About Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. www.keldysh.ru Founded in 1953 by Mstislav Keldysh, the President of the Academy of Sciences of USSR (and headed by him until 1978), KIAM was aimed to support the Soviet space, super-sonic aviation & nuclear programs by all kinds of computations, mathematical modeling, etc. From the date of KIAM foundation until today, HPC have been among the most important activities in the Institute. In fact, all the Russian HPC grew from KIAM, implicitly or directly. Two important features of HPC in KIAM. The scope of HPC applications in KIAM has always been very wide. It includes, but is not limited to, the fluid dynamics, the plasma dynamics, the industrial radiation security problems, ballistics (space garbage monitoring), molecular biology, etc. The KIAM HPC activities are not limited to the applications. The complete HPC technology chain exists in KIAM, including application development, parallel programming tools & supercomputer OS development, and logic-level HPC-specific hardware development. So, we do not only use supercomputers, we invent & build sample systems and tools in tight cooperation with our own researches and customers from other institutes. The largest computers in the Russian Joint Supercomputer Center (www.jscc.ru) run a job control system developed in KIAM. About the Non-traditional HPC Architectures Laboratory in KIAM. Headed by Dr. Alexey Latsis (email@example.com), the Laboratory is aimed to respond to the challenge of the forthcoming new (non-von-Neumann) HPC architectures. Today the main focus of our research and development is hybrid computers, i.e., systems built around a cluster of multi-core nodes, each equipped with non-traditional coprocessors. We use off-the-shelf coprocessors (GPGPU) as well as develop methods and tools to program applications for FPGA-based coprocessors. We believe that the key to success on this way is tight cooperation with application developers, and we fully exploit the invaluable abilities for such cooperation that do exist in KIAM. About the Non-traditional HPC Architectures Laboratory in KIAM (continued). Hybrid computers are relatively user-friendly, but they require better communication systems. Based in this understanding, we develop both advanced PGAS-style software and custom hardware to support it. Recently we accomplished development of an inter-node network, directly connecting the PCI-Expresses of the cluster nodes in a single communication system. It is used in the hybrid (GPGPU-based) sample system MVS-Express, running in KIAM now. We also work hard to provide better tools for application- level FPGA programming of computationally intensive tasks, and this is our main direction of research today.