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Faculties Feedback: Four Essential Ingredients in
Higher Education Institutions


Prof.LAKSHMI.T                                         Mobile No: 09448841323
Teacher Fellow,                          e-mail: mrs.lakshmi_t@rediffmail.com
Department of Commerce, Bangalore University,
Central college campus, Bangalore-560001


JAYATHEERTHA .A                                          Mobile No: 09449149115
Lecturer, Dept.of Commerce and Mgt         e-mail:jayatheertha21@rediffmail.com
Kamala College of Management and Science,
450. O.T.C.Road, Cotton pet, Bangalore-560053


THIRUMALA.M                                                    Mobile No: 09845672570
3 Semester M.Com,
Dept.of Commerce Central College,
Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001



                                   ABSTRACT

In developing country like India, there are four ingredients supporting for professionalize
quality education. The recent time a lot of unprecedented changes noticed in higher
education. Because of globalization and consumer movement have made the higher
education institutions to consider the support of market force.Altough the topics of
general areas for improvement, Learning-education-assessment, Quality circles and
Bench-marking practices is an abstract concepts, liable to change from time to time and
has traditionally proved to be difficult to assess especially in education, with prolonged
deliberation it can certainly with respect to sound measurement in higher education.
 There are numerous criteria on which the ingredients are gauged. Feed back given by
the faculty members, who were form the largest group of stakeholders, become an
important ingredients of professionalize Indian higher education system for quality
education. It is on the part of faculty members, the process of feedback needs to be made
scientific.
      This paper is based on survey that was taken at few reputed colleges at Bangalore.
This made faculties not only more forthcoming but made the exercise more objective. It
includes recommendations of faculties for different ingredients.


KEY WORDS Higher Educations,Institutions,Faculty Members, General Improvement,
quality Circles, Bench Marking Practices and Learning-Teaching-Assessment.




Faculties Feedback: Four Essential Ingredients in Higher Education
Institutions

INTRODUCTION
                   The Higher Education in India is experiencing a constant change in
every dimension. Yet the growth achieved is far below the requirements of our country.
Assuming the present rate of growth to continue, we will never be able to achieve the
estimated educational requirements. Indian higher education system has to enhance
access and ensure quality and at the same time promote general areas of improvement,
Teaching-Learning-Assessment, quality circle and Bench marking practices.


       The Higher Education institutions in India are in improving state. The emerging of
globalization process has forced them to prepare for the competations.The changes that
are taking place in the institutional environment have created huge expectations on the
part of various stakeholders who are discussing with the various institutions faculty
members. In the competition environment in which the institution have to survive and
grow and the increasing opportunities for institutions to grow enable the institutions to
adopt to the changing environment and also to exploit opportunities for growth and
development.


Higher Education

Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts
in the country, higher education enrollments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our
universities and 90 per cent of our colleges are rated as below average on quality
parameters... I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that
of vice-chancellors, have been politicized and have become subject to caste and
communal considerations, there are complaints of favoritism and corruption.

                                          – Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2007


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
           The faculty members being the main part of the institutions they require to be
   identified as a most important resource and accordingly find what factors are essential
   to make their work more challengingly to improve about quality education. Also to
   analyze various factors like general areas of continues improvement.Teachning-
   Learning-Assessment, Quality circle and Bench marking practices which will enable
   them to work better and which could improve there higher education institution.


         Hence the study is all about Critical analysis on faculty member’s opinion over
    Business education at cross roads..


OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
         To understand the areas which are mainly focused on quality education.
         To understand what measures should be taken while implementing higher
          education quality.
         To identify the factors that improves the constantly.
            To determine the level of satisfaction Learning-Teaching-Assessment area.
            To identify the faculties perception over quality circles.
            To understand the factors supporting for bench marking practices.


SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
       The relevance of this study stems from the fact that faculty members are the
commodity that requires very close supervision and control. The fact is that faculty
members today are seen not as a commodity but as asset of the institution.
Institution today believes that every individual faculty has potential and strengthens and
that human capabilities can be sharpened developed and utilized better.
           Faculty member’s opinion about four essential ingredients in higher education
institutions are what the researcher has tried prove and what all the strategies to be
implement to improve the higher education institutions.


LIMITATION
Any study cannot be a full proof study and some limitation or the other creeps in, in spite
of advance planning and careful implementation. This study is no different and also
suffers from limitations which are.


          Same of the responses to the questionnaires were biased and vague, thus an
           accurate analysis could not be done.
          Time constrain on the part of the respondents to fill up the questionnaire.
          Faculties were hesitant to give the complete information due to which the study
           could not be made accurate.
          Concept being new the researcher found difficult in the initial process:
          Sample details are not accurate.
          Sample areas are picked up from in and around of Bangalore, geographic spread
           is not so wider.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
       The researcher persuaded the available literature toughly understand the
theoretical concepts, and the scientific principles underlying the research. This review of
literature gives a glance on over all connected literature in form of books, research
reports.
   Concept of higher education and quality education has been referred from internet
   and the research methodology book by Cooper and Scindler and C.K.Kothari is used
   for survey and questionnaire analysis. Beyond this the researcher has also persuaded
   various websites relevant to the topic of the study.




METHODOLOGY
1. RESEARCH DESIGN OF THE STUDY
       The research methodology used is based on cluster sampling as the researcher had
divided the total population into clusters or groups and there by randomly selected from
the group of samples based on convince.


2. SOURCES OF GATHERING OF DATA
The primary data is gathered by direct interaction with the people of the organization by
the means of questionnaires and verbal discussion.
The secondary data sources are the company manuals, previous reports and company
websites.

3. SAMPLING PLAN
Another step in planning the research is to identify the target population and select the
sample.
The sample institution for the purpose of the study will be units, which have linked their
for ingredients. Sample firms will be picked up using judgmental sampling effectiveness.


Population size
763 numbers including faculties of commerce and management, Para medical,
Engineering College and nursing colleges.
Sampling frame
Faculty members of various institutions.


                       Commerce &
 Particulars           management        Para medical Engineering Nursing Total
 Total sample                        253          165        315       30    763
 No. Of
 respondent                            28                21              39         12       100
 % of
 Respondents                       33.16              21.62          41.29         3.93      100


Sampling Unit
In and around of Bangalore
Sampling size
100 faculties selected randomly.
Sampling method
Cluster sampling
Locale of the Study
Study will be conducted in Bangalore, Karnataka. The study is selected in higher
educational institutions.
Duration of the Study
Study will conduct for 3 weeks.


Research Method
The proposed research study will be the analytical and empirical one. It is also based on
survey method in as much as well structured questionnaires will be prepared to different
segments of the sample respondents and administered to them for the purpose of
gathering primary data on the topic. To elicit further information of the topic personal
interviewing of the respondents will be resorted to.
For the purpose of secondary data by way of books, articles, Survey reports, magazines,
journals, internet, on the topic will be considered.


Geographical Area to be covered
It is an institution specific study the area to be covered is the institution itself.
Plan of Analysis
The collected data will be analyzed with the help of statistical tools and techniques. The
Para metric and non-parametric techniques will be used to analyze both quantitative and
qualitative data. Average Percentage ratios dispersion, correlation, regression and the like
will be utilized for the analysis purpose wherever necessary to present the data in an
effective manner by use of Z test.



    Hypothesis Testing:


GENERAL AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT-QUESTIONS.
PLEASE STATE YOUR OPINION

1) HIGHLY ACTIVE 2) FAIRLY ACTIVE 3) MODERATELY ACTIVE
4) SLIGHTLY ACTIVE 5) NOT ACTIVE


    1. Implementation        of   policy    and    strategic    guidelines     for      curriculum
        development by NAAC is………..
    2. Placement facility in your institution is ……….
    3. HR Development technique involved in your institution is…….
    4. The long term relationships with external customers are…….
    5. Staff benefits in your institution are……….
  6. Effectively dealing with student complaints is ……….




ANALYSIS PART OF THE GENERAL AREAS OF
IMPROVEMENT QUESTIONS



Variable   Mean Std. Deviation Z calc Sig( 2 tailed)
       1   2.9232      0.51345 -1.521          0.129
       2   0.5129      0.49694 -1.352          0.181
       3   3.0301      0.54013 0.555             0.58
       4   3.0825         0.425 1.911          0.059
       5     0.92      0.30748 13.659          0.001
       6   0.7779      0.41786 6.621           0.002




TEACHINING-LEARNING-ASSESSMENT.QUESTIONS
PLEASE STATE YOUR OPINION


 1) STRONGLY AGREE 2) DISAGREE 3) UNDECIDED 4) AGREE
 5) STRONGLY AGREE


  1. Bridge courses are implemented to bridge the gap.
  2. An evaluation blue print are prepared and distributed among faculties.
  3. Academic planner are prepared and communicated in proper way.
  4. The institutions are arranged any interaction courses and functions.
  5. Budget provisions for research are provided.
  6. The institution support for fresh faculties for improvement.
ANALYSIS PART OF TEACHING-LEARNING-ASSESSMENT -
QUESTIONS


Variable   Mean Std. Deviation Z calc Sig( 2 tailed)
       1   0.6393      0.43215 4.143                0
       2    0.407      0.47671 1.521           0.179
       3   3.2121      0.42121 1.921           0.071
       4   3.2323      0.47125 5.519           0.005
       5   0.5918      0.49403   -1.84         0.069
       6   0.9286      0.25886 16.389          0.001




QUALITY CIRCLE-QUESTIONS
TICK SUITABLE ANSWER


 1) VERY GOOD 2) GOOD 3) NEUTRAL 4) BAD 5) VERY BAD


  1. Problem solving technique in your institution is...
  2. The top management must be committed to provide the entire necessary
     infrastructure for QC activities are…
  3. Arranging training facilities on QC for faculties are …..
  4. Head of departments should meet voluntarily about problems of the
     institution is……..
  5. The institution undertakes case studies and research activities pertaining to
     educational management are…..
  6.   The faculties of your institutions receive the opportunity for communicating
       with other professionals is …..




ANALYSIS PART OF THE QUALITY CIRCLE QUESTIONS


Variable   Mean Std. Deviation Z calc Sig( 2 tailed)
       1   3.2121      0.54054 0.558             0.58
       2   3.9121      0.53126 1.911           0.059
       3   2.7172      0.52831 -1.512          0.131
       4   3.3223      0.42131 0.494           0.063
       5   0.9286      0.41311 -1.392          0.169
       6   0.9021      0.48672 1.671           0.172




BENCH MARK –QUESTIONS
TICK SUITABLE ANSWER


    1) VERY GOOD 2) GOOD 3) NEUTRAL 4) BAD 5) VERY BAD


  1. Bench marking is the search for best practices that will lead to superior
       Performance……
  2. Support for higher education is…..
  3. Support for innovative type of training is ……
  4. Strategic bench marking in your institution is……..
  5. Centralized media facility in your institution is……..
  6. Bench mark support for strength and weakness of the institution is ……….
ANALYSIS PART OF THE BENCH MARK PRACTICES
QUESTIONS


Variable Mean         Std. Deviation     Z calc    Sig( 2 tailed)
         1   3.9201            0.30749     6.614                  0
         2   0.7779            0.41791     4.143              0.001
         3   2.4949            0.49681     -1.01              0.121
         4   0.5913            0.46376      1.84               0.68
         5   2.4175            0.39212     -1.23              0.192
         6   0.6939            0.45365    16.389              0.671




RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The unit analysis for this study was the institutions. Therefore, researcher’s looks at the
data which was gathered from random selected faculty members of different institutions
through the survey being conducted. An open ended question was developed to gather
information about four essential ingredients of institutions. The each essential ingredient
consists of six questions. The response of each department is recorded separately and
then all four responses are compiled together and made one.


SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

      Majority of institutions are not introduced NAAC policy fully.
      Majority institutions are not having proper placement facility.
   HR development techniques involved in the institution are good.
   Staff benefits in institutions are very moderate.
   Dealing with student complaints is good.
   Bridge courses are implemented in few institutions only.
   Evaluation process in the institution is low.
   Academic planner and its communication are good.
   The majority of the faculties express that interaction courses and its functions are
    not good.
   The institution support for fresh faculties for improvements.
   Budget provisions for research are very low.
   Problem solving technique in the institution is good.
   The necessary infrastructure for QC provided by the top management is neutral.
   Organizing the training facilities on QC for faculties is not good.
   Some of the institutions undertake case studies and research activities pertaining
    to education management.
   HOD should not meet voluntarily about the problems of institutions.
   No faculties of the institutions receive the opportunity for communicating with
    other professionals.
   There is a support for higher education.
   Bench marking is good
   Innovative type of training is not good.
   Strategic bench marking in the institutions are neutral.
   Centralized media facility in the institution are not their.
CONCLUSIONS:


            The emerging changes and challenges in the field of higher education can no
longer be dealt within isolation. It is, thus, necessary adopt Strategic approach through
proper management functions of various categories of administrative and field
functionaries with prior importance to Essentials of ingredients. As a result, educators are
being challenged to come up with new strategies of instructions, which a deeper insight
into how people learn, especially in this digital age. This paper has thrown light on the
new ways of learning theories with the integration of all the factors to bring out active
learning.


SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS
AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT


   1) Job Security must be ensured to the faculty and its supporting staff.
   2) Effective salary /reward and other management should be implemented.
   3) Effective performance measurement systems for the faculty, staff and students
       should be adopted.( Maintain of health competition among the customers)
   4) Minimizing of personal factors like stress, fear, anger, ego and conflicts etc.
   5) Maintain practical oriented teaching method along with theoretical method.
   6) Semester duration should be increased.


   RECOMMENDATIONS
   TEACHING-LEARNING-ASSESSMENT


   1) Every faculty must be trained to use modern method of teaching.
 2) Head of the institution to motivate the faculty to avail the benefits of the various
     types of research grants.
 3) Collaboration with NGO, government, UGC, etc helps in the improvement of
     higher education.
 4) Organizing seminars and conference which helps in interact with eminent
     personalities.
 5) The institution should implement a regular evaluation of the teachers by students.
     It supports for improvement of teaching process.
 6) Point out slow as well as advance learner. Develop and implement new
     techniques for facilitating these variant learners.




RECOMMENDATIONS
 QUALITY CIRCLES


 1) Impressing upon the employees /faculties on the need of the launching QC
     activities to their own benefits, which would eventually improve quality.
 2) The head of institution must be involve to provide all the support, motivate and
     necessary infrastructure for QC activities.
 3) HOD should meet voluntarily, discuss the problems of their respective
     departments, exchange of opinions inform the views and consider the view of
     their respective staff and redirect it to top management for decisions.
 4) To strengthen educational data base for decentralized planning and management.
 5) Undertake case study and research activities pertaining to educational
     management for education if and when necessary.
RECOMMENDATIONS
BENCH MARKING-PRACTICES


1) Highlights academic and career orientation program to faculties.
2) Guidance for entrance examination.
 3) Method of teaching and learning plans need be prepared.
 4) Proper training provided for innovative type of teaching.
 5) Provide library facilities for the faculties for self learning method through books,
     journals, internet and e-resources.




Mazumdar Committee Report (2005). Report of the Committee on National Common
Minimum Programme’s Commitment of Six Per Cent of GDP to Education.
National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), New
Delhi.
Macarthur, J. W. and Sachs, J. D. (2002). The Growth Competitiveness Index: Measuring
Technological Advancement and the Stages of Development. In: The Global
Competitiveness Report, 2002. World Economic Forum.
Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. (2006). Will India ever have a Buffet? Open-Ed Page. The Indian
Express. June 29, 2006.
MHRD. (2006). Annual Report. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department
Of Secondary and Higher education. Government of India. New Delhi.
Moore, R. M. (2004). The rising tide: "Branding" and the academic marketplace.,
Change, . May-June 2004.
NASSCOM. (2005a). The IT Industry in India: Strategic Review 2005. NASSCOM, New
Delhi.
NASSCOM. (2005b). Extending India’s Leadership of the Global IT and BPO Industries.
NASSCOM-Mckinsey Report 2005.
NIEPA (2006). Report of the National seminar on Privatization and commercialization of
Higher education on May 2, 2006. National Institute of Educational Planning and
Administration. New Delhi.
                               NO-2
Dr. Shuvasri Das
Lecturer
SEMCOM College,
Vallabh Vidyanagar
E-mail id: sdas@semcom.ac.in
Cell No.: 9898038325

Dr. Preethi Menon
Lecturer
SEMCOM College,
Vallabh Vidyanagar
E-mail id: priti.menon1@gmail.com
Cell No.: 9879787370


“Entrepreneurship Education to Business Students - The Value Chain Approach”

Abstract

Today there are enormous social, economic and educational benefits of
entrepreneurship. As a result, entrepreneurship education programs are one of the most
sought after areas of study among collegiate business students. Graduates of this
program are not only increasing in number, they are reshaping our understanding of
markets, technology and management leadership. Bent on realizing their own perceived
opportunities they continue to define their standard for business innovation and by doing
so alter the competitive landscape for future enterprise. Whereas 15 years ago only a
handful of colleges offered courses on entrepreneurship, today more than 1500 colleges
and Universities in India offer some or the other form of entrepreneurship training.

Despite the growing number of new and expanding educational programs in this area,
many are still questioning whether entrepreneurship is worth the investment, whether
entrepreneurship training enhances the students’ abilities to compete in today’s job
market and whether entrepreneurship students make stronger and more successful
business leaders.

Based on the above background, the paper attempts to explore the need for
entrepreneurship education and its current situation in India.. A part of the paper traces
out the level of success of entrepreneurship education from the student’s perspective. For
this purpose, primary data has been collected from management students of graduate and
post graduate level of various business schools through the structured questionnaire.
The study identifies the various challenges of entrepreneurship education in India today.
The paper concludes by developing a Value Chain Approach to strategize
entrepreneurship education in India.


“Entrepreneurship Education to Business Students
                                             – The Value Chain Approach”


Need for entrepreneurship education


“A country's competitiveness starts not on the factory floor or in the engineering
lab. It starts in the classroom.”
                (Henry Ford)


Entrepreneurship is a creative human act involving the mobilization of resources from
one level of productive use to higher level of use. It is the process by which the
individuals perceive opportunities without regard to resources currently controlled.
In the closing decades of the 20th century entrepreneurship gained increased recognition
among economists as a significant driver of improvements in societal welfare. Across the
globe, governments have acknowledged the importance of their roles in motivating
individuals, businesses and related stakeholders to perceive and develop new
opportunities that can promote positive change and create economic growth in their
societies. This entrepreneurial spirit is now seen as the main source of innovation in the
nearly all industries, leading to the birth of new enterprises and the growth and renewal of
established organizations.
The importance of entrepreneurship education and training was stressed in a recent (2009
Report by the Global Education Initiative (GEI) of the World Economic Forum (WEF) :
“…while education is one of the most important foundations for the economic
development , entrepreneurship is a major driver of innovation and economic growth.
Entreprenuership education plays an important role in shaping attitudes, skills and
culture…”
The requirements of entrepreneurship education and requirements are different among the
different economies of the world depending upon their levels of economic development.
There are three sets of economic framework conditions on the basis of which countries
may be classified as :
               Factor Driven

               Efficiency Driven

               Innovation Driven

In Factor driven countries there is focus on enhancing the basic requirements of
economic development such as stable Government, primary healthcare and education and
other basic infrastructures. As the economy develops and turns into efficiency driven
Government starts to pay more attention to the quality and quantity of entrepreneurship
and innovation which becomes the source of national competitive advantage. These
nations need to compete in ways that are more creative. The primary entrepreneur
framework depends on the nature and level of entrepreneurship education and training.
Thus entrepreneur education training increases as a country develops economically.
In the innovation driven countries it was commonly thought that entrepreneurship could
not be taught. Many still believe that education and training are not necessarily for
starting business. People like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs, both dropping out after a few
years of college made for big business leaders. It became apparent , however that they did
not represent typical entrepreneurs, particularly for businesses with knowledge based
products and services. Many governments in innovation driven economies have since
declared their commitment to entrepreneurship education identifying it as a key priority.
Although entrepreneurship education has reached maturity in the advanced economies
like UK and USA entrepreneurship education is a relatively new practice in India. Since,
entrepreneurship education is an emerging concept it has a significant role to play in
India which is passing through the transitional phase from factor driven to efficiency and
innovation driven.
India’s higher education system generates a large number of graduates every year.
However, its economy is not in a position to absorb the graduates passing out, leading to
an
increase in the educated unemployed.
Does entrepreneurship education make a difference?
There is an extensive literature on entrepreneurship education and training but greater
understanding is needed about how programmes and learning strategies help develop
skills that lead to the formation of new ventures. The WEF Global Education Initiatives
Report argued that there is strong evidence that entrepreneurship can boost economic
growth.
A recent study for the Small Business Administration Office of Advocacy (Summit
Consulting 2009) found that University Graduates who have taken entrepreneurship
courses are more likely to select the careers in the entrepreneurship, work in small
business and develop patented inventions or innovative processes, services or products.
Researchers have suggested that education and training for entrepreneurs should
positively influence the actions by enhancing the skills to start and grow a venture. For
eg. education and training can enhance once cognitive ability for managing the complex
process of opportunity recognition and assessment. Classes that provide the role model
and example of the entrepreneurship process can equip individuals with the ability to
recognize access and shape opportunities.
The State of Entrepreneurship Education and Training in India
Between 1950 and 1980 i.e, in the period of 30 years there were only 118 management
Institutions and between 1980 and the year 2000, 626 new management Institutions were
set up which proves the commercialization of management education. Although there
were openings for business students because of shift in the economic policy of the
Government, but it also resulted in birth of vendors of management degrees. Today there
are around 1500 Private and Public Institutes offering Management and Entrepreneur
Education which have become commercial establishments. Inspite of the fact there is a
proliferation of management institutes, it has resulted in decline in quality education.
Only a few of them such as IITs and IIMs produce graduates who are sought world over
but our business schools also produce thousands of management graduates who are
neither unemployable nor do they have the business acumen to start up a business of their
own.




Chart 1. Gap Analysis of different Business Institutes
        LOW                                                 FOCUS                                                    HIGH

             Achievement         Opportunity                Support            Business Plan &        Other Skills
              Motivation         Identification             Servic es            Feasibility         Development

      Output                                                                                                         Outcome

                                                  System of Education



       Universities                State Govts.                          Autonomous
                                                                                                      Govt. Initiative
      (Govt.-Aided)              (Tech Edu Deptt)                         Institutions


      Colleges/Institutions        Vocati onal Trai ning/
      (UG/PG)-all streams             Pol ytec hnics
                                                                           IIMs / IITs                  EDI / CEDs


             HIGH                                 REACH ( Students’ Density )                                           LOW


                                                      Systemic Weakness
                     Lesser Flexibility   Lac k of Res ources           Marks-driven ( Mar ksist)   Lower Moti vation



At present, if we look at the system of entrepreneursip education, it is rendered by
Universities (Government aided), Technical Education Department (State Government),
Autonomous Institutions like IIMs and IITs and various Government initiatives like the
EDI. We find that although the number of students enrolled in the Central and State
sponsored institutes are higher but the focus of education in theses institutes are lower.
Similarly although the capacity of the premier institutes in management is low but the
focus on developing entrepreneurs in various sectors is very high.
The accessibility of the students pertaining to entrepreneurship and management is
higher in Central and State Government aided institutes as well as the innumerable
private institutes due to their easy enrollment, comparatively larger intake, and easy
selection procedure. This has resulted in thousands of students graduating every year with
degrees but the ratio of management students opting for entrepreneurship is very low in
numbers. This is because in most of Management Institutes the focus is broad based and
the knowledge is theoretical. Very few top Ranking Institutes focus on creating
entrepreneurial attitudes and help students recognize opportunities and think creatively
and enable them to build leadership skills and confidence.
According to a survey conducted by Marketing and Development Research associates
MDRA in 2010, management and entrepreneurship institutes have been listed from all
over India   on the basis of various parameters such as selection process, academic
excellence, personality development, infrastructure, facilities and placements.
Table 1. Top 10 Government B-Schools
Rank Name of Institute                      City
1        IIM-A                              Ahmedabad
2        IIM-B                              Bangalore
3        IIM-C                              Kolkata
4        FMS                                New Delhi
5        IIM-K                              Kozhikode
6        IIM-I                              Indore
7        IIFT                               New Delhi
8        NITIE                              Mumbai
9        S.J. Mehta School, IIT –           Mumbai
         Bombay
10       MANAGE                             Hyderabad

Table 2. Top 10 Private B-Schools
Rank      Name of Institute                 City
1         XLRI                              Jamshedpur
2         MDI                               Gurgaon
3         S.P    Jain       Instiute     of Mumbai
          Management
4         IMT                                Ghaziabad
5         NMIMS                              Mumbai
7         MICA                               Ahmedabad
8         XIM                                Bhubaneshwar
9         IMI                                New Delhi
10        IMI                                New Delhi

The survey also reveals that from the recruiters’ perspective there are some areas where
improvement is needed in fresh B- school graduates.
Trained Business Students and their perspective towards entrepreneurship
education – A Case Study of Anand and V.V. Nagar.
A survey was conducted among 500 final year business students at graduate and post
graduate levels in various colleges and University in and around Anand and Vallabh
Vidyanagar with the help of a structured questionnaire. The purpose of the study was to
find out the outcome of entrepreneur education from students’ perspective.


Table 1. Preferences of Students for opting different career options
              Entrepreneurs            Managers


Total         41%                      59%

Male          45%                      55%

Female        33%                      67%

UG            52%                      48%

PG            32%                      68%
Table 1 reveals that out of the 500 trained business students from various institutes, 41
percent want to be self employed while 59 % would not want to take the risk but prefer
being employed as managers. According to them, an assessment of opportunity costs
makes being employed are safer option especially in India where employment
opportunities are sparse and entrepreneurial activities not very rewarding.
The gender wise comparison shows that the male students are more inclined towards
entrepreneurship (45 percent) compared to female students (33%). On conducting a
comparative study of UG and PG students opting for job or self employment, the data
reflects that a higher number of UG students would prefer being entrepreneurs. The
reason behind this is that most of them have family owned business which they want to
carry forward.


Table 2. Gestation period between study and self employment
          After Study           After
                                Experience >
                                2
Total     20%                      80%

Male      03%                      97%

Female    63%                      37%

UG        32%                      68%
PG        10%                       90%




Table 2 shows that while 80% of the students want to wait for minimum 2 years to gain
experience before starting an enterprise only 20 percent want to start their business
immediately after completing their studies. Female students are more eager to start their
enterprise immediately after the study since they perceive that at an early age the family
responsibilities and expectations are lesser and risk taking capacity is higher.
Table 3. Which of the two is more status giving from students’ perspective ?
                Top Manager             Entrepreneur

Total           46%                     54%
Male            42%                     58%

Female          56%                     44%

UG              48%                     52%


PG              45%                     55%
Table 3 indicates that 54% students feel that owning a business more status giving to
them, although it entails a risk. While females find managerial role more status giving
male students find entrepreneurship to be more aspiring.
Table 4. Ranking of reasons for becoming entrepreneurs
Rank Reason                               %

1     To be a Leader in Business & Industry 41%

2     To do something Unique in Life         32%

3     To help society & create Employment 14%

4     To earn lots of money                  13%
Challenges of Entrepreneurship Education in India
Cultural barriers
Entrepreneurship can develop only in a society in which cultural norms permit variability
in the choice of paths of life. Unfortunately, the Indian culture consists of a network of
benefits that in many ways run counter to entrepreneurship . For example, Indians believe
that being passive and content with the status quo is healthier for the inner soul than
striving to improve one’s situation. They believe that peace of mind can be achieved from
spiritual calm rather than from materialism. People in India are more sensitive to
emotional affinity in the workplace than to work and productivity.
Moreover, the caste system has impeded class mobility for centuries. The caste system
and its series of obligations reinforce the practice of following a family occupation rather
than launching a new venture. An entrepreneur needs to work around the clock and this
has kept some people away from their own start-ups. After all, compared with other
countries, family life in India is more important.
People, even today, think that taking up a job is much better than taking a risk and
starting a venture. If a job is taken up after college, the person will soon have a
comfortable existence. The other scenario could be starting a venture after working for
four to five years. This requires a lot of commitment and courage to leave the present job.
As time passes by, the risk-taking capacity goes down.
Difficulties towards Start-ups
Starting a business in India is costly in terms of the time required and the cost involved.
While it takes just five days to start a business in the United States and just two days in
Australia, in India it takes as long as 89 days. What really hurts is that even in neighbors
Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, it takes just 24, 21, and 35 days respectively to do so.
The reason for such delay is bureaucratic--too many rules and regulations, and too much
paperwork (Ashish Gupta, 2004). On average, it would cost an entrepreneur nearly half
of his/her total income (49.5% of the gross national income per capita) to set up a
business, which is 100 times more than what is needed to set up a business in the United
States. Again poorer cousins Bhutan, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka are better off.
Doing business in India is an extremely difficult proposition (Ashish Gupta, 2004). The
absence of an appropriate entrepreneurial climate, the lack of required infrastructure
facilities, and the lack of access to relevant technology hinder rapid industrial
development. Most of the time, the Indian entrepreneurs have to tackle electricity,
transportation, water, and licensing problems.
Incomplete Entrepreneurship Education
A survey done by the Entrepreneurship Development Institute, India (EDII) in 2003
shows that young people are afraid to start their own business because they are not
confident, not capable, and lack knowledge in starting a business. Many people have the
opportunity to change jobs or become an entrepreneur if they are properly trained. The
students in India are not satisfied with the “hands-on” support of their university in the
founding process.
The EE in the higher education system should, therefore, satisfy the need for
entrepreneurship by: selecting + motivating + training + supporting. Unfortunately, the
present EE in India just concentrates on related courses. Moreover, the so-called
entrepreneurship courses are similar to the general business courses. But general business
management education has no significant influence on entrepreneurial propensity. The
findings of a survey on business owners in India suggest that management education is
not an important driver of entrepreneurial attitudes (Gupta 1992). There is a demand for
education programs specifically designed to expand students’ knowledge and experience
in entrepreneurship. The contents and teaching methods have to be differentiated between
entrepreneurship and traditional business courses.
Besides offering the courses in entrepreneurship, some educational institutions also
organize entrepreneurship related activities. But these activities are not much different
from each other and are not supportive of their educational programs. For example,
almost every IIM has its own incubator, but those incubators are mainly designed for
outside entrepreneurs.
The Value Chain Approach

The Value Chain Approach is one of the most popular and effective framework to

represent the sequential approach for strategising entrepreneurship education.




Value Chain




                                                                        3. STRUCTURE OF BUSINESS
 1. GOVERNMENT ROLE                  2. ENTREPRENUERIAL                 EDUCATION
        Resource Allocation         CULTURE                                   Flexible Curriculum
        Facilitation                       Attitude                          Core skills
        Encouraging                        Aspirations                       Corporate Academic
         Institutions                       Activities                         Partnership
         1                                                                         3

          1
                                                                                Life Long Learning
                                                                                       3
                               4. START UP/GROWTH/EXPANSION
                                SUPPORT
                              5. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
                                     Accreditation
                                     Global Linkages
                                     Feedback & Analysis

1.Government Role
                                  
The activities of the entire Value chain start from the role of the Government and
Business Leaders who need to invest in entrepreneurship educational institutes and
support their initiatives. The government financial support for business education is
required to compete internationally. Although government should ensure funding it
should allow greater autonomy to educational institutes by de-bureaucratising the system.
Entrepreneurship and Management institutes should be run by professionals not
politicians. For instance, premier institutes like IIT (Mumbai) and IIM (Ahmedabad)
have persons like Rahul Bajaj and N R Narayana Murthy as chairmen of their governing
bodies. The Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012) having recognized the need for more
management and technical institutes has proposed 8 new IITs, 20 new NITs, 20 IIT’s, 7
IIM’s and 2 SPA’s. It has also provision to increase the intake capacity by about 54
percent in such institutes.
2. Entrepreneurial Culture
There is a very important role of entrepreneurship in economic development while
business entrepreneur drive and shape innovation, they speed up structural changes in the
economy and they introduce the new competition thereby contributing to the
productivity. Social entrepreneurs perform a similar function in the social economy,
filling gaps in social needs that are left unfilled or poorly addressed by both business and
government. Therefore to develop business entrepreneurs or social entrepreneurs the
attitude must be developed among the business students of the nation.
Entrepreneurial attitudes are important because they express the general feelings of the
population towards entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. It raises the status of
entrepreneurship in the nation and builds positive attitude and willingness to bear the risk.
It improves the individual perception and knowledge in business creation. As people see
more and more successful entrepreneurs in their area, this may enhance their perception
of their capabilities. This effect is stronger when the economic climate is favourable such
as economic growth and a liberal national entrepreneurship policy.
3. Structure of Education
Education in business schools should be imparted such that the different programs and
learning strategies help develop skills that lead to the formation of a new venture. In other
words such education and training should impact the entrepreneurial orientation.
There needs to strike a proper balance between didactic training and skill. Every learner
should be equipped with a set of core skills that can be retuned and amplified to enable
adaptation to emerging opportunities in the rapidly changing world. The core skills
constitute quantitative and analytical thinking, language, communication and networking,
accessing and managing and imbibing the spirit of competition and innovation. These
attributes are essential for employment, entrepreneurship, knowledge and wealth creation.
The course content, instructional objectives, methodology and evaluation system should
facilitate the learners of the business schools to equip them with the necessary skills as
required by the Industry and for this purpose the Executives of the Industry should join
hands with the Institutions in designing the suitable curriculum and standing by them and
implementing the curriculum.
      There needs to be intellectual resource sharing through Institutional faculty –
       Industrial expertise exchange

      Internship of students in a Company

      Participation of the industry in conferences, seminars and workshops organized
       by the Institutions.

      Collaborative research
      Consultancy services of the Institutions to the Industry

Entrepreneurship is inherently multidisciplinary in nature therefore most of the learning
takes place outside the business schools. Due to the global competitiveness and the
dynamic business environment with fast growing technological changes, there needs is
life long learning for adaptability to change.
4. Start Up/ Growth/Expansion Support
Business Training Centers
A number of transitional economies have already developed networks of business
training centers (BTCs). The BTCs have a variety of functions such as business training,
consulting, and serving as an information resource or library for business people. They
might be organized as semi-public non-profit companies or as private companies. They
might be financed by local governments, by consulting fees and user charges, or even by
international donors. They might be stand-alone organizations or part of a larger network
or franchise system. Usually the difficult transition is from government-funded to self-
financed training which involves developing the local demand for business training
services.
BTCs are not unique to developed economies. For instance, in the United States the
Small Business Administration (SBA) was a Federal agency that supported many Small
Business Development Centers often associated with universities. For the agricultural
sector (thinking of farms as small businesses), the Agricultural Extension Service, usually
associated with an agricultural college, provided information and consulting advice on
best practices to farmers all across the country.
Incubators
Business incubators provide some of the standard infrastructure (space, communications,
and support services) for new startups so that the entrepreneurs can focus on what is
unique to their businesses. Some incubators also provide consulting services and advice.
The internal incubator (as, for instance, developed by the company InIn in Slovenia) is an
incubator inside of a large company that needs to downsize by spinning off some workers
in small businesses. These could be new businesses or part of the old company to be
spun off as a separate operation.       The internal incubator should be a particularly
important tool in the restructuring of the large uneconomic enterprises in the post-
socialist economies.
Franchising
A business franchise is a pre-packaged slice of relatively successful entrepreneurship
which saves the franchisee the trouble of "reinventing the wheel." While the concept
should be very useful in the transitional economies that are currently lacking in strong
entrepreneurial traditions, there are several reasons why the uptake may be slow. Firstly,
many of the western franchises can only with great difficulty be transplanted into the
transitional economies. The supply networks may be absent, the tastes may be quite
different, and the niches may not be the same. Some foreign franchises may only work
for awhile due to the pent-up demand for foreign products. Eventually domestic master
franchisers will be developed, and only then can the potential of franchising be realized.
The second problem that needs to be addressed is that of intellectual property rights. In
an economy with lax enforcement of trademarks and franchises, so many imitators and
pirates would free-load off the brand recognition and reputation of the franchise that it
would soon be uneconomic for the master franchiser to continue.


Enterprise Forums and Clubs
On the model of the MIT Enterprise Forum, an entrepreneur presents a business plan to a
panel of experts, financiers, and experienced entrepreneurs before a public audience. The
presenter will learn much about the problems in his plan which can be rectified before it
is presented to the real financiers. Future entrepreneurs in the audience learn first-hand
about business plans and their presentation, and about the whole culture of
entrepreneurship.
An enterprise forum might be associated with an entrepreneurs' club which could sponsor
other public activities and social gathering. In addition to supporting the culture of
entrepreneurship, these clubs provide a central meeting place to allow entrepreneurial
team members and financiers to find each other. Clubs might be associated with BTCs,
incubators, chambers of commerce, colleges, or schools.
Entrepreneur Mentoring Programs
It is a commonplace that much of "entrepreneurship" cannot be captured and transferred
in textbooks. Thus, to be successful, business cultures need to develop ways in which
entrepreneurial skills in their "embodied form" (i.e., in successful entrepreneurs) can be
socially transmitted, propagated, or "recycled" to aspiring young and mid-career people.
5. Professional Recognition
Accreditations
The challenge for business schools is to solidify their role through accreditation of quality
world-wide. Through national and international accreditation, there would be increased
public knowledge and confidence on the institute and the institute could serve as a model
to the society This would also increase their accountability to the public.
Global Linkages
As we move up the value chain international collaboration among business schools hold
great potential to overcome the challenges of increasingly dynamic business environment
characterized by accelerating change, intensifying global competition, shifting strategic
foundations and evolving managerial skill sets. This needs business schools to stay
abreast of the changes and react quickly and innovatively.
Corporate Universities
Large number of MNCs have entered into partnership with higher education institutes
(HEIs) to bridge the gap between knowledge and skill, to inculcate corporate’s work
culture and also make the presence of these institutes felt in the country. The Motorola
University in the United States, Barclay’s University in the United Kingdom are few
examples of corporate universities. In India Infosys has set up the Infosys Training
Centre at Mysore costing Rs. 260 crore spread over 270 acres of land is the biggest
corporate training facility in the world.
There also needs to be cross border partnerships since internationalization of education
not only promotes quality but also brings with it professional recognition. The worth of
the qualification is determined by the reputation of the providers.




Feedback and Analysis
The successful business students from various institutions finally start a venture of their
own. Therefore there needs to be a feedback from the new entrepreneurs about their
perspective regarding the effectiveness of the curriculum and contribution of the institute
in shaping their careers. There should further be an analysis on the factors where the
institutes are lagging in meeting their expectations and should work on fulfilling the
linkage gaps.


Conclusion


“Never before in history has innovations offered promise of so much to so many in
such a short time.”
       Bill Gates
We live in an era dominated by innovations and the key drivers of innovation are the
entrepreneurs. Realising this, in the last two decades there has been an exponential
growth of business schools. Nevertheless most of the business schools in our country lay
stress on creating managers rather than fostering entrepreneurship. In our country we
observe that whatever little enterprise that perpetuates is for self employment which does
not help in creating employment for the teeming millions in need of a livelihood. Family
businesses in India are more prevalent and first generation entrepreneurs are very few.
Business students do not have the courage to take bold initiatives and innovative
enterprises. The global meltdown further reduced the number of students who thought
had good opportunities to start a business in India and other parts of the world.
       The main bottleneck in the attempt to foster entrepreneurship are the
entrepreneurship education institutes which are unable to create the entrepreneurial spirit
among the students. There is a gap between knowledge and skill which can only be
reduced through an interface between Institutes and Industries.
Its high time that Indian entrepreneurship education take a jump start and take a lead in
creation of hi-tech enterprises for which world class business incubators, entrepreneurial
research park, venture capital fund institutions etc. need to continuosly emerge and
expand.
Therefore there needs to be a Quality Revolution in Entrepreneurship education through
the Value Chain Approach where there has to be the highest possible quality at each step
of the development process. The Value Chain presents an effective strategy of imparting
multidisciplinary business content and experiential approaches along with mentorship
and training from the Corporates and Industries during start-ups. Institutes ought to
expand and look beyond conventional horizons to what their counterparts in the world are
doing. The role and responsibility of the Government, Industry and Educators in a
combined manner is vital.

Selected References
   1) Sarswat R.C, Tripathi K.C (2009), “Analysis of emerging Environment and Quality
       Challenges in Indian Higher Education : A Value Chain Approach”, University News,
       Vol No 47, Jan 2009.
   2) Verma H.L, “Management Education in New Economy Some Emerging Issues”,
       University News, Vol No 47, July 2009.
   3) Subaiah A, Jayakumar S. “ Recent Trends in Management Education”, University News,
       Vol No 47, June 2009.
   4) Bholeapur M.R “ Building Institution – Industry Relationship : Indian experience”
       University News, Vol No 47, April 2008.
   5) “Be Creators, Entrepreneurs & Innovators”, Speech by Mr. Goverdhan Mehta
       Padmashree Chairman, National Assessment & Accrediation Council & Former Director,
       Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
   6) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Special Report, 2010
   7) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009, Global Report , Niels Bosma & Jonathan Levie
   8) Kumar & Das, “ Emerging Challenges of Higher Education System in India”, University
       News, Vol No 37, September 2009
   9) “Can India Manage? Y/N”,Sunit Arora, Outlook, September 2010
   10) “Best B- Schools: Theory & Practice,”, Outlook, September 2009




   11) Porter, Michael and Klaus Schwab, 2008. The Global competitiveness Report 2008-09.
       Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum
   12) Fiet, James, 2000. “The Pedagogical Side of Entrepreneurship Theory”, Journal of
       Business Venturing, Vol. 16, pp. 101-117.
Submitted By –
1.Dr. Preethi Menon
Lecturer (Accountancy and Management)
SEMCOM College
Vallabh Vidyanagar
Cell No. 9879787370
E-mail id : priti.menon1@yahoo.com
2. Dr. Shuvasri Das
Lecturer (Economics)
SEMCOM College
Vallabh Vidyanagar
Cell No. 9898038325
E-mail id : shu_vasri@rediffmail.com

				
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