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South Africa Waste Management

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South Africa Waste Management Powered By Docstoc
					        E-waste management in South Africa, Kenya and Morocco:
              Developing a pathway to sustainable systems

                                        Report commissioned by Hewlett-Packard 2009




Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 2
   Project introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
   Africa and e-waste: an overview of the issues ............................................................... 3
In the spotlight: Kenya, Morocco and Senegal ..................................................................... 4
Kenya ........................................................................................................................................................ 4
   E-waste overview ........................................................................................................................... 4
   Waste infrastructure ...................................................................................................................... 5
   Policy framework ........................................................................................................................... 5
   Opportunities and recommendations ................................................................................... 5
Morocco .................................................................................................................................................... 6
   E-waste overview ........................................................................................................................... 6
   Waste infrastructure ...................................................................................................................... 6
   Policy framework ........................................................................................................................... 7
   Opportunities and recommendations ................................................................................... 7
Senegal ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
   E-waste overview ........................................................................................................................... 7
   Waste infrastructure ...................................................................................................................... 7
   Policy framework ........................................................................................................................... 8
   Opportunities and recommendations ................................................................................... 8
Three countries in contrast .............................................................................................................. 8
South Africa: a sustainable waste solution pilot.................................................................. 8
   E-waste overview ........................................................................................................................... 9
   E-waste infrastructure .................................................................................................................. 9
   Pilot outcomes .................................................................................................................................. 9
WasteCon Durban ’08 ....................................................................................................................... 9
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 10




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Abstract
E-waste is the fastest growing waste stream in many parts of Africa as electronic goods become
more popular. Informal collectors, dismantlers and recyclers play an increasingly large role in
processing domestic e-waste. The sector also provides valuable jobs for people who can’t easily
access formal employment. However, there is inadequate legislation and infrastructure for
collection and recycling. Coupled with a lack of knowledge and training, this means that waste
which could be safely disposed of or recycled becomes a health or environmental hazard.

E-waste includes a wide range of electronic goods such as TVs and fridges. A small but
significant proportion of e-waste is IT. To address this issue, Hewlett Packard (HP) formed a
partnership with the Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Testing Research (Empa) and the
Global Digital Solidarity Fund (DSF) to launch “E-waste Management in Africa” in 2007.

The programme has established an overview of current recycling technologies, policies,
community networks and practices. This included:
    • assessment studies in Kenya, Senegal and Morocco
    • the creation of a pilot waste recovery facility in South Africa
    • an ‘e-waste in Africa’-themed WasteCon conference.

The programme concluded:
    • Africa requires policies and infrastructure to prevent e-waste becoming unmanageable.
    • Each country must develop specific systems and regulations for e-waste, from collection
        to final disposal – including training for handlers and enforced waste sorting at source.
    • Capacity must be built across the spectrum, from e-waste collection infrastructure and
        material recovery facilities to the treatment of hazardous waste.
    • Importers, retailers and recyclers must be trained in sustainable management.
    • Multi-stakeholder platforms are crucial to the successful establishment of new systems.
    • As demonstrated in the pilot South African scheme, informal waste management
        systems can be effectively incorporated into sustainable waste management facilities.
    • E-waste management holds opportunities for job creation, in collection, refurbishing,
        recycling and disposal. Recycled materials can also feed the economy.
    • Refurbishment projects aid digital inclusion by making e-goods more affordable.
    • More research (including pilots and a feasibility study) and partnerships are needed to
        establish the most effective technology, infrastructure, business models and legislation.

Introduction
New technologies and increased turnover of electronic
products can be powerful economic and social drivers.
Digital inclusion improves job prospects and lifts
people out of poverty.

However, the growth in electronic goods has led to a rise in e-waste. The European
Environment Agency and United Nations Environment Programme estimate that 40-50 million
tonnes of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment are produced each year worldwide. It is
increasing three times faster than all other types of domestic waste. E-waste includes items such
as televisions, fridges and IT equipment. In 2007, Kenya, Morocco and Senegal discarded
approximately 17,500 tonnes of IT e-waste. South Africa generates 100,000 tonnes annually.

Electrical and electronic equipment can present risks when it reaches the end of its useful life.
The lack of a sustainable e-waste management infrastructure in Africa means that unsafe
dismantling and recycling pose serious threats to health and the environment.



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Specific e-waste policy and legislation is virtually non-existent. Regulations to protect the health
of e-waste workers in Africa is often limited, or non-existent. In addition, there is often very little
infrastructure or training to support a more sustainable waste management system.

Project introduction
Hewlett Packard’s (HP) commitment to Extended Producer Responsibility led to a partnership with
the Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Testing Research (Empa) and the Global Digital
Solidarity Fund (DSF) to launch “E-waste Management in Africa” in 2007.

The programme has established an overview of current recycling technologies, policies,
community networks and practices. This included:
    • assessment studies in Kenya, Senegal and Morocco
    • the creation of a pilot waste recovery facility in South Africa
    • an ‘E-waste in Africa’-themed WasteCon conference.

The programme developed blueprints for sustainable waste management systems in Africa. This
paper is a summary of its findings.

Africa and e-waste: an overview of the issues
E-waste is the fastest growing waste stream in many parts of Africa. The e-waste system includes
formal and informal collection, resale, refurbishment, material recovery (recycling), energy
recovery and disposal.

Informal collectors, dismantlers and recyclers play an increasing role in processing domestic e-
waste. South Africa is the only country of those studied where an e-waste recycling industry has
evolved, but it is still inadequate. Kenya, Morocco and Senegal have no formal e-waste
management systems and, in Senegal, all waste is handled by the informal sector. The lack of
sustainable waste management systems in Africa means e-waste processing is usually
conducted in unacceptable social and environmental conditions, causing e-waste to become a
hazard.

The sector provides jobs for people who can’t easily access formal employment. Recyclers can
earn up to $3 a day; three times more than the global poverty alleviation target of $1 a day
per person. In Kenya, informal recyclers earn more than 49% of the population. However,
without legislation and infrastructure, these enterprising but untrained individuals often turn e-
waste – which could be safely disposed of or recycled – into a health or environmental hazard.
The lack of enforcement of global legislation has led developing countries such as Kenya to
become dumping grounds as other countries use them as a cheap and easy place to dispose of
e-waste.

Domestic equipment is typically dumped or added to domestic refuse. It is often broken up or
burned on the nearest open space so that valuable items, such as gold and copper wire, can
be removed. Uncontrolled burning can release noxious fumes. TVs, monitors and other less
valuable parts end up in landfill or fly-tipped. This can allow dangerous chemicals such as lead,
cadmium, mercury and other carcinogens to leach, contaminating water supplies and the
ground. This damages eco systems and human health.

Recognition of the problem led to the Basel and Bamako Conventions. These treaties – effective
as of 1992 and 1998, respectively – prohibit the movement of hazardous waste to less
developed countries. Signatories undertake to:
    • reduce the generation of hazardous waste, and other waste.
    • minimize the pollution and health consequences of hazardous waste.



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This also applies to raw material exported for recycling or fraction recovery.

Systems exist in other countries to manage e-waste sustainably and these could be adopted in
Africa. For example, many European countries have banned e-waste from landfills, to prevent
the leaching of toxic chemicals and to allow valuable materials to be recycled and recovered.
Some European and Asian countries have policies, such as Individual Producer Responsibility
(IPR), supported by HP, to make manufacturers and consumers responsible for the end-of-life
disposal of electronic products. Collection and return infrastructure, including returning old
products to retailers – have helped to create effective e-waste systems.

In the spotlight: Kenya, Morocco and Senegal
To assess the challenges and opportunities for sustainable e-waste management in Africa,
studies were undertaken in Kenya, Morocco and Senegal.

Each study had five objectives:
•       Produce a baseline study of e-waste in each country.
•       Map the strengths and weaknesses of the current means of handling e-waste.
•       Develop a roadmap for the way forward and recommendations for advocacy efforts.
•       Develop the network of e-waste stakeholders/key players; including the repair/reuse
        and recycling industry, the supply sector, government, government agencies, NGOs
        and corporations.
•       Create awareness of the roadmap through workshops and media reports.

The studies included literature reviews, surveys, field visits, interviews and stakeholder
workshops with key people in policy, regulatory and operational areas. The studies analysed
legislation, and examined e-waste’s social, economic and environmental impact, including
health and safety. Visits were made to markets, dealers, repair shops and dump sites to map
working conditions, the source and state of old computers, and customer types and interests.

The focus tended to be on IT equipment such as desktop computers, notebooks, printers and
accessories. The researchers were able to estimate e-waste flows in each area, to make
national predictions, and to make policy and infrastructure recommendations.

They concluded:
    • The development of specific systems and regulations for e-waste – from collection to
       final disposal, including training for handlers and enforced sorting at source – is vital.
    • Multi-stakeholder platforms, which include producers, retailers, recyclers, government
       and consumers, are crucial to the successful establishment of e-waste recycling systems.
    • Consumer awareness campaigns should be mounted.
    • Capacity should be built for handling e-waste across the e-waste spectrum.

The situation in all three countries provides the following opportunities:
    • Employment creation and revenue generation across the e-waste management sector.
    • The creation of national recycling schemes and the formalisation of informal recycling.
    • Larges stocks of domestic e-waste stored in homes and businesses could provide the
         volumes needed to make e-waste systems efficient.

Kenya
A baseline study was conducted between December 2007 and April 2008 by the Kenya ICT
Action Network. It centred on Nairobi, which has the largest volume of e-waste.

E-waste overview


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Kenya has a population of 35 million. The total e-waste generated from computers, monitors
and printers is about 3,000 tonnes per year. This is likely to increase dramatically as the
importation and use of computers increases; a 200% rise was recorded in 2007.

The absence of a policy and legislative framework, and a practical management system, means
that much e-waste remains in storage. It also means e-waste is often recycled or disposed of in
an unsafe and unsustainable manner. This puts both the recycler and local population at risk;
residents near dump sites report waste fumes, chemical inhalation, and air and water pollution.
However, with the right infrastructure, these volumes are manageable.

The high price of new IT means there is strong demand for second hand computers and non-
branded clones. Fifty per cent of Kenya’s PC market is second hand but very few companies
have a strategy to dispose of old technology. Around 60% of equipment given to beneficiaries,
such as schools, is beyond refurbishing when it is donated and should be recycled. Most study
respondents were aware that e-waste could be profitably recycled. Consumers were willing to
give away computers on the condition that they were properly collected and disposed of.

Waste infrastructure
The market for recyclers is expanding and becoming more sophisticated. Plastic, ferrous metals
and aluminium can all be recycled in Kenya. Copper, printed wiring boards, cathode ray tubes
and hazardous fraction cannot, and are currently exported to Europe and Asia.

Only 25% of importers indicated that they had a policy on extended user responsibility. There
was a 70% level of awareness of environmental hazards caused by discarded electronic
equipment, yet little action was being taken. Only 20% of vendors had an e-waste
management policy. Of those who did not, fewer than half planned to introduce one.

Only about 50% of e-waste workers have medical cover. Most staff at repair shops wear
protective gear but few have thorough training. Hazards included fumes, dust, poor ventilation,
cramped conditions, potential eye and back damage, and exposure to electric shock.

Policy framework
The government has recognised the challenges, although e-waste is a low national priority and
regulation remains scant. In general, it is covered under standard waste legislation. There is a
limited capacity to collect and process e-waste, and no mechanism to separate it from solid
waste. By law, end-of-life equipment must be disposed of in a way that takes into account its
hazardous components. The law requires e-waste collectors and final disposers to register with
the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), and use designated facilities.

The ministry responsible has developed a concept paper to address the issue, potentially
through recycling and technology transfer. The Ministry of Local Government is developing a
solid waste management policy but there is no mechanism to implement this.

The Communications Commission of Kenya has built e-waste management into licensing
conditions. Nairobi City Council is developing an integrated solid waste management strategy
in conjunction with the United Nations Environment Programme.

Opportunities and recommendations
There is an opportunity to utilise suppliers, especially those open to equipment take back. (HP’s
take back and recycling programme now serves 52 countries.) The large volume of stockpiled
equipment strengthens the business case for national recycling systems to allow these assets to
be capitalised.


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The unemployment rate in Kenya is 14.6% of the economically active population. Fifty per cent
of the population is below the poverty line. E-waste recycling offers a significant opportunity for
job creation and poverty elevation. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) were a
key contributor to the growth of the Kenyan economy during 2006 and 2007, and were
supported by government initiatives. The rise of cyber cafés and IT retail markets provided
opportunities for enterprising individuals and businesses. IT also increased access to higher
education e-learning programmes.

Refurbishment is growing, and provides job opportunities while making IT more affordable. A
local NGO, Computers for Schools Kenya, has established a niche, focusing on plastics,
ferrous metals and aluminium. It has refurbished 7,000 PCs and turned old monitors into TVs.

Morocco
Casablanca, Souss, Marakech, Tangier/Tetouan and Rabat generate 54% of the total e-waste,
owing to their population density and economic activity. They were the focus of the baseline
study in early 2008.

E-waste overview
Morocco has a population of 29.9 million, and a high unemployment rate of 11%. This rises to
16% for young people. E-waste is estimated at over 30,000 tonnes annually, of which
computers account for approximately 45%. Households generate 73% of the flow, owing to the
high penetration rate of televisions, followed by companies (26%) and government (1%). Total
PC e-waste figures are predicted to grow to over 15,000 tonnes a year by 2012.

Waste infrastructure
The study found no organised e-waste management system. The bulk of collection and recycling
is performed by the informal sector who have little awareness of the dangers and who rarely
wear protective equipment. However, this sector is in its infancy. Most informal recyclers do not
depend on e-waste but, as the market grows, some are beginning to specialise in this area.

Ferrous metals, aluminium, copper and plastic are recycled in Morocco; as, increasingly, are
circuit boards. The bulk of scrap metal is collected by the informal sector. A large amount is
exported to foreign smelters, while the local metallurgical industry imports costly raw material.

There is a second-hand market (15% of household laptops are purchased second hand) but
most IT is purchased new. In 2006, two thirds of home computers and one third of company
computers were less than a year old. This suggests large volumes of obsolete equipment will
enter the waste stream in coming years. Half the equipment discarded by households is in
working order, and a quarter is irreparable. Nearly a third of households stored unwanted
computers at home. There is, therefore, great potential to expand the refurbishment market.

Waste management differs from company to company. The majority of businesses are aware of
hazards linked to e-waste, and that it can be profitably recycled. The public sector, and small
and medium enterprises, generally sell e-waste by auction, or dispose of it with other waste
(plastic, wood, desks, etc). Buyers are usually wholesale intermediaries or scrap metal dealers.

The companies neither know nor check the destination of their waste, despite laws pertaining to
its management and disposal. A number of companies in the technology sector (call centres,
banks, etc) return computer equipment to the retailer (usually after two to three years), trading it
in against new equipment. Few companies entrust the management of e-waste to specialists,
because of high costs and unsatisfactory disposal methods.




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The repairs/refurbishment sector is not very large. When equipment cannot be repaired, it is
stored, dumped or exported for recycling.

Policy framework
Morocco has embraced the concept of sustainable development and ratified environmental
treaties – but the study found no e-waste management infrastructure or policies. There is,
however, support for finding solutions; the State Secretariat to the Ministry of Energy, Mines,
Water and Environment helped to co-ordinate the study. In addition, the country has a useful,
albeit currently insufficient, legal framework.

The Department of the Environment proposed a National Hazardous Waste Master Plan and a
feasibility study of a hazardous waste treatment plant. The plant would be suitable for e-waste
components that cannot be reused; particularly lead-rich glass, plastics containing flame-
retardants, and other toxic wastes. However, the question of profitability will be raised, as the
plant will need to charge for its services.

Opportunities and recommendations
The financing of the study by the private sector, and its coordination by a governmental
agency, show the determination to implement sustainable e-waste management. The informal
sector also supported the project and the job creation opportunities it presented. Morocco could
take advantage of this tripartite support to position itself as a leader in the treatment of e-waste.

A census of needs is required for every step of the recycling chain, while waste flows and
compliance need monitoring, as companies are not taking responsibility for e-waste once it
leaves their premises. An existing Strategic Steering Committee could be extended to include
key actors, defining the roles of each link in the chain. In the meantime, the Ministry of Finance
needs to instruct all government departments to entrust e-waste to recycling/reuse companies, to
show leadership in e-waste management. The legal framework should also be built upon.

Developing a sustainable e-waste management system would create much needed employment,
especially as many of the unemployed are young people who are quick to learn new skills and
open to technology. The development of a local metal reprocessing service could also reduce
the US$286 million spent annually on metallurgic imports, while creating jobs.

Senegal
An assessment study – undertaken January to June 2008 – took a national view, but focused on
desktop PCs, notebooks and printers, mobile phones and televisions in the capital, Dakar.

E-waste overview
Senegal has a population of 12.5 million; 42% under 15 years old. The incomes of 56.2% are
US$2 a day. Volumes of e-waste are low: between 2000 and 2007, 8,300 tonnes
accumulated. The government is keen to improve citizens’ access to ICT. With waste steadily
rising, e-waste will become an increasing challenge. By weight, televisions form the largest
portion of e-waste. Many computers are second hand and 90% of this equipment is imported.

Waste infrastructure
There is no formal infrastructure, so all e-waste is dealt with informally. Coordination is difficult,
owing to the number of stakeholders at each level; particularly distributors and consumers.

The informal scrap sector has evolved; some units specialise in the collection and dismantling of
e-waste. This sector is controlled by small-scale smelters who focus on aluminium and lead.
Ferrous metals and plastics are increasingly being recycled. CRT tubes are disposed off in


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landfill, as are hazardous fractions such as batteries, capacitors and mercury switches. About
20% of e-waste (principally diodes and transistors) is refurbished and reinserted into the system.

Policy framework
The authorities are aware of the issue, but there are no specific laws for e-waste management.

Opportunities and recommendations
With the low volumes of e-waste, it is not worth Senegal investing in infrastructure for treating
hazardous waste (which would be better exported to Europe for proper treatment). However,
a young population, high unemployment, low incomes and increasing electronic consumption
and waste indicate that a sustainable e-waste system could provide much needed jobs.

Three countries in contrast
Many problems are common across the countries. However, variations in infrastructure,
volumes, policy and awareness mean tailored solutions are needed.

Of the three, Morocco has the largest volume of IT-related e-waste. Its annual estimated volume
is 13,500 tonnes, compared with less than 1,000 in Senegal, and 3,000 in Kenya. The
predicted growth of Kenya’s IT-related e-waste is a dramatic 200%. Morocco is predicted to
grow by 6%. This makes e-waste policy and infrastructure a priority in both countries.

Morocco was singled out for having good institutional and legal instruments, which would be a
good vehicle for e-waste specific legislation.

Senegal has the biggest legislative challenge as the study found no formal e-waste management
infrastructure or policy mechanisms.

While high volumes of e-waste imply Morocco should consider domestic hazardous waste
treatment, low volumes in Senegal are unlikely to support such facilities. Instead, the priority for
Senegal should be to find a sustainable solution for exporting hazardous fractions to Europe.

The high volumes of relatively new IT in Morocco suggest that a focus on refurbishment would
be worthwhile, while the proportion of obsolete equipment in Kenya suggests that recycling is
more appropriate. The low penetration of IT in Senegal suggests scope for developing the
refurbished market to make IT more accessible to a larger proportion of the population.

South Africa: a sustainable waste solution pilot

                                        Launched in early 2008, a pilot waste recovery facility
                                        tested the feasibility of integrated local e-waste
                                        management. This transformed informal activities into
                                        sustainable and environmentally sound operations. It also
                                        aimed to increase capacity, as the demand for e-waste
                                        services in South Africa far exceeds the operational
                                        capabilities of small-scale collectors and dismantlers.

                                        The unit focused on refurbishment, repair, reuse,
                                        dismantling and recycling; environmentally responsible
                                        disposal was a last resort. The project excluded
                                        shredding or mechanical granulation processes, to
                                        protect worker health and ensure a safe working
                                        environment.


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E-waste overview
South Africa has a population of 48 million, and generates an estimated 100,000 tonnes of e-
waste annually. Formal recyclers process approximately 20%. The rest is either stored by the
owner, recycled informally, added to the domestic waste stream or dumped illegally.

E-waste infrastructure
The recycling of e-waste and non-ferrous and ferrous metals is well established. There is also a
large informal sector. Recycling systems are not uniform, and sustainable solutions for many
materials – for example, CRT tubes, brominated plastics and printed circuit boards – have not
yet been found. This has led to some e-waste becoming a social and environmental hazard.

There is no specific legislation to deal with e-waste in South Africa, although a National
Environmental Management Waste Bill was passed in 2009 to deal with issues such as
hazardous waste and to introduce measures such as extended producer responsibility.

Pilot outcomes
The pilot showed that a material recovery facility mechanism could provide the following:

Awareness and training The pilot helped to raise awareness and provide training and
education to previously disadvantaged individuals. It also created opportunities for
entrepreneurship in the technical maintenance, dismantling and waste-to-art project sectors.

A sustainable waste management blueprint Jobs can be created while recycling is made safer.
This blueprint will facilitate the sharing of knowledge between countries and continents. It will
also allow potential markets for recycling products to be explored. The blueprint is already
being used as a model for a materials recovery facility in Durban.

Job creation and skills transfer The project trained a range of people, from immigrants to school
leavers. Most had no experience of the e-waste sector and several used their experience to
gain permanent employment. The project’s community nature motivates staff. Job creation goes
beyond the project: it has a knock on effect for other enterprises including the manufacture of
timber replacement products and building materials such as roof tiles and paving slabs.

E-waste treatment The project processed over 58 tonnes of waste with 79% recycled or reused,
and 100% disposed of safely. The project generated US$14,000 via three revenue streams:
    • the sale of recovered/refurbished equipment.
    • the sale and disposal of recovered materials.
    • the sale of Waste-2-Art products.
    • refurbishment of corporate IT equipment for donation and resale.

Increased digital inclusion Making e-goods more affordable aids digital inclusion. Refurbished
equipment is cheaper which enables more people to access IT, narrowing the digital divide.

WasteCon Durban ’08
At WasteCon Durban ’08, delegates from Africa and Europe presented e-waste studies and
discussed the challenges and future needs for Africa. The conference resulted in the Durban
Declaration on E-waste Management in Africa, containing recommendations as follows:
    • The creation and identification of downstream markets to encourage recycling and
        sales of e-waste materials.
    • The right approach to developing the existing informal collection and recycling sector is
        key to establishing a sustainable recycling system.




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    •   Multi-stakeholder platforms are crucial to the successful establishment of e-waste
        recycling systems.
    •   E-waste business models yield social benefits such as job creation and skills transfer.
    •   Effective enforcement of quality standards, producer responsibility and hardware
        optimization is necessary.

HP’s Ruben Janse Van Rensburg, DSF’s Cissé Kane and Empa’s Mathias Schluep were among
30 signatories to the declaration, which will be used as further schemes are piloted.

Conclusion
The “E-waste management in Africa” research
demonstrates that urgent attention is needed. It
identified common problems and potential solutions for
the countries studied. The findings have been well
received by governments, the private sector and
NGOs. The South African pilot also provided the
blueprint for a new materials recovery facility in
Durban. However, further research and partnerships
are required to ensure that these recommendations are
acted upon.

The programme led to the following conclusions and recommendations.
    • Africa urgently requires management policies and infrastructure to be developed to
        prevent e-waste becoming unmanageable.
    • Once implemented, policies and waste management infrastructure must be effectively
        regulated to ensure compliance.
    • Multi-stakeholder platforms are crucial to the successful establishment of e-waste
        recycling systems.
    • E-waste management presents a good opportunity for job creation, in collection,
        refurbishing, recycling and disposal. Recycled materials can also feed the economy.
    • Consumer awareness campaigns should be launched to ensure consumers understand
        how to safely dispose of e-waste and that safe disposal systems can be accessed.
    • Importers and retailers must be trained in sustainable e-waste management.
    • Formal and informal recyclers should be trained in the safe management of e-waste.
    • Informal waste management systems can be effectively incorporated into sustainable
        facilities, as was demonstrated in the South African pilot.
    • Refurbishment projects aid digital inclusion by making e-goods more affordable.
    • Downstream markets should be indentified and created to encourage recycling and
        sales of e-waste materials.

HP, DSF and Empa would like to build on the success of the “E-waste Management in Africa”
programme with a second phase carried out with additional partners.

In this second phase, initial goals are to:
     • Execute further medium to large infrastructure pilots and a feasibility study.
     • To assess and develop sustainable, self-funding, and regionally appropriate business
          models for e-waste collection and recycling.
     • Provide guidance on the investment needs and legislative frameworks required to put a
          functional infrastructure in place that also provides environmental and health benefits.
     • Establish recommendations for the most effective technology, infrastructure, business
          models and legislation.




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Pilots in selected African countries would focus on:
     • Training models which assess the most effective ways to: train those in the e-waste
          industry to avoid health and environmental risks; educate local entrepreneurs on e-
          waste business opportunities; help recyclers benefit from international partnerships.
     • Location logistics to assess the extent to which recycling should be done locally,
          regionally or internationally – depending on waste volumes, properties of materials,
          expertise, infrastructure, transportation, investments and cost.
     • Technological and skills assessment to ascertain the appropriate level of technology
          (manual, mechanical, industrial, etc) required in different regions.
     • Skills development, technology transfer and business partnerships with large
          international recyclers.
     • E-waste legislation to inform how policy and enforcement can best safeguard health
          and establish environmental standards.
     • International Transboundary Waste Shipment Regulations to understand what rules are
          supporting the safe and efficient recycling of e-waste in Africa

References:
Technical Report on the Assessment of E-Waste Management in Morocco, July 2008, Laissaoui, Salah Eddine and
Rochat, David
E-Waste in Africa: Programmes in 08 and 09, February 2009, McIntyre, Kirstie
Final Report on the Establishment of a Cape Town Based Processing Facility for Electrical and Electronic Equipment,
February 2009, Newson, Gerry and Dittke, Susanne
E-waste Management in Kenya, December 2008, Waema, Prof Timothy and Mureithi, Muriuki
Senegal: E-Waste Country Assessment (2008), Wone, SS., Rochat, David, Gassama, C., Kane, C., Sy, Moussa




Report prepared for Hewlett-Packard by Amy Fetzer: amy.fetzer@climbthegreenladder.com




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