Intrusion_detection by niusheng11

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									Secure communication in cellular
    and ad hoc environments

               Bharat Bhargava
              bb@cs.purdue.edu
      Department of Computer Sciences,
              Purdue University
This is supported by Motorola Communication
Research Lab & National Science Foundation
Team at Motorola:
      Jeff Bonta
      George Calcev
      Benetido Fouseca
      Trefor Delve

Team at Purdue University:
      X. Wu         Research scientist (receives his
                    PhD from UC-Davis)
      Y. Lu         PhD student
      G. Ding       PhD student
      W. Wang       PhD student
      Problem statement

How to provide secure, continuous,
and efficient connectivity for a
mobile unit in a structured (cellular
based) or unstructured (ad hoc)
network environment?

                                    3
                Challenges
• Dynamic topology
  – Movement, node failure, energy
• Heterogeneous and decentralized control
• Limited resources
  – Bandwidth, processing ability, energy
• Unfriendly environment
  – Selfish nodes, malicious attackers


                                            4
          Research contributions
• Combining advantages of cellular systems and ad
  hoc networks to enable a more secure network
  structure and better performance
• Designing routing protocols for ad hoc networks
  that adapt to both network topology and traffic
  congestion
• Designing intruder identification protocols in ad
  hoc networks
• Conducting experimental studies in heterogeneous
  wireless environments and evaluating our protocols
                                                   5
         Research directions
• Cellular-aided Mobile Ad Hoc Network
  (CAMA)
• Adaptive and Heterogeneous Mobile
  Wireless Networks
• Intruder Identification in Ad Hoc Networks




                                               6
    Cellular-aided Mobile Ad Hoc Network
                   (CAMA)
Problem statement:
  How to realize commercial peer-to-peer
  applications over mobile wireless ad hoc networks?

Papers:
  “Integrating Heterogeneous Wireless
  Technologies: Cellular-Aided Mobile Wireless Ad
  hoc Networks (CAMA)”, submitted to ACM Special
  Issues of the Journal on Special Topics in Mobile
  Networking and Applications (MONET).
                                                   7
CAMA Environment




                   8
              Research with Motorola
• Evaluate CAMA routing in different environments
  by varying:
     radio environment, node mobility, node density, traffic
     pattern, and the accuracy of position information
• Authentication
• Key distribution
• Intrusion detection




                                                               9
          Adaptive and Heterogeneous Mobile
                  Wireless Networks
Problem statement:
  How to provide continuous connectivity for a mobile unit to a
  network in which every node is moving?

Papers:
  “Secure Wireless Network with Movable Base Stations”, being
  revised for IEICE/IEEE Joint Special Issue on Assurance
  Systems and Networks.
  “Study of Distance Vector Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad
  Hoc Networks”, in Proceedings of IEEE International
  Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications
  (PerCom), 2003.
                                                            10
    Research questions in mobile ad hoc
                networks
• Development of ad hoc routing protocols that adapt
  to traffic load and network congestion.
   – Identify the network parameters that impact the
     performance of routing protocols.
   – Determine the appropriateness of on-demand and
     proactive approaches (given specific routing requirements
     and network parameters).
   – Identify features of ad hoc networks that can be used to
     improve routing.

                                                           11
            Ongoing research

• Study of proactive and on-demand
  approaches
• Congestion-aware distance vector routing
  protocol
• Packet loss study



                                             12
Characteristics of wireless networks with
         movable base stations
•   Large scale
•   Heterogeneity
•   Autonomous sub-nets
•   Base stations have more resources
•   Base stations take more responsibilities



                                               13
                Research questions
• How to organize the network?
   – Minimize the effect of motion
   – Minimize the involvement of mobile host
• How to build routing protocol?
   – IP-compliant
   – Cooperate with various intra-subnet routing protocols
• How to secure communications?
   – Authenticate
   – Maintain authentication when a host is roaming



                                                             14
   Intruder Identification in Ad Hoc Networks
Problem statement:
  Intruder identification in ad hoc networks is the procedure
  of identifying the user or host that conducts the
  inappropriate, incorrect, or anomalous activities that
  threaten the connectivity or reliability of the networks and
  the authenticity of the data traffic in the networks.
Papers:
  “On Security Study of Two Distance Vector Routing Protocols
  for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, in Proceedings of IEEE
  International Conference on Pervasive Computing and
  Communications (PerCom), 2003.
  “On Vulnerability and Protection of Ad Hoc On-demand
  Distance Vector Protocol”, in Proceedings of 10th IEEE
  International Conference on Telecommunication (ICT), 2003.
                                                                 15
            Research Motivation
• Two types of attacks target Ad Hoc network
  – External attacks
  – Internal attacks
• Why intrusion detection itself is not enough
  – Detecting intrusion without removing the
    malicious host leaves the protection in a passive
    mode
  – Identifying the source of the attack may
    accelerate the detection of other attacks

                                                   16
              Evaluation Criteria
• Accuracy
  – False coverage: Number of normal hosts that are
    incorrectly marked as suspected.
  – False exclusion: Number of malicious hosts that are not
    identified as such.
• Overhead
  – Overhead measures the increases in control packets and
    computation costs for identifying the attackers (e.g.
    verifying signed packets, updating blacklists).
  – Workload of identifying the malicious hosts in multiple
    rounds

                                                          17
                Evaluation Criteria
• Effectiveness
   – Effectiveness: Increase in the performance of ad hoc
     networks after the malicious hosts are identified and
     isolated. Metrics include the increase of the packet
     delivery ratio, the decrease of average delay, or the
     decrease of normalized protocol overhead (control
     packets/delivered packets).
• Robustness
   – Robustness of the algorithm: Its ability to resist
     different kinds of attacks.


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                   Example to illustrate RLR
                                           BL {}
                                      S3                 D   INVALID ( D, 5, 21,
                                                             {}, SIGN )


           S                  S1 BL {S2}
    BL {S1}

                                      S2           M BL {}
                                    BL {M}
           S4
           BL {}

D sends INVALID packet with current sequence = 5, new sequence = 21. S3
examines its route table, the entry to D is not false. S3 forward packet to S1. S1
finds that its route entry to D has sequence 20, which is > 5. It knows that the
route is false. The hop which provides this false route to S1 was S2. S2 will be put
into S1’s blacklist. S1 forward packet to S2 and S. S2 adds M into its blacklist. S
adds S1 into its blacklist. S forward packet to S4. S4 does not change its blacklist
since it is not involved in this route.
                                                                                   19
RLR creates suspicion trees. If a host is the root of a
quorum of suspicion trees, it is labeled as the attacker.


                                                            20
    Securing Ad Hoc networks -- Establish trust
        relationship in open environments

• Evaluate known knowledge
   – Known knowledge:
      • Interpretations of observations
      • Recommendations
   – An algorithm that evaluates trust among hosts is being
     developed
   – A host’s trustworthiness affects the trust toward the
     hosts on the route
• Predict of trustworthiness of a host
   – Current approach uses the result of evaluation as
     prediction.

                                                              21
    Securing Ad Hoc networks -- Establish trust
        relationship in open environments
• What trust information is needed when adding/
  removing suspicious host from blacklist?
   – The trust opinion of S1 towards an entity S2 in
     a certain context R
• What characteristics of trust need to be included in
  the model?
   – Dependability: combination of competence,
     benevolence, and integrity
   – Predictability

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