construction cost and eliminates the need, should one arise, of
                                                        compared with standard building practices.                                                                                            system equipment. In hot climates, it’s often common to assume that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             going back later to enlarge halls, doorways, kitchens, and bathrooms for
                                                                                                                                                                                              bigger is better when it comes to installing mechanical systems to deal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             wheelchair access. We found these gestures to be a smart use of funds,
                                                        Energy efficiency begins with good insulation. Four of our homes were                                                                 with the summer heat. This is truly not the case. Along the Gulf Coast,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             even for non-disabled homeowners. We did not build in other accommoda-
                                                        completely insulated with a new soybean oil based spray foam insulation                                                               moisture control in summer is just as important as heat control. The larger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tions (such as hand-held shower fixtures), which could be easily retrofitted
                                                        (open cell and closed cell), which we believe should become standard                                                                  the unit one chooses, the less it will run. And the less it runs, the less it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             at a later date should the need arise.
                                                        practice for new, elevated homes in this region. Soybean oil spray foam                                                               has a chance to dehumidify the interior air. This means that the potential
                                                        insulation is especially effective in creating a more complete envelope for                                                           for dangerous mold and mildew growth actually goes up with the choice of                                                       The biggest and most obvious need we had to address in terms of long-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Credit: Gulf Coast Communtiy Design Studio
                                                        conditioned space. Three of our homes were insulated to well above the                                                                a larger unit. However, it is also important not to under-size the unit, as it                                                 term accessibility was that of outdoor access. The Desporte home is the
                                                        energy code requirements using traditional methods.                                                                                   will be on constantly. We worked closely with our mechanical sub-contrac-                                                      best example of our efforts on this front. It was a challenge to integrate
                                                                                                                                                                                              tors to choose the optimally-sized mechanical units, keeping in mind the                                                       the design of a ramp that would allow Mr. Desporte to access a home
                                                        Choosing energy efficient doors and windows and assuring their weather-                                                               importance of an effective moisture envelope around the home.                                                                  that was elevated ten feet above grade. The ramp needed to look elegant,
                                                        tight installation was also important to creating a sound insulation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             be resistant to storms and harsh salt air, and fit into our tight budget. To
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             accomplish all this, we knew the ramp could not be added as an after-
                                                        Creating an impermeable moisture barrier is also an important aspect of                                                                                                                                                                                              thought; it needed to be planned for from the beginning. The design by
                                                        energy efficiency. In hot and humid climates, moisture control becomes as                                                                                                                                                                                            Maurice Cox and CP+D Workshop begins at grade at the front of the home,
                                                        important as R-value. Heat can often move through a wall in the form of                                                                                                                                                                                              runs up through the home’s center, makes a switchback turn at the back
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the home, and finally finishes at the first floor level at the front entrance,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             right next to where the front stairs top out. By running the ramp through
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the center of the home, it avoids the look of a tacked-on appendage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The Odom and Robinson homes have spaces where an elevator could later
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             be added if needed. MDA elevation grants (see chart, Chapter 1) are sup-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             posed to provide an additional $25,000 for elderly or disabled residents to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             help defray costs of building ramps and elevators to access new elevated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             homes. When these grant funds come through for these families, elevators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             may be added.
Nguyen Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                                      Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Credit: Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Left: desporte home cross section and plan with ramp highlighted in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             red. diagrams not to scale
                                                        indoor air qualitY                                                                                                                                                                                                            interior finishes
                                                        Along the Gulf Coast, we found there was a heightened sense of aware-         As with windows and doors, the current marketplace offers a multitude of
                                                        ness of the issue of indoor air quality (IAQ) due to the now infamous FEMA    options for indoor finishes. Our focus remained on balancing sustainability,
                                                        trailers. The concern is over first-hand exposure to airborne formaldehyde    indoor air quality, and affordability.
                                                        and other offgassing and particulate emissions from certain types of finish
                                                        materials.                                                                    We used a simple and cost effective engineered bamboo snap lock floor-
                                                                                                                                      ing system. These bamboo floors float, eliminating the need for mechanical
                                                        Bad ventilation can exacerbate the problem of poor indoor air quality by      fasteners or glues. And bamboo is a renewable resource.
                                                        not mixing outdoor air to help dilute indoor air.
                                                                                                                                      Carpet was used in only one home, and the carpet chosen was made from
                                                        High heat and humity also compound issues of airborne particulates and        recycled materials and had low VOC emissions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity staff
                                                                                                                                      Ceramic tile was chosen for bathrooms and wet areas. Ceramic tile is
                                                                                                                                      highly durable, maintains easily, and does not contribute to poor indoor air
                                                                                                                                      quality. Mold and mildew tend not to grow on its surface.

                                                                                                                                      We chose low odor, low-VOC paint, a simple and inexpensive alternative to
                                                                                                                                      traditional paints that can contribute to poor indoor air quality.

                                                                                                                                      The families of the Biloxi Model Home Program lost nearly all of their
                                                                                                                                      belongings during the storm, including their furniture. Furniture was either
                                                                                                                                      damaged beyond repair or had to be thrown out due to mold infestations.
                                                                                                                                      Designer Chris Madden donated furniture from the Chris Madden for JC
                                                                                                                                      Penney Home Collection to three of the families in the Biloxi Model Home
                                                                                                                                      Program. Stylists from Chris Madden Inc worked with these three families
                                                                                                                                      to choose designs that would suit the smaller scale and overall look of
                                                                                                                                      each of the homes. “We listened to their needs and cherry-picked from
                                                                                                                                      the collection to find the pieces that would work,” says the firms design
                                                                                                                                      director, Carolyn Schultz.

                                                                                                                                      Designer Chris Madden, who traveled to Biloxi in April 2007 to meet with
                                                                                                                                      the families, knows the importance of putting clients’ needs first. “Don’t
                                                                                                                                      assume anything. Don’t assume you know what’s right for anyone. Talk to
                                                                                                                                      them, find out what their needs are. And be ready for anything... The one
                                                                                                                                      thing that people should be prepared for when they come to East Biloxi is
                                                                                                                                      a life-changing experience. You don’t just stop here.”
Parker Home - Photo credit: Architecture for Humanity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Photo credit: Chris Madden Inc.
                                                                                                                                      Facing page: the Parker home’s kitchen and dining area, with furniture
                                                                                                                                      from the chris Madden for Jc Penney Home collection. Right: Karen
                                                                                                                                      Parker and her family with designer chris Madden, center, in denim
                                                 landscape architecture
                                                                                          The families of the Biloxi Model Home Program received valuable help from
                                                                                          landscape professionals and other volunteers to make the outside of their
                                                                                          homes as welcoming as the inside.

                                                                                          Landscape designer Paul Hendershot of Paul Hendershot Design in Ojai, CA
                                                                                          visited East Biloxi in the June 2007 to donate landscape design services to
                                                                                          six of the seven families in the program. Hendershot approached the Biloxi
                                                                                          Model Home Program landscape design as he would any other design prob-

                                                                                                                                                                             Parker garden - Photo credit: Leslie Schwartz
                                                                                          lem, by first interviewing each of the families and determining their needs
                                                                                          and desires. Issues of affordability, sustainability, and long-term mainte-
                                                                                          nance played into his design choices. “Some families wanted shade most of
                                                                                          all; some had trees already and didn’t want any more shade. Some wanted
                                                                                          fruit trees, others wanted zero fruit trees--everybody wanted something
                                                                                          different... I worked really hard to use what grew well and make it blend with
Tyler Home - Credit: Paul Hendershot Design

                                                                                          the rest of the neighborhood.”

                                                                                          From client interviews, Hendershot determined that most desired a more
                                                                                          traditional look for the landscape. “They didn’t relate to modern landscapes--
                                                                                          the flax, the grasses. We were going from an older style. These are definitely
                                                                                          not modern contemporary landscapes at all. I think it would have been out
                                                                                          of the comfort zone to choose a really modern scape.” Henderson chose
                                                                                          plants that blended with the exterior finishes of each home.
                                                                          magnolia Tree   Hendershot researched hardy local plants such as Malvaviscus and Hibiscus
                                                                                          syriana ‘Rose of Sharon’ and used them liberally in his designs. “Malvaviscus
                                                                                          grows like a weed in the area. I have always loved that plant. It has little
                                                                                          orange flowers and it’s just beautiful. You can shape it too; I used it for
                                                                                          hedge materials.”

                                                                                          One important challenge was the homes’ elevation. Henderson viewed this
                                                                                          as a design opportunity. “If you stand under the house, it’s the coolest place.
                                                                                          It’s cooler there even than on the porches. We chose a simple pea gravel
                                                                                          patio to sit in underneath the houses.”

                                                                                          For additional shade, Henderson chose the types of trees that had survived
                                                                                          the hurricane and grew in the neighborhood--magnolias, pecans, oaks.

                                                                                          The Nguyen family’s love of gardening was inspiring to the designer. “The
                                                                                          Nguyens were cool because they were so into food. They really had a sense
Robinson Home - Credit: Paul Hendershot Design

                                                                                                                                                                             Nguyen garden - Photo credit: Leslie Schwartz
                                                                                          of what they wanted. The kids got involved—I could tell they loved veggie
                                                                                          gardening, so I asked, ‘Should we make the garden bigger?’ I told them that
                                                                                          for privacy, they could have trees for food, and the kids started saying all the
                                                                                          fruits they liked.”

                                                                                          The care in choosing appropriate landscaping extended back to participat-
                                                                                          ing architects as well. Brett Zamore Design created the landscape plan for
                                                                                          the Parker home, and plants for the Parker home were donated by Newton
                                                                                          Nursery in Houston, TX.

                                                                                          American Forests and the Mississippi Land Trust generously donated trees
                                                                          Pecan Tree
                                                                                          for the Biloxi Model Homes.
James Hardie Building Products, HardiePlank siding                         FEMA Home Builder’s Guide to Coastal Construction Technical Fact Sheets           HUD Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines                                                                     Katrina homeowner grants from the Mississippi Development Authority
www.jameshardie.com                                                        www.fema.gov/rebuild/mat/mat_fema499.shtm                                         www.hud.gov/offices/fheo/disabilities/fhefhag.cfm                                                             www.mshomehelp.gov/
                                                                           Economic Rationale for Elevation Freeboard                                        US Green Building Council                                                                                     Gulf Coast Community Foundation and Gulf Coast Association of Housing
Duo-Gard Industries windows                                                www.anrc.arkansas.gov/Rationale%20for%20Elevation%20Freeboard.pdf                 www.usgbc.org                                                                                                 Recovery Centers: (228) 897-4841
                                                                           Environmental Protection Agency ACQ wood preservative information                 US Department of Energy Energy Star program                                                                   Hope Coordination Center (The East Biloxi Coordination, Relief, and
Kohler Co plumbing fixtures                                                www.epa.gov/oppad001/reregistration/cca/acq.htm                                   www.energystar.gov/                                                                                           Redevelopment Agency): (228) 435-7180
                                                                           Congressional testimony by Sherry-Lea Bloodworth, formerly of Architecture        Global Green USA green rebuilding program in New Orleans                                                     The Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
BioBased soy spray foam insulation                                         for Humanity, about housing recovery efforts in Mississippi                       http://www.globalgreen.org/neworleans/                                                                       www.gccds.org
www.biobased.net                                                           http://republicans.transportation.house.gov/Media/File/TestimonyEDPB/06-
                                                                           19-08-Bloodworth.pdf                                                              Design Corps                                                                                                 Architecture for Humanity
Caesarstone countertops                                                                                                                                      www.designcorps.org                                                                                          www.architectureforhumanity.org
www.caesarstoneus.com                                                      National Flood Insurance Program
                                                                           www.fema.gov/about/programs/nfip/index.shtm                                       Migration patterns and move characteristics from the 2005 ACS Gulf Coast survey                              The Open Architecture Network
Dal Tile                                                                                                                                                     http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/emergencies/gulf_migration.pdf                                       www.openarchitecturenetwork.org
www.daltile.com                                                            Office of the Federal Coordinator for Gulf Coast Rebuilding
                                                                           www.dhs.gov/xprepresp/programs/editorial_0816.shtm                                US Census Bureau Katrina information page                                                                     For more information about each of the homes in the Biloxi Model
Nourison Rugs                                                                                                                                                http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2005/katrina.htm                                                      Home Program, including additional renderings, construction pho-
www.nourison.com                                                           FEMA Gulf Coast Recovery Office                                                                                                                                                                 tos, program documentation, and links to press about the program,
                                                                           www.fema.gov/hazard/hurricane/2005katrina/index.shtm                              Living Cities Gulf Coast Initiative                                                                           please visit the program page on the Open Architecture Network:
Blinds.com                                                                                                                                                   http://www.livingcities.org/2006%20Files/2006_innovation_gci.htm                                              www.openarchitecturenetwork.org/biloxi
www.blinds.com                                                             FEMA’s Tips for reducing future flood damage
                                                                           www.fema.gov/hazard/hurricane/2005katrina/build_safer.shtm                        Living Cities recommendations for rebuilding East Biloxi
Benjamin Moore Eco Spec Paint                                                                                                                                http://www.livingcities.org/pdf/Biloxi_Final_Report.pdf
www.benjaminmoore.com                                                      FEMA’s Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi website
                                                                           www.fema.gov/news/event.fema?id=4807                                              Mississippi Emergency Management Authority
Senox Corp gutters                                                                                                                                           www.msema.org
www.senox.com                                                              Mississippi Emergency Management Authority
                                                                           www.msema.org/                                                                    FEMA hurricane information page
Chris Madden for JC Penney Home Collection                                                                                                                   www.fema.gov/hazard/hurricane/index.shtm
www.chrismadden.com and www.jcpenney.com/chrismadden                       US Environmental Protection Agency
                                                                           www.epa.gov                                                                       Mississippi Renewal Forum
SSTD10-99 Standard for Hurricane Resistant Construction                                                                                                      www.mississippirenewal.com
available from the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI)   National Aging in Place Council
                                                                           www.naipc.org                                                                     Mississippi Governor’s Office of Renewal and Recovery

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Photo credit: Kate Stohr
FEMA Recommended Residential Construction for the Gulf Coast                                                                                                 www.governorbarbour.com/Recovery
April 2006 lecture: “Building on Strong and Safe Foundations               Center for Universal Design, College of Design, North Carolina State University
www.governorbarbour.com/recovery/links/documents/FEMA550.ppt               www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/udprinciples.htm                                 Governor’s Office of Renewal and Recovery housing information page
Pile Driving Contractors Association                                       Universal Design in Features in Housing from the Center for Universal Design
www.piledrivers.org                                                        www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/pubs_p/docs/UDinHousing.pdf                               Governor Barbour’s comprehensive plan for Gulf Coast housing
FEMA Advisory Base Flood Elevation (ABFE) guidelines for coastal areas     Center for Independent Living                                                     singplan.htm                                                                                                 Above: ray Huff of Huff + Gooden Architects, lef t, with clients Audrey and
www.fema.gov/hazard/flood/recoverydata/katrina/katrina_ms_harrison.shtm    www.cilberkeley.org                                                                                                                                                                            Andre robinson at the program’s closing celebration in July 2008.

“This wasn’T JusT a n ideas progr am. a rchiTecTure
 for huma niT y was commiTTed To realiZing each
 design on iTs own Terms, realisTically a nd wiThin
 budgeT. They were sincere in Their sea rch for a
 model ThaT ca n be repeaTed. hurdle afTer hurdle,
They never wavered, a nd we didn’T eiTher.”
—a rchiTecT marlon bl ackwell

final thoughts

Photo credits: Architecture for Humanity; far right, Leslie Schwartz                                                                                          Photo credits: Above and far right, Leslie Schwartz; Architecture for Humanity

The architects, engineers, and construction professionals of the Biloxi            efficiency                                                                 LEED certification- would have cost 30k to get certification, we instead          These centers have specialized knowlege that will lead to better-built,
Model Home Program have done much more for the community of East                *exploring methods to improve the integration of a wheelchair ramp into a     chose to put these funds to housing another family cost us some credibility       more sustainable, long-term housing solutions, which in turn will help
Biloxi than simply bringing home seven local families. In the three years          home’s design                                                              but was the right thing to do                                                     prevent future large-scale disasters.
since the storm, we have acquired important technical know-how relating
to constructing hurricane-resistant homes at elevation. The program has         The entire design and construction process has been documented                Architecture for Humanity has also proved to be a catalyst for smart              We believe our model home program has empowered East Biloxi com-
explored several new construction methods that improve structural integ-        beginning to end on Architecture for Humanity’s online Open Architecture      rebuilding in East Biloxi. Architecture for Humanity staffers have turned         munity members to think beyond simply rebuilding a home. East Biloxi
rity, sustainability, and cost-efficiency for new homes along the Gulf Coast.   Network (http://www.openarchitecturenetwork.org/biloxi) making more           their efforts to the rehabilitation of a local police substation and a historic   residents now advocate for new homes that are sustainable, energy
We have found creative ways to stay within our tight construciton budgets       of the lessons learned through the program available to other research-       East Biloxi park and community gathering space. And the coalition of              efficient, affordable-- and display insipiring and effective design solutions.
and gained valuable knowlege about what is and isn’t affordable. The solu-      ers, building professionals, and stucents working in the same discipline.     groups we helped bring together through our partnerships with the Hope
                                                                                Architecture for Humanity has received several emails through the Open        Coordination Center and the Gulf Coast Community Design Studio have               kate says we learned to require architects to do baseline cost analysis
tions devised through this process have directly influenced the design and
                                                                                Architecture Network requesting more information about the designs of         together rebuilt more than 35% of East Biloxi in the three years since the        before they meet with client so that unfeasible options are thrown out
construction of other new homes in the region, including architects at the
                                                                                the model homes from other homeowners and architects facing similar           storm. The Hope Coordination Center is the permanent home to more than            before client becomes involved- much easier to do this on the front end
Gulf Coast Community Design Studio. Among our successes have been:
                                                                                rebuilding issues.                                                            20 agencies, including the design studio, financial consultants, economic         than to get client excited about something we can’t deliver in the end (in
                                                                                                                                                              development consultants, and a number of faith based groups. And the              law unit, extra bedroom) robinson a good example
*adopting driven wood piles as a standard foundation system for elevated
                                                                                Many people are asking not only about technical solutions, but about          innovative revolving loan fund we established is now beginning to recap-
    homes in East Biloxi                                                                                                                                                                                                                        true test of value/thoughtfulness of these homes is whether they increase
                                                                                homes with the feel of these model homes--the difficult-to-quantify, hope-    ture between 20% to 90% of the coast of constructing new homes, freeing
*testing a system to extend foundation piles up through the wall to better      ful, positive, expansiveness of these homes that makes families feel safe                                                                                       in value, are handed down to the next generation, can be adapted over
                                                                                                                                                              funding to assist more families and seeding a long-term economic develop-
    transfer loads to the foundation                                            again. (???how to express the sentiment “I want a home that feels like this                                                                                     time to needs of other family members
                                                                                                                                                              ment fund that we hope will serve East Biloxi for years to come.
*developing a diagonally-laid tongue-and-groove floor system that               one does, that makes me feel positive and safe”)
    increases lateral stability                                                                                                                                                                                                                 goes back to us understanding typical family situations/housing patterns
                                                                                                                                                              More telling still, the model of pairing community members with profes-
*refining a standard block system to hold down floor joists at beams and        Kate talking about cost outcomes- success that homes came in under                                                                                              in East Biloxi and using those as our initial design focus, even before
                                                                                                                                                              sional designers--and the strategy of locating a community design studio
    protect against roll                                                        $xx per ft2 but only in one or two cases did we meet our target budget of                                                                                       designers were paired up with clients will these become assets in their
                                                                                                                                                              within a housing recovery center-- is being replicated across the Gulf
                                                                                $115k                                                                                                                                                           community, will they increase in value or stagnate over time?
*standardizing optimum placement of interior shear walls to stiffen against                                                                                   Coast. We have influenced policy on local, state, and federal levels, and
    lateral loads in long, narrow homes                                                                                                                       three other community centers with design studios have been established
                                                                                what are some of the more interesting/creative ways we can save money
*committing to the use of spray soy-foam insulation for gains in energy                                                                                       in the last year directly modeled on this successful program in East Biloxi.
sponsors                                          partners
           The Hope Coordination Center (EBCRRA)
           Especially William and Kryzra Stallworth

           Lucille Bennett, Amy DeHuff, Kristina Higuera, Shritha Johnson, Brandon
           Kasteler, David Salley, Richard Elliott, Brian McMullen, Stanley Smith, Brian
           Steward, Lynn Thomas, Jimmy Trevino, Brian Rivers, James Nguyen, Linda
           Nguyen, Annette Zeiderman, Mike Zeiderman, Diann Hans, Misty Maya,
           Carol Van Bommel, Shritha Johnson, Lynn Thomas, Stanley Smith and the
           many many staff members who have helped not mentioned above.

           The Gulf Coast Community Design Studio
           David Perkes, Vincent Baudoin, Sam Carlsen, Brian Crawford, Christine
           Gaspar, Sarah Naughton, Jason Pressgrove, Jody Rader, Ian Schopa,
           Price Taggert, James Wheeler, Kristen Zeiber, Jessie Zenor

           Warnke Community Consulting
           Benjamin Warnke, Tom Warnke, Francis Lam, Jonathan Leit, Heidie Joo

           Enterprise Corporation of the Delta
           Phil Eide, Jolie Spiers Machado

           Architecture for Humanity
           Barb Alvarado, Bebe Bertolet, Sherry-Lea Bloodworth, Eric Cesal, Laura
           Cole, Joyce Engebresten, Michael Grote, Jenny Gurney, Nicole Joslin,
           Nadene Mairesse, Ruthanne Martin, Matt Miller, Sola Morrissey, Tracy
           Nelson, Nicole Nowak, L. Beth Orser, Shana Payne, Stacy Sabraw, Lynn
           Standafer, Cameron Sinclair, Kate Stohr, Elaine Uang, Elish Warlop

           Contributors for this book
           Azahar Checa, Melanie De Cola, Yesis Duffy, Michael Grote, Nicole Joslin,
           Nicole Nowak, Abigail Peterson, Kate Stohr

thank You
Architects, engineers, and contractors                            Islamic Relief
                                                                  Lighthouse Apostolic Church
                                                                                                                                           Hands On Gulf Coast (repeated in partnership section)
                                                                                                                                           Hope Force International (repeated in partnership section)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ted Landsmark, Boston Architectural College
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Tod Weber, Deb Richter, Kohler USA
Brett Zamore Design LLC, Houston, TX
                                                                  Lutheran Social Services Disaster Response                               Hurricane Katrina Relief Campaign                                                                 Tom Fisher, University of Minnesota
Community Planning and Design Workshop LLC, Charlottesville, VA
                                                                  Mississippi Emergency Management Authority                               Interface Inc                                                                                     Tracy Nelson
Gulf Coast Community Design Studio, Biloxi, MS
                                                                  Mississippi Legal Services Coalition                                     Javier Arbona, Archinect                                                                          William D. Browning, U.S. Green Building Council
Huff + Gooden Architects, Charleston,SC
                                                                  Oxfam America                                                            James Carr, Express Constructors                                                                  William Raymond, City of Biloxi
Marlon Blackwell architect, Fayetteville, AR
                                                                  Presbyterian Disaster Assistance                                         Jeff Olson, American Forests
Chung Nguyen of MC2 Architects, Houston, TX
                                                                  Red Cross                                                                Jerry Creel, City of Biloxi                                                                       and many others who contributed in thought, spirit, or deed.
                                                                  Samaritan’s Purse                                                        Jo Hunt, DeLoyn-Hunt & Associates
Paul Hendershot Design Inc, Landscape Architecture, Ojai, CA
                                                                  The Enterprise Corporation of the Delta                                  Joseph P. Hudson, Hudson & Smith Attorneys
buildingstudio, New Orleans, LA
                                                                  The Make it Right Foundation                                             John M. Moore, Jr., PE, 4SE, Inc
Guild Hardy Architects, Biloxi, MS
                                                                  The Salvation Army                                                       Judy Steckler, Land Trust for Mississippi Coastal Plain
JBHM Architects, Biloxi, MS
                                                                  United Way                                                               Julie Wilder, Autodesk
PHATT Collective, Miami FL
                                                                  United Methodist Committee on Relief                                     Julie Feldmeyer, Autodesk
                                                                  Urban Life Ministries                                                    Julie Rosenblum, Nourison Rug Corporation
House Calls Construction, Georgia
                                                                  Visions of Hope                                                          Ken Cleary and Lauren States, IBM Corporation
Cox and Carr Construction, Biloxi MS
                                                                                                                                           Kim Purcell; The Salvation Army
Express Constructors Inc., Galveston, TX
                                                                                                                                           Larry Parrish, Lowes Home Improvement
Black Rock Engineering, Enterprise, OR                            Many additional thanks                                                   Laura Galloway, Galloway Media Group
Tatum-Smith Structural Engineering Inc, Rogers, AR                A.J. Holloway, Mayor, City of Biloxi
                                                                                                                                           Leslie Schwartz, Leslie Schwartz Photography
CSF Service Consulting Engineering, Houston, TX                   Alan Richardson, photographer
                                                                                                                                           Lorena Diaz; American Red Cross
4SE, Inc. Charleston, SC                                          American Forests
                                                                                                                                           Margie O’Driscoll, AIA San Francisco
Quality Engineering Services Inc, Long Beach, MS                  Amos Air Conditioning & Heating
                                                                                                                                           Mark Smith PE, Tatum Smith Structural Engineering Inc
Arup USA, New York, NY                                            Art & Harrison’s Electric
                                                                                                                                           Marilyn Fields, House Calls Construction
Williams Engineering, Tupelo, MS                                  Arik Tendler, CaesarStone
                                                                                                                                           Matilda McQuaid, Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum
                                                                                                                                           Mayor A. J. Holloway, City of Biloxi
Partners working together in East Biloxi                          Bailey Lumber Company
                                                                  Barbara Bloemink, Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum
                                                                                                                                           Michael S. Hornbeck, City of Biloxi
American Red Cross                                                                                                                         Michelle Sakayan, Sakayan, Inc.
                                                                  Beacon Insurance
AmeriCorps                                                                                                                                 Mortar Net USA
                                                                  Bill Koll, McCormick Tribune Foundation
Back Bay Mission                                                                                                                           Nancy Jenner, Boston Society of Architects
                                                                  Boat People SOS
BFS Relief                                                                                                                                 NAVASA, National Alliance of Vietnamese American Social Agencies
                                                                  Boston Society of Architects
City Teams                                                                                                                                 Neil Thomas, NTC Pile Driving
                                                                  Casius Pealer, Reno & Cavanaugh, PLLC
Convoy of Hope                                                                                                                             Newton Nursery
                                                                  Carlos Gutierrez PE, CSF Engineering
FEMA                                                                                                                                       Polshek Partnership Architects
                                                                  Chris Madden and Barbara Marks, Chris Madden Inc.
First Presbyterian Church                                                                                                                  Reed Kroloff, Tulane University
                                                                  Denise Botrell, Jeff Robertson, Kevin Potthoff, Eric Oliver, and Craig
Grassroots Volunteer Network                                                                                                               Ric Bell, AIA New York
                                                                  Ratchford, James Hardie Building Products
Habitat for Humanity                                                                                                                       Rich Westfall, Isle of Capri Casino & Hotel
                                                                  Dan Etheridge, Tulane University
HandsOn Network                                                                                                                            Richard Fitzgerald, Boston Society of Architects
                                                                  David Washer, Coast Community Bank
Hands On Gulf Coast                                                                                                                        Richard Koshalek, Art Center College of Design
                                                                  David Staehling, City of Biloxi
Hope Community Credit Union                                                                                                                Ridgeway’s
                                                                  Eric “Rick” Menhennett, surveyor
Hope Force International                                                                                                                   Roger T. Roepke, PE, Black Rock Engineering

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Photo credit: Leslie Shwartz
                                                                  Esther Steinfeld, Blinds.com
Hurricane Katrina Relief Campaign                                                                                                          Sachin Anand, PE, dbHMS Design Build Engineering
                                                                  Fabian Broaden, Daltile Corporation
IDTF                                                                                                                                       SPS New England
                                                                  Felix Gines, G & S Electrical & HVAC
Interfaith Works                                                                                                                           Stanley Williams, PE, Williams Engineering
                                                                  Geoff Manaugh, BLDBGLOG
International Relief and Development                                                                                                       Steven Lewis, National Organization of Minority Architects
                                                                  Gregg Sherkin, Oprah’s Angel Network
Lutheran Disaster Services                                                                                                                 Steven R. Meier, Jenner & Block LLP
                                                                  Gulf Coast Community Foundation Mississippi Hurricane Recovery Fund
Hurricane Relief Corps                                                                                                                     Taylor Moore, Newton Nursery


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