Solve Marketing Problem by Marketing Management by rcz15984


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									   Chapter Two

   Problem Definition,
Exploratory Research, and
  the Research Process

         Chapter Two
       Chapter Two Objectives

To understand the problem definition process.

To learn the steps involved in the marketing research process.

To understand the components of the research request.

To learn the advantages and disadvantages of surveys, observation, and experimental
       research techniques.

To become familiar with how the marketing research process is initiated.

                                      Chapter Two
The Problem Definition Process
  Can the problem
become opportunity?             Recognize the problem or opportunity

Any suspect motives?
                               Find out why the information is sought

Examine cultural &
bureaucracy issues          Understand the decision making environment

 Determine cause &
 effect relationships       Use the symptoms to help clarify the problem

Mgt. support is key
                         Translate mgt. problem to marketing research problem

Have you researched
  other research?           Determine whether the information already exists

 Are the objectives
 doable / realistic?        Determine whether the question can be answered

 Include timetable and
   responsible party             State the research objectives

                                   Chapter Two
Understanding the Decision Making Environment

                                      • Know the environment & market
                 Situation Analysis   • Conduct SWOT analysis
                                      • Assess the competitive position
                                      • Review regulatory issues

                                      • Define business scope
               Strategy Development   • Establish competitive advantages
                                      • Map targeted segments
                                      • Set performance objectives

                                      • Product & channel discussions
               Marketing Program      • Communication decisions
                 Development          • Determine pricing approach
                                      • Promotional mix decisions

                                      • Performance monitoring
                                      • Refine approach
                  Implementation      • Change strategy as necessary
                                      • Revamp programs as necessary

                        Chapter Two
                The Decision Making Environment
                                  Exploratory Studies

                                Exploratory Studies Defined
                  Preliminary research conducted to increase understanding
                  of a concept, to clarify the exact nature of the problem to
                  be solved, or to identify important variables to be studied.

                                                                            • Pilot Studies
                                                                            • Focus Groups

                                                              Key Methods
          • Define Terms
                                                                            • Case Analyses

          • Clarify Problems
                                                                            • Secondary Data
          • Develop Theories
                                                                            • Concept Testing
          • Establish Priorities
                                                                            • Depth Interviews
          • Gain General Information
                                                                            • Taste Tests
                                                                            • Experience Surveys

                                           Chapter Two
                   Making the Transition:
         Frame the Argument in Terms of a Marketing Research Problem

          • A statement specifying the type of
          information needed by the decision                        •A     goal    statement
          maker to help solve the management           Marketing    defining the specific
          decision problem and how that                Research     information needed to
          information can be obtained                               solve the marketing
          efficiently and effectively.                              research problem.

Management Problem
Becomes a Marketing                                                Research
 Research Problem:                                                 Objective

                • A statement specifying the           Decision
                type of managerial action
                required to solve the problem.

                                             Chapter Two
       The Marketing Research Process:
                                      Understanding the Research Design

   Does it involve hypothesis
     or just a statement?                  Problem definition and statement of objectives

  Exploratory, descriptive, causal,
planning, implementing, controlling               Creation of the research design

   Primary/secondary - survey,
  focus groups, experiments, etc.
                                                     Choice of research method

     Probability vs. non-
   probability, sample size                          Sampling selection / plan

     Telephone, mail, mall
    intercept, Internet, etc.                             Data collection

   Level & scope must
   be determined early                                     Data analysis

     Determine format,
   font, layout, PPTs, etc.                     Write and present the research report

Were recommendations followed? Is
     more research needed ?

                                                       Chapter Two
Research Design Defined:

  • The plan to be followed to answer the
  marketing research objectives.

  •It is the detailed blueprint used to guide
  the research study towards its objectives
  including what and how you will conduct
  the research study.

             Chapter Two
 Research Hypothesis Vs. Research Statement

A Research Hypothesis:

• A conjectural statement about a relationship between two or more
variables that can be tested with empirical data. A claim, or
argument about your theory of what is causing “X” that you will
research to prove or disprove:

    • “Sales are declining because of competition”

A Research Statement:

• A remark about what the researcher wants to learn – without
making a claim about what might be causing the issue at hand.

    • “Sales are declining.   We don’t know why, so let’s research the
    problem to find out.”

                                     Chapter Two
                      Creating the Research Design
                                   Descriptive Studies

          Descriptive research studies answer the “what, where, when and how”
          questions. It is used when one wants to gain a better understanding of the
          specifics or details of the market. Determining marketing trends, brand
          loyalty, customer profiles are key applications of descriptive research.

                                                             Key Methods
          • Confirm Theories
                                                                           • Secondary Data

          • Brand Loyalty Measure
                                                                           • Cross sectional Surveys
          • Describes Population
                                                                           • Longitudinal Surveys
          • Build Customer Profile
                                                                           • Statistical Data Analysis
          • Gain Specific Information

                                           Chapter Two
          Survey Types
  Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Approaches

Cross Sectional Surveys:

  • Are one time snapshots of population;
  • Use the same survey & different sample.

Longitudinal Surveys:

  • Identify market trends;
  • Use the same survey & same sample;
  • Use tracking panels & groups.

                    Chapter Two
                      Creating the Research Design
                                     Causal Studies

          Research studies that examine whether the value of one
          variable causes or determines the value of another variable.

                                                        Key Methods
                                                                      • Surveys

          • Confirm Theories                                          • Experiments
          • Identify Cause & Effect                                   • Time Sequence
          Relationships Among Variables                               • Secondary Data
                                                                      • Systematic Elimination

                                          Chapter Two
        Creating the Research Design
                      Causal Studies

Dependent Variable:

• A symbol or concept expected to be explained or
influenced by the independent variable. One affects the
dependent variable by manipulating independent variables.

Independent Variable:

• A symbol or concept over which the research has some
control and that is hypothesized to cause or influence the
dependent variable.

                          Chapter Two
         Creating the Research Design
                          Causal Studies

Concomitant Variation:

• The degree to which a presumed cause and a presumed effect occur
or vary together.

Temporal Sequence:

• An appropriate causal order of events.

Spurious Association:

• A relationship between a presumed cause and a presumed effect that
occurs as a result of an unexamined variable or set of variables.
                                Chapter Two
             Choosing the Research Method
                               Which Way is Best?

                             Observation Research:
                             •Typically descriptive
                             research that monitors
                             respondents’ actions.
Survey Research:                                      Experiments:
•Research in which an                                 •Research to measure causality,
interviewer interacts with                            in which the researcher changes
respondents to obtain                                 one or more variables and
facts, opinions, and                                  observes the effect of the changes
attitudes.                                            on another variable.

                      Other Qualitative Research:
                      •Research such as focus
                      groups, interviews, secondary
                      analysis, and case studies.

                                      Chapter Two
                     Collecting the Data
                          Two Key Sampling Types

             Probability Sampling:

                 • A subset of the population that can be
                 assumed to be a representative cross section
                 because every element in the population has a
                 known non-zero chance of being selected.

Non-probability Sampling:
  • A subset of the population in which the
  chances of selection for the various
  elements in the population are unknown.

                                   Chapter Two
      What do Clients Want?

• Maintenance of client confidentiality;
• Researcher honesty & integrity;
• Punctuality - on time with results & meetings;
• Flexibility - ability to change research direction;
• Delivering against project specifications;
• Provides high-quality output;
• Is responsive to the client’s needs;
• Has high quality-control standards;
• Is customer oriented in client interactions;
• Keeps the client informed throughout the project;

                     Chapter Two
        Managing the Research Process

• Data quality management;
• Cost management;
• Keeping the project on time;
• Client profitability management;
• Ensuring research process integrity;
• Selecting the right research suppliers;
• Customer service - client relations, being responsive.

                         Chapter Two
Managing the Research Process

 • Expand sampling;
 • Change the screening criteria;
 • Increase incentives;
 • Retrain research staff;
 • Redo research steps;
 • Upgrade secondary data analysis;
 • Adjust the interview schedules;
 • Increase the budget;
 • Hire expert consultants to follow project.
                 Chapter Two

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