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Skills and Technical Training

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					             Freedom to Train
             Workshop - 2009




Identification and Training
  of Non-technical Skills
        Kate Bonsall
          Aims of the Session
Discuss how to:
  – Identify NTS
  – Improve consistency in training and measurement
    of NTS
  – Think about how to integrate NTS into existing
    training programmes
What are non-technical skills?
       How do NTS differ from technical
                   skills?

Technical skills                          Non-technical skills
Specific: Applied to specific rules and   General: Applied to a range of rules and
procedures                                procedures, complement technical skills
e.g. Able to read and understand amp      e.g. Shows alertness and vigilance when
gauge                                     approaching known hazards
  Imagine you are being assessed on
   your non-technical skills by your
             manager…
    what could be the problems?

Subjective ratings?
                                             Hard to measure?

                        Irrelevant skills?


             Biased ratings?
   How do you know which skills are
             relevant?
• Repertory grid technique
  – Think of one great member of staff and one not so
    good. What is the difference?
• Critical incident technique
  – Think of a critical time, what skills or knowledge
    made it a success/failure.
• Task analysis
  – Think of all the tasks a person is required to carry
    out. What skills are needed to do this in a safe and
    efficient way?
       Breakdown of a task analysis
1. Gather information on the role and individual tasks
2. Break down into series of detailed subtasks
3. Identify relevant technical and non-technical skills, and observable examples
Goal/           Task            Sub-task         Technical skill   Non-technical
sequence                                         and marker        skill and
                                                                   marker
What is the     What must the   What are the     The underlying    Skills required
person trying   person do to    specific steps   technical skill   for successful
to achieve.     achieve the     the person       required to       completion
                goal.           must             perform the       that are not
                                undertake to     task correctly.   technical.
                                complete the
                                task.



Have a quick go!
                    SKILL                                        SUB-SKILL
Attitude
Confidence
Communication                                   Interpersonal style
                                                Clarity
                                                Sharing information
Assertiveness
Conscientiousness                               Systematic, organised approach
                                                Attention to detail
                                                Rule compliance
Workload management                            Prioritising
                                               Concentration/ managing distraction
                                               Calm under pressure
Situational awareness/ hazard identification   In-cab awareness
                                               Out-of-cab awareness
                                               Anticipation
                                               Checking behaviours
Error/ hazard management (Assess during        Problem solving/ diagnosis
feedback session).                             Option generation
                                               Risk assessment/ option choice
                                               Outcome review
                 Behavioural Markers
• Examples of good and poor behaviour
   – Observable
   – Specific
   – Jargon-free

                                    Distraction
                Positive                                 Negative
Retains focus on performing the task      Becomes distracted by equipment faults,
correctly and not being distracted by     on-track personnel etc and performance
equipment, faults, on-track personnel     of primary task may suffer.
etc.


 Clear goals & improves consistency in measurement
How do you/could you train
      these skills?
     What else can you use the NTS
           information for?


Design of procedures and standards


                      Recruitment and selection


   Job descriptions               Designing competence
                                  assessment process
Possible next steps?
                                     Freedom to Train
                                         Workshop

Workshop 4 - Summary
Non-technical skills:
•Know need to do it but …obstacles:
    •Lack of confidence to identify the skills
    •Lack of confidence to document and feedback

Discussed how to:
    –Identify NTS – tried out methods
    –Improve consistency in training and measurement of NTS – use behavioural
        markers
    –Think about how to integrate NTS into existing training programmes –
        discussed good practice
                                       Freedom to Train
                                           Workshop

Quick Wins ...
•Refer to RSSB report on non-technical skills in the simulator (how to identify,
measure, feedback to staff and support throughout the organisation) – available on
RSSB WFD extranet

•More tools can use to get groundwork right – identify correct NTS

•Guidance on developing behavioural markers (RSSB report)

•To focus and learn from what goes well in incidents as well as what goes wrong

•Knowledge that it is a common goal, more awareness of what others are doing in
the industry – key contacts!
                                      Freedom to Train
                                          Workshop

Long term goals...
•RSSB project to develop non-technical skills training programme

•Get support and understanding from instructors and managers –
only as effective as the Manager

•Integrate across the CMS – NTS are relevant to complete process e.g. build into
the recruitment process

•Reduction in the number of incidents and accidents where a lack of NTS is
Identified

•Better understand staff you manage to understand changes in their behaviour

				
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