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					        ASNE Day 2011
              Joe Famme
              Bryan Price
               Ted Raitch
              Jim Davison
           February 10, 2011

ASNE Day 2011                  1
          C2 to the        C2             Tactical Edge
                         Joe Famme
                         Bryan Price
                          Ted Raitch
                         Jim Davison
                      February 10, 2011

ASNE Day 2011                                        2
        US National Maritime Domain Awareness

                                     NIMS: National Incident Management
                                     System ICS: Incident Command Systems
                                     Civil Response C2 (terror attack, oil spills,                       hurricanes , Fires etc.
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                Maritime Domain Dominance
  The Classical Naval Control of the sea, coastlines and
   choke points: SHIPS OF THE LINE
  Amphibious “From the Sea”
  Coastal, Riverine and Brown Water
  Evolving threats for
         Ship’s boats & RHIBS “beyond the hull”
  Local administration, rescue & security, major ecological
   disasters (oil spills) to …
  Assuming combatant craft roles?
       Maritime Rescue, anti-Piracy … recapture pirated ships /
         hostages … illegal arms / trade and narco-terroism … insert
         SOF … border security
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                High Stakes = Positive Control

  Threats beyond the hull are increasingly capable and
  Legal implications are often international
  Exact time, location and maneuvers must be
  Safety at sea in darkness and rough seas where boats
   cannot be tracked visually / must approach target craft
   without navigation lights
  Positive Control of own boats and RHIBS is
    recommended, ergo :     C2 to the Tactical Edge
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      C2 for Tactical Response Beyond the Hull
        Anti-pirates, terror, drugs, illegal trade … border & port security
              Hazardous navigation, darkness & high sea states…
        International law / legal implications – often violent encounters

      Where is the boat?     Condition?    Execute Tactical Exchange
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                     The Tactical Edge
  That location where responsible personnel with the
    correct preparation, including updates in route, arrive
    and gain understanding of the assistance needed or
    the threat, continuously exchanging their situation
    with their control ship via direct or C2 relay via other
    ships, & air to achieve an immediate and appropriate
    response with force as needed.

  The C2 requirement is for an affordable capability that
    is flexible, adaptive and agile, and interoperable with
    U.S. and allied coalition forces.

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Table 2. Ship’s Boats Positive Control Missions
  Scenario      Missions    Comm.    Comm.    Positive   Positive   GPS    ECDIS     Radar       Radar     Status of
                             Clear   Secure   Location   Location                    Picture    Picture      Boat
                                               Public     Secure                   from Ship   From Boat    Secure

     1       Anti-drug                 x                    X       x       x         x           x           x
     2       Anti-Piracy               x                    X       x       x         x           x           x
     3       Border                    x                    X       x       x         x           x           x
     4       Anti-                     x                    X       x       x         x           x           x
     5       Port Defense              x                    X       x       x         x           x           x
     6       Insert SOF                x                    X       x       x         x           x           x
     7       Human            X                  X                  x       x         x           x
     8       Dark -           x                  X                  x       x         x           x           x
     9       High Sea         x                  X                  x       x         x           x           x
    AIS                      Yes      Yes       Yes        Yes      Yes   Option   Option      Option        Yes

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                    Two Categories of Boats
  Category 1 Combatant Boats and Craft
      Joint Capability Integration & Development System – JCIDS
        analysis determined “combatant” = C2 Required
         GCCS-J / GCCS-M … GIG …

         Joint Tactical Radio System - JTRS

         Amphibious Assault Direction Systems - AADS

         Command, Control, Communication & Computer System - C4N

         Blue Force Tracking

  Category 2 General Purpose Boats and Craft
      A compass, radio and binoculars and a JO with a .45

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     Cat 1 Craft C2 (SPAWAR) to the “Last Tactical Mile”

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     Cat 1 C2 Amphibious Assault Direction System - AADS
Description                                                                       Programmatic
Amphibious Assault Direction System, AN/KSQ-1                                       ACAT III
with Enhanced Position Location Reporting System                                    ORD Signed (Requirement)    May 89
(EPLRS), integrates the NAVSTAR Global                                              MS III                      Dec 95
Positioning System (GPS) to form a jam / intercept                                  OPEVAL                      Apr 95
resistant, friendly force tracking and command and
                                                                                    IOC                         Mar 97
control system that supports the surface assault
ship-to-shore movement in amphibious operations                                     FSTR Strategy Approved      Jul 02

Provides                                                         USER TERMINAL                     RADIO RELAY
  Capability to Launch, Monitor, Track and                          GROUP
                                                                 UTG – LCAC/LCU                        RRG

   Control Surface or Combined Surface and Air • Provides PLI                                • Airborne Relay

   Amphibious Assaults up to 100 NM OTH
  Seamless Integration with USMC S-T-O-M
  Perform OTH Operations                            PRIMARY
                                                CONTROL GROUP
  Integration with GCCS-M                               PCG
                                          • Directs Ship-to-Shore
                                                       • Mission Changes
Sub-Systems                                            • Dynamic Reference Unit                                         CONTROL GROUP

 AN/KSQ-1                                                                                                         • Backup to PCG
                                                                                                                   • Dynamic Reference Unit

                                                     COMMAND GROUP

                                                  • Controls EPLRS Net

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                Post SLEP

      Integrated             Universal
      Electronics            Keyboard

        Pre SLEP
                                     • Open Architecture
                                     • Modern COTS Equipment
                                     • Precision Navigation
                                     • Common Tactical Picture
                                     • Comm Suite Interoperability
                                     • LN-66 to P-80 Radar
ASNE Day 2011                        • KSQ-1 to EPLRS
                     USGC NAIS CONOPS Summary

         1 HAEUAV Wide Area Surveillance   4 Multi Asset Operation
         2 MPA Prosecution                 5 Over-the-Horizon Operations
         3 NSC Interoperability            6 Shore-based Command Center

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                         AIS is International

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                         AIS comes to the Navy *
  AIS significantly increases the ability of the Navy and allied nations to
     distinguish between normal and suspicious merchant ships headed
     toward U.S. and allied ports.
    Navy warships using AIS have observed dramatic increases in
     situational awareness, ship safety and intelligence gathering.
    2005 Navy deemed AIS an urgent capability / began fielding of
     stand-alone AIS on all warships by fiscal 2006
    Integrated AIS with GCCS-M in 2007 - -2011.
    AIS was granted Rapid Deployment Capability authority in January
     2006 and transitioned to a program of record in 2008.

  The supporting C2 architecture for this paper describes an ad hoc
     C2 capability for ship’s boats and RHIBS that has been officially
     put in place
                * Excerpt form Navy League, SEAPOWER Almanac 2011, p.93
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                   AIS Characteristics
  AIS is a commercially available shipboard broad-cast VHF
     maritime band transponder system that can transmit ship
     information, including navigation, identification and
     cargo. AIS is mandated by the International Maritime
     Organization for all merchant vessels over 300 tons.
     (Warships are exempt, but may …)

  Transponders incorporate GPS locating and can support 2
     channel, 2-way VHF data communication, clear or secure
     with other ships

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 DOD Policy: New IT / C2 Capability Without Risk
   NAVSEA guidance for new IT & C2 Systems.*
   Link 16 is currently BW Limited
   New systems must be mature (TLR 8 or 9)
   “State of the Shelf”
  Therefore what C2 systems are available ?
  Which C2 base to use for ship’s boats & RHIBS ?
   CAT 1 : GCCS Family of Systems ?
   Cat 2 : AIS based C2 capabilities ?

     Recommend AIS Based Small Boat C2 : Discussion

ASNE Day 2011      * AFCEA Conference 22 Oct 10, Pentagon City   17
         AIS C2 CONOPS Extended to Ship’s Boats

         Add AIS C2 to Own Cat 2 Boats and RHIBS such that every Navy and
         USCG ship has potential for It’s own Ad Hoc AIS based C2 Network
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  Status of AIS based C2 for Small Boats / RHIBS
   International Development and use of AIS based C2
      for the missions described in Table 2, Small Boat
      Positive Control Missions

        Canadian Navy
               Pacific and Atlantic Security C2 Operations
        Royal Navy
               Coastal / Fisheries
        Republic of Korea
               Dual Use

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       Canadian AIS Based C2 for Small Boats
  Mission Requirement: protect two high value cruise ships
   used to house thousands of Winter Olympic officials, staff
   and guests: Operation Podium
  Solution: AIS based C2 using commercially available
   adapted C2 Electronic (ECDIS) charting systems at two
   Operations Centers with compatible units installed in 15
   RHIB boats for positive two-way secure tactical C2

  Mission Requirement: Security for 2010 International Fleet
   Reviews in Esquimalt, BC, and Halifax, NS.
  Solution: AIS based C2 Secure Operations 12 RHIBS.

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                   Canadian Operations
                Vancouver Olympics * Esquimalt 2010

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                       Royal Navy
  Deploying RHIB from
   HMS Mersey (River Class
  RHIB augments offshore
   patrols … able to navigate
   small rivers and winding
   marsh land tributaries to
   objectives unreachable by
  Maintain 2-way secure C2

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                   Republic of Korea
  Wing-in-Ground Effect
      Mainland – Inter Island
      Dual Use with SOF
  Co-Pilot IMO ECDIS
  Pilot IMO “Tactical”
   Display plus normal
   flight instruments and

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      Shipboard & Shore AIS Installations Options

                                 Systems Integration to Sensors
                                      & Combat Systems

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                ECDIS with AIS & Radar Displays

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   Boat / RHIB Displays: ECDIS – AIS – (Radar Optional)

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                Shore & RHIB AIS C2 Installation

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                Boat / RHIB Asset Control Technology

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                   Boat / RHIB Installation
  Antennas for VHF, AIS/GPS, Flux Gate Heading;
  Electronics enclosure; 12” ECDIS display with dynamic tactical
  Ergonomic 3-button/thumb stick for dynamic vectors to
   communicate course to steer.
  Add Radar plot if radar available on boat / RHIB.

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 Additional Military Layers (AMLs)
AMLs Prepared by National Hydrographic Offices

      ASNE Day 2011                              30
 Additional Military Layers (AMLs)
AMLs Prepared by National Hydrographic Offices

      ASNE Day 2011                              31
                Additional Military Layers (AMLs)
          AMLs Prepared by National Hydrographic Offices

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                AML Details

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                AMLs Additional Detail

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                       Boat – RHIB Displays
    C2 Elements exchanged
       with Control Ship:
         Clear or Secure Text
           Status of Boat Machinery
           Radar Ship &/or Boat
           Spoof Contacts
           Vectors
           Operational Boundaries

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                Boat & RHIB C2 to the Tactical Edge
                  Example Boat / RHIB Scenarios

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Control Ship or Station Display

                                  Aviation Unit
                                  (Helicopter) on

                                  RHIB Patrolling
                                  in safe waters

                                    Coast Guard
                                    Control ship

     ASNE Day 2011                            37
RHIB Display

       RHIB#1 is tasked with AIS
        contact of interest (COI).
       RHIB highlights the COI with
        double Green Circles
       An Electronic Bearing Line
        (EBL) connects the RHIB to
        the COI.
       RHIB coxswain will steer along
        EBL to intercept target.
RHIB turns
to intercept
the contact
of Interest
Control Ship has
sent a Contact of
Interest message
to RHIB #2
RHIB #2 is
proceeding on an
intercept course.

This Intercept
course will take
RHIB through
disputed waters.
Control ship must
alert RHIB to
avoid area.
 RHIB#2 is proceeding to
  intercept COI.
 The RHIB’s display shows the
  COI with Highlight circle and
 RHIB is steering intercept
 RHIB display does not show
  area to be avoided.
 Control ship advises RHIB#2
  to come about immediately via
  text message.
 Danger area is presented at
  same time to reinforce urgency
  and to provide the “whole
 RHIB #2 has information
  required to make safe choice.
RHIB has turned
away from
disputed area –
Incident avoided!
 RHIB#2 assigned a
  new COI
RHIB #1 is
arriving alongside
contact of interest
HELO orbiting on
RHIB #2 is
proceeding to
Coast Guard Ship
has come about.
 RHIB#1 reports status to
  Control ship over secure link
   Command is most effective when C2 is maintained
   via realtime interaction with the units “in the
   fight” / “at the Edge:

    AIS based C2 “networks” planned or “ad hoc” for small boats is
       Commercial Off the Shelf – TLR 8-9
      Links to Control Ships and Command Centers
      C2 communications are clear & secure
      AIS and Radar can be correlated
      Tactical Spoofs are possible
      Interoperable with all US & Allied AIS & ECDIS capabilities

                     C2 to the Tactical Edge

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          C2 to the       AIS             Tactical Edge
                         Joe Famme
                         Bryan Price
                          Ted Raitch
                         Jim Davison
                      February 10, 2011

ASNE Day 2011                                       48
Fair Winds and Following Seas!

                         CDR Joseph Famme, USN (ret)
                          Lt Brian Price Canadian Navy
                          Mr. Ted Raitch (former USAF)
                      Lt Cdr. Jim Davison Royal Navy (ret)

                 C2 to the Tactical Edge
      ASNE Day 2011
     Backup Slides

ASNE Day 2011        50
DoD - Blue Force Tracker

  In June 2006, DRS Tactical Systems
  unit in Melbourne, FL announced
  a multi-year $396 million
  indefinite-delivery/ indefinite-
  quantity contract to provide
  rugged Appliqué Computer
  Systems and peripheral
  equipment for the U.S. Army’s
  Force XXI Battle Command,
  Brigade and Below (FBCB2 – and
  see video) program

ASNE Day 2011                          52

                Post SLEP

      Integrated            Universal
      Electronics           Keyboard

        Pre SLEP
                                    • Open Architecture
                                    • Modern COTS Equipment
                                    • Precision Navigation
                                    • Common Tactical Picture
                                    • Comm Suite Interoperability
                                    • LN-66 to P-80 Radar
ASNE Day 2011                       • KSQ-1 to EPLRS

ASNE Day 2011          54

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