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					Graduate                                                             Fall 2008

                            ARKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

Professional Development Code: ADE 7081001


           A.         ELAD 6053 Planning & Resource Allocation

           B.         Professor:    Steve Bounds
                                    Office-Chickasaw 445
                                    Address—P.O. Box 14850
                                    State University, AR 72467


           A. Primary Text:
              Thompson, David C. & R. Craig Wood. Money & Schools (3nd Edition).
                    Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, 2005.
              American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American
                    Psychological Association (Fifth Edition). Washington, D.C.:
                    American Psychological Association, 2001.

           B. Assigned Readings:
              ELCC Standards

                Additional readings for each session located on Blackboard in


           A. The focus of this course is to prepare educational leaders with skills
              and experiences to promote the success of all students through an
              understanding of the relationship between money and student
              achievement and to provide a broad overview of funding concepts and
              daily funding operations.
     B. This course is a requirement for the MSE in Educational Leadership.

     C. Course objectives are as follows:

           1. To understand financial management (e.g., budgeting, planning,
              account auditing, monitoring, cash flow management, and financial

           2. To understand the development of the school building budget and
              its specific implications for the school.

           3. To understand how to involve staff and representative members of
              the community in the development of school budget priorities and
              the effective utilization of school personnel and available resources.

           4. To understand how to plan, prepare, and justify the school budget
              in accordance with district budgeting and state procedures.

           5. To become familiar with the school site budget and expenditure
              reports and the state and district financial management system
              utilized by the district and state.

           6. To apply and assess current technologies for school management,
              business procedures, and scheduling.


     A. ELCC (Educational Leadership Constituent Council) Standards for
        Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership for Principals, Curriculum
        Directors, and Supervisors

        1.1.3. b Develop plans and processes for implementing the vision (e.g.,
                 articulating the vision and related goals, encouraging
                 challenging standards, facilitating collegiality and teamwork,
                 structuring significant work, ensuring appropriate use of student
                 assessments, providing autonomy, supporting innovation,
                 delegating responsibility, developing leadership in
                 others and securing needed resources.

        1.5a      Demonstrate the ability to involve community members in the
                  realization of the vision and in related school improvement

        1.5. b    Acquire and demonstrate the skills needed to communicate
        effectively with all stakeholders about implementation of the

2.2.c   Demonstrate the ability to use and promote technology and
        information systems to enrich curriculum and instruction, to
        monitor instructional practices and provide staff the assistance
        needed for improvement.

3.1.b   Develop plans of action for focusing on effective organization
        and management of fiscal, human, and material resources,
        giving priority to student learning, safety, curriculum, and

3.1.c   Demonstrate an ability to manage time effectively and deploy
        financial and human resources in ways that promote student

3.2.a   Demonstrate the ability to involve staff in conducting operations
        and setting priorities using appropriate and effective needs
        assessment, research-based data, and group process skills to
        build consensus, communicate, and resolve conflicts in order to
        align resources with the organizational vision.

3.2.c   Demonstrate an understanding of how to apply legal principles
        to promote educational equity and provide safe, effective, and
        efficient facilities.

3.3.a   Use problem-solving skills and knowledge of strategic, long-
        range, and operational planning (including applications of
        technology) in the effective, legal, and equitable use of fiscal,
        human, and material resource allocation and alignment that
        focuses on teaching and learning.

3.3.b   Creatively seeks new resources to facilitate learning.

3.3.c   Apply and assess current technologies for school management,
        business procedures, and scheduling.

4.1.f   Demonstrate the ability to involve families and other
        stakeholders in school decision-making processes, reflecting an
        understanding that schools are an integral part of the larger

4.3.c   Demonstrate an understanding of ways to use public resources
                and funds appropriately and effectively to encourage
                communities to provide new resources to address emerging
                student problems.

     5.3.a      Make and explain decisions based upon ethical and legal

     6.1.d      Demonstrate an understanding of the policies, laws, and
                regulations enacted by local, state, and federal authorities that
                affect schools, especially those that might improve educational
                and social opportunities.

B. Diversity Related ELCC Standards

     3.1.a      Demonstrate the ability to optimize the learning environment
                for all students by applying appropriate models and principals of
                organizational development and management, including
                research and data driven decision-making with attention to
                indicators of equity, effectiveness, and efficiency.

     4.2a       Demonstrate involvement within the community, including
                interactions with individuals and groups with conflicting

     4.2c       Provide leadership to programs serving students with special
                and exceptional needs.

     6.1.e      Demonstrate the ability to describe the economic factors
                shaping a local community and the effects economic factors
                have on local schools.

     6.2.b      Apply understanding of the larger political, social, economic,
                legal, and cultural context to develop activities and policies that
                benefit students and their families.

C.           Arkansas Standards by Code Number (For the complete wording of
             each code, go to

             Arkansas Building Administrator Standards (ABAS)
             1.K1, 1.K5, 1.K7, 1.K11, 1.D1, 1.D3, 1.P1, 1.P7, 1.P.14, 1.P.15,
             2.K.1, 2.K.4, 2.K.7, 2.K.8, 2.K.10, 2.K.11, 2.K.13, 2.K.14, 2.K.17,
             2.D.1, 2.D.3, 2.P.3, 2.P.4, 2.P.5, 2.P.6, 2.P.7, 2.P.10, 2.P.11,
             3.D.10, 3.D.5, 3.P6, 5.K.4, 5.P.8, 5.P.9, 6.K.1,
     D.           Technology Standards for School Administrators

          I.D.    Uses data to drive leadership decisions.

          III.A Models the routine, intentional, and effective use of technology.

          III.B   Employs technology for communication and collaboration
                  among peers, staff, parents, and the larger community.

          III.D Engages in sustained, job-related professional learning using
                technology resources.

          IV.B    Implement and use integrated technology-based management and
                  operations systems.

          IV.C    Allocates financial and human resources to ensure full
                  implementation of the technology plan.

          IV.D    Integrates strategic plans, technology plans, other improvement
                  plans, and policies to align efforts and leverage resources.

          V.D     Uses technology to assess and evaluate managerial and operational

          VI.A    Ensures equity and access to technology resources that enable and
                  empower all learners.


     a. Online Class Discussion-Each session questions or discussion topics will be
        posted related to the textbook and/or assigned readings. The student will
        log on the course on-line discussion forum and engage in an interactive
        exchange. The goal is to respond to the questions/discussion topics and
        to engage other students in a reflection practice and allow each student to
        be actively involved in the class. (35 points possible-highest 7 out of 8

     b. Case Study Analysis-The student will respond to questions related to the
        scenarios where the student will apply the information learned to a real-
        life situation faced by a school leader. No discussion is required. (21
        points possible-highest 7 out of 8 scores)
c. Field-Based Activities-The student will complete at least 30 clock hours of
   internship activities and maintain a log accounting for the time actually
   spent to perform the field based activities listed below. These field based
   activities are to be included in the professional portfolio.

          Community Survey on School Funding & Allocation of Resources
          Interview (face-to-face) six taxpayers in your school community
          regarding their attitudes and understanding of school funding and
          how schools spend money. A pool of questions for the community
          survey will be developed by participants in the course (see
          attachment A). Select persons (living in the same district) who
          might have conflicting opinions and represent diversity in age
          groups, race, socioeconomic, occupations, etc.; for example, a
          businessperson, a parent of younger children, a retired person
          living on a limited income, etc. Describe each participate (do not
          use their names) and tell why you included them in the survey.
          Complete and submit Attachment B to show diversity of the

          Submit a summarized written report of your findings (try to limit
          to no more than 8 double spaced pages). Include a reflection on
          the findings and recommendations to the school board for
          improving collaboratiion with the community and way to inform the
          community in regards to how the school obtains funds and
          allocates resources.

          ELCC Standards: 1.5.b, 4.1.f, 6.1.e. (25 points-see Attachment C
          for rubric)

   D.     District & School Building Budgeting and Expenditures Report
          Obtain a copy of your school district budget and identify the
          relative contribution of federal, state, and local units of

          Interview the district’s superintendent and/or chief fiscal officer to
          learn his/her opinions regarding the following areas:
                           state aid formula
                           how the district obtains its money
                           the general strengths and weaknesses of district
                           budgetary changes that have taken place in the
                            last few years
                           administrative responsibility
                     guidelines for budgeting and spending for
                      training required or provided for principals
                     other major needs or concerns that the finance
                      office requires of the principal
                      the accounting system required by the state
                     the effect the use of computers has on school
                      district accounting and budgeting practices
                      the overall process of estimating revenues and
                      the involvement of employees and the school
                      board in the budget process

               Obtain a copy of the school building budget and
               interview the school principal and the individual
               responsible for financial management to determine the
                     how the principal is involved in the budgeting
                     the extent of the principal’s involvement
                     frustrations regarding the budget
                     ways to improve the budget planning process
                     how the principal involves the building staff and/or
                      how requests from faculty are prioritized when
                      expenditures exceed budget allocations
                     building responsibilities for the Arkansas Public
                      School Computer Networking System
                     principal’s responsibilities for the financial
                      management and the student management
                      aspects of ASPCN

     Submit a summarized written report of your findings (try to limit
     to no more than 10 double spaced pages). Include your
     assessment of the level of collaboration and involvement at the
     district and building level. Make recommendations for the building
     principal for involving faculty and parents in the establishing the
     building budget.

      ELCC Standards 3.2.a, 3.3.c. (25 points-see attachment D for

E.   Budgetary Proposal for New Classroom
As the principal or program director in your school, develop a
formal proposal and budget to add a new class in your school. This
proposal will be presented to the superintendent and the school
board for their approval. The class will be housed in an existing
empty classroom in your school.

      1. Background information:
           Name of proposed class
           Purpose for the new class
           Justification for why it is needed in your school
           Relationship of the new class to the mission of your
           Students to be served by the class—number of
            students and age/grade levels

      2. Information about the teacher and other personnel to
         staff the classroom
                Licensure and other requirements
                Salary (according to your district salary scale)
                 based on years experience and educational level
                Cost of fixed charges, including benefits

         A copy of the salary scale for your district should be

      3. Itemized listing of furnishings & equipment (non-
              Desks & Chairs (teacher & Students)
              Computers
              File Cabinets
              Other non-consumable items

      4. Itemized listing of textbooks and other instructional
              Textbooks
              Consumable materials & supplies
              Other instructional materials

      5. Other startup costs

      6. Total budget by category (include shipping charges and
               Personnel
               Furnishings & Equipment
                               Textbooks and Instructional Materials
                               Other (be specific)

                     Purchase orders to specific vendors should be prepared for
                     the furniture, equipment, textbooks, instructional supplies
                     and any other products purchased for the new classroom.

                     (25 points-see attachment E for rubric.)


  Session 1   Schools, Values, and Money-The Context of Public Education; What
              Public Schools are Becoming; Where Public Schools may be
              Headed; the Scope of Education Finance in America; Relationship
              of Education and
              Economics Related; the Structure of School Governance

  Session 2   Federal, State, and Local Support for Schools; Adequate and
              Equitable Funding for Schools; Serving Economics, Equality
              Productivity, & Liberty

  Session 3   Basic Funding Structures; Revenue for Schools; Federal, State, &
              Local Tax Systems; State Aid Formulas & State Funding
              Part Two: Operationalizing School Money

  Session 4   Accountability & Professionalism; Fiduciary Responsibilities;
              Accounting Processes; School Budget Allocation; Tracking School

  Session 5   Budget Planning-Conceptualizing Budtgets; Organizating for
              Budgeting; Constructing Budgets; Role of Stakeholders

  Session 6   Budgeting for Personnel-The Personnel Function; Personnel
              Compensation Policies & Procedures; Issues of Personnel Budgeting

  Session 7   Budgeting for Instruction-Instructional Planning; Organizational
              Options; Site Based Management; Sources of Revenue for
              Instructional Budgets

              Budgeting for Student Activities-Role of Student Activities, Activity
              Funds; Controls on Activity Funds; Activity Fund Reports

  Session 8   Site-Based Leadership-The Site Concept; Framework for
              Implementation; Role of the Principal; Budget Issues

       a. Instructional methods-Web based instruction with class
          discussions/debates, cooperative learning, case studies, papers, and field-
          based activities are employed to increase learning and accommodate a
          variety of learning styles.

       b. Students are required to access Blackboard to check for announcements,
          retrieve course documents, and participate in on-line discussions and
          assignments (TASS standard III.B).

       c. Students are required to complete 30 clock hours of internship activities
          that are concomitant to course assignments.

       d. Students are required to use word processing and APA Publication Manual,
          5th Edition to prepare the course papers. (See all rubrics in course

       e. Students are required to utilize LiveText for portfolio construction.

       f. Flexibility Clause: Circumstances may arise which will prevent us from
          fulfilling each and every component of this syllabus. Therefore, the
          syllabus is subject to change. However, you will be notified of any
          changes that occur prior to any due date for assignments.

       g. Academic Conduct: All acts of dishonesty in any work constitute academic
          misconduct. The academic disciplinary policy will be followed, as
          indicated in the ASU Student Participant Handbook, in the event of
          academic misconduct. Students should familiarize themselves with the
          handbook and especially the policy pertaining to plagiarism.

          In face-to-face and/or compressed video network classes:

       h. Cell phones and pages must be turned off unless arrangements have been
          made with the professor.

       i. Food and drinks are not allowed in class.


       If you need course adaptations or accommodations because of a disability, if
       you have emergency medical information to share, or if you need special
       arrangements, please notify the professor ASAP.
                                  ATTACHMENT A
                          Questions for Community Survey

Select from these questions to ask the interviewees. You do not have to ask all of the
questions and you can modify or add questions. All of the interviewees should live in
the same district. (Remember, most of the people in your community do not know
specific details unless they are closely involved with the school district. Don’t expect
them to deal in specifics.)

   1. Students are often given the grades A, B, C, D, or FAIL to denote the quality of
      their work. Suppose the public schools themselves, in your community, were
      graded in the same way. What grade would you give your community’s public
      schools —A, B, C, D, or FAIL? Why?
   2. How about the public schools in the nation as a whole? What grade would you
      give the public schools nationally—A, B, C, D, or FAIL? Why
   3. Is the grade you give to the public schools in the nation as a whole based mainly
      on your own experience, on what you've learned from friends and family, or on
      what you've seen and heard on television or radio, in newspapers, or other
      things you have read?
   4. In your opinion, how much does the amount of money spent on a public school
      student's education affect the quality of his or her education—a great deal, quite
      a lot, not too much, or not at all?
   5. Do you know how much money your school spends to educate the children in
      your district? Do you know the current millage rate?
   6. Here is a short list of possible changes that could cost more money and require
      additional tax dollars. Please tell me if you would favor or oppose making each of
      the following changes in your community to improve your public schools. Do you
      (favor/oppose) strongly or not strongly?

                (a) Paying teachers more
                (b) Placing more computers in
                (c) Reducing class sizes
                (d) Fixing run-down schools
                (e) Adding more security at schools
                (f) Adding or upgrading gyms or
                other athletic facilities
                (g) Adding or upgrading space for
                band, choir, drama, and visual arts

   7. To pay for this/these change(s), would you be willing to raise your taxes each
      year by...    $500?          $200?          $100?         not willing to raise taxes
   8. Do you think all extra curricular activities should be funded by the school?
9. Do you think that the amount of money that goes to education in your state
    should or should not be the same for all students, even if it means taking
    funding from some wealthy school districts and giving it to poor districts?
10. Should wealthy school districts be allowed to spend as much as they want on
    their schools, or should their spending be capped so that poor districts are not
    left behind?
11. How do you think schools in poor communities should be funded?
12. Do you favor or oppose the government offering parents money or "vouchers" to
    send their children to private or religious schools, or public schools outside their
13. (Answer only if the interviewee favors vouchers) Would you still favor this if it
    meant there would be less money for public schools in your area?
14. Do you believe our school operates with a budget that properly funds each
    student’s schooling?
15. What is your understanding of how schools receive money for operations &
    payment of debts?
16. What can you do as a taxpayer to ensure that public funds are used to benefit
17. Does your school communicate with the public about how they are spending the
    money that is available to them? How?
18. Do you believe that faculty, parents, and the community should have input on
    how the school budgets and spends the monies provided by taxpayers?
19. What suggestions do you have for the school district that you believe could be a
    better use of the funds available to the school?
20. What changes would you make in your district and how your district spends
21. Should the school publish a listing of all checks written monthly on the school
    website along with all monies received during the month?
22. In light of recent fuel price increases which have caused almost everything to
    increase in price, how should the school adjust its budget to account for these
    increases? Ask for a local tax increase? Cut extracurricular activities? Go to a 4-
    day, 8-hour school week? Others?
                                        ATTACHMENT B

Name of District:

Diversity of Interview Subjects:

                          Interviewee   Interviewee   Interviewee    Interviewee   Interviewee   Interviewee
                               #1            #2            #3             #4            #5            #6



Age range**

Children in


Educational Level
Attended a
school function
in the last 12
Voted in school
election in the
last 2 years?

Note: All interview subjects must reside within a single school district.

Indicate other distinguishing characteristics of the interview subjects (i.e., parent of children with
disabilities, English is not the primary language spoken in the home, parent of children identified
as gifted, etc.).
   Caucasian/white
   Black/African-American/ Negro
   Hispanic/Latino/Spanish Origin
   American Indian/Alaska native
   Asian
   Chinese
   Filipino
   Japanese
   Other Asian
   Korean
   Vietnamese
   Native Hawaiian
   Asian Indian
   Other (Specify)

**Age range-
   Under 30 years of age
   30-40 years
   40-55 years
   more than 55 years of age

***Educational Level-
   Less than High school Diploma or GED
   High School Diploma or GED
   Some college credit
   Associate’s degree
   Bachelor’s degree
   Master’s degree
   Professional degree beyond Master’s degree
                                                 ATTACHMENT C
                                            Rubric for Community Survey
                                           School Funding & Expenditures
Name                                                                                       Semester/Year

ELCC Standards:
2.1a-Assesses school culture using multiple methods
4.2a-Demonstates active involvement within the community, including interactions with individual with conflicting
6.2a-Demonstrates the ability to communicate with members of a school community concerning trends, issues, and
potential change sin the environment in which the school operates, including maintenance of an ongoing dialogues
with representatives of diverse community groups.

       Element                    Exemplary                       Acceptable                     Unacceptable
                                  23-25 points                    18-22 points                    0-17 points
Utilizes face-to face-      Student assesses school         Student assesses school         Student does not assess
interviews to assess      culture using face-to-face      culture using face-to-face      school culture using face-
   school culture         interviews with 6 subjects      interviews with 6 subjects       to-face interviews with 6
  related to school        living in the same school       living in the same school      subjects living in the same
   finance issues                    district.                       district.                  school district.
    (ELCC 2.1a)
                             The interview subjects         The interview subjects            The diversity of the
                              represent substantial       represent some degree of         interview subjects is very
    Diversity of            diversity in gender, age,      diversity in gender, age,                limited.
 interview subjects          racial, socioeconomic,         racial, socioeconomic,
                            educational level and/or       educational level and/or
                              occupational groups.           occupational groups.
                         Student provides a clear and    Student provides a summary            Student does not
                           focused summary of the          of the interviews, but the      summarize responses of
Interview summary
                                   interviews.           summary lacks clarity and         the interviews and/or the
   (ELCC 6.2a)
                                                                     focus.               summary lacks clarity and
  Identification of       Student clearly identifies      Student vaguely identifies       Student does not identify
conflicting attitudes,   conflicting attitudes, issues       attitudes, issues and            attitudes, issues and
issues and concerns             and opinions                       concerns.                        concerns.
    (ELCC 4.2a)
                         Student provides a reflective    Student provides a reflective   Student does not provide a
                          analysis that is clear and       analysis to the information      reflective analysis to the
       Analysis           specifically related to the      obtained in the interviews,    information obtained in the
                         information obtained in the       but it lacks clarity and/or             interviews.
                                  interviews.                       specificity.
                             All aspects of the          All aspects of the assignment    Some aspects of the
                             assignment are              are addressed. Content is        assignment are not
                             addressed. Content is       coherent, organized, well-       addressed. Content is not
 Style & Language            coherent, organized,        written, and contains a fewer    balanced and organized or
                             well-written, and is free   than 5 grammatical and           contains more than 5
                             of grammatical and          spelling errors.                 grammatical and/or spelling
                             spelling errors                                              errors.
Score & Comments:

ELCC Standard 2.1a         ____Exemplary ____Acceptable ____Unacceptable
ELCC Standard 4.2a         ____Exemplary ____Acceptable ____Unacceptable
ELCC Standard 6.2a         ____Exemplary ____Acceptable ____Unacceptable
                                                 ATTACHMENT D
                              Interviews with Chief Fiscal Officer and Building Principal
                                            District and Building Budgets

Name                                                              Semester/Year

ELCC Standards:
Standard 3.0: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to
promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way the promotes a
safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.

         3.2a Involve staff in conducting operations and setting priorities using appropriate and effective needs
         assessment, research based data, and group process skills to build consensus, communicate, and resolve
         conflicts in order to align resources with the organizational vision.

         3.3c Apply and assess current technologies for school management, business procedures, and scheduling.

     Element                    Exemplary                     Acceptable                          Unacceptable
                                23-25 points                  18-22 points                         0-17 points
                       Student interviews chief                                       Student does not interview district
                       fiscal officer (or designee)    Student interviews chief       level fiscal officer and/or summary
  Interview with       according to the specifics     fiscal officer (or designee)    is vague and does not contain
chief fiscal officer   in the syllabus and            according to the specifics in   essential information.
    or designee        provides a clear and           the syllabus and provides a
                       focused summary of the         summary of the interview.
                       Student interviews the         Student interviews the          Student does not interview
                       building principal             building principal according    building principal and/or summary
                       according to the specifics     to the specifics in the         is vague and does not contain
 Interview with
                       in the syllabus and            syllabus and provides a         essential information.
building principal
                       provides a clear and           summary of the interview.
                       focused summary of the
                           Student assesses the       Student assesses the current
                                                                                        Student does not assess current
                         current technologies for        technologies for school
   Technology                                                                               technology for school
                           school management,             management, business
   Assessment                                                                         management, business procedures,
                        business procedures, and       procedures, and scheduling
                                                                                       and scheduling or information is
                        scheduling and discusses        and discusses with some
                           clearly and in detail             degree of detail.
                            Student provides a        Student provides an analysis
                         relevant analysis of the        of the findings from the
                             findings from the         interview and information
   Analysis &          interview and information        about the involvement of        Student does not provide an
 Involvement of         about the involvement of         school and community         analysis or report on involvement
  Stakeholders            school and community         stakeholders at the district     of community stakeholders.
                       stakeholders at the district        and building level is
                           and building level is      reported. The analysis lacks
                                 reported.             clarity and/or specificity.
                             Student provides
                             appropriate and
                                                            Student provides
                                 effective                                                 Student does not provide
                                                      recommendations to involve
                           recommendations to                                          recommendations to involve staff
Recommendations                                            staff in conducting
                              involve staff in                                           in conducting operations and
                                                          operations and setting
                       conducting operations and                                               setting priorities.
                                                         priorities (ELCC 3.2a).
                         setting priorities (ELCC
                                                      All aspects of the
                         All aspects of the       assignment are addressed.
                                                                                Some aspects of the assignment are
                    assignment are addressed.        Content is coherent,
                                                                                   not addressed. Content is not
                       Content is coherent,      organized, well-written, and
Style & Language                                                                balanced and organized or contains
                     organized, well-written,       contains fewer than 5
                                                                                 more than 5 grammatical and/or
                    and is free of grammatical    grammatical and spelling
                                                                                          spelling errors.
                        and spelling errors                 errors.

Score & Comments:

Exemplary=exceptionally well done
Acceptable=Well done
Unacceptable=Low quality