Technical Assistance Report Project Number: 40353 Regional Capacity Development Technical Assistance (R-CDTA) December 2008 Regional Stocktaking and Mapping of Disaster Risk Reduction Interventions for Asia and the Pacific The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members, Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature. ABBREVIATIONS ADB – Asian Development Bank ADPC – Asian Disaster Preparedness Center ADRC – Asian Disaster Reduction Center ADRRN – Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network DRR – disaster risk reduction EA – executing agency GIS – geographic information system HFA – Hyogo Framework of Action IAP – UN/ISDR Asia Partnership for Disaster Reduction IFRC – International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies SOPAC – Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission TA – technical assistance UN – United Nations UNISDR – United Nations Secretariat for International Strategy for Disaster Reduction UNDP – United Nations Development Programme UNOCHA – United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE CLASSIFICATION Type – Regional capacity development technical assistance (R-CDTA) Targeting Classification – General intervention Sector – Law, economic management, and public policy Subsector – National government administration Themes – Regional cooperation, capacity development, governance Subthemes – Regional public goods, financial and economic, governance, organizational development GLOSSARY capacity building – Efforts aimed at developing the human skills or societal infrastructures within a community or organization needed to reduce the level of risk. disaster risk reduction – The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society in order to avoid (prevention) or limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development. disaster risk – The systematic process of using administrative decisions, organization, management operational skills, and capacities to implement the policies, strategies, and coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impacts of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. This comprises all forms of activities, including structural and nonstructural measures, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) adverse effects of hazards. disaster – A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. hazard – A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon, or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Hyogo Framework of – Strategic goals of the United Nations Second World Conference on Action Disaster Reduction (Kobe, Japan, 2005) to achieve a reduction in disaster losses between 2005 and 2015. One hundred and sixty eight member states plus international agencies (including the Asian Development Bank) are signatories. natural disaster hotspot An area or region that might be at high risk of adverse impacts from one or more natural hazards. risk – The probability of harmful consequences or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, disrupted economic activity, or environmental damage) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions. vulnerability – The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. NOTE In this report, “$” refers to US dollars. Vice-President U. Schäfer-Preuss, Knowledge Management and Sustainable Development Director General X. Yao, Regional and Sustainable Development Department (RSDD) Director K. Moktan, Capacity Development and Governance Division, RSDD Team leader N. Britton, Senior Disaster Risk Management Specialist, RSDD The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members, Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature. I. INTRODUCTION 1. The Declaration of the 2nd Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Delhi (2007)1 endorsed the formation of the Asia Regional Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, to include regular reporting of information on regional disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives. This is considered to be a key condition for achieving greater coherence and better regional coordination for prioritizing DRR outputs and for providing an enabling environment to strengthen the capacity of nations and communities to effectively address disaster risk. The call for more coherence, harmonized approaches, and greater effectiveness accords with the report, Delivering as One, by the United Nations (UN) secretary general’s high-level panel on UN systemwide coherence.2 Similar needs are emphasized in the Disaster and Emergency Assistance Policy3 and subsequent action plan of the Asian Development Bank (ADB),4 and by other key donors such as the Government of Australia’s report on disaster risk management needs in the Asia region.5 2. The ISDR Asia Partnership6 (IAP) is an interagency forum supporting the Asia Regional Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, and as a regional coordination mechanism is an appropriate vehicle to assist coherent regional strategy setting and programming and progress reviews through improved information exchange. Following the 2007 Delhi Declaration (footnote 1), the IAP created a working group to explore regional stocktaking and mapping of DRR interventions,7 and in February 2008 transformed the working group into a project steering committee to prepare a concept note outlining the key features of a regional stocktaking and mapping initiative, after which the proposal was forwarded to ADB for funding consideration.8 A mission was conducted on 22–24 September to finalize the technical assistance (TA) with key parties. II. ISSUES 3. The Asia and Pacific regions are the world’s most disaster prone; there are a number of disaster risk hotspots in both regions, and it is expected that existing risk patterns in the region will intensify as a result of climate change, urbanization, economic globalization, poverty, and environmental degradation. Responding to these challenges, the Asia region has witnessed promising developments to advance DRR at regional, subregional, and national levels. This was recognized in the Beijing Action for Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia action plan in 2005,9 the first session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction in Geneva in 2007, and the Delhi 2007 ministerial declaration. The Pacific region has also made significant strides following 1 The 2nd Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in New Delhi, 7–8 November 2007, was attended by over 500 delegates and reviewed Hyogo Priorities of Action implementation strategies in the Asia and Pacific region over the past 2 years. The conference adopted the Delhi Declaration on Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia 2007. 2 United Nations. 2006. Delivering as One: Report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level panel on UN System-wide Coherence in the Areas of Development, Humanitarian Assistance and the Environment. New York. . 3 ADB. 2004. Disaster and Emergency Assistance Policy. Manila. 4 ADB. 2007. Action Plan for Implementing ADB’s Disaster and Emergency Assistance Policy. Manila (April). 5 AusAID. 2007. Report on Disaster Risk Management Needs in the Asia Region. Canberra (April). 6 The IAP was formed in 2003 as an informal partnership of regional representatives of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (UNESCAP), Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC), and Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). In 2007 membership increased to more than 25 agencies, including intergovernmental and nongovernment regional and subregional organizations, UN agencies, and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). 7 Participating regional organizations were ADPC, ADRC, Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN), IFRC, UNOCHA, Pacific Islands Applied Geosciences Commission (SOPAC), UNDP, and the World Bank. 8 The TA first appeared in the business opportunities section of ADB’s website on 16 January 2008. 9 Convened in Beijing on 27–29 September 2005. The action plan was developed to enhance regional cooperation in the implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA). 2 endorsement of the Pacific Regional Framework for Action 2005–201510 by Pacific leaders, and a program of disaster risk management national action planning to adapt the Regional Framework was pursued. 4. The influx of financial resources after the December 2004 tsunami increased the number of DRR and recovery initiatives, and brought new participants into the region. Although this brings fresh impetus, it has added to the complexity and has complicated coordination and collaboration. Regional partners, donors, and governments have identified a need for more coordination and for increased transparency as to who is doing what and where in DRR within the Asia and Pacific region. This stocktaking and mapping proposal will address the issue. 5. DRR stocktaking and mapping initiatives are not new to the Asia and Pacific region, which has spearheaded a number of actions.11 There are also global and regional initiatives focusing on hazard and vulnerability information undertaken by the Global Risk Identification Platform (producing risk assessments), UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs ([UNOCHA], Risk Assessment Analysis for Asia Pacific, and the Relief Web); the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (a disaster events database and website), and the Pacific Disaster Center (hazard and vulnerability atlas). Even so, these have either been (i) one-off exercises not regularly updated; (ii) not comprehensive in thematic or regional coverage, with gaps making it difficult to establish links; or (iii) not commonly known and inaccessible to the wider DRR community. The proposed project will build on these efforts and learn from their strengths and shortcomings. The project will consider all existing sources of information on various crosscutting themes, components, and subjects related to disaster risk reduction, including, where appropriate, information pertaining to climate change, especially in the area of adaptation. It will capture regional DRR initiatives by various regional organizations, intragovernmental agencies, and UN organizations since 2005 as well as past, ongoing, and planned activities (2005–2009).12 6. This coordinated DRR stocktaking and mapping project will present an overview of ongoing and planned DRR interventions13 within the broader context of a regional disaster risk profile. The information will contribute to improved regional planning and programming, and will highlight areas for cooperation among regional and subregional organizations. It will add to periodic progress reviews and reporting processes at regional and subregional levels (such as the biennial Hyogo Framework for Action [HFA] progress reviews and preparation of the 2009 UN Global Assessment Report). It will also assist donor agencies and decision makers channel resources and efforts to meet their own policy and program imperatives while implementing DRR. 7. The primary beneficiaries of this project will be regional stakeholders in DRR—such as UN agencies, intergovernmental organizations, research and technical organizations, nongovernment organizations, and especially IAP members—who will use the results for enhanced regional planning, programming, and cooperation. In addition, national DRR 10 Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission. 2005. Pacific Regional Framework for Action – An Investment for Sustainable Development in the Pacific Island Countries. Risk Reduction and Disaster Management, a Framework for Action 2005–2015. Suva. 11 In particular, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Task Force on Emergency Preparedness Stocktaking of Activities (2005), SOPAC (The Pacific Disaster Net), SOPAC–World Bank (World Bank Initiative–Sustainable Management through Reduced Risk from Disasters and Climate Variability in the Pacific (2008), the UNISDR System (the Prevention Web), the UN–International Recovery Platform (Database on Good Practices in Recovery), and ADPC (Community Based Disaster Risk Management Project database, good practice website, and list of regional mechanisms and institutions working in DRR). 12 Including information gathered during the World Bank study, Catastrophe Risk Insurance Pool for the Pacific. 13 For the purpose of this project, regional DRR interventions or initiatives shall be defined as regional activities undertaken by regional offices of international, UN, and nongovernment organizations, as well as regional organizations, including subregional intergovernmental bodies. 3 stakeholders (national governments, UN agencies, research institutions and universities, the private sector, and donor agencies) will benefit by receiving more coherent regional assistance and greater clarity on the type of regional support they may be able to access which will enhance their own DRR goals and implementation of the HFA14 nationally. III. THE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE A. Impact and Outcome 8. The impact of the TA will be coordinated support to regional stakeholders in DRR efforts of national governments, and a more coherent approach to cross-border and regional DRR challenges. The expected outcome is the preparation of a comprehensive overview of regional DRR interventions presented within a framework of a regional disaster risk profile for the Asia and Pacific region. The stocktaking will improve (i) information sharing on past, ongoing, and planned DRR initiatives for 2005–2009; (ii) coordination and program planning by regional stakeholders; (iii) the use of resources; (iv) the level of duplication; (v) the sharing of lessons learned; and (vi) the identification of gaps in regional DRR efforts. An online tool will be developed and hosted on the website of the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) and other interested IAP members, and it will also be linked to the UNISDR Prevention Web. In addition, as IAP members, UNISDR and ADPC are committed to maintaining this system and mobilizing additional resources required for maintenance, which will be lower than the cost of establishment. The design and monitoring framework is in Appendix 1. B. Methodology and Key Outputs 9. The TA has the following three key outputs: (i) An inventory of risk assessments describing the wider context in which regional initiatives are undertaken and, depending on availability, an inventory of data on disaster vulnerability and hazards. (ii) A stocktaking of regional DRR interventions in the Asia and Pacific region by regional organizations for past (from 2005), present, and upcoming interventions. (iii) Preparation of an interactive knowledge map allowing easy updates by regional partners. 10. To achieve these outputs, the following key activities have been identified: (i) For output 1, a regional risk inventory which will (a) identify and review available sources and information on hazards,15 vulnerability, and risks; and (b) be based on the collated information, prepare an analytical overview of the regional risk patterns, and highlight potential information gaps. (ii) For output 2, a regional stock take which will (a) determine the scope of work by conducting a study on existing regional initiatives on DRR stocktaking; (b) develop a work plan for information collection on DRR interventions from various regional agencies after considering the desk survey report and inputs of the steering committee members; (c) prepare a data collection template and engage wider 14 The HFA was agreed upon at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan in 2005, and later endorsed by the UN General Assembly. Based on the experience and knowledge of countries most affected by natural hazards, it lays out a detailed set of priorities to reduce disaster losses to be achieved by 2015. 15 Since the inventory will collect material on major natural hazards affecting the region, sources and information pertaining to climate change adaptation will be included, hence supporting regional, and ADB’s, efforts in this area. 4 participation after consultations with IAP steering committee members; (d) collect and update information from data sources and organizations active in the Asia and Pacific region; (e) organize two regional workshops—a regional training workshop to introduce and finalize the data collection templates, and a regional stakeholder workshop to review and complete the findings of the stocktaking exercise; (f) prepare a consultative version of the document on DRR interventions in the subregions of Asia and the Pacific and submit it to the IAP steering committee; and (g) submit a draft report to the IAP steering committee and publish the final outcome. (iii) For output 3, an interactive knowledge map which will (a) seek feedback from the steering committee members 16 Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), and the World Bank and technical group to prepare a template for an interactive knowledge map to update information; (b) develop, host, and allocate server space for the online tool to collect and reflect the information collated on hazard and vulnerability information and regional DRR initiatives; (c) develop maps and charts based on the analysis of information from the stocktaking of regional DRR initiatives; and (d) link the interactive knowledge map to the UNISDR Prevention Web and develop a regular update strategy. 11. The analytical framework of the stocktaking will be guided by the HFA. The five priorities for action described in the HFA are to (i) ensure DRR is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation; (ii) identify, assess, and monitor disaster risks, and enhance early warning; (iii) use knowledge, innovation, and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels; (iv) reduce the underlying risk factors; and (v) strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels. 12. The methodology for data collection will be developed through this TA, and will embrace the following principles. It will (i) provide broad and inclusive overview of the information on DRR and related initiatives, (ii) record information in a neutral and uncontroversial manner, (iii) build on and add to the existing stocktaking and mapping initiatives, (iv) adopt a user friendly approach to encourage participation for information sharing and access, (v) develop a sustainable tool which will serve to update information periodically in the region, and (vi) focus on regional initiatives. The methodology will be based on a range of tools and methods for data collection, including (i) networks analysis, (ii) web-based and online databases, (iii) desk studies, (iv) participatory approaches that involve information providers through workshops, (v) telephone interviews, (vi) competency mapping, and (vii) questionnaires. 13. Information collection will initially be limited to regional initiatives. Once the system is sufficiently developed and databases and maps have been populated, the project can be expanded and a follow-up phase could be commissioned to record national initiatives for selected or all countries. Information collection will also include subregional and sector studies and surveys. Information collation and storage in relation to each HFA priority of action may be broken down by region and/or subregion. A thematic approach may be pursued (e.g., urban disaster risk, DRR governance systems, or climate change adaptation). A decision on the type of information will be made at the project implementation phase in conjunction with the project steering committee and implementing partners. 16 The steering committee members are: ADB, ADPC, ADRC, ADRRN, IFRC, SOPAC, UNISDR, UNOCHA, UNDP, and World Bank. 5 C. Cost and Financing 14. The total cost of the TA is $400,000. The TA will be financed on a grant basis by ADB’s TA funding program. The cost estimates and financing plan are in Appendix 2. D. Implementation Arrangements 15. ADB’s Regional and Sustainable Development Department, Capacity Development and Governance Division, will have overall responsibility for the TA. ADB will appoint the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) to be the Executing Agency (EA). The TA will be implemented by the ADPC under the auspices of the IAP. Specific components of the TA may be subcontracted to members of the IAP depending on the expertise required, and will be decided after consultation with the IAP members during the inception stage of the TA. The EA will be guided by a project steering committee chaired by the Bangkok office of the UNISDR, and consisting of the following IAP members: ADB, ADPC, ADRC, ADRRN, IFRC, SOPAC, UNDP, UNOCHA, and World Bank. This committee will have the following functions: (i) to identify suitable implementing agency(ies), (ii) to provide overall guidance and technical and advisory support to the EA and subcontractors, (iii) to monitor project implementation and progress, (iv) to take decisions on project direction, (v) to share progress reports and results with the wider IAP, (vi) to establish links with information providers and other key stakeholders, (vii) to contribute own information to the stocktaking initiative, and (vii) to capture and disseminate lessons. 16. ADB will enter into a letter of agreement with ADPC, which (i) will administer the TA funds and make all related organizational and administrative arrangements, (ii) engage consultants for specific components as required, (iii) disseminate the TA outputs, (iv) prepare project progress reports, and (v) prepare an audited financial report. The EA may subcontract parts of the TA to implementing partners. The TA funds will be released as specific project milestones are reached. Disbursements under the TA will be done in accordance with ADB’s Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook.17 17. TA implementation will start in December 2008 and end in June 2010. The EA will prepare quarterly progress reports in a format to be agreed upon with, and submitted to, ADB and the project steering committee. Progress reports will be submitted to ADB and the project steering committee within 1 month of the end of the period to which they refer. The end of project report will provide more detailed descriptions. 18. The project will require approximately 22 person-months of international consulting services. Individual consultants will be engaged in accordance with ADB’s Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2007, as amended from time to time). Outline terms of reference for consultant positions are in Appendix 3. IV. THE PRESIDENT'S DECISION 19. The President, acting under the authority delegated by the Board, has approved the provision of technical assistance not exceeding the equivalent of $400,000 on a grant basis for Regional Stocktaking and Mapping of Disaster Risk Reduction Interventions for Asia and the Pacific, and hereby reports this action to the Board. 17 ADB. 2008. Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook. Manila. 6 Appendix 1 DESIGN AND MONITORING FRAMEWORK Design Performance Targets Data Sources and/or Summary and/or Indicators Reporting Mechanisms Assumptions and Risks Impact Assumption Regional Information of regional Written and verbal references to Regional stakeholders have stakeholders provide stocktaking and mapping the stocktaking in policy and strong interest in boosting coherent support to informs the policies and program documents of IAP cooperation and collaboration. the DRR efforts of programs of IAP members. members. national governments and more effectively address cross-border and/or regional DRR challenges. Outcome Assumption Regional policy Database on disaster risk UN global assessment reports. Appropriate implementing makers in the Asia reduction generates organization(s) which have the and Pacific region information for regional Number of hits to the online required technical expertise able to identify decision makers. database for popularity can be identified, and disaster risk estimation. acceptance from partners to reduction progress undertake this work. and gaps for further intervention. Outputs Assumption 1. Regional disaster Inventory of risk Stocktaking report on regional Regional stakeholders willing risk reduction assessments. risk patterns. to assign a focal or contact patterns identified person to provide information for the project upon request. 2. Disaster risk Stocktaking of disaster risk Stocktaking report. reduction database reduction interventions Risk recording completed by December The lack of participation of interventions in the 2009. some actors will affect the Asia and Pacific quality and region is maintained comprehensiveness of the stocktaking 3. An interactive Functioning interactive Online map and database. knowledge map knowledge map. Prevention Web. being updated by regional institutions. Appendix 1 7 Activities with Milestones 1. November 2008 – TA inception Inputs 1.1 Output 1: Identify and review available sources and information on • $80,000 hazards, vulnerability, and risks. 1.2 Output 2: Determine scope of work by conducting a study on existing regional initiatives on DRR stocktaking. 1.3 Develop a work plan for information collection on DRR interventions from regional agencies after considering the desk survey and inputs of steering committee. 1.4 Prepare a data collection template with a strategy to engage wider participants after consultations with the steering committee. 2. April 2009 – first report 2.1 Output 1: Based on the collated information, prepare an analytical • $80,000 overview of the regional risk patterns and highlight potential information gaps. 2.2 Output 2: Collect and update information from data sources and organizations active in the Asia and Pacific region. 2.3 Organize two regional workshops: (i) regional training to introduce and finalize data collection templates (March–April), and (ii) regional stakeholder workshop to review and complete findings of stocktaking exercise (October– November). 2.4 Output 3: Consult with and get feedback from steering committee and technical group to prepare template for an online reporting tool and for updating information. 3. January 2010 – second report 3.1 Output 2: Prepare a consultative version of the document on DRR • $100,000 interventions in all Asia subregions and the Pacific and submit to steering committee. 3.2 Output 3: Develop host and allocate server space for the online tool to collect and reflect collated information on hazard and vulnerability information and regional DRR initiatives. 3.3 Develop maps and charts based on the analysis of information from the stocktaking of regional initiatives. 4. April 2010 – third report 4.1 Output 2: Submit draft report to steering committee and public final • $100,000 outcome. 4.2 Output 3: Link online tool to ProVention web and develop a regular update strategy. 5. June 2010 – final report • $40,000 Total • 400,000 DRR = disaster risk reduction, IAP = UN/ISDR Asia Partnership for Disaster Reduction, TA = technical assistance. 8 Appendix 2 COST ESTIMATES AND FINANCING PLAN ($’000) Item Total Cost A. Asian Development Bank Financinga 1. Consultants a. Remuneration and Per Diem i. International Consultants 130.0 b. International and Local Travel 40.0 c. Reports and Communications 35.0 2. Equipmentb 5.0 3. Training, Seminars, and Conferences 140.0 4. Miscellaneous Administration and Support Costs 40.0 5. Contingencies 10.0 Subtotal (A) 400.0 B. Partner Contributions 1. Asian Disaster Preparedness Center a. Personnel costs 10.0 b. Miscellaneous Administration and Support 2.0 c. Project Audit 4.0 2. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Bangkok Regional Office a. Technical Assistance Preparation and 10.0 Stocktaking Design Subtotal (B) 26.0 Total 426.0 a Financed by the Asian Development Bank’s technical assistance funding program. b Possible equipment to be bought under the technical assistance includes a server for hosting and storage of data, two laptop computers, software, and other peripherals. Sources: Asian Development Bank and United Nations Development Programme estimates. Appendix 3 9 TERMS OF REFERENCES FOR CONSULTANTS 1. The individual consultants that will be engaged under component 1 of this technical assistance will be supervised either by the Executing Agency, the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), or one of the project implementing partners. A total of 22 person-months will be required to carry out activities under component 1 (Table A3). Table A3: Consultant Expected Results Duration Area of Expertise Expected Results (person-months) Web-based database management Design of online data management 3 tools Geographic information system and Development of maps and charts 5 map development based on the analysis of data Coordination and knowledge Effective coordination and networking 7 networking, with experience in with implementing partners and geographic information systems contributing organizations and disaster risk reduction Information and knowledge Facilitate information collection on 7 management with data analysis disaster risk reduction programs and and disaster risk reduction skills development of reports, spreadsheets, etc. Source: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center. Bangkok. 2. The following assignments have been identified: (i) one regional disaster risk reduction (DRR) specialist (international consultant, 7 person-months), (ii) one geographic information system (GIS) and database specialist (international consultant, 7 person-months), (iii) two information managers (international consultants, total of 5 person-months), and (iv) one web designer and developer (international consultant, 3 person-months). 3. Overview of terms of reference: (i) Regional disaster risk reduction specialist. Under the overall guidance of the ADPC, the regional DRR specialist will undertake the following activities: (a) overall coordination and analysis of information templates and criteria based on the Hyogo Framework for Action, (b) provide strategic direction on the scope and identify regional agencies by desk research and studies, (c) network with all the project partners and colleagues for development of interactive knowledge map format for data collection, (d) prepare a work plan and sharing with partners in implementation, (e) provide guidance on all the data collected from the IAP members, (f) coordinate with the IAP members on the data collection process, (g) compile and analyze feedback of participants and write periodical reports, (h) provide guidance on the regional implementation agency in the organization of the consultative meetings with various partners, (i) represent the project in meetings and discussions to popularize the DRR regional stocktaking initiative, 10 Appendix 3 and (j) provide technical inputs for the production of all final outputs and publications. (ii) Geographic information system and database specialist. Under the overall direction and guidance of the ADPC, the GIS and database specialist will be responsible for (a) analyzing the collected information and database structure; (b) preparing regular charts, graphs, and periodicals for disseminating the analyzed and gathered information with respect to themes and issues; (c) translating collected information into maps covering the Asia and Pacific region on various thematic issues; (d) supporting the development of interim and final regional assessment reports; and (e) supporting the development of a users' and technical guide. The specialist will report directly to the regional DRR specialist. (iii) Information managers. Under the overall guidance of the ADPC, the information managers will undertake the following activities: (a) identify key participants in addition to the desk study conducted by regional office to determine the scope of the survey, (b) provide technical support and guidance to encourage the IAP subregion-based organizations to participate in the survey, (c) continuously follow up with participating organizations to encourage the data feeding, (d) collect data from existing institutions and feed them in to the interactive knowledge platform where necessary, (e) support the development of a users' and technical guide, and (f) send regular reports on the progress and feed back to the Executing Agency, and work as a bridge between the subregion and the regional stocktaking project. (iv) Web designer and developer. Under the overall direction and guidance of the ADPC, the web designer and developer will be responsible for (a) conducting the system requirement study for the interactive knowledge map; (b) preparing the outline of the interactive knowledge map and developing the specification for hardware and software requirements for the initiative; (c) designing the interactive knowledge map and representing IAP in technical experts meetings; (d) identifying the appropriate technology to be used for the development and deployment of the system; (e) developing the interactive knowledge map in this stipulated time schedule; (f) supporting, identifying, and registering domain and other hosting services; (g) providing updates and support for 1 year after the development of the interactive knowledge map; and (h) support the development of a users' and technical guide. The web designer and developer will report directly to the regional DRR specialist.