Gioi thieu IP version 4

Document Sample
Gioi thieu IP version 4 Powered By Docstoc
					                              ÀDFKºLSY*LÏLWKL¸XFKXQJ

       1K} FK¶QJ WD ~Å EL›W ,QWHUQHW O P­W PƒQJ P‚\ W¢QK WRQ FŽX GR KQJ
QJKQPƒQJP‚\W¢QKW¸NK‡SP¨LQ|LQ¬LOƒLWƒRQzQ.K‚FY±LF‚FKWªFK»FWKHR
F‚FF‘SQ­LKƒWOLzQWžQKTX¬FW›F´DP­WPƒQJYLšQWK{QJQK}PƒQJWKRƒLFK…QJ
KƒQPƒQJ,QWHUQHWWªFK»FFKžF§P­WF‘SF‚FPƒQJP‚\W¢QKG³QK¥G³WRNKL
Q¬LYR,QWHUQHW~˜XEQK~…QJY±LQKDX'RF‚FKWªFK»FQK}Y’\QzQWUzQ,QWHUQHW
F§F‘XWU¶F~£DFKžF‚FK~‚QK~£DFKž~FELœWWURQJNKLF‚FK~‚QK~£DFKž~¬LY±L
PƒQJYLšQWK{QJOƒL~|QJL€QK|QQKL˜X
       w¬LY±LPƒQJYLšQWK{QJQK}PƒQJWKRƒLFK…QJKƒQNK‚FKKQJ¯F‚FY³QJ
NK‚F QKDX KRQ WRQ F§ WK™ F§ F³QJ V¬ ~LœQ WKRƒL SKyQ ELœW Y±L QKDX E„QJ PÅ
Y³QJPÅWžQKKD\PÅTX¬FW›w¬LY±LPƒQJ,QWHUQHWGRF‚FKWªFK»FFKžF§P­W
F‘SQzQP«LP­WNK‚FKKQJKD\P­WP‚\FK´+RVWKRF5RXWHU~˜XF§P­W
~£DFKž,QWHUQHWGX\QK‘WPNK{QJ~}²FSK–SWU³QJY±LE‘WN½DL'RY’\P~£D
FKžWUzQ,QWHUQHWWK¼FV¼OP­WWLQJX\zQ
       +QJ FK·F WULœX P‚\ FK´ WUzQ KQJ WUxP QJKQ PƒQJ w™ ~£D FKž NK{QJ
~}²FWU³QJQKDXFŽQSK€LF§F‘XWU¶F~£DFKž~FELœWTX€QOÀWK¬QJQK‘WYP­W
7ª FK»F F´D ,QWHUQHW J¨L O 7UXQJ WyP WK{QJ WLQ PƒQJ ,QWHUQHW  1HWZRUN
,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWHU1,&FK´WUSKyQSK¬L1,&FKžSKyQ~£DFKžPƒQJ1HW,'
F¤Q~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJ~§+RVW,'GRF‚F7ªFK»FTX€QOÀ,QWHUQHW
F´DW¸QJTX¬FJLDP­WW¼SKyQSK¬L7URQJWK¼FW›~™F§WK™~£QKWX\›QURXWLQJ
WUzQPƒQJ,QWHUQHWQJRL~£DFKž,3F¤QFŽQ~›QWzQULzQJF´DF‚FP‚\FK´+RVW
'RPDLQ1DPH&‚FSKŽQWL›SWKHRFK¶QJWDKÅ\QJKLzQF»XF‘XWU¶F~FELœWF´D
~£DFKž,QWHUQHW

,&¬XWUÕFÀDFKº,3&KLWL›W

D7KyQKSKƒQYyK’QKG}QJF§Dx–DFK“,3
       w£DFKž,3~DQJ~}²FV¹G·QJKLœQWƒL,3YF§ELWFKLDWKQK2FWHW
P«L2FWHWF§ELWW}|QJ~}|QJE\WHF‚FK~›P~˜XW¸WU‚LTXDSK€LE¢WFKR
~›QE¢WF‚F2FWHWW‚FKELœWQKDXE„QJG‘XFK‘PEDRJ©PF§WKQKSKŽQ
FK¢QK

                       c la s s
                                   Net ID                           Host ID
   b it


%LW
         %LWQK’QGƒQJO±S&ODVVELW
         w£DFKžF´DPƒQJ1HW,'
         w£DFKžF´DP‚\FK´+RVW,'
*KLFK¡7lQOqiŽDFK‹Pt\FKŸQKoQJWK§FWˆNKmQJFK‹F’Pt\FKŸPq
W~WFrFtFPt\FRQ:RUNVWDWLRQFtFF•QJWUX\QKSYYp…XF{QF’pŽDFK‹


%LWQK’QGƒQJO±S&ODVVELW~™SKyQELœW~£DFKž¯O±SQR
w£DFKž,QWHUQHWEL™XKLœQ¯GƒQJELWQK£SKyQ

         [\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\
[\ KRF
9¢G·
         

ELW QK’Q GƒQJ   2FWHW            2FWHW             2FWHW            2FWHW 


w£DFKž,QWHUQHWEL™XKLœQ¯GƒQJWK’SSKyQ[[[[[[[[[[[[
                                    [OV¬WK’SSKyQW¸~›Q
9¢G·
'ƒQJYL›W~Ž\~´F´D~£DFKž,3OFRQV¬WURQJW¸QJ2FWHW9¢G·~£DFKž,3
WK}®QJ WK‘\ WUzQ WK¼F W› F§ WK™ O  QK}QJ GƒQJ ~Ž\ ~´ O


E&|FO¤Sx–DFK“,3

       w£DFKž,3FKLDUDO±S$%&'(+LœQWƒL~ÅG³QJK›WO±S$%YJŽQ
K›WO±S&F¤QO±S'Y(7ªFK»FLQWHUQHW~DQJ~™GQKFKRP·F~¢FKNK‚FNK{QJ
SKyQQzQFK¶QJWDFKžQJKLzQF»XO±S~ŽX
        octet 1            octet 2            octet 3                octet 4

class a :
1                     8                  16                   24                  32
 0
       net id                                    host id


class b
 1 0
                  net id                                   host id



class c
 1 1 0
                           net id                                       host id


    Class d
                       8                 16                   24                  32
 1110


 class e
                       8                 16                   24                  32
 11110

4XDF‘XWU¶FF‚FO±S~£DFKž,3FK¶QJWDF§QK’Q[–WVDX

       %LWQK’QGƒQJOQKºQJELW~ŽXWLzQF´DO±S$OF´DO±S%OF´D
O±S&O
      /±S'F§ELW~ŽXWLzQ~™QK’QGƒQJOF¤QO±S(F§E¢W~ŽXWLzQ
~™QK’QGƒQJO
      w£DFKžO±S$w£DFKžPƒQJ¢WY~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJQKL˜X
      w£DFKžO±S%w£DFKžPƒQJY¸DSK€LY~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ
Y¸DSK€L
      w£DFKžO±S&w£DFKžPƒQJQKL˜X~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ¢W


iŽD FK‹                 9žQJ pŽD FK‹                       6— PuQJ W—L pD                    6— Pt\ FKŸ W—L pD
   OœS                   O« WKX\ˆW                               V¤ G¢QJ                  WUlQ W£QJ PuQJ


$ W¸~›Q                  
% W¸~›Q  
&W¸~›Q                    
'W¸~›Q.K{QJSKyQ
(W¸~›Q.K{QJSKyQ

iŽD FK‹                9žQJ pŽD FK‹                        %LW QKQ GuQJ                  6— ELW GžQJ p†
   OœS                       V¤ G¢QJ                                                      3KkQ FKR PuQJ


$ W¸~›Q                        
% W¸~›Q
&W¸~›Q 
'
(


1K}Y’\Q›XFK¶QJWDWK‘\~£DFKž,3F§QK§PV¬F‚FKQKDXE„QJG‘XFK‘P
Q›X WK‘\ QK§P V¬ WK» QK‘W QK¥ K|Q  EL›W ~£D FKž Q\ ¯ O±S $  Q„P WURQJ
NKR€QJ~›QEL›W~£DFKžQ\¯O±S%YW¸~›QEL›W~£DFKžQ\¯
O±S&

,L‰ÀDFKºP›QJFRQFÓD,QWHUQHW
,3VXEQHWWLQJ

          D1JX\tQQKsQ

       1K}~ÅQzXWUzQ~£DFKžWUzQ,QWHUQHWWK¼FV¼OP­WWLQJX\zQP­WPƒQJ
NKLJLDQK’S,QWHUQHW~}²F7UXQJWyPWK{QJWLQPƒQJ,QWHUQHW1,&SKyQFKRP­W
V¬~£DFKžY¸D~´G³QJY±L\zXFŽXO¶F~§VDXQ\Q›XPƒQJSK‚WWUL™QWKzPOƒL
SK€L[LQ1,&WKzP~§O~L˜XNK{QJWKX’QWLœQFKRF‚FQKNKDLWK‚FPƒQJ
       +|QQºDF‚FO±S~£DFKžF´D,QWHUQHWNK{QJSK€LKRQWRQSK³K²SY±L\zX
FŽXWK¼FW›~£DFKžO±S%FK…QJKƒQP«LP­W~£DFKžPƒQJF§WK™F‘SFKR
P‚\FK´7K¼FW›F§PƒQJQK¥FKžF§YLFK·FP‚\FK´WKV•OÅQJSK¢U‘WQKL˜X
~£DFKžF¤QOƒLPNK{QJDLG³QJ~}²Fw™NK‡FSK·FY‘Q~˜Q\YW’QG·QJW¬L
~D~£DFKž~}²F1,&SKyQE‡W~ŽXW¸QxPQJ}®LWDQJK¡~›Qw£DFKžPƒQJ
FRQ
       1K}Y’\SKyQ~£DFKžPƒQJFRQOP¯U­QJ~£DFKžFKRQKL˜XPƒQJWUzQF|
V¯P˜WpŽDFK‹PuQJP1,&SKyQFKRSK³K²SY±LV¬O}²QJWK¼FW›P‚\FK´F§
WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ

                                                &
%3KwvQJSK|SSKsQFKLDx–DFK“P}QJFRQ KLWL›W

      7U}±F NKL QJKLzQ F»X SKŽQ Q\ FK¶QJ WD FŽQ SK€L KL™X TXD P­W V¬ NK‚L
QLœPOLzQTXDQW±LYLœFSKyQ~£DFKžF‚FPƒQJFRQ

              'HIDXOW0DVN*L‚WU£WUŽQ~£DFKžPƒQJ~}²F~£QKQJK¡DWU}±F
       FKRW¸QJO±S~£DFKž$%&7K¼FFK‘WOJL‚WU£WK’SSKyQFDRQK‘WNKLW‘W
       F€ELW~˜XE„QJWURQJF‚F2FWHWGQKFKR~£DFKžPƒQJ1HW,'

       'HIDXOW0DVN /±S$        
                            /±S%         
                            /±S&         

              6XEQHW0DVNJL‚WU£WUŽQF´DW¸QJPƒQJFRQ
       6XEQHW0DVNON›WK²SF´D'HIDXOW0DVNY±LJL‚WU£WK’SSKyQFDRQK‘WF´D
       F‚FELWO‘\W¸F‚F2FWHWF´D~£DFKžP‚\FK´VDQJSKŽQ~£DFKžPƒQJ~™WƒR
       ~£DFKžPƒQJFRQ
              6XEQHW0DVNEDRJL®FµQJ~LN“PY±L~£DFKžPƒQJWLzXFKXQ ~™
FKRQJ}®L~¨FEL›W~£DFKžPƒQJWLzXFKXQQ\G³QJF€FKR P‚\ FK´ KD\
FKLDUDWKQKF‚FPƒQJFRQ0WNK‚FQ§F¤QJL¶S 5RXWHU WURQJ YLœF ~£QK WX\›Q
FX­FJ¨L

1JX\lQWyFFKXQJ

     /‘\E±WP­WV¬ELWF´DSKŽQ~£DFKžP‚\FK´~™WƒR~£DFKžPƒQJFRQ
     /‘\~LEDRQKLzXELWSK·WKX­FYRV¬PƒQJFRQFŽQWKL›W6XEQHWPDVN
PQKNKDLWK‚FPƒQJTX\›W~£QKV•WƒRUD
&–XWU»Fˆ¨DFK£F¹D,QWHUQHWˆ¨DFK£,3
                     1GrM *              (He„ SGH€T BGTMF 




       1K} FK¶QJ WD ~Å EL›W ,QWHUQHW O P­W PƒQJ P‚\ W¢QK WRQ FŽX GR KQJ
QJKQPƒQJP‚\W¢QKW¸NK‡SP¨LQ|LQ¬LOƒLWƒRQzQ.K‚FY±LF‚FKWªFK»FWKHR
F‚FF‘SQ­LKƒWOLzQWžQKTX¬FW›F´DP­WPƒQJYLšQWK{QJQK}PƒQJWKRƒLFK…QJ
KƒQPƒQJ,QWHUQHWWªFK»FFKžF§P­WF‘SF‚FPƒQJP‚\W¢QKG³QK¥G³WRNKL
Q¬LYR,QWHUQHW~˜XEQK~…QJY±LQKDX'RF‚FKWªFK»FQK}Y’\QzQWUzQ,QWHUQHW
F§F‘XWU¶F~£DFKžF‚FK~‚QK~£DFKž~FELœWWURQJNKLF‚FK~‚QK~£DFKž~¬LY±L
PƒQJYLšQWK{QJOƒL~|QJL€QK|QQKL˜X
       w¬LY±LPƒQJYLšQWK{QJQK}PƒQJWKRƒLFK…QJKƒQNK‚FKKQJ¯F‚FY³QJ
NK‚F QKDX KRQ WRQ F§ WK™ F§ F³QJ V¬ ~LœQ WKRƒL SKyQ ELœW Y±L QKDX E„QJ PÅ
Y³QJPÅWžQKKD\PÅTX¬FW›w¬LY±LPƒQJ,QWHUQHWGRF‚FKWªFK»FFKžF§P­W
F‘SQzQP«LP­WNK‚FKKQJKD\P­WP‚\FK´+RVWKRF5RXWHU~˜XF§P­W
~£DFKžLQWHUQHWGX\QK‘WPNK{QJ~}²FSK–SWU³QJY±LE‘WN½DL'RY’\P~£D
FKžWUzQ,QWHUQHWWK¼FV¼OP­WWLQJX\zQ
       +QJ FK·F WULœX P‚\ FK´ WUzQ KQJ WUxP QJKQ PƒQJ w™ ~£D FKž NK{QJ
~}²FWU³QJQKDXFŽQSK€LF§F‘XWU¶F~£DFKž~FELœWTX€QOÀWK¬QJQK‘WYP­W
7ª FK»F F´D ,QWHUQHW J¨L O 7UXQJ WyP WK{QJ WLQ PƒQJ ,QWHUQHW  1HWZRUN
,QIRUPDWLRQ&HQWHU1,&FK´WUSKyQSK¬L1,&FKžSKyQ~£DFKžPƒQJ1HW,'
F¤Q~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJ~§+RVW,'GRF‚F7ªFK»FTX€QOÀ,QWHUQHW
F´DW¸QJTX¬FJLDP­WW¼SKyQSK¬L7URQJWK¼FW›~™F§WK™~£QKWX\›QURXWLQJ
WUzQPƒQJ,QWHUQHWQJRL~£DFKž,3F¤QFŽQ~›QWzQULzQJF´DF‚FP‚\FK´+RVW
'RPDLQ1DPH&‚FSKŽQWL›SWKHRFK¶QJWDKÅ\QJKLzQF»XF‘XWU¶F~FELœW
F´D~£DFKž,QWHUQHW

                   OGrM **  $uT SQ˜B g…@ BG‚ *1




D7KyQKSKƒQYyK’QKG}QJF§Dx–DFK“,3
       w£DFKž,3~DQJ~}²FV¹G·QJKLœQWƒL,3YF§ELWFKLDWKQK2FWHW
P«L2FWHWF§ELWW}|QJ~}|QJE\WHF‚FK~›P~˜XW¸WU‚LTXDSK€LE¢WFKR
~›QE¢WF‚F2FWHWW‚FKELœWQKDXE„QJG‘XFK‘PEDRJ©PF§WKQKSKŽQ
FK¢QK

                   c la s s
                                   Net ID                             Host ID

                   b it
%LW
           %LWQK’QGƒQJO±S&ODVVELW
           w£DFKžF´DPƒQJ1HW,'
           w£DFKžF´DP‚\FK´+RVW,'
*KLFK¡7lQOqiŽDFK‹Pt\FKŸQKoQJWK§FWˆNKmQJFK‹F’Pt\FKŸPq
W~WFrFtFPt\FRQ:RUNVWDWLRQFtFF•QJWUX\QKSYYp…XF{QF’pŽDFK‹


%LWQK’QGƒQJO±S&ODVVELW~™SKyQELœW~£DFKž¯O±SQR
w£DFKž,QWHUQHWEL™XKLœQ¯GƒQJELWQK£SKyQ

         [\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\[\
[\ KRF
9¢G·
         

ELW QK’Q GƒQJ   2FWHW            2FWHW             2FWHW            2FWHW 


w£DFKž,QWHUQHWEL™XKLœQ¯GƒQJWK’SSKyQ[[[[[[[[[[[[
                                    [OV¬WK’SSKyQW¸~›Q
9¢G·
'ƒQJYL›W~Ž\~´F´D~£DFKž,3OFRQV¬WURQJW¸QJ2FWHW9¢G·~£DFKž,3
WK}®QJ WK‘\ WUzQ WK¼F W› F§ WK™ O  QK}QJ GƒQJ ~Ž\ ~´ O


E&|FO¤Sx–DFK“,3

        w£DFKž,3FKLDUDO±S$%&'(+LœQWƒL~ÅG³QJK›WO±S$%YJŽQ
K›W O±S &  F¤Q O±S ' Y ( 7ª FK»F LQWHUQHW ~DQJ ~™ GQK FKR P·F ~¢FK NK‚F
NK{QJSKyQQzQFK¶QJWDFKžQJKLzQF»XO±S~ŽX
        octet 1            octet 2            octet 3                octet 4

class a :
1                     8                  16                   24                  32
 0
       net id                                    host id


class b
 1 0
                  net id                                   host id



class c
 1 1 0
                           net id                                       host id


    Class d
                       8                 16                   24                  32
 1110


 class e
                       8                 16                   24                  32
 11110


4XDF‘XWU¶FF‚FO±S~£DFKž,3FK¶QJWDF§QK’Q[–WVDX

       %LWQK’QGƒQJOQKºQJELW~ŽXWLzQF´DO±S$OF´DO±S%OF´D
O±S&O
      /±S'F§ELW~ŽXWLzQ~™QK’QGƒQJOF¤QO±S(F§E¢W~ŽXWLzQ
~™QK’QGƒQJO
      w£DFKžO±S$w£DFKžPƒQJ¢WY~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJQKL˜X
      w£DFKžO±S%w£DFKžPƒQJY¸DSK€LY~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ
Y¸DSK€L
      w£DFKžO±S&w£DFKžPƒQJQKL˜X~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ¢W


iŽD FK‹                 9žQJ pŽD FK‹                        6— PuQJ W—L pD                   6— Pt\ FKŸ W—L pD
   OœS                   O« WKX\ˆW                               V¤ G¢QJ                  WUlQ W£QJ PuQJ


$ W¸~›Q                  
% W¸~›Q  
&W¸~›Q                    
'W¸~›Q.K{QJSKyQ
(W¸~›Q.K{QJSKyQ

iŽD FK‹                 9žQJ pŽD FK‹                       %LW QKQ GuQJ                  6— ELW GžQJ p†
   OœS                       V¤ G¢QJ                                                      3KkQ FKR PuQJ


$ W¸~›Q                                 
% W¸~›Q
&W¸~›Q 
'
(


1K}Y’\Q›XFK¶QJWDWK‘\~£DFKž,3F§QK§PV¬F‚FKQKDXE„QJG‘XFK‘P
Q›X WK‘\ QK§P V¬ WK» QK‘W QK¥ K|Q  EL›W ~£D FKž Q\ ¯ O±S $  Q„P WURQJ
NKR€QJ~›QEL›W~£DFKžQ\¯O±S%YW¸~›QEL›W~£DFKžQ\¯
O±S&

*KL QKœ  iŽD FK‹ WK§F Wˆ NKmQJ SKkQ WURQJ WUo™QJ KS W~W Fr FtF ELW WURQJ P˜W KD\ QKL…X
2FWHW V¤ G¢QJ FKR pŽD FK‹ PuQJ KD\ pŽD FK‹ Pt\ FKŸ p…X EvQJ  KD\ p…X EvQJ  iL…X Qq\
p¡QJ FKR W~W Fr FtF OœS pŽD FK‹ 




                              H  g…@ BG‚ -“O " 




7ªQJTX‚WFKXQJ
                  %LWWK»QK‘WOELWQK’QGƒQJO±S$ 
                  ELWF¤QOƒLWURQJ2FWHWWK»QK‘WGQKFKR~£DFKžPƒQJ
                  2FWHWF¤QOƒLF§ELWGQKFKR~£DFKžF´DP‚\&K´


&ODVV$
2FWHW                  2FWHW         2FWHW                   2FWHW
 1                     8                       16                   24                   32
 0
        net id                                         host id

PƒQJP‚\FK´WUzQP­WPƒQJ

Dq–DFK“P}QJ1HW,'

.KrQjQJSKkQpŽDFK‹

       .KL~›PV¬ELWFK¶QJWD~›PW¸WU‚LTXDSK€LQK}QJNKLW¢QKJL‚WU£WK’S
SKyQQ F´DELWOƒLW¢QKW¸SK€LTXDWU‚LE‡W~ŽXW¸ELW2FWHWWK»QK‘WGQKFKR
~£DFKžPƒQJELW OELWQK’QGƒQJO±S$ELWF¤QOƒLW¸ELW~›QELWGQK
FKR~£DFKžPƒQJ  1K}QJWUzQWK¼FW›~£DFKžNKLW‘WF€F‚FELWE„QJ
KRFE„QJ~˜XNK{QJSKyQFKRPƒQJ.KLJL‚WU£F‚FELW~˜XE„QJJL‚WU£WK’S
SKyQONK{QJF§QJK¡DF¤Q~£DFKžONKLF‚FELW~˜XE„QJG³QJ~™WK{QJ
E‚RQ­LE­QzQWUzQWK¼FW›F¤QOƒLPƒQJ

2FWHW
             7   6 . . .. . . . . ..0          bit

             0
                      net id

&‚FKW¢QK~£DFKžPƒQJO±S$

6¬WK»W¼%LWQW¢QKW¸SK€LTXDWU‚L
*L‚WU£QK£SKyQKD\F´D%LW[[[[[[[
*L‚WU£WK’SSKyQW}|QJ»QJNKLJL‚WU£ELW V•O3
*L‚WU£WK’SSKyQW}|QJ»QJNKLJL‚WU£ELW NK{QJW¢QK
*L‚WU£WK’SSKyQO±QQK‘WNKLJL‚WU£F´DELW~˜XE„QJO
        6DX~y\OF‚FKW¢QKWU¨QY—QJL‚WU£F´DW‘WF€F‚F%LW
*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ1HW,'
  *¢DWU£ Q                               w£DFKžPƒQJ

.K{QJSKyQ
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
  
  
 
 
   
 
  
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
  
 
  
  
 
 
  
 
  
 
  
  
 
 
 
 
  
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
  
 
 
 
  
 
  
  
 
 
 
 
  
 
  
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                    
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
  
 
  
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  '³QJQ­LE­

1Ko Y\ NKr QjQJ SKkQ pŽD FK‹ FŸD OœS $ FKR  PuQJ 


 %L†X KL‰X pŽD FK‹ WUlQ WK§F Wˆ 
            7£       pˆQ 



Eq–DFK“F§DF|FP|\FK§WUtQP WP}QJ

.KrQjQJSKkQpŽDFK‹

%D2FWHWVDXJ©PELW~}²FW¢QKW¸ELW~›QELWGQKFKR~£DFKžP‚\FK´
WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ


         2FWHW                        2FWHW                               2FWHW
    1                                                                                                      24

                                                     host id
             %LW

9±LF‚FKW¢QKQK}WUzQ~™~}²FWªQJV¬P‚\FK´WUzQP­WPƒQJWDF§

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±LELWQw£DFKž
Q P‚\FK´














2FWHW2FWHW2FWHW
           w£DFKžNKLF‚FELW~˜XE„QJKD\E„QJE¥UD7UzQWK¼FW›F¤QOƒL
 
1KoY\NKrQjQJSKkQpŽDFK‹FKRPt\FKŸ




%L†XKL‰QpŽDFK‹WUlQWK§FWˆ

         2FWHW                       2FWHW                              2FWHW
    1                                                                                         24

                                                    host id




                                 2FWHW

%LW




*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ
  *¢DWU£ Q                               w£DFKžP‚\FK´


 
 
 






  

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQš2FWHWWQKW£WœL

                                                   2FWHW

%LW



*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ
  *¢DWU£ Q                               w£DFKžP‚\FK´


 
 
 






  

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQš2FWHWWQKW£WœL


                                2FWHW
%LW

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ
  *¢DWU£ Q                               w£DFKžP‚\FK´

.K{QJSKyQ
 
 
 





  
  .K{QJSKyQ

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQš2FWHWWQKW£WœL

       7ªQJTX‚WOƒLWƒL~£DFKžF´DP­WPƒQJNKLOŽQO}²WWKD\~ªLF‚FJL‚WU£F´D
F‚F2FWHWWDV•F§NK€QxQJWKD\~ªLPF‚FFRQV¬NK{QJ
WU³QJOSQKDX&RPELQDWLRQVF§QJKLÅO~£DFKžF´DP‚\FK´WUzQ
PƒQJQK}QJWK¼FW›SKyQFKžO

[[ 
%L™XKLœQWUzQWK¼FW›OEDV¬WK’SSKyQWURQJ2FWHWF‚FKQKDXG‘X

7£pˆQ

        .ˆWOXQiŽDFK‹OœS$F’WK†SKkQFKRPuQJYqP–LP˜WPuQJF’
Pt\FKŸ1’LFtFKNKtFpŽDFK‹WK§FWˆV‚
7£pˆQ

9G¢0˜WpŽDFK‹p{\pŸFŸDOœS$

w£DFKžw£DFKžP‚\
PƒQJFK´



                        **  g…@ BG‚ -“O # 




7ªQJTX‚WFKXQJ

                 ELW~ŽXWLzQ~™QK’QGƒQJO±S%OY
                 ELWF¤QOƒLWURQJ2FWHW~ŽXWLzQGQKFKR~£DFKž
                           PƒQJ
                 2FWHWF¤QOƒLJ©PELWGQKFKR~£DFKžP‚\&K´

 class b

       Octet1                     Octet2             Octet3                Octet4
 1                     8                   16            24                32
  1 0
                    net id                                       host id
PuQJPt\FKŸWUlQP˜WPuQJ


Dq–DFK“P}QJ

.KrQjQJSKkQpŽDFK‹

2FWHW2FWHW
           1                  8                 16
           1 0
                           net id


       +DL2FWHW~ŽXWLzQF§ELW~™SKyQFKR~£DFKžPƒQJELWELWYELW
N™W¸WU‚LVDQJF§JL‚WU£OŽQO}²WOYG³QJ~™QK’QGƒQJ~£DFKžO±S%1K}
Y’\F¤QOƒLELW~™FKR1HW,'~£DFKžPƒQJ
                     Octet1 Octet2
             13                7                      0

                              net id


             7KHRF‚FKW¢QKQK}F´D~£DFKžPƒQJ/±S$WDF§

*L‚WU£Q w£DFKžPƒQJ

                                                              .K{QJSKyQ
                                                                             
                                                                   
                                              






 
 .K{QJSKyQ

2FWHW2FWHW

7}|QJW¼QK}~£DFKž/±S$F‚FELW~˜XE„QJYF‚FELW~˜XE„QJ~}²FE¥UD
QzQWK¼FW›JL‚WU£WK’SSKyQFKžW¸~›QF§QJK¡DSKyQ~}²FFKR
PuQJ

%L†XKL‰QWUlQWK§FWˆ

     %L™XKLœQ~£DFKžWUzQWK¼FW›WK™KLœQV¬WK’SSKyQWURQJ2FWHWF‚FKQKDX
E„QJG‘XFK‘P&‚FKW¢QKV¬WK’SSKyQFKRW¸QJ2FWHWP­W



                             2FWHW

                   %LW



                                 ELW QK’Q GƒQJ


*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ1HW,'
  *¢DWU£ Q                             w£DFKžPƒQJ

  
 
 
 






   

w£DFKžPƒQJF´D/±S$W¸~›QNK{QJSKyQ1K}Y’\~£DFKž
PƒQJF´D/±S%¯2FWHWWK»QK‘WV•W¸FKR~›Q

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ


                                 2FWHW

%LW

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ1HW,'
  *L‚WU£ Q                             w£DFKžPƒQJ

 .K{QJSKyQ
 
 
 






        
          .K{QJSKyQ
                                    



1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ

1K}Y’\w£DFKžPƒQJO±S%EL™XKLœQWUzQWK¼FW›J©P2FWHW
7£FKRpˆQ
F§QJK¡DSKyQ~}²FFKRPuQJ


Eq–DFK“F|FP|\FK§WUtQP WP}QJ

.KrQjQJSKkQpŽDFK‹

      2FWHW  Y  J©P  ELW ~™ GQK FKR ~£D FKž F´D F‚F P‚\ FK´ WUzQ W¸QJ
PƒQJ


2FWHW2FWHW
%LW


%LW

+RVW,'
*¢DWU£%LW*L‚WU£Qw£DFKž

 


 
 
 







 
 

2FWHW2FWHW

w£DFKžF´DF‚FELWE„QJYE„QJE¥UD.K€QxQJWK¼FW›F¤QOƒL
pŽDFK‹~™SKyQFKRF‚FP‚\FK´WUzQP­WPƒQJ




%L†XKL‰QpŽDFK‹WUlQWK§FWˆ



                                  2FWHW

%LW

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ
  *¢DWU£ Q                               w£DFKžP‚\FK´


 
 
 






  

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ


                                 2FWHW

%LW



*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ
  *¢DWU£ Q                               w£DFKžP‚\FK´

 .K{QJSKyQ
 
 
 






        
          .K{QJSKyQ
                                    



1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ

%L™XKLœQ~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQWK¼FW›F´D/±S%O

7£pˆQ
.ˆWOXQiŽDFK‹/œS%F’WK†SKkQFKRPuQJYqP–LPuQJF’pˆQ
Pt\FKŸ1’LFtFKNKtFpŽDFK‹SKkQWURQJWK§FWˆV‚
7£pˆQ
9G¢0˜WpŽDFK‹p{\pŸFŸDOœS%


w£DFKžw£DFKž
0ƒQJ0‚\FK´




                                 *** g…@ BG‚ -“O $ 




7ªQJTX‚WFKXQJ

                 ELW~ŽXWLzQ~™QK’QGƒQJO±S&O
                   ELWF¤QOƒLWURQJ2FWHW~ŽXGQKFKR~£DFKžPƒQJ
                   2FWHWFX¬LF³QJF§ELWGQKFKR~£DFKžP‚\FK´

     class c

        octet 1                      octet 2                    octet 3                        octet 4
1                            8                           16                          24                        32
     1 1 0
                                      net id                                                     host id

PuQJPt\FKŸ
WUlQP˜WPuQJ

Dq–DFK“P}QJ

.KrQjQJSKkQpŽDFK‹

         ELWF¤QOƒLF´D2FWHW~ŽXGQKFKR~£DFKžPƒQJ

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±LELWQJL‚WU£w£DFKž
Q PƒQJ












2FWHW2FWHW2FWHW

&‚FELW~˜XE„QJKD\E„QJNK{QJSKyQQzQNK€QxQJSKyQ~£DFKžFKRPƒQJ
¯O±S&OKRFE„QJ


%L†XKL‰QWUlQWK§FWˆ

2FWHW

%LW

                 
                               %LW
%LW QK’Q GƒQJ

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ1HW,'
             *¢DWU£ w£DFKžPƒQJ
                                                        Q




 
 
 
 





  
1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ



                                             2FWHW

%LW

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ1HW,'
  *¢DWU£ Q                             w£DFKžPƒQJ

 
 
 






  

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ


                                  2FWHW

%LW

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ1HW,'
  *¢DWU£ Q                             w£DFKžPƒQJ
 .K{QJSKyQ
 
 
 






  
   .K{QJSKyQ

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ


.ˆWOXQiŽDFK‹GqQKFKRPuQJFŸDOœS&F’NKrQjQJSKkQFKR
PuQJQ’LFtFKNKtFWUlQWK§FWˆV‚
7£pˆQ

Ex–DFK“P|\FK§WUtQW«QJP}QJ

.KrQjQJSKkQpŽDFK‹

         2FWHWF§ELW~™SKyQ~£DFKžFKRF‚FP‚\FK´WUzQP­WPƒQJ

                      2FWHW

%LW

*L‚WU£W}|QJ»QJY±L
WK»W¼ELWQ
  *¢DWU£ Q                               w£DFKžP‚\FK´

 .K{QJSKyQ
 
 
 






  
   .K{QJSKyQ

1KoY\JLtWUŽWKSSKkQFŸD2FWHWW£pˆQ

1K}Y’\NK€QxQJFKRP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJF´D~£DFKžO±S&O
KD\

%L†XKL‰QWUlQWK§FWl
      7£pˆQ

.ˆWOXQiŽDFK‹OœS&F’WK†SKkQFKRPuQJYqP–LP˜WPuQJF’
Pt\FKŸ1’LFtFKNKtFV‚
      7£pˆQ

9G¢P˜WpŽDFK‹,QWHUQHWOœS&p{\pŸ


w£DFKžPƒQJw£DFKž
P‚\FK´
           9¢G·7UXQJWyPWK{QJWLQPƒQJ,QWHUQHWY³QJ&KyX‚7K‚LEQKG}|QJ
$31,&   SKyQ FKR 9'&  ~£D FKž F´D O±S & F§ WK™ SKyQ FKR  PƒQJ W¸
FKR~›Q1K§PV¬WK»QK‘WOFKREL›W~y\OQKºQJ
NK¬L~£DFKž¯O±S&
           w£DFKž~Ž\~´F´DP­WNK¬L~£DFKžSK€LO
FK¶QJWD~}²FV¹G·QJWU¨QY—QRFWHWFX¬LF³QJF§QJK¡DO~}²F~£DFKžP‚\
FK´Y~ŽXFX¬LWUzQP­WPƒQJ9¢G·PƒQJV•F§~£DFKž~ŽXFX¬LW¸
~›Q1K}Y’\WªQJF­QJ9'&F§[ ~£D
FKž OÀ WKX\›W ~™ SKyQ FKR F‚F P‚\ FK´ Y ~ŽX FX¬L  WUzQ  PƒQJ   
YY
           1K}Y’\~£DFKžPƒQJOF¬~£QKFK¶QJWDFKž~}²FTX\˜QSKyQ~£DFKžFKR
P‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJ~§
      *U  `…@ BG‚ LlMF BNM B–@ *MSDQMDS


                  
 *1 RTAMDSSHMF 




       D1JX\tQQKsQ

       1K}~ÅQzXWUzQ~£DFKžWUzQ,QWHUQHWWK¼FV¼OP­WWLQJX\zQP­WPƒQJ
NKLJLDQK’S,QWHUQHW~}²F7UXQJWyPWK{QJWLQPƒQJ,QWHUQHW1,&SKyQFKRP­W
V¬~£DFKžY¸D~´G³QJY±L\zXFŽXO¶F~§VDXQ\Q›XPƒQJSK‚WWUL™QWKzPOƒL
SK€L[LQ1,&WKzP~§O~L˜XNK{QJWKX’QWLœQFKRF‚FQKNKDLWK‚FPƒQJ
       +|QQºDF‚FO±S~£DFKžF´D,QWHUQHWNK{QJSK€LKRQWRQSK³K²SY±L\zX
FŽXWK¼FW›~£DFKžO±S%FK…QJKƒQP«LP­W~£DFKžPƒQJF§WK™F‘SFKR
P‚\FK´7K¼FW›F§PƒQJQK¥FKžF§YLFK·FP‚\FK´WKV•OÅQJSK¢U‘WQKL˜X
~£DFKžF¤QOƒLPNK{QJDLG³QJ~}²Fw™NK‡FSK·FY‘Q~˜Q\YW’QG·QJW¬L
~D~£DFKž~}²F1,&SKyQE‡W~ŽXW¸QxPQJ}®LWDQJK¡~›Qw£DFKžPƒQJ
FRQ
       1K}Y’\SKyQ~£DFKžPƒQJFRQOP¯U­QJ~£DFKžFKRQKL˜XPƒQJWUzQF|
V¯P˜WpŽDFK‹PuQJP1,&SKyQFKRSK³K²SY±LV¬O}²QJWK¼FW›P‚\FK´F§
WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ

       E3KwvQJSK|SSKsQFKLDx–DFK“P}QJFRQ

      7U}±F NKL QJKLzQ F»X SKŽQ Q\ FK¶QJ WD FŽQ SK€L KL™X TXD P­W V¬ NK‚L
QLœPOLzQTXDQW±LYLœFSKyQ~£DFKžF‚FPƒQJFRQ

              'HIDXOW0DVN*L‚WU£WUŽQ~£DFKžPƒQJ~}²F~£QKQJK¡DWU}±F
       FKRW¸QJO±S~£DFKž$%&7K¼FFK‘WOJL‚WU£WK’SSKyQFDRQK‘WNKLW‘W
       F€ELW~˜XE„QJWURQJF‚F2FWHWGQKFKR~£DFKžPƒQJ1HW,'

       'HIDXOW0DVN/±S$         
                            /±S%                   
                            /±S&                   

              6XEQHW0DVNJL‚WU£WUŽQF´DW¸QJPƒQJFRQ
       6XEQHW0DVNON›WK²SF´D'HIDXOW0DVNY±LJL‚WU£WK’SSKyQFDRQK‘WF´D
       F‚FELWO‘\W¸F‚F2FWHWF´D~£DFKžP‚\FK´VDQJSKŽQ~£DFKžPƒQJ~™WƒR
       ~£DFKžPƒQJFRQ
              6XEQHW0DVNEDRJL®FµQJ~LN“PY±L~£DFKžPƒQJWLzXFKXQ ~™
FKRQJ}®L~¨FEL›W~£DFKžPƒQJWLzXFKXQQ\G³QJF€FKR P‚\ FK´ KD\
FKLDUDWKQKF‚FPƒQJFRQ0WNK‚FQ§F¤QJL¶S 5RXWHU WURQJ YLœF ~£QK WX\›Q
FX­FJ¨L
1JX\lQWyFFKXQJ

      /‘\E±WP­WV¬ELWF´DSKŽQ~£DFKžP‚\FK´~™WƒR~£DFKžPƒQJFRQ
      /‘\~LEDRQKLzXELWSK·WKX­FYRV¬PƒQJFRQFŽQWKL›W6XEQHWPDVN
PQKNKDLWK‚FPƒQJTX\›W~£QKV•WƒRUD
      9~£DFKžO±S$Y%~˜X~ÅK›WK|QQºDKLœQWƒLPƒQJ,QWHUQHWF´D7ªQJ
F{QJW\GR9'&TX€QOÀ~DQJ~}²FSKyQ~£DFKžPƒQJO±S & QzQ FK¶QJ WD V•
QJKLzQF»XN¿SKyQFKLD~£DFKžPƒQJFRQ¯O±S&



       ,  q–D FK“ P}QJ FRQ F§D        x–D FK“ O¤S & 




&ODVV F 




       2FWHW               2FWHW              2FWHW               2FWHW

110
                             net id                                     host id


w£DFKžO±S&F§RFWHWFKR~£DFKžPƒQJYRFWHWFX¬LFKR~£DFKžP‚\FK´Y
Y’\FKžF§ELWOÀWKX\›W~™WƒRPƒQJFRQWK¼FW›Q›XG³QJELW~™P¯PƒQJ
FRQYELWFKR~£DFKžP‚\FK´WKYQFKžOP­WPƒQJYQJ}²FOƒLELW~™FKR
PƒQJ Y  ELW FKR ~£D FKž P‚\ FK´ WK P­W PƒQJ FKž ~}²F P­W P‚\  QK} Y’\
NK{QJORJLF¢WQK‘WSK€LG³QJELW~™P¯U­QJ~£DFKžYELWFKR~£DFKžP‚\
FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ'RY’\WUzQWK¼FW›FKžG³QJQK}E€QJVDX



       'HIDXOW0DVNF´DO±S&

                   w£D FKž
                   P‚\ FK´


ELW~FKžPƒQJFRQELW~FKžP‚\FK´
ELW~FKžPƒQJFRQELW~FKžP‚\FK´
ELW~FKžPƒQJFRQELW~FKžP‚\FK´
ELW~FKžPƒQJFRQELW~FKžP‚\FK´
ELW~FKžPƒQJFRQELW~FKžP‚\FK´

 'HIDXOW 0DVN     w£D FKž
                 PƒQJ FRQ
7Uo™QJ         6XEQHWPDVN          6— OoQJ PuQJ FRQ                    V— Pt\ FKŸ WUlQ
 KS                                                                    W£QJ PuQJ


                                                            
                                                            
                                                           
                                                           
                                                           

       %€QJNK€QxQJFKLDPƒQJFRQF´D~£DFKž/±S&

1K}Y’\P­W~£DFKžPƒQJ¯O±S&FKžF§ WUo™QJKSO§DFK“QWUzQ+D\
6XEQHW0DVNNK‚FQKDXWX½W¸QJWU}®QJK²SF·WK™~™TX\›W~£QKV¬PƒQJFRQ

       7Uo™QJKS+DLPuQJFRQ

6XEQHW0DVN
      7¸ P­W ~£D FKž WLzX FKXQ WƒR ~}²F ~£D FKž FKR KDL PƒQJ FRQ  P«L P­W
PƒQJF§P‚\FK´
      6¹G·QJKDLELWELWYF´DSKŽQ~£DFKžP‚\FK´~™WƒRPƒQJ FRQ
1K}Y’\F¤QOƒLELW~™SKyQFKRP‚\FK´


       D 7QK pŽD FK‹ PuQJ 


                                    2FWHW 


                     %LW 

              [[[[[[[[[    [[[[[[[[[
              [[[[[[[[[    [[[[[[[[[
              [[[[[[[[[    [[[[[[[[[
              [[[[[[[[[    [[[[[[[[[

              *KLFK¶[[[[[[[[[O~£DFKžPƒQJWLzXFKXQF´DO±S&

      w£DFKžF´DPƒQJOJL‚WU£F´DELWYOŽQO}²WE„QJY7URQJWU}®QJ
K²SFKLD~£DFKžPƒQJFRQNK{QJEDRJL®~}²FG³QJ~£DFKžNKLF‚FELW~˜XE„QJ
KD\E„QJ'RY’\WU}®QJK²SPƒQJFRQQ§LWUzQ~£DFKžPƒQJFRQV•O
      0ƒQJFRQw£DFKžPƒQJ[[[[[[[[[
      0ƒQJFRQw£DFKžPƒQJ[[[[[[[[[

       E 7QK pŽD FK‹ FKR Pt\ FKŸ FKR PuQJ FRQ 
      &K¶QJWDFKžF¤QELWFKR~£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJ




                                          2FWHW 


                      %LW 

             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[w£DFKžPƒQJ
             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[

             
             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[.K{QJSKyQ

w£DFKžPƒQJ
FRQ
           0«LPƒQJF¤QOƒL~£DFKžFKRP‚\FK´
           0ƒQJ7¸[[[[[[[[[~›Q[[[[[[[[[
      F 7QK pŽD FK‹ FKR Pt\ FKŸ FKR PuQJ FRQ  


      7}|QJW¼QK}F‚FKW¢QKWUzQWDF§


                                2FWHW 


                      %LW 

             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[w£DFKžPƒQJ
             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[

             
             [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[.K{QJSKyQ

w£DFKžPƒQJ
FRQ
           0ƒQJw£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJ
                     7¸[[[[[[[[[~›Q[[[[[[[[[



7ªQJTX‚WOƒL

 VXEQHWLG           KRVWV
             
            
           
           

D0ƒQJFRQWK»QK‘W
      
w£DFKžPƒQJFRQ[[[[[[[[[
      
w£DFKžF‚FP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJFRQQ\W¸
                                 [[[[[[[[[
                                 [[[[[[[[[
                                 [[[[[[[[[
                                 
                    ~›Q          [[[[[[[[[

E0ƒQJFRQWK»
      
w£DFKžPƒQJFRQ[[[[[[[[[
      
w£DFKžF‚FP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJFRQQ\W¸
                                 [[[[[[[[[
                                 [[[[[[[[[
                                 
                           ~›Q [[[[[[[[[
w£DFKžP‚\FK´W¸~›QYW¸~›QYE£P‘WQJK¡DOP‘W
~£DFKž
      9¢G·w£DFKžWLzXFKXQO±S&O
                           6XEQHWPDVN
      7¸~£DFKžQ\WDF§PƒQJFRQO
             
0ƒQJw£DFKžPƒQJ
                           w£DFKž0‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJQ\
                    7¸     ~›Q
             
0ƒQJw£DFKžPƒQJ
                           w£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJQ\
                      7¸~›Q

7Uo™QJKS6tXPuQJFRQ

       6XEQHWPDVN
       7ƒR~}²FPƒQJFRQP«LPƒQJFRQF§P‚\FK´
       D 7QK pŽD FK‹ 0uQJ FRQ 


7U}¤QJK²SQ\V¹G·QJELWELWF´D~£DFKžP‚\FK´2FWHWEªVXQJ
FKR~£DFKžPƒQJWLzXFKXQ~™WƒRPƒQJFRQ




                                     2FWHW 


                      %LW 

               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[
               [[[[[[[[[     [[[[[[[[[

     %¥ WU}®QJ K²S F‚F ELW ~˜X E„QJ  KD\   FK¶QJ WD F¤Q OƒL ~£D FKž F´D 
PƒQJFRQVDX

               [[[[[[[[[0ƒQJFRQ
               [[[[[[[[[0ƒQJFRQ
               [[[[[[[[[0ƒQJFRQ
             [[[[[[[[[0ƒQJFRQ
               [[[[[[[[[0ƒQJFRQ
              [[[[[[[[[0ƒQJFRQ
E  7QK pŽD FK‹ Pt\ FKŸ FKR PuQJ FRQ  
                                            2FWHW 


                           %LW 


                   [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[w£DFKžPƒQJ
                   [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
                   [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
                   [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
                   [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
                   
                   [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[
                   [[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[.K{QJSKyQ

      1K}Y’\~£DFKžP‚\FK´F´DPƒQJFRQV•W¸~›Q
7}|QJW¼QK}F‚FKW¢QK~ÅQzXWUzQFK¶QJWDF§WK™W¢QK~}²FFKRW‘WF€F‚F
WU}®QJK²SF¤QOƒL[HPE€QJY~}²FWªQJK²SOƒLQK}VDX

7U}®QJK²S6XEQHWPDVN
      PƒQJFRQ
      P‚\FK´P«LPƒQJ
7U}®QJK²S6XEQHWPDVN
      PƒQJFRQ
      P‚\FK´P«LPƒQJ
7U}®QJK²S6XEQHWPDVN
      PƒQJFRQ
      P‚\FK´P«LPƒQJ
7U}®QJK²S6XEQHWPDVN
      PƒQJFRQ
      P‚\FK´P«LPƒQJ
7U}®QJK²S6XEQHWPDVN
      PƒQJFRQ
      P‚\FK´P«LPƒQJ
7U}®QJ K²S           7U}®QJ K²S           7U}®QJ K²S           7U}®QJ K²S           7U}®QJ K²S 


 VXEQHWV  KRVWV      VXEQHWV  KRVWV     VXEQHWV            VXEQHWV            VXEQHWV  KRVWV
SHU QHW                SHU QHW               KRVWV SHU QHW          KRVWV SHU QHW         SHU QHW
                              
VXEQHW     KRVWV       VXEQHW      KRVWV     VXEQHW      KRVWV      VXEQHW     KRVWV       VXEQHW       KRVWV
  LG                     LG                    LG                     LG                     LG
 wFKž    w£D FKž       wFKž     w£D FKž     wFKž     w£D FKž     wFKž     w£D FKž      wFKž       w£D FKž
PƒQJ   P‚\ FK´    PƒQJ   P‚\ FK´     PƒQJ    P‚\ FK´    PƒQJ   P‚\ FK´    PƒQJ   P‚\ FK´
       W¸  ~›Q           W¸  ~›Q           W¸  ~›Q          W¸  ~›Q           W¸  ~›Q


                                                             
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                    
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                               
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                       
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                       
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                      
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                    
                                                                               
                                                                               
                                                              
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                             
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                             
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                             
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                            
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                          
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                          
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                          
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                                    
                                     7U}®QJ K²S                              
                                                                              
                                                                                       
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                       
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                       
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                       
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                       
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          

7U}®QJK²S7U}®QJK²S

9¢G·w£DFKžPƒQJO±S&P1,&SKyQFKR9'&O7UzQ~£DFKž
Q\SKyQUDPƒQJFRQWK~£DFKžV•O
       0ƒQJw£DFKžPƒQJ
       w£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJ~§W¸~›Q
       0ƒQJw£DFKžPƒQJ
       w£DFKžP‚\FK´WUzQPƒQJ~§W¸~›Q


        ,,  q–D FK“ P}QJ FRQ W« x–D FK“ O¤S % 



'HIDXOW0DVNF´DO±S%O

FODVVE

        2FWHW                    2FWHW                    2FWHW                    2FWHW
1 0
                   net id                                      host id



        1HW ,'    .KL SKyQ ~£D FKž PƒQJ FRQ V¹ G·QJ 2FWHW 




w£DFKžO±S%F§2FWHWWK»YWK»GQKFKR~£DFKžP‚\FK´QzQY˜QJX\zQ
OÀF§WK™O‘\~}²FF€ELW~™WƒR~£DFKžPƒQJ1›XW¸P­W~£DFKžPƒQJ~}²F
1,&SKyQFK¶QJWD~£QKP¯U­QJOzQPƒQJYP«LPƒQJV•F§P‚\FK´
7U}®QJK²SQ\V•O‘\K›WELWF´DRFWHWWK»EªVXQJYR~£DFKžPƒQJYFKž
F¤QOƒLELWWK¼FW›FKR~£DFKžP‚\FK´WKHRF‚FKW¢QKV¬WK’SSKyQ3 JL‚WU£F´D
ELWQK}~ÅQzX¯SKŽQO±S&FK¶QJWDV•F§


%rQJSKkQFKLDpŽDFK‹PuQJFRQšOœS%


&ODVV%                                                       RIKRVWVSHU
                                               RIVXEQHWV       VXEQHW
6XEQHWWLQJ'HIDXOW      6XEQHW0DVN                               6¬ P‚\ FK´ WUzQ P«L
6XEQHW PDVN                                    6¬ PƒQJ FRQ        PƒQJ FRQ


                                                    
6¹ G·QJ 2FWHW                                      
~™ P¯ U­QJ PƒQJ                                    
FRQ                                                
                                                   
                                                  
                                                 
                                                
                                               
6¹ G·QJ F€ 2FWHW                              
~™ P¯ U­QJ PƒQJ                                
FRQ                                           
                                              

w£DFKžO±S%Y˜OÀWKX\›WF§RFWHW~ŽXFKR~£DFKžPƒQJNKLFKLDPƒQJFRQ
WKHRSK}|QJSK‚SV¹G·QJW‘WF€ELWWURQJRFWHWFKR~£DFKžPƒQJWUzQWK¼F
W}|QJ»QJY±LO±S&QK}Y’\Y˜~£DFKž1,&SKyQOO±S%QK}QJF‚FKWªFK»F~£D
FKžOƒL¯O±S&;HP%€QJSK·O·FSKyQ~£DFKžPƒQJFRQ¯O±S%7URQJE€QJ
Q\FŽQFK¶À¯F­WNKR€QJF‚FK~£DFKžJLºDPƒQJFRQJL±LWKLœXFKRFK¶QJ
WDF‚FKW¢QK~£DFKžF‚FPƒQJFRQ~£DFKžF‚FP‚\FK´WUzQW¸QJPƒQJOLzQTXDQ
W±LF­W
        9¢G·7U}®QJK²S6XEQHWPDVNOU¦QK‘W
               &KLD~}²FPƒQJFRQP«LPƒQJFRQF§P‚\FK´NKR€QJ
F‚FK~£DFKžJLºDKDLPƒQJFRQOF§QJK¡D
       0ƒQJFRQF§~£DFKžO[[[\\\0ƒQJFRQV•F§~£DFKžO
       [[[\\\ [[[\\\F»WL›SW·FQK}Y’\WDV•W¢QK~}²F
~£DFKžF´DW¸QJPƒQJFRQYPƒQJFRQO[[[\\\
       w£DFKžP‚\FK´~ŽXWLzQWUzQPƒQJFRQO[[[\\\~£DFKžP‚\
FK´~ŽXWLzQWUzQPƒQJFRQV•O[[[\\\ [[[\\\
7L›SW·FQK}Y’\WDV•W¢QK~£DFKž~}²FP‚\FK´~ŽXWLzQF´DPƒQJFRQO
[[[\\\YY
        7}|QJ W¼ FK¶QJ WD EL›W ~}²F ~£D FKž FX¬L F³QJ F´D F‚F P‚\ FK´ WUzQ
P­WPƒQJFRQ
7KHRK}±QJGQQ\FK¶QJWDV•WP~}²FF‚FWU}®QJK²SNK‚F
       7§P OƒL FKLD ~£D FKž PƒQJ FRQ FµQJ SK€L WKHR P­W TX\ OX’W QK‘W ~£QK
QJRLÀPX¬QF´DFK¶QJWDNKLFKLDPƒQJFRQFµQJE£P‘WNK‚QKL˜X~£DFKž
P‘W¢WKD\QKL˜XWX½WKX­FYRF‚FWU}®QJK²SF·WK™

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:8/22/2011
language:Catalan
pages:41