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					                Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                   Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                        1

                 Answers to questions are to be given only in English except in the case of candidates
                    who have opted for Hindi medium. If a candidate who has not opted for Hindi
                          medium, answers in Hindi, his answers in Hindi will not be valued.

                        Question No. 1 is compulsory. Answer any four questions from the rest.
                           Figures in the margin indicate marks allotted to each question.-
                                     Working notes should form part of the answer.

Qn. 1. (a) Shivam Ltd. is considering two mutually exclusive projects A and B. Project A costs Rs. 36,000 and
project B Rs. 30,000. You have been given below the net present value probability distribution for each project :
                         Project A                                                Project B
    NPV estimates (Rs.)              Probability            NPV estimates (Rs.)                  Probability
          15,000                        0.2                        15,000                            0.1
          12,000                        0.3                        12,000                            0.4
           6,000                        0.3                         6,000                            0.4
           3,000                        0.2                         3,000                            0.1

(i) Compute the expected net present values of projects A and B.
(ii) Compute the risk attached to each project i.e. standard deviation of each probability distribution.
(iii) Compute the profitability index of each project.
(iv) Which project do you recommend ? State with reasons.                  [ 14 marks ]

Ans.
        i) Calculation of expected NPV
           Projcet A
          = (15000 X 0.2 ) + ( 12000 X 0.3 ) + ( 6000 X 0.3 ) + ( 3000 X 0.2 )
          = 9000/-

         Project B
         = (15000 X 0.1 ) + ( 12000 X 0.4 ) + ( 6000 X 0.4 ) + (3000 X 0.1)
         = 9000/-

        ii) Calculation of Standard deviation
          Project A
         = ( 15000 – 9000 )2 X 0.2 + ( 12000 – 9000)2 X 0.3 + ( 6000 – 9000 )2 X 0.3 + ( 3000 – 9000 )2 X 0.2
         = 198,00,000
         S D = √ 198,00,000 = 4449.72

         Project B
         = ( 15000 – 9000 )2 X 0.1 + ( 12000 – 9000 )2 X 0.4 + ( 6000 – 9000 )2 X 0.4 + ( 3000 – 9000 ) X 0.1
         = 144,00,000
         S D = √ 144,00,000 = 3794.74

        iii) Computation of profitability Index
             Project A
                  P.I = P.V of expected each Inflow
                        P.V of cash out flow
                     = 36000 + 9000 =1.25 times.
                          36000

        Project B
                P.I =    30000 + 9000 = 1.30 times.
               Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                    Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                            2
                           3,00,000
        iv) Out recommendation [Analysis]
                                 Cash of                  Expected                  σ                  P. I
                                  It flow                   NPV
                 Project A         36000                   9000                 4449.72             1.25
                 Project B         30,000                  9000                 3794.74             1.30

        Above analysis shows that project ‘A’ is more risky than project ‘B’ and P.I. of project B is greater than project
        ‘A’

        Therefore we adopt project ‘B’

(b) Presently a company is working with an earning before interest and taxes (EBIT)          of Rs. 90 lakhs. Its present
borrowings are as follows :
                                                                                Rs.         in lakhs
   12% term loan                                                                            200
   Working capital borrowings :                                                              90
       Borrowing from bank at 15%
       Fixed deposits at 11%                                                                200
                                                                                            90

The sales of the company are growing and to support this, the company proposes to obtain additional borrowing of
Rs. 100 lakhs at a cost of 16%. The .increase in EBIT is expected to be 18%. Calculate the present and the revised
interest coverage ratio and comment.                   [ 6 marks ]

Ans.
        Interest coverage ratio =       EBIT
                                    Total Interest
        Present situation
        Total Interest
        12% Tern loan ( 3,00,00,000 X 42% ) = 36,00,000
        15% Borrowing from Bank
                         (20,00,000 X 15% ) = 30,00,000
        11% Fined deposit (90,00,000X11%) = 9,00,000
                                              75,90,000
        Interest coverage ratio = 90,00,000 = 1.186 times.
                                    75,90,000



        Revised situation
                EBIT = 90,00,000 + 18% = 106,20,000/-
                Total Interest
                Calculation above           =      75,90,000
        Add: Additional Borrowings
                ( 10,00,000 X 16% )         =      16,00,000
                                                   91,90,000

        Interest coverage ratio =     106,20,000          = 1.156 times.
                                      91,90,000
         Comment
       Companies Present interest coverage ratio = 1.186 and Revised ratio =1.156
       Fall in coverage ratio due to addition Borrowing and therefore additional Borrowing is not suitable for
       company.
              Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                 Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                      3

Qn 2 (a) Following information is provided relating to the acquiring company Mani Ltd. and the target company
Ratnam Ltd. :
                                                                                 Mani Ltd.        Ratnam Ltd.
 Earnings after tax (Rs. lakhs)                                                     2,000               4,000
 No. of shares outstanding (lakhs)                                                    200               1,000
 P/E ratio (No. of times)                                                              10                   5

Required :
  (i)   What is the swap ratio based on current market prices ?
  (ii)  What is the EPS of Mani Ltd. after the acquisition ?
  (iii) What is the expected market price per share of Mani Ltd. after the acquisition, assuming its P/E ratio is
        adversely' affected by 10% ?
  (iv) Determine the market value of the merged Co.
  (v)   Calculate gain/loss for the shareholders of the two independent entities, due to the merger. [ 10 marks ]

Ans.                                                                     ( Rs. In lakha )
       Calculation of current market price per share
         Particulars                                         Mani Ltd.        Ratnam Ltd.
             (a) Earning after tax                              2000               4000
             (b) No. of Equity share out standing                 200              1000
             (c) Earning per share (a/b)                           10                 4
             (d) P E Ratio ( No. of times )                        10                 5
             (e) Market Price per share [ (c) X (d) ]            100                 20



       i)      Swap ratio based on current market price i.e. 20:100 or 1:5
               ∴ Every 5 Equity Share of Ratnam Ltd. Mani Ltd. Will issue 1 share only.
       ii)     EPS of mahi Ltd. After acquisition ( 2000 + 4000)        = 6000
               No. of Equity Share after acquisition [200 + (100 X 1/5)] = 400
               EPS = 6000 = 15% per share.
                       400

       iii)    Expected market Price per share of Mani Ltd. After marjer.
               EPS of Mani Ltd.                         =       15/-
               P.E. of Mani Ltd.                        =       10 – 10 = 9 times.
               Market Price pershare =EPS X PE ratio
                                       = 15 X 9
                                       = 135/-
       iv)     Market value of the marged company
               = No. of Equity Share X market value Per Share
               =    400 X 135/-
               =     5400/-
       v)      Calculation of gain or loss due to M/S Mani Ltd.
               Pre-merger market value of company ( 200 X 100/-)               = 20,000
               After merger market value of company ( 200 X 135/-)             = 27,000
                                                        Merger gain                7,000

       Ratnam Ltd.
       Pre-marger market value of company (1000 X 20 )                           = 20,000
       After marger market value company (200 X 135/-)                           = 27,000
                                                     Marger gain                    7,000
                              Total marger gain = 14,000/-
               Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                   Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                          4

(b) X Ltd. reported a profit of Rs. 65 lakhs after 35% tax for the financial year 2007-08. An analysis of the accounts
revealed that the income included extraordinary items Rs. 10 lakhs and an extraordinary loss Rs. 3 lakhs. The existing
operations, except for the extraordinary items, are expected to continue in the future; in addition, the results of the
launch of a new product are expected to be as follows :
                                                                                      Rs. in lakhs
   Sales                                                                                   60
   Material costs                                                                          15
   Labour costs                                                                            10
   Fixed costs                                                                              8



You are required to :
   (a) Compute the value of the business, given that the capitalisation rate is 15%.
   (b) Determine the market price per equity share, with X Ltd.'s share capital being comprised of 1,00,000 11%
       preference shares of Rs. 100 each and 40,00,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each and the P/E ratio being 8
       times.                [ 10 marks ]

Ans.
        Calculation of operating profit after tax
        Profit after tax                                                         65,00,000
        Add: tax @ 35%[65,00,000 X 35]                                           35,00,000
                              100 – 35                                           100,00,000
        Less: Income include extraordinary income                                 10,00,000
        Add: Income include extraordinary loss                                     3,00,000
                                                                                  93,00,000
        Add: Profit a result of new product                                       27,00,000
                 Sale                    ( Rs in lakh)
                                              60
        Less: Variable cost
               Material cost      15
               Labors cost        10          25
                 Contribution                 35
        Less: Fixed cost                        8
                 Net Profit                   27                              ------------------
                                                  Total Profit                   120,00,000
        Less: tax @ 35% operating                                                 42,00,000
                         Net operating Profit after tax                           78,00,000

        (a) Computation of value of Business = 78,00,000 = 520 lakh.
                                                   15%

        (b) Calculation of market price per equity share
            Reported profit after tax                                       =          78 lakh

            Less: Preference dividend ( 100 lakh X 11% )                           11.00 lakh
                                                                                   67,00,000
            (a) Earning available to Equity share holder
            (b) No. of Equity Share                                                  40 lakh.
                EPS ( a/b)                               71.55/40                =   1.675/-
                P/E ratio                                                        =   8 times.
                Market price per share                                           =   EPS x PE ratio
                                                                                 =   1.675 X 8
                 Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                    Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                                5
                                                                                      = 13.4/- per share

Qn 3. (a) Sundaram Ltd. discounts its cash flows at 16% and is in the tax bracket of 35%. For the acquisition of a
machinery worth Rs. 10,00,000, it has two options—either to acquire the asset by taking a bank loan @ 15% p.a.
repayable in 5 yearly instalments of Rs. 2,00,000 each plus interest or to lease the asset at yearly rentals of Rs.
3,34,000 for five (5) years. In both the cases, the instalment is payable at the end of the year. Depreciation is to be
applied at the rate of 15% using 'written down value' (WDV) method. You are required to advise which of the
financing options is to be exercised and why.

Year                             1                2               3                4                 5
P.V. factor @ 16%              0.862            0.743           0.641             0.552            0.476       [ 14 marks ]

Ans.
        (I) Loan   option
          Year      Principal amount    Interest    Interest after tax                Total cash out flow
          1         2,00,000            1,50,000                97500                       2,97,500
          2         2,00, 000           1,20,000                78000                       2,78,000
          3         2,00,000             90,000                 58500                       2,58,500
          4         2,00,000             60,000                 39000                       2,39,000
          5         2,00,000             30,000                 19500                       2,19,500



          Year     Total amount flow        Dep. Taxshield          Net outflow          D.F.@ 16%          DCF
          1        297500                   52500                   245000               0.862              211190/-
          2        278000                   44625                   233375               0.743              173398/-
          3        258500                   37931                   220569               0.641              141385/-
          4        239000                   32242                   206758               0.552              114130/-
          5        219500                   27405                   142095               0.476              91437/-

                                                                           P.V. of cash out flow            7,31,540/-

        ii) Lease option
           Year        Lease Rent        Tax benefit           Lease rent after tax          Cumulative D.F @ 16%
           1to 5       334000            116900                2,17,100                      3.274

                                 P. V of cash outflow = 217100 X 3.274
                                                      = 710785
        Conclusion
        Net cash outflow in loan option are Rs. 731540/- and lease option are 710785 /-
        ∴ we prefer lease option.

(b) Briefly explain the term "capital rationing".

Ans. A project of positive NPV earns more than its cost of capital. This being so, an enterprise can raise any amount
for investment in these projects. This means, so far as projects of positive NPV are concerned, capital is not scarce.
Since only projects yielding positive NPV need to be ranked, the use of relative measures, e.g. IRR and PI for ranking
of projects are not rational.
In situations of capital rationing, e.g. when the management of an enterprise puts a cap on total investment in
projects, the capital becomes scarce. In these situations, the relative measures, e.g. IRR and PI should be used for
ranking of projects, provided they are not mutually exclusive and are divisible. An enterprise may have idle funds even
in situations of capital rationing, if projects are mutually exclusive or are indivisible. The absolute measures, e.g. NPV
or APV give rational ranking in these situations of capital rationing.
                Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                    Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                             6

4. (a) The equity share of VCC Ltd. is quoted at Rs. 210. A 3-month call option is available at a premium of Rs. 6 per
share and a 3-month put option is available at a premium of Rs. 5 per share.
Ascertain the net payoffs to the option holder of a call option and a put option, given that :
   (i)  the strike price in both cases is Rs. 220; and
   (ii) the share price on the exercise day is Rs. 200, 210, 220, 230, 240.

Also indicate the price range at which the call and the put options may be gainfully exercised.       [ 10 marks ]
Ans.
         Current market price of share = 210/-
           Strive price = 220/-
         Option ‘A’       call option      premium paid =6/-
         Option ‘B’       put option       premium paid = 5/-
                  Net premium paid = 6 + 5 = 11/-
           Possible     market Option exercise        Price      differential Net benefit
           price as exercise                          (paid)/Received
                Day.
           200                         B                     20/-                  09/-
           210                         B                     10/-                    1/-
           220                    No option exercise         Nil                   (11/-)
           230                         A                     10/-                    1/-
           240                         A                     20/-                   09/-

No such price Range at which point both option are exercise gain fully. Because of both options strike price are
Same i.e. 220/-

(b) A mutual fund that had a net asset value of Rs. 16 at the beginning of a month, made income and capital gain
distribution of Re. 0.04 and Re. 0.03 respectively per unit during the month, and then ended the month with a net
asset value of Rs. 16.08. Calculate monthly and annual rate of return.                 [ 4 marks ]

Ans.
        Calculation of total Return
        Capital gain distribution                                  0.03
        Income                                                     0.04
        Price appreceiation ( 16.08-16)                            0.08
                                                                   0.15
        % Income (monthly) = 0.15/16X 100 = 0.9375%
        % Income (Annually) = 0.9375 X 12 =11.25%


(c) Explain the term "debt securitisation".                                                  [ 6 marks ]

Ans. Debt securitisation is the process by which financial assets such as loan receivables, mortgage backed
receivables, credit card balances, hire-purchase debtors, lease receivables, trade debtors, etc., are transformed into
securities. Debt Securitisation is different from 'factoring1. 'Factoring1 involves transfer of debts without transformation
thereof into securities. A securitisation transaction, normally, has the following features:

Financial assets such as loan assets, mortgages, credit card balances, hire-purchase debtors, trade debtors, etc., or
defined rights therein, are transferred, fully or partly, by the owner (the Originator) to a Special Purpose Entity (SPE)
in return for an immediate cash payment and/or other consideration. The assets so transferred are the 'securitised
assets' and the assets or rights, if any, retained by the Originator are the 'retained assets'.

The SPE finances the assets transferred to it by issue of securities such as Pass Through Certificates (PTCs) and/or
debt securities to investors.
                Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                    Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                              7

A usual feature of securitisation is 'credit enhancement', i.e. an arrangement which is designed to protect the holders
of the securities issued by an SPE from losses and/or cash flow mismatches arising from shortfall or delays in
collections from the securitised assets. The arrangement often involves one or more of the following:

  •    Provision of cash collateral, i.e., a deposit of cash which in specified circumstances can be used by the SPE for
       discharging its financial obligation in respect of the securities held by the investors.
  •    Over collaterisation, i.e., making available to the SPE assets in excess of the securitised assets, the realisation of
       which can be used in specified circumstances to fund the shortfalls and/or mismatches in fulfillment of its
       financial obligations by the SPE.
  •    Resource obligation accepted by the Originator.
  •    Third party guarantee, i.e., a guarantee given by a third party by accepting the obligation to fund any shortfall
       on the part of the SPE in meeting its financial obligations in respect of the securitisation transaction.
  •    Structuring of the instruments issued by an SPE into senior and subordinated securities so that the senior
       securities (issued to investors) are cushioned against the risk of shortfalls in realization of securitised assets by
       the subordinated securities (issued normally to the Originator). Payments on subordinated securities are due
       only after the amounts due on the senior securities are discharged.

The Originator may continue to service the securitised assets (i.e., to collect amounts due from borrowers, etc.) with
or without servicing fee for the same.

The Originator may securities or agree to securities future receivables, i.e., receivables that are not existing at the
time of agreement but which would be arising in future. IN case of such securitisation, the future receivable are
estimated at the time of entering into the transaction and the purchase consideration for the same is received by the
Originator in advance. Securitisation can also be in the form of 'Revolving Period Securitisation' where future
receivables are transferred as and when they arise or at specified intervals; the transfers being on prearranged terms.

Debt securitisation is thus a financial market process by which individual /retail debts are pooled and restructured into
a security instrument. Such restructured instrument assumes appropriate personality to be recognized in a larger
market, bought and sold.

Essentially, there are three phases in a securitisation process:
 (i)   The origination phase: In this phase, a borrower seeks a loan from a financial institution. The latter assesses
       the creditworthiness of the borrower, determines the terms and conditions and extends the loans.
 (ii) The pooling phase: Many small loans are pooled together to create an underlying pool of receivables/assets.
 (iii) The securitisation phase: The pooled assets are often transferred to a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) which
       structures the market security based on the underlying pool. The SPV issues pass through securities or some
       other types of securities to beneficiaries (retail investors).

Securitisation helps to reduce the cost of capital and improves recycling of funds. Usually SPV takes the form of a
trust.

Qn 5 (a). The following 2-way quotes appear in the foreign exchange market :

                                                   Spot                                       2 -Months Forward
         RS/US $                           Rs. 46.00/Rs. 46.25                                Rs. 47.00/Rs. 47.50

Required :
 (i)   How many US dollars should a firm sell to get Rs. 25 lakhs after 2 months ?
 (ii)  How many Rupees is the firm required to pay to obtain US $ 2,00,000 in the spot market ?
 (iii) Assume the firm has US $ 69,000 in current account earning no interest. ROI on Rupee investment is 10%
       p.a. Should the firm encash the US $ now or 2 months later ?            [ 6 marks ]

Ans.
                 Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                  Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                          8
        Spot rate 1$ = Rs. 46.00 – Rs. 46.25
        2 month forward rate 1$ = Rs. 47.00 – Rs. 47.50
        i)        25,00,000 = $ 53191.49 required.
                    47.00
        ii) Rs. 46.25 X $2,00,000 = Rs. 42,50,000/- required
        iii) option ‘A’
                  encash present day. Then Rupee received = $69,000 X 46 = Rs. 31,74,000/- and deposit in Rupee
                  investment @ 10% then after 2 month received Rupee
                          = 31,74,000 X ( 1+ 10/100X2/12) = 32,26,900/-

        Option B
                Not encash present day, encash after 2 month then Rupee received will be
                       $ 69,000 X 47 = Rs. 32,43,000/-


        Conclusion
                Firm shared encash $ 69,000/- after 2 month because Rupee amount will be more.

(b) X & Co. is contemplating whether to replace an existing machine or to spend money in overhauling it. X & Co.
currently pays no taxes. The replacement machine costs Rs. 95,000 and requires maintenance of Rs. 10,000 every
year at the year end for eight years. At the end of eight years, it would have a salvage value of Rs. 25,000 and would
be sold. The existing machine requires increasing amounts of maintenance each year and its salvage value falls each
year as follows :
      Year                                   Maintenance (Rs.)                        Salvage (Rs.)

       Present                                       0                                 40,000
       1                                          10,000                               25,000
       2                                          20,000                               15,000
       3                                          30,000                               10,000
       4                                          40,000                                 0


The opportunity cost of capital for X & Co. is 15%. You are required to state, when should the firm replace the
machine :

(Given : Present value of an annuity of Re. 1 per period for 8 years at interest rate of 15%—4.4873; present value of
Re. 1.00 to be received after 8 years at interest rate of 15%—0.3269)                           [ 10 marks ]

Ans.
        The company has two alternative as current date.
        i)     Buy the new machine and dispose off the old machine
        ii)    Keep the old machine as machine as farther year

        Annualized cost of new machine
         Year        C.F.        D. F. @ 15%      DCF
           0           95,000        1.00000         95,000
         1 to 8        10,000        4.4873          44,873
           8           25,000        0.3269         (8172.5)
                                Total Outflow      131700.50
                Annulized outflow or cost = 131700.50
                                              4.4873
                                          = 29349.61/-

        Annulised cost for old machine
                  Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                    Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                               9
           Year     Particulars                        C.F.             D.F. @ 15%       DCF
            O       Salvage value                        40,000             1.0000       40,000
            1       Maintenance cost                     10,000              .8696        8,696
            1       Salvage value                       (25,000)             .8696       (21,740)
                                                                                         26,956


                                  Annualized cost = 26,956       = 30,998/-
                                                    0.8696

        Conclusion:- The machine should be replace now.

        Because of annualized cost of new machine is Rs. 29,349.61/- and annualized cost of old machine is
        Rs. 30,998/- is more.

(c) According to the position taken by Miller and Modigliani, dividend decision does not influence value. Please state
briefly any two reasons, why companies should declare dividend and not ignore it.                [ 4 marks ]

Ans. According to modizliani and miller, dividend decision doesnot influence value companies should declare dividend
because of the following reasons : -
  (i)  Uncertainty associated with realization of capital appreciation : - mm considers dividend and capital
       appreciation to be perfect substitutes of one another. In practice, this is not likely to be true. In a fluctuating
       capital market, many investors may prefers to have current income in the form of dividend than to wait for
       future capital appreciation, which is uncertain.
  (ii) Tax implication :- non assumed that investors are indifferent between a rupee of dividend and a rupee of
       capital gain. In practice dividend and capital gain are subject to different rates of taken and exemptions. As
       such even if before tax dividend and capital appreciation are same, it is not likely to be so, once incidence of
       tax is taken into account.

Qn 6 (a) What is sensitivity analysis in Capital budgeting ?                          [ 6 marks ]

Ans. Sensitivity Analysis (Also called What-if analysis): Value of a project depends on several uncertain factors;
e.g. selling price, demand, variable costs, fixed costs, tax rates, cost of capital, length of project life and the like. More
sensitive NPV of a project is, to change in an uncertain factor; greater is the uncertainty of NPV and hence greater is
the risk. Sensitivity of NPV to change in an uncertain factor can be computed as ratio between percentage change in
NPV and percentage change in uncertain factor. For example, if 10% change in demand results in 20% change in
NPV, the sensitivity ratio is 2. Higher the sensitivity ratio greater is the uncertainty of NPV and hence greater is the
risk.

The sensitivity analysis begins by establishing a general relation between the basic underlying factors and the NPV. At
the next step, the general relationship is used to measure NPV of the project on the basis of most likely values of the
underlying factors. NPV of the project under study is then recomputed for a possible change in any one of underlying
factors. Finally, the recomputed NPV is compared with the most likely value of the NPV. The comparison can be
expressed as the sensitivity ratio and the process can be repeated for each possible change of each underlying factor.
Sensitivity analysis can be carried out for other project evaluation criteria like APV or IRR in the same way as indicated
above for NPV.
(b) Z Co. Ltd. issued commercial paper worth Rs. 10 crores as per following details :                  [ 4 marks ]
           Date of issue :                      16th January, 2009
           Date of maturity :                   17th April, 2009
           No. of days :                        91
           Interest rate                        12.04% p.a.

     What was the net amount received by the company on issue of CP ? (Charges of intermediary may be ignored)
                Solved by: CA Arvind Jain, Jain Classes, Jamsedpur
                                   Solved Answer MAFA CA Final June 2009                                         10
Ans.
         Net amount received by the company =
         = Issue Price – Interest paid.
         = 10 Crores – (10 X 12.04/100X 91/365)
         = 10 Crores – 0.300
         = 9.70 Crores
(c)    Explain briefly the advantages of investing in mutual funds.             [ 5 marks ]
Ans. Mutual funds are trusts which pool resources from large number of investors through issue of units for
investments in capital market instruments such as shares, debentures and bonds and money-market instruments, such
as commercial papers, certificates of deposits and treasury bonds. The income earned through these investments and
the capital appreciation realised are shared by its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by them.
The process converts individual savings, which would otherwise have remained idle, into funds usable in industries.
Reinvestments are spread over wide cross section of industries and sectors through careful analysis by experts. The
diversification eliminates unsystematic risks and the investors can expect better returns for lesser risks. Such
diversifications are usually not attainable by individual investors due to fund constraints and lack of necessary
expertise. The large-scale operations allow the mutual funds to save transaction costs, which further augment the
returns. In addition, the operations of mutual funds make the capital market more vibrant.
For an ordinary small investor, the advantages of investing in a Mutual Fund are:
   • High security of funds due to professional management and regulations
   • Reduced risks through diversification
   • Higher Return Potential
   • Lower transaction costs due to high volume
   • Liquidity through marketability of units
   • Flexibility available through diversity of schemes offered
   • Tax benefits

(d) Write a brief note on the Small Industries Development Bank of India.       [ 5 marks ]
Ans. Small Industries development in India is in a great pace. Man new bank, financial institution have been
established for promotion many new financial institutions are being promoted by the government of India to provide
long term finance to corporate borrowers. They made significant contribution to India’s industrial development by
providing funds at concessional rate for corporate ventures; some of such financial institutions are IFCI, IDBI, ICICI
and many more. Government is also providing subidy to such enterprises to grow and such an profit leading to overall
economic development.

				
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