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THE EVOLUTION OF SATELLITES

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					THE EVOLUTION OF SATELLITES

Balancing Innovation and Heritage Design
in Commercial Space

Innovation Conference for Engineers
Santa Clara, CA
May 19th, 2011

Hampton Chan
Vice President, Chief Architect
Space Systems/Loral




                    1   Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
Space Systems/Loral Built Satellites Help Shape Today’s World
 Direct Broadcast Satellites               Two-Way Broadband Satellites                                  Mobile Comm. Satellites




                                                                                                                        Emergency
                                                                                                                        & Disaster
                                                                                                                        Response

      Entertainment                                   Internet Access                                    Remote & Global Access


                          2    Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
Space Systems/Loral Built Satellites Help Shape Today’s World
 Digital Audio Radio Satellites                 Digital Multimedia Satellites                              Meteorological Satellites




     Mobile Audio & Data                             Mobile Entertainment                                          Weather


                            3     Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19th, 2011
Balancing Innovation and Heritage Design in Commercial Space
 What is innovation? According to Merriam-Webster, innovation is:
   1: the introduction of something new
   2: a new idea, method or device


 Due to the fundamental requirement to function at least 15 years (typical mission
  life time requirement for today’s GEO communications satellite) and at an orbit
  ~36,000 km above the Earth (not easily serviceable), commercial satellite industry
  has to be very conservative in our overall design and execution philosophy.
      Maximum flight heritage and minimum risk is an utmost priority


 Historically, the introduction of innovation in the Commercial Satellite industry
  can be characterized as:
      More “Pulled” by mission and business requirements than “Pushed” by
       innovative technology discovery
      “Selective” and “Gradual” introduction of innovation rather than “Curve
       Jumping”




                     4   Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
Innovation Drives The Advancement of Commercial Satellites




                            Intelsat-V




   Courier 1B                       Intelsat V                                                   Terrestar
(1 st Spacecraft)              (First 3-Axis Geo)                                          (Current Generation)



                    5   Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19th, 2011
Examples of Successful Innovation – Higher Power, Mass Efficiency
        GEO Communication Satellite Launch Mass (kg) vs. Time
7,000


6,000


5,000


4,000                                                                                Nickel-Hydrogen Battery                             Lithium-Ion Battery

3,000
                                                                                                                                       Multi-junction
                                                                                                                                       Gallium Arsenide
2,000
                                                                         US                                                            Solar Cell
1,000
                                                                         Europe                                                        6-Panel Wing
                                                                         Others                                                        100V Reg. Bus
   0                                                                                           Silicon Solar Cell
       1999   2001          2003    2005   2007       2009        2011     2013                    3-Panel Wing
                                                                                                   30V Reg. Bus


         GEO Communication Satellite Power (kW) vs. Mass (kg)
  21

  20

  19
                                                      US integrators                                                                  Electric
  18
                                                                                                                                   Propulsion
                                                                                                                                         with
  17
                                                                                                                                   Stationary
  16                                                                                                                                  Plasma
                       European                                                                      Chemical
                      integrators
  15                                                                                                 Thruster                        Thruster
  14

  13

  12

  11
    4500             5000           5500      6000              6500          7000                                          Larger
                                                                                                                         Propellant
                                                                                                                             Tank

                                                  6      Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
Examples of Mission Enabling by Successful Innovation
 Large unfurlable reflector makes GEO                                  Cost effective, high performance spot
 Mobile Satellite Services possible with                               beam antenna and high power amplifier
 cell-phone size handheld devices                                      make Direct Broadcast and 2-way
                                                                       Broadband Satellite Services possible




                       7   Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
Unsuccessful Innovation Insertion – Solar Array Concentrators
 Solar array concentrator (used by a different
  satellite manufacturer to achieve higher power)
    The solar array concentrators, which focused
      solar energy on the panels, caused a buildup of
      heat, which caused a discharge of gases and
      reduced power output.
    Solar array power degradation on orbit was a
      lot quicker and more severe than expected
    SS/L has never used this type of concentrator
      and the other manufacturer has since replaced
      this design with the simpler approach of adding
      more panels to provide higher power

 Contributing factor
       Insufficient analysis
        and testing on the
        ground to properly
        account for system                                                                            Solar Cells
        performance
        degradation due to
        combined                                                                                      Solar Array Concentrators
        environmental effects
        over the required
        mission lifetime


                        8   Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
Balancing of Innovation and Design Heritage – the SS/L Way
 SS/L has in place a rigorous, company-wide Product Development standard to
  guide us in the development and introduction of innovative technologies into our
  products
 Our philosophy is very much based on making changes only if necessary
    Drivers: mission requirements, market trend, parts obsolescence, etc.
 Changes made to process and product follow the Deming cycle:
        Plan

        Do

        Check

        Act




 Recent Successful examples:
      Large Unfurlable Antennas
         3 spacecraft launched since 2008 – performing well

      Lithium Ion Batteries and completely new power electronics
         15 spacecraft launched since 2005 – performing well

      Electric Propulsion
         8 spacecraft launched since 2004 – performing well




                     9   Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
 A Few More Words on Innovation
 Adopt the following basic principles behind innovation and make it work in your
 specific industry
                                        Have a purpose in mind
                                        Are you solving a problem?
                                        Are you making improvement?




                                             What is required by
                                               customers?


                                               Innovation
                                    What is                             What is viable
                                 possible with                             in the                       Must have practical
 Don’t be afraid to take
  calculated risk                technology?                            marketplace?                     application
 Make sure it works                                                                                    Solicit customer feedback
                                                                                                         before going too far
 Don’t under perform
                                                                                                        Perform market survey



                            10    Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011
Thank You


11   Innovation Conference for Engineers, Santa Clara, CA.   May 19 th, 2011

				
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