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					                          Key Note Speech
                  “What is Going On in Commercial
                    Satellite Communications”


                                                Jose Albuquerque
                                                Intelsat



International Workshop on Satellite and Space
Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
            Table of Contents
I. The Satellite Industry and the Service Providers
II. The Push for Mobility and Technology Advances
    Are Blurring the Boundaries Among FSS, MSS and
    BSS
III. FSS Goes from Point-to-Point to Point-to-
    Multipoint
IV. The Spectrum and the Competition for Spectrum
V. Equitable Access to and Efficient Use of
    Orbit/Spectrum Resources
VI. Industry Consolidation
     International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                       2
                          September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                  I. The Satellite Industry and the
                         Service Providers




International Workshop on Satellite and Space
Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                   Satellite Industry

   Four Main Sectors
    –   Satellite Services
    –   Satellite Manufacturing (e.g. Boeing, Loral, Lockheed Martin,
        Thales Alcatel, Astrium)
    –   Launch Industry (e.g. Arianespace, Boeing, Lockheed Martin,
        Proton)
    –   Ground Equipment Manufacturers
   Total Revenues in 2005 ≈ 90 billion US$
    –   Satellite Services (≈ 50 billion US$)
    –   Ground Equipment (≈ 25 billion US$)
    –   Satellite Manufacturing and Launching (≈ 15 billion US$)

           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             4
                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                        World Satellite Services
                              Revenues


                                                                                                    $41.3
Revenue (in Billions)




                                                                                    $35.8


                                                                     $28.8
                                                      $25.5
                                         $22.0
                           $18.3




                            $1.5         $1.3          $1.3          $1.6           $1.8            $1.7
                            $9.1         $9.0          $8.8          $9.5           $9.3            $9.8




                        International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                             September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    The Satellite Service Players

   Traditional Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Operators
    (e.g. Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat)
   Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) Operators (e.g.
    Inmarsat, Thuraya, Iridium, Globalstar, Mobile
    Satellite Ventures)
   Broadcasting Satellite Service (BSS) Operators
    (e.g. Echostar, Directv) and provision of these
    services on leased FSS capacity
   Digital Audio Broadcasting Operators (XM, Sirius,
    World Space)
        International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                          6
                             September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
            Main FSS Providers
   FSS Provider                 Number of              Satellites Under            2006 Revenues
                                Satellites              Construction                (Million US$)
    Intelsat                            52 (1)                         7                  ≈ 2,000
             Astra           15                           3
 SES      Americom           17            40             2            6                  ≈ 2,000

             New               8                          1
             Skies
    Eutelsat                            19 (5)                         4                  ≈1,100
 New      Telesat            7          11 (1)            2            3                   ≈ 375
Telesat    Loral           4 (1)                          1                                ≈ 170
            Skynet
        International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                                    7
                             September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
          Main MSS Providers
MSS Provider           Type of             Number of                    2006 Revenues
                        Orbit              Satellites                    (Million US$)
  Inmarsat               GSO               12 (w/4 F3)                         500

  Thuraya                GSO                        2                        323 (2005)
   Iridium              NGSO                       66                              212
 Globalstar             NGSO                       43                              136
   MSV                   GSO                        2                               27
   ICO                   GSO                       [1]                                   -
 TerreStar               GSO                       [1]                                   -
       International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             8
                            September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
             Main BSS Providers
 BSS Provider               Number of               Number of                  2006 Revenues
                            Satellites              Subscribers                 (Million US$)
                                                     (Millions)
               US                   12                  16                             13,744

                LA                   1                      1.4
DirecTV
             Brazil                  1                      1.3
                                                                                        1,013
          Sky                                               1.4
        Mexico
   Echostar                      11 (3)                      13                         9,818
          International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                                9
                               September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
 Main Satellite Radio Providers
Satellite Radio            Number of                Number of                 2006 Revenues
   Provider                Satellites              Subscribers                 (Million US$)
                                                    (Millions)
                                                  (31/12 /2006)

     XM                            2                      7.6                             933

    Sirius                         3                    6.024                             637

WorldSpace                         2                  0.115                             10
                                                  (31/12/2005)                        (2005)

        International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                                10
                             September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                   II. The Push for Mobility and
               Technology Advances Are Blurring the
               Boundaries Among FSS, MSS and BSS




International Workshop on Satellite and Space
Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                       FSS, MSS, BSS


   “fixed-satellite service: A radiocommunication service
    between earth stations at given positions, when one or
    more satellites are used; the given position may be a
    specified fixed point or any fixed point within specified
    areas…” (ITU RR No.1.21)
   mobile-satellite service: A radiocommunication service:
    –   between mobile earth stations and one or more space stations;…
    –   or between mobile earth stations by means of one or more space
        stations.” (ITU RR No.1.25)
   “broadcasting-satellite service: A radiocommunication
    service in which signals transmitted or retransmitted by
    space stations are intended for direct reception by the
    general public.” (ITU RR No.1.39)

          International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                            12
                               September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    Boundaries Between FSS and MSS Are
          Becoming Less Distinct


   Aircraft earth stations have been allowed to communicate with
    FSS space stations (Connexion by Boeing)
     –   Although operating under a secondary MSS allocation for the
         transmit frequencies and with no MSS allocation in the receive
         frequencies, these earth stations enjoyed the protection given to
         FSS earth stations receiving from the same space station
   Earth stations on Board Vessels (ESVs) have also been allowed
    to communicate with FSS space stations even in the absence of
    an MSS allocation for the transmit frequencies
   Rules for authorizing the operations of Vehicular Mounted Earth
    Stations (VMES) are currently being considered in the US and in
    Europe

            International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                              13
                                 September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    As Far As the FSS Is Concerned a Mobile Earth
      Station Is Not Different From an FSS Earth
          Station at an Unspecified Location


   In many situations (e.g. VSATs) large numbers of earth
    stations are authorized to operate under a “blanket license”
    or generic authorization
    –   As far as interference to other satellite networks is concerned a
        mobile earth station fits well within this framework as long it meets
        the same radiation pattern as an earth station at a fixed location
        (pointing accuracy issues)
   Potential for interference to terrestrial stations poses a much
    more difficult challenge
    –   This leads to the use of frequencies in which deployment of terrestrial
        stations is lighter or to difficult coordination situations (e.g. C-Band
        ESVs as they approach port)

             International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                               14
                                  September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    Traditional Differences Between FSS and MSS
       Stem Mainly From the Frequencies Used


   FSS used higher frequencies (C-Band or Higher)
    –   earth station antennas are directional facilitating frequency
        sharing between adjacent satellite networks;
    –   also more spectrum is available
   MSS used lower frequencies (e.g. L-Band)
    –   earth station antennas are non-directional making sharing
        between satellite networks more difficult;
    –   less spectrum is available
   As technology allows mobility with FSS frequencies
    these new applications will have more in common with
    traditional FSS applications than with MSS applications

            International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                 September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    Boundaries Between FSS and BSS Are
          Becoming Less Distinct

   Technical distinction between FSS and BSS is even more subtle
    than that between FSS and MSS
   In the early days of FSS, earth stations were of relatively large size,
    certainly not compatible with individual reception by the end-user
   The ITU BSS Plan (RR Appendices 30 and 30A) was based on a 9º
    orbital separation for co-frequency, co-coverage sharing while FSS
    satellites are usually much closer to each other
   However, as technology developed transmission of video signals to
    the end user (direct to home – DTH) became also feasible within
    the FSS
   Today most DTH providers use both BSS frequencies (referred to
    by the FCC as direct broadcast service - DBS) and FSS
    frequencies
          International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                               September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
          Use of MSS Frequencies for
          Terrestrial Communications

   In 2001, MSV and ICO requested FCC authorization to use
    MSS frequencies for terrestrial communications within what
    was named the Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC) of
    the MSS system
   The FCC has decided to allow such flexibility under some
    conditions and has since then authorized MSV and
    Globalstar to develop such hybrid satellite/terrestrial
    systems
   Similarly a December 2006 Decision of the European
    Communications Committee (ECC) has allowed MSS
    systems to be supplemented by a Complementary Ground
    Component (CGC)
         International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                           17
                              September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems Also
        Use BSS Frequencies For a
         “Terrestrial Component”

   In order to allow reception in urban areas both XM
    and Sirius use terrestrial repeaters that
    complement the satellite system using the same
    frequencies that are transmitted from the satellite
    and which have already been licensed for use by
    each operator
   Terrestrial users, in particular broadcasters, have
    opposed these terrestrial repeaters very much in
    the same way that terrestrial operators, in
    particular mobile phone providers, opposed ATC

        International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                          18
                             September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
               III. FSS Goes from Point-to-Point to
                        Point-to-Multipoint




International Workshop on Satellite and Space
Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    In the Early Days FSS Focused on
          Point-to-Point Services


   As a pioneer in satellite communications Intelsat
    focused in the early years on point-to-point
    transoceanic communications carrying basically
    telephone and video traffic.
   Competition from fiber moved Intelsat and other
    FSS operators from point-to-point to point-to-
    multipoint applications like TV distribution, DTH
    and VSAT networks.


        International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                          20
                             September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    Current Business of FSS Providers

   Eutelsat: 72% video applications; 28% data, value-added
    services and others
   SES Americom: media & entertainment (29%); VSAT
    Enterprise and Consumer (28%); DTH Satellite
    Outsourcing (23%); Government Services (20%)
   SES New Skies: Internet (15%); Data and Voice (57%);
    Video (28%)
   SES Astra: significant percentage of video services
   Telesat: Broadcast (46%); Business Networks (22%);
    Carrier (5%); Consulting (6%); Subsidiaries (21%)
   Intelsat: Network Services (47%); Media (38%),
    Government (13%); Satellite-Related Services/Other (2%)
         International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                           21
                              September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                            IV. The Spectrum and the
                            Competition for Spectrum




International Workshop on Satellite and Space
Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
          The Allocation of Spectrum to
          Radiocommunication Services
   Frequency bands are internationally allocated to
    radiocommunication services (e.g. FSS, BSS, MSS) by
    World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRCs) convened
    by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
   WRCs can modify a treaty bounding text – the ITU Radio
    Regulations (RR) – that contains, among several other
    provisions, the international table of frequency allocations
   Individual countries can deviate from the frequency
    allocations in the RR and establish their national table of
    frequency allocations
    –   For satellite radiocommunication services such deviations are less
        frequent due to the multinational nature of these services
            International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                              23
                                 September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
             Most Used FSS Frequencies
                C-Band and Ku-Band

   C-Band
    –   5850-6725 MHz (↑); 3400-4200 MHz (↓)
    –   6725-7025 MHz (↑); 4500-4800 MHz (↓) (FSS Plan – RR App.30B)
   Ku-Band
    –   13.75-14.50 GHz (↑)
    –   Region 1 (Europe, Africa):
            10.95-11.20 GHz (↓); 11.45-11.70 GHz (↓); 12.50-12.75 GHz (↓)
    –   Region 2 (Americas)
            10.95-11.20 GHz (↓); 11.45-11.70 GHz (↓); 11.7-12.2 GHz (↓)
    –   Region 3 (Asia):
            10.95-11.20 GHz (↓); 11.45-11.70 GHz (↓); 12.20-12.75 GHz (↓)
    –   12.75-13.25 GHz (↑); 10.70-10.95 GHz (↓); 11.20-11.45 GHz (↓)
        (FSS Plan – RR App.30B)
             International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                               24
                                  September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
              Most Used FSS Downlink
               Ka-Band Frequencies

   17.3-21.2 GHz (↓) (Region 1);17.7-21.2 GHz (↓) (Regions
    2,3)
    –   17.3-18.1 GHz (↑ BSS Plan – RR App. 30A, Regions 1,3)
    –   17.3-17.8 GHz (↑ BSS Plan – RR App. 30A, Region 2)
    –   18.1-18.4 GHz (↑ BSS feeder links)
    –   18.8-19.3 GHz (↓ NGSO with equal status – RR No.22.2 does not
        apply)
    –   19.3-19.7 GHz (↓ feeder links to NGSO MSS with equal status –
        RR No.22.2 does not apply)
    –   20.2-21.2 GHz (government systems)
   Given the above limitations FSS Ka-Band downlinks for
    commercial GSO satellites are implemented mostly in
    18.3-18.8 GHz and 19.7-20.2 GHz

           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             25
                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                  Most Used FSS Uplink
                  Ka-Band Frequencies

   27.0-31.0 GHz (↑) (Regions 1,3); 27.5-31.0 GHz (↑)
    (Region 2)
    –   28.6-29.1 GHz (↑ NGSO with equal status – RR No.22.2
        does not apply)
    –   29.1-29.5 GHz (↑ feeder links to NGSO MSS with equal
        status – RR No.22.2 does not apply)
    –   30.0-31.0 GHz (↑) (government systems)
   Given the above limitations FSS Ka-Band uplinks
    for commercial GSO satellites are implemented
    mostly in bands:
    –   28.35-28.6 GHz; 29.25-29.5 GHz; and 29.5-30.0 GHz
           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             26
                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
             BSS Planned Frequencies



   BSS Plan in Appendices 30 and 30A of the RR
    –   12.2-12.7 GHz (↓) – Region 2
          Feeder      links in 17.3-17.8 GHz
    –   11.7-12.5 GHz (↓) – Region 1
    –   11.7-12.2 GHz (↓) – Region 3
          Feeder links in 17.3-18.1 GHz; and 14.5-14.8 GHz
          (outside Europe)



           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             27
                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
     BSS Non-Planned Frequencies


–   1452-1492 MHz (Digital Audio Broadcasting)
–   2310-2360 MHz (BSS Sound in the United States, India
    and Mexico)
–   2520-2670 MHz
–   17.3-17.8 GHz (↓) – Region 2
        Feeder links in 24.75-25.25 GHz
–   21.4-22.0 GHz (↓) – Regions 1, 3
        Feeder links in 24.75-25.25 GHz (Region 3); 27.5-30.0 GHz
         (Regions 1, 3)


          International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                            28
                               September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    Most Used MSS Frequencies


– 1610-1626.5 MHz (↑); 2483.5-2500 MHz (↓)
– 1626.5-1660.5 MHz (↑);1525-1559 MHz (↓)
– 1668-1675 MHz (↑);1518-1525 MHz (↓)
– 1980-2010 MHz (↑);2170-2200 MHz (↓)
– 2670-2690 MHz (↑);2500-2520 MHz (↓)




     International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                       29
                          September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    ITU Regulatory Procedures in the
           Unplanned Bands
   Advance Publication Information (API)
     –   Orbital location, frequencies and service area
   Request for Coordination (between 6 and 24 months after the ITU
    receives the API)
     –   More detailed information (G/T, e.i.r.p. patterns, center frequencies,
         bandwidths, earth station antenna sizes)
     –   The date of receipt of the coordination request sets the priority of the
         network in the ITU queue
   Within 7 years from the date of receipt of the API by the ITU BR the
    filing administration must
     –   provide notification information that will be examined by the ITU BR with
         respect to compliance with the RR, including coordination requirements
     –   Provide due diligence information (e.g. identify spacecraft manufacturer
         and launch services provider)
     –   bring the frequency assignments of the satellite network into use (launch
         the satellite and bring it into regular operation)

             International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                               30
                                  September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
         Coordination Requirements

   The ITU BR (Radiocommunication Bureau) identifies other
    previously filed satellite networks that have potential for
    receiving interference from or causing interference to the
    satellite network under examination
    –   in FSS bands of interest overlapping frequencies and orbital
        locations within ±10º (C-band), ±9º (Ku-band), ±8º (Ka-band)
        trigger coordination
   Coordination has then to be effected with the identified
    networks and agreement has to be obtained from all
    administrations responsible for these networks


           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
Recording a Satellite Network in the ITU MIFR
 (Master International Frequency Register)

   In general, if BR examination of the notification information
    leads to unfavorable findings, these can be corrected
   In particular, meeting the coordination requirements means
    communicating to the ITU BR that agreements have been
    obtained from all the administrations with whom coordination
    had to be effected
   If coordination cannot be completed with any given
    administration, frequency assignments can still be recorded if
    there is a favorable finding by the BR with respect to the
    probability of harmful interference between the relevant
    networks
   Even if there is an unfavorable finding with respect to the
    probability of harmful interference, frequency assignments can
    still be recorded with an indication of those administrations
    whose assignments were the basis of the unfavorable finding

         International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                              September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                Competition for Spectrum
                  (GSO versus NGSO)

   Frequency allocations to MSS, FSS and BSS were mostly
    completed at WARC-92
   The ITU work during the 90’s with respect to these
    radiocommunication services was focused on adapting the
    regulatory framework to accommodate the demand of non-
    GSO systems
    –   “Little LEOs” (low data rate systems using MSS frequencies below
        1 GHz – e.g. Orbcomm, Starsys, Vita, Final Analysis, Leo One)
    –   “Big LEOs” (use of MSS frequencies between 1 and 3 GHz and
        feeder links in the FSS – e.g. Iridium, Globalstar, ICO)
    –   Broadband Systems (higher data rates using FSS frequencies –
        e.g. Teledesic, Celestri, Skybridge)
           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             33
                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
The ITU Reacted Very Quickly Adapting The Regulatory
     Framework to Accommodate NGSO Systems


     WARC-92 introduced the possibility of coordinating NGSO
      systems using MSS frequencies with other NGSO or GSO
      systems (Resolution 46)
     WRC-95 and WRC-97 eliminated RR No. 22.2 from
      certain portions of the Ka-band targeted by NGSO
      broadband systems (Teledesic) and to be used by feeder
      links to NGSO MSS systems
     WRC-97 and WRC-2000 developed a set of emission
      limits in several portions of Ku-band targeted by NGSO
      broadband systems (Skybridge) that, if met, would relieve
      these systems from the obligations imposed by RR No.
      22.2

           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
More Recently Competition for FSS Spectrum
   Has Come From New Terrestrial Uses

   Operation of Radio Local Area Networks (RLANs) in the
    band 5150-5250 MHz allocated to the FSS for Earth-to-
    space feeder links to NGSO MSS systems
    –   Resolution 229 (WRC-03)
   Operation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in
    the band 5850-5925 MHz
    –   FCC Report & Order, February 2004
   Operation of Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) Systems in bands
    below 10.6 GHz
    –   FCC Report & Order, April 2002 and December 2004
    –   ECC Decision 06/04, March 2006

           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             35
                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
        New Threats to FSS Spectrum Are in the
          Agenda of the Upcoming WRC-07

   Agenda Item 1.5: “to consider spectrum requirements and
    possible additional spectrum allocations for aeronautical
    telecommand and high bit-rate aeronautical telemetry, in
    accordance with Resolution 230 (WRC-03)”
    –   Unplanned uplink C-band spectrum (5925-6700 MHz) and
        downlink C-band in the FSS Plan (4500-4800 MHz) are candidate
        bands
   Agenda Item 1.4: “to consider frequency-related matters
    for the future development of IMT-2000 and systems
    beyond IMT-2000 taking into account the results of ITU-R
    studies in accordance with Resolution 228 (Rev.WRC-03)”
    –   Downlink C-band spectrum in unplanned frequencies (3400-4200
        MHz) as well as in planned frequencies (4500-4800 MHz) are
        candidate bands
           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                             36
                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
  The Threat Posed by IMT Systems to FSS
C-Band Spectrum Is Particularly Troublesome

   Approximately 160 GSO currently in orbit use C-band frequencies for
    their downlinks (i.e. the equivalent to more than 3,000 transponders with
    a 36 MHz bandwidth)
   This infrastructure represents an investment in excess of US $30 Billion
    only in spacecraft and launch costs
   C-Band is used to deliver:
     –   distance learning, telemedicine and universal access services;
     –   backhaul services (telephony, Internet);
     –   VSAT data links (e.g. bank transactions,, corporate networks);
     –   distribution of TV programs;
     –   mobile satellite service feeder links;
     –   government/emergency links, including disaster recovery services and
         meteorological tracking,
    which are services that require the high reliability and broad geographic
    coverage that can only be delivered in the C-band.
             International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                               37
                                  September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
        Sharing Between FSS and IMT
          Systems Is Not Feasible
   ITU-R studies have concluded that separation distances
    required to ensure protection of co-frequency FSS earth
    stations are of the order of tens of kilometers to a few
    hundreds of kilometers
    –   Considering that a typical city covers an area with radius between 15
        and 30 km, it is concluded that sharing between IMT systems and
        FSS receive earth stations is not realistic
   IMT transmitters can also interfere with FSS earth stations
    operating in adjacent bands.
    –   Unwanted emissions generated by IMT transmitters falling within the
        FSS desired signal cannot be filtered and will therefore generate
        interference
    –   Signals generated by an IMT transmitter can be strong enough to
        saturate the low-noise amplifier (“LNA”) of the FSS receiver (the
        significant difference between the levels of the desired and interfering
        signals render filtering of the IMT signal to the required levels
        unfeasible)
            International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                              38
                                 September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
               V. Equitable Access to and Efficient
                Use of Orbit/Spectrum Resources




International Workshop on Satellite and Space
Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
The Rights for Equitable Access to the Orbit/Spectrum
        Resources Is Well Recognized Within the ITU


   In several ITU texts it is recognized that
    –   all countries have equal rights in the use of both the radio
        frequencies allocated to various space
        radiocommunication services and the geostationary-
        satellite orbit and other satellite orbits for these services;
        and
    –   the radio frequency spectrum and the geostationary-
        satellite orbit as well as other satellite orbits are limited
        natural resources that should be most effectively and
        economically used
   How to implement these principles is a much bigger
    challenge
            International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                 September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
 Development of the BSS and FSS Plans Intended to
Ensure Equitable Access to Orbit/Spectrum Resources



   –   BSS Plans for Regions 1 and 3 were developed
       at WARC-77 and for Region 2 at a Regional
       Conference held in 1983
   –   An FSS plan was developed at a World
       Conference (WARC-Orb) held in two sessions
       (1985 and 1988)
   –   However, Plans do not seem to have provided an
       effective way of implementing the equitable
       access principle
          International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                               September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    ITU Regulatory Procedures in the
            Planned Bands
   The regulatory procedures of the FSS Plan (RR App. 30B) and
    BSS Plan (RR Apps. 30A and 30B) ensure access to
    orbit/spectrum resources for each of the 191 countries that are
    members of the ITU
   Each country’s rights are characterized by guaranteed access to
    specific frequencies and coverages from pre-defined orbital
    locations (or portions of the GSO arc) with certain power levels and
    within a specified interference environment
   Both Plans include mechanisms allowing each country to propose
     –   modifications to the technical parameters defining their guaranteed access
         (e.g. power levels and coverages); or
     –   uses of the planned frequencies in addition to those already contemplated
         in the Plan;
    provided they do not infringe the rights of access of each country
            International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                 September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
Use of Planned Frequencies, in Particular
    for FSS, Has Been Very Limited

   The lack of commercial feasibility for satellite networks as
    specified in the Plans (e.g. national coverage) has led to a
    very limited use of the planned frequencies, especially
    those of the FSS Plan
   Current uses are in most cases significant modifications or
    additions to those uses contemplated in the Plan
   WRC-2000 and WRC-03 developed a revision of the BSS
    Plans in Appendices 30 and 30A aiming at facilitating the
    use of these frequencies
   Similarly a review of regulatory procedures and associated
    technical criteria of the FSS plan in Appendix 30B will be
    considered by WRC-07, meeting in Geneva from 22
    October to 16 November.
          International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                               September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
            Other Proposed Measures


   Each satellite network recorded in the ITU MIFR has a
    certain period of validity and Resolution 4 (Rev. WRC-03)
    intends to prevent that rights to use frequency
    assignments from specific orbital locations be perpetuated
    –   At the same time, replacement satellites are indispensable to
        ensure continuity of service to the often large number of earth
        stations being served by the satellite being retired
   Suggestions to confer priority to filings from countries that
    do not have satellites in orbit have been recently
    formulated but would be very difficult to implement without
    completely disrupting the first-come-first-serve regime that
    de facto prevails at the ITU
           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
                           VI. Industry Consolidation




International Workshop on Satellite and Space
Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    Consolidation of Satellite Operators Has
    Been A Constant Trend in Recent Years



   Among FSS operators recent transactions have
    consolidated 7 companies into 3
    –   SES acquired GE Americom (November 2001)
    –   Intelsat acquired Loral North American Satellites
        (March 2004)
    –   SES acquired New Skies (March 2006)
    –   Intelsat acquired PanAmSat (July 2006)
    –   Telesat-Loral merger announced (December 2006)


          International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
                                                                                            46
                               September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria
    Consolidation of BSS Satellite Operators



 A proposed merger between Directv and
  Echostar was rejected by the FCC (October
  2002)
 Digital audio broadcasting operators XM
  and Sirius have announced their intention to
  merge (February 2007)
     –   Terrestrial broadcasters oppose

           International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications 2007 (IWSSC 2007),
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                                September 12-14, 2007, Salzburg, Austria

				
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