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ESSPIN is a six year partnership (2008 -2014) between the Nigerian Government
and the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID). The
programme supports Federal and State governments to develop effective
planning, financing and delivery systems that will improve the quality of basic

ESSPIN works in Kaduna state with the ministry of education to plan, manage and
better monitor its services: the programme also works in with the communities,
civil society, media, political representatives and schools to provide technical
assistance, share information, agree standards and build demand for better
educational systems. This it does primarily through the School Based
Management Committees. School Based Management Committees (SBMCs) are
an essential link between schools and the communities they serve. SBMCs are
made up of a range of local people involved with their school. SBMCs work to
increase communities involvement with education through Participatory
Governance in Education, and to help improve the quality and effectiveness of
schools. They provide a way to help the education authorities to listen to what
adults and children want from schools, and a way to increase the contributions of
every one in the local area to making education work well.

Fantsuam Foundation is an implementing partner from civil society on the ESSPIN
programme in kaduna state, her role is to facilitate the set-up of the SBMCs in 28
primary schools in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) across the state, provide
mentoring and conduct monitoring and evaluation her activities over the course
of the programme. This document is a summary of how the programme operates
and how participatory approaches are being used to achieve the objectives of the

What is an SBMC, and what does it do?
SBMC Overview
The School-Based Management Committee development initiative commenced
with a 3-Phase visioning process in July 2009. The first State Level Visioning
Process (SLVP-1) sought the views of the state educational policy makers and
implementers on ways of establishing functional SBMCs in each of the five states
(Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Kwara and Lagos) being supported by ESSPIN. The
Community Level Visioning Process (CLVP) on the other hand, engaged
stakeholders at the school-community level on discussions on SBM policy
formulation. The final phase of the visioning process, tagged State Level Visioning
Process (SLVP-2) is to harmonize views on school-based management (SBM) at
SLVP-1 and CLVP and arrive at a draft policy framework for the SBM in each state.
The outcome is a policy developed by participatory methods to ensure
Participatory Governance in Education in Nigeria

In Nigeria, a school Based Management committee (SBMC) is established to act as
a bridge between the school system and Local communities who use them. SBMCs
are intended to contribute to school development planning and decision - making
at the school level for improved learning outcomes. They are voluntary groups
made up of people who represent the school community and may include pupils,
teachers, parents, and community Leaders as well as other community- based
groups interested in education.

SBMCs meet regularly and organize activities to improve the way school operates
and support the government's responsibility of ensuring quality education for all,
they are usually involved in:
    contributing to the overall planning management and monitoring of school
       and to the decision making process
    encouraging the interest of both community and government to support
       school improvement
    enabling the wider community to have a voice in the improvement of
    Monitoring, and communicating issues to the community and to Local
       /state governments.

The Vision of the programme is to have SBMCs which support and facilitate
Governments’ drive in the development and improvement of educational services
in the state.

The goal is to achieve high school attendance and improved learning out comes
for all students through improving school management and ensuring the wide
participation of communities.

The diagram below shows some of the strategies and activities SBMCs use to turn
their vision into action:
                                                    Ensure good relationship
Key                                                 Between the community and       Roles           and
      Be involved in
      enrolment                                                                          Monitor on- going projects,eg
      drive                                                                              School building work

Responsibilities           of
                                                    Vision                                        Ensure respect for cultural
   Serve as bridge between the
   Community ,LGEAs, SUBEB and
                                                     Of                                           Values within the school

Some of the key roles
                                                                                Enlighten the government and
                       Ensure proper usage and security of                      The community on specific
                       Materials provided for the                               Educational needs of the school
that SBMCs are expected to perform in Kaduna state are:
    Encouraging parents to send their children to school and support them to
       complete their education, especially girl children
    Engaging in raising awareness about education and promoting it within
       the community
    Advising school authorities on teacher's behavior and commitment to
    Monitoring pupil/student performance
    Facilitating the representation of children's voice in the decision- making
    Participating in School Development Planning

How the SBMC membership works
Each SBMC will be representative of the entire community with an interest in
improving the learning outcomes of the pupils/students in schools. The
membership SBMC shall be composed of a maximum of 17 members.
 Interest Group                                                     Number
                                                                    in SBMC
Traditional leader                                                      1

Headteacher of the school                                               1
Representative of Teachers and NUT (female Male)                        2

Representatives of pupils (Female and Male)                             2
Representatives community (Female and Male)                             2

Representatives of Old pupils                                           1
Representatives of youths                                               1

Representative of community Based Associations (Female and Male)        2
PTA representatives (Female and Male)                                   2

Representatives of Artisan                                              1
Representatives of Religious organizations (Muslim and Christian)       2

Total                                                                   17

SBMC membership; members will initially be selected by the community with
the oversight of the (Local Government Education Authority) LGEA, but once
firmly established they will be elected. It is important that SBMC members are
honest, trustworthy and acceptable to the community they represent. Shared
values and behavior are also important to providing good school governance in
line with codes of conduct established by the state education laws.

SBMC members will select an executive from amongst its including.
     Chairman
     Vice Chairman
     Secretary
     Treasurer (should not be a member of the school administration or a
    Press Relations Officer
SBMC members will:
     Serve for period of 3 years, renewable based on re-election
     Meet twice per school term
     Call emergency meetings if important decisions need to be made between
scheduled meetings.
     Not meet with less than two thirds of the SBMC membership present

Forming committees: within SBMCs committees will be established where
special focus is needed: for example it will be necessary to form a finance
committee to support the support the SBMC with managing money . Forming
women's committee and children's committees can greatly support these groups
to participate fully and confidently in all SBMC meetings and activities.

How the SBMC strengthens partnership                           and     promote
participation, inclusion and sustainability
For schools to be effective, strong partnerships must exist between the head
teacher, the teachers, pupils, parents, SBMC members and members of the wider
community. It is also important that the way SMBCs are selected and organized
can contribute to building partnership, increasing voice and demand for better
education delivery through active participation

SBMCs are expected to exist in harmony with other similar bodies that have an
interest in educational development. The values of trust, mutual respect and
shared understanding will also be very important in working alongside the school
head teacher, the PTA and the LGEA.

SBMCs will develop ways for working in consultation with wider groups of
partners. Strong partnerships between SBMCs of neighboring communities are
also important. This kind of partnership and collaboration can be developed for
example through:
     Learning visits to SBMCs which are already functional to learn from their
     Focus group visits/meetings with education service providers to discuss
     Establishing partnerships with local role modes - artisans, business people,
       local charities, cooperatives or CBOS
     Formal contacts with interested organizations, groups or individuals
       including the media
     Linking women's committees to each other and reaching other
       marginalized groups
Participation and inclusion
The guiding Policies for setting up the SBMC is clear about the active participation
of the wider community in school panning and monitoring. The wider community
includes women and children, and other community members who may not
generally have a strong voice. Strategies to ensure that these groups participate in
the decision-making processes of SBMCs include:
     Using participatory tools like peer-wise ranking, scorecards and problem
       trees in identifying problems and solutions
     Ensuring their involvement in all SBMC activities. It is also important to
       heard the voices of children who are out of school
     Encouraging parents and husbands to allow women and children, to fully
       involved in the SBMC
     Sharing information with SBMC members on the importance and benefits
       of including women and children 's voices in SBMC processes
     Training SBMC member on child awareness, protection of children in
       schools and the benefits of their participation in SBMC

ii. Raising Awareness
The SBMC can actively increase participation by: involving and gaining the
support of local, religious and traditional leaders in raising awareness about
education; organizing enrollment campaigns; use of community drama, and
speaking widely about the responsibility of community and government to make
sure that all children enroll in and complete primary school, make the transition
to junior secondary and access quality education. Female SBMC members can also
be highlighted as role models, particularly for other women and for girls in

SBMC are expected to promote and disseminate information such as;
    All children have the right to education as specified in the National
    The government has the responsibility to ensure that all children receive a
       good quality education regardless of their family's ability to pay
    All children, including boys, girls, children with disabilities, children who do
       not speak the main language, and children without parents should go to
    Girls who are married have exactly the same rights to go to school as other
    A good education should help your children to read and write, become a
       responsible citizen and help you and your family live and healthy life.
    It is possible to have both Western and Islamic education
The community can ask for improved quality of education service delivery from
those responsible.

Ensuring Accountability: Keeping clear records of activities, finances and
decisions made, and sharing these records, will ensure accountability of the SBMC
to the community and the school it is serving, and to the relevant government
bodies. This will ensure:
       ·      Increased teacher and pupil participation
       ·      Strong and trust amongst all groups
       ·      Active partnership in decisions affecting the school
       ·      Improved learning outcomes of pupils in schools

While the SBMC is accountable to the state Ministry of education, SUBEB and the
LGEAs these bodies are also expected to monitor and guide to the SBMCs to
enable them to perform effectively and efficiently. SBMCs should provide feedback
to their wider communities once a quarter, and submit an annual report
(progress and financial) to all stakeholders.

The SBMCs will need to keep accurate records of meetings with different groups
and report on their activities to the Head Teacher and school support officers.

Communicating with other organizations: The SBMC should meet regularly
with other local organization working to improve education. By working together,
learning and combining strengths, positive change can be achieved. Collaboration
with the following stakeholders should take place:
 PTA               Parent Teacher Association
NUT               Nigeria Union of Teachers

OPA               Old Pupils Association
ANCOPSS           All Nigeria Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools

CSACEFA           Civil Society Action Coalition on Education for All
MDA               Ministries, Departments and Agencies

Motivating SBMC Members
Whilst the SBMCs will run on a voluntary basis, ways of acknowledging their
work, motivating them to continue can be considered by communities, LGEAs and
government. Acknowledgment of time given by SBMCs to their work can
encourage and motivate them. Ways of showing appreciation in kind can be
developed as appropriate at community level.

Organizing Community Feedback Meetings
 It is important for the SBMC to have regular review meetings with the whole
community to update members on progress, raise new issues and ideas and
continue to encourage community members to support efforts to improve
education. Including the community in review and monitoring a well as in
planning will strengthen their voice in Relation to education and also promote
community ownership of the school. The Head Teacher in consultation with the
Chair should lead the community review meeting, supported by the SMBC
executive. The school report card can be presented at community meetings and
the community, including children and women can be asked about their opinions
on performance and the key learning outcomes. Amended information should
then be recorded for the next SBMC meeting at an agreed location.

SBMC and its role in School development planning
School development plans help schools to get from where they are now to where
they want to be in the future. They are plans to make schools better places for
children to learn. A plan is based on a sound understanding of where is the school
is now – its strengths and it weakness.

It brings together the views of a wide range of people and groups (stakeholders)
with an interest in education on how the school should and can improve,
establishing common, agreed goals for the school. It then organizes everyone’s
effort towards meeting these goals. Finally it sets a framework for monitoring
progress and evaluating the impact of everyone’s efforts.

School development planning is made up a series of simple steps and is led by the
Head Teacher, in close cooperation with the SBMC (of which he or she is a
member). The SBMC has a clear role at every step, as part of its function; the SBMC
has a responsibility to use its collective knowledge, skills and experience to help the
school develop its SDP. It has a responsibility to document how well the school is
doing and report on this to the wider community. A key activity for the SBMC will
be keeping the SDP under review

Step 1: Setting the improvement agenda
Before starting school development planning, all those with an interest in the
school’s performance need to be informed about its purpose and structure, their
role in it and why it is necessary. The school development planning process should
begin with an initial meeting between the Head teacher and the SBMC to share
information about the SDP. The local school supervisor should also attend to offer
guidance throughout the whole process. Initially the civil society organization and
government partners will also contribute.

This initial meeting should highlight that the SDP exists to improve students’
achievement. At this meeting the SBMC and the Head teachers should develop a
simple plan to involve and inform the main stakeholders, including women as well
as men, and find ways of including others. The SBMC will need to know how to
conduct meetings with key stakeholders together with a range of ways of
communicating information to the wider community The SBMC will need to
understand how to encourage the participation of women and other potentially
marginalized groups.

Step 2: Analyzing the school’s current situation
The next step is for the main stakeholders to agree on what the schools’ needs are.
To do this they need to understand the school’s strengths and weaknesses. This
information is provided by the school self-evaluation, which presents a picture of
where the school is on a few key issues.

The process of self-review is an on-going one, but once a year it is put together
into a simple report by the Head teacher who is responsible for leading the
process with teachers, pupils and parents.

Step 3: Recording the school’s Needs
The records will be shared this with the wider community at a meeting at which
the SBMC and the stakeholders together will carry out a prioritization exercise
using scorecards and peer-wise ranking. At this meeting the main stakeholders
will agree a list of four or five key priorities for action over the period of a year.

Monitoring progress
If the plan is to be a useful guide to the activities aimed at meeting priority needs,
it will need to be monitored to make sure it meets the agreed aims.

The whole school community will be interested in what progress is being made –
keeping people well informed will contribute to keep up levels of involvement.
The monitoring process will highlight progress made on the situation presented
at the self-evaluation stage and against the targets in the plan.

What the SBMC will monitor
The SBMCs will monitor progress towards the targets set at the planning stage to
find out if progress is being made towards the priorities and targets set. If there is
no progress it would be important to find out why, so that this information can be
shared and relevant adjustments with new targets made.

To do this, the SBMC will:
    talk to a wide range of people in and out of school, including children (as
       they are the ones doing the learning) and to their parents
    refer to the self evaluation, the plan and records kept at different stages of
       the SDP cycle, and to records kept in the school
    Visit schools and observe facilities and activities
    Check information gathered from a few different sources to see if the
       information remains the same, rather than relying on just one source

Evaluating Impact
At the end of the year, the whole school community will want to know what
happened and the extent to which this has matched the plan. There are two
aspects that they will be interested in:
    What did we actually manage to do? This will include the activities that
       were actually carried out, together with the resources that were used.
    What difference did all this make to student achievement (what was the

School development planning is a continuous cycle of planning and
implementation, so once one year's plan has been implemented and resources
accounted for, planning can start for the next year.

The process begins again by reviewing whether the goal of improving student
achievement remains the same (it is likely to) and then moving to the school self
evaluation. It is to assumed that there will be some significant changes when the
school evaluates its performance, as a result of the years’ efforts to improve on
past performance.
This is also the right time to discuss with the various stakeholders groups how
happy they have been with their involvement in the entire process. Whistle they
will have contribute to regular community review meetings throughout the year,
this is an opportunity to look at the whole process and the final outcomes and
discuss these.

General Monitoring
The SBMC has an important role to play in monitoring the progress of the school
Development Plan. It also has a wider role to play in monitoring what happens
generally in and around the school and using this monitoring information to act
on improvements.

What the SBMC monitors
   which children are not enrolled in school, and why: all children in the
      community should be enrolled in school – male and female children with
      disabilities and children from poor families. In finding out why some
      children are still not attending school, the SBMC can work with other
      partners and develop strategies to include them in school.

      Which children are dropping out of school early, and why: many
       children, particularly girls out of school either before the end of primary or
       at the time for transition to secondary education. The SBMC can monitor
       this situation in their community and work on strategies with parents and
       community members to support children to finish their education.

      The quality of the school infrastructure and environment: the school
       environment is one of the contributing factors to the quality of education
       that children receive. The SBMC can monitor the condition, cleanliness and
       security of the school and take action to improve it.

      School resources: the SBMC will need to monitor both material and
       financial resources that come into the school, for example: have school
       funds been spent appropriately and as planned? Are there enough books
       and materials for children in the school?

      Teaching and learning: teachers have a responsibility to be punctual and
       to remain in school all day and their absence will have an adverse effect on
       pupil's progress. SBMCs can assist in monitoring teacher's attendance in
       identifying why pupils are not attending school and talk to children and
       their parents to support them to attend.

      Pupil welfare issues: children need safe, positive and encouraging
       learning environments to learn to the best of their ability. SBMCs can
       contribute to providing this environment and finding out why children
       drop out of or do not attend school.

Measuring progress
In order to know if progress is made, the SBMCs will need to conduct a baseline
survey at the start of their activities. They will need to speak with the head
teacher to collect information such as:
    which children are already enrolled and which attend regularly
    which children have dropped out
    how many days of absence each teacher has per month
    what the physical condition of the school is
    how pupil welfare is perceived by children, parents, parents, teachers and

Making improvements
Once baseline monitoring information has been collected, the SBMC will meet
with the head teacher, the local school support officer, parents and the wider
community to agree which improvements are realistic. They will also need to
agree on action to be taken if targets for improvements are not met.

If some teachers have been absent a lot for example, it may take some time for this
situation to improve. Targets set to improve this situation would need to be
realistic and achievable in the time frame. Teachers may need some
encouragement to reach agreed targets - they are often motivated by Praise and
recognition as well as by rules and supervision.

Involving children and the wider community in the monitoring
Children know a lot about their schools and what is really happening inside them.
Children have many ideas about what makes a good school and it makes sense to
ask them about their education and involve them in monitoring . Children usually
know for example:
     how well they are learning and what affects their ability to learn
     the kinds of problems other children face in the school and in accessing
     how punctual and regular teachers are in their attendance and how they
       relate to pupils
     what would make school better for all children.

If children are to be involved in the monitoring process, the SBMC will need to
ensure that they are not placed in situations that may cause them harm at the
time or at a later stage. It will be important to sensitize adults in the community on
children's participation and its benefits.

The wider community should also be involved in the monitoring process, the
SBMC represent the views of the the wider community and link the community
with the school, so it is important to ask community members what their view of
progress is. The wider community will participate in community review meetings.

The community can also do some monitoring. Community monitors can be
identified and given the role of monitoring specific areas. If well planned,
implemented and supported by the SBMC, this can generate useful and very
relevant monitoring information. Community monitors could for example help
monitor on children who are out of school, or who drop out of school early.
Information collected could be presented and discussed at the community review
Project Overview
Fantsuam Foundation and Partners for Development have established a strong community-
based approach that meets the needs of people in rural communities. With support from The
Packard Foundation, they have implemented an Integrated Family Planning Reproductive
Health (FP/RH) information service component into their existing microcredit activities
across 10 chiefdoms in the southern part of kaduna state through their partnership with.
Subsequently, with additional funding from the Packard Foundation, they have partnered to
implement a community-based promotion, family planning! HIV/AIDS/ STI prevention and
control project.
PFD and Fantsuam Foundation are now implementing a new phase of this work through the
Support and Access to Family Planning Expanded (SAFE) with the main aim of improving
access to and utilization of family planning services and commodities in Northern Nigeria.

The objectives of the project are:
   1. Increase number of contacts with women of reproductive age (WRA) to promote -
       Family Planning (FP) and Safe Motherhood (SM).
   2. To increase the number of health centers to provide FP, SM, and basic health services
   3. To create an enabling environment to increase community advocacy and cost share
       contributions to program goal.
   4. Strengthen partners’ capacity to sustain RH/FP services
   5. Institutionalize drug/commodity revolving funds
   6. Build skills for improving community participation in RH/FP services
   7. Strengthen Health Committee Roles in improving RH/FP services
   8. Build skills for expanding RH/FP services
   9. Leverage expanded support from new LGAs
   10. Ensure RH/FP counselling skills for new CHEWS and Credit officers

To achieve the stated objectives we have carried several activities:
     Incrementally cover more RH/FP costs from credit income
     Produce draft plans designating income source for RH/FP services
     Produce cash flow plan for replenishing drugs and commodities
     PFD provides technical assistance to finalize and support plan
     Ensure no stock-outs for essential drugs and commodities
     Helping community leaders form/strengthen village health committees -
     Help village health committees to interview stakeholder groups
     Health committees organize meetings to review stakeholder findings
     Health committees assist in implementing public meeting findings
     Make first advocacy visits to new LGA leadership
     Negotiate tripartite MOUs with LGAs and Clinics
     New LGAs/Clinics offer RH/FP services to SAFE project referrals
     PFD gives Training of Trainers in RH/FP curriculum to partners
     Step-down RH training to CHEWS (Community Health Extension Workers) and
         Credit officer serving new areas
     CHEWS and Credit officers extend RH/FP training in new LGAs
Figure 1The diagram shows the cycle of activities in 1st phase of the project.

Participatory methods and tools used during project implementation
Collaboratory mechanism between partners were agreed upon before the start of the project,
partners jointly developed quarterly work plans and budgets, they agreed to be in
communication at least three times a week to check on progress of activities according to the
work plans. The target communities and health facilities were decided on after a focus group
discussion with the field officers, local chiefs and program officers of each partner
organization. Advocacy visits to partner local communities and leaders, and local government
were organized on a monthly basis to raise awareness and promote the project. The Partners,
in collaboration with the target communities, identified community focal Persons(gate
keepers), to serve as activists new activists for the project.

Community Health Extension Workers (CHEWs), local government staff who had undergone
Fantsuams’ volunteering training were designated who to work at the community level to
conduct community mobilization to increase demand for FP/RH services and referrals to the
Chosen Health facilities. 3 persons were elected during a meeting with community members,
leaders and the implementing partners to serve on the community health committee.
Fantsuam and PFD agreed conduct regular monitoring visits to Clinic supervisors, CHEWs,
community focal persons and health centers to ensure that the project was meeting its targets.

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