Programmable Satellite Transceiver _PST_ for Responsive Space by pengxiuhui

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									6th Responsive Space Conference
RS6-2008-6004




   Programmable Satellite
   Transceiver (PST) for
   Responsive Space
   Jason Phillips, Bill Asiano
   Real Time Logic, Inc.




                           6th Responsive Space Conference
                                  April 28–May 1, 2008
                                    Los Angeles, CA
                                                                                               AIAA-RS6-2008-6004




                 Programmable Satellite Transceiver (PST) for Responsive Space
                                                  Jason Phillips
                                              Real Time Logic Inc.
                        8591 Prairie Trail Drive • Englewood, CO 80112; (303) 703-3834
                                             jphillips@rtlogic.com

                                               Bill Asiano
                                          Real Time Logic Inc.
                      12515 Academy Ridge View • Colorado Springs, CO (719) 598-2801
                                          basiano@rtlogic.com
                                                    ABSTRACT
As the demand increases for more responsive lower costs space operations, the leadtime for fielding space assets
will need to significantly decrease. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Operation Responsive Space (ORS)
initiative is pushing the boundary of quick deployment of space assets with an objective goal of the six day satellite.
To meet the goals of ORS, the satellite must be adaptable to different missions, changing threats, and emerging
technologies. In order to minimize integration efforts and meet these objectives, satellite subsystems will be
intelligent modules that support a plug-in-play interface architecture between modules and the satellite bus. The
Space Plug-and-Play Avionics (SPA) system in development by AFRL Space Vehicles Directorate addresses the
space craft subsystems software and electrical interfaces. Two critical subsystem modules are the S-band
Command, Control, and Telemetry (CC&T) and UHF/S-Band Mission Data radios. This paper introduces the
Programmable Satellite Transceiver (PST) design concept for the CC&T. The PST as one of many Plug and Play
(PnP) components supports the Space Plug-in-Play Avionics Universal Serial Bus (SPA-U) interface.

The PST design is adaptable to be used in standard satellite configurations, but it can also support AFRL’s ORS PnP
configuration architecture. A PnP component contains Self-Defining Data Sheet (xTEDS) which has all the data
products, commands, interfaces, services, telemetry, and standard commands to define that subsystem. With a
comprehensive intelligent protocol for each of the subsystems, satellite integration and test is significantly reduced
and simplified.

Traditional single frequency radios are set at the factory to a specific frequency and modulation type. The PST
provides a modular software radio designed for space operations combining frequency agility and software
configured signal processing functions in a re-programmable transceiver. Radiation tolerant parts and radiation
mitigation techniques are used to enable the configurable operation in a space environment. For CC&T radio
applications the modulator and demodulator can be independently tuned to any SGLS or USB frequency
combination under software control. As a Mission Data radio both two-way UHF is supported along with S-Band
transmit for TDRS applications using staggered PSK modulation schemes. All baseband Digital Signal Processing
(DSP) functions are performed by a reconfigurable Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). FPGA signal
processing allows future upgrade to virtually any waveform set without hardware modifications.

The ORS program objectives direct the development of technologies that support robust and flexible satellite bus
designs. The PST using the SPA-U interface allows for rapid integration within these designs and provides a flexible
yet modular and adaptive solution for CC&T/Mission Data radio functions. The PST design concept enables the
ORS to provide a cost effective approach to rapid space asset deployment, operations, and maintenance over the life
cycle of DoD space missions.

KEYWORDS:

Software Defined Radio, SDR, Satellite Transceiver, SGLS, USB, Command, TT&C, Telemetry, Frequency Agile,
Reprogrammable,S-Band, L-Band, Waveform
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                                  AIAA/6th Responsive Space Conference 2008
                              This work is declared a work of the US Government
                         and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
                                                                                                                                    AIAA-RS6-2008-6004


BACKGROUND                                                  The use of an FPGA to implement all baseband signal
The spacecraft and associated ground systems for many       processing allows software based configuration of
                                                            virtually any type of current or future baseband
of the Department of Defense (DoD), National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and            waveform modulator or demodulator and data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration             processing. A block diagram of the SLIQ is shown in
                                                            Figure 1.
(NOAA) satellites were independently implemented,
resulting in the use of different Radio Frequency (RF)
                                                            10 MHz              LO                                                          10 MHz        LO
bands and signal waveforms. The majority of the                                 PLL
                                                                                                                       50 MHz
                                                                                                                                                          PLL



military satellite systems conform to the Space Ground
                                                             RF In                                                                                                   RF Out
Link System (SGLS) standard, while most                      Cal In
                                                                                 IQ
                                                                               Demod
                                                                                               Dual
                                                                                             Baseband
                                                                                              Filters
                                                                                                                        Dual
                                                                                                                   ADC/DAC/Serdes
                                                                                                                                          Dual
                                                                                                                                        Baseband
                                                                                                                                         Filters
                                                                                                                                                           IQ
                                                                                                                                                          Mod        Cal Out

civil/scientific satellite systems conform to the Unified             Front

S-Band (USB) standard. Not only are the waveforms                     Back


within each standard unique, but the RF band that is        50 MHz                             Clock                    Dual
                                                                                                                                        Firmware
                                                                                                                                       Driven Serial
                                                                                                                                                                     AGC Out
                                                                                              Receiver                 Serdes
used also differs. Fixed function transceivers on the                                                                                  DACs/ADCs                     AGC In



spacecraft prohibit civil ground systems from                Ser In                                                                                        422       Data Out
                                                                               Serdes                                 FPGA
communicating with military spacecraft and military         Ser Out             (x2)                               XC2VP30/40/50
                                                                                                                                                       Drvrs/Rcvrs
                                                                                                                                                        16 pairs     Data In


ground systems from communicating with civil
spacecraft.                                                                   I2C Temp/
                                                                                Voltage
                                                                                 ADC
                                                                                                  Cypress
                                                                                               8051 Processor
                                                                                                                           Config
                                                                                                                           PROM
                                                                                                                                          RAM




Recognizing that significant cost savings would result                                      RS422 & 480 MBPS USB


from more integrated satellite operations, PST is being
developed to operate using the SPA-U interface                                          Figure 1. SLIQ Block Diagram
protocols. The goal of PST is development and               All sensitive RF/analog functions shown above the
demonstration of a space based transceiver that             dashed line are housed in mini-blocks mounted on the
supports both SGLS and USB frequencies and                  front side of the module. All digital functions below the
waveforms using a single hardware platform.                 dashed line are comprised of Integrated Circuits (ICs)
                                                            mounted directly to the back side of the module. A
RT Logic SLIQ                                               picture of the front (mini-block) side of the SLIQ
In early 2004, RT Logic completed initial development       module is shown in Figure 2.
of the S/L band In Phase/Quadrature (I/Q) (SLIQ)
modulator/demodulator module. The SLIQ utilizes
direct frequency conversion techniques, configurable
Electro-Magnetic     Interference     (EMI)    shielded
enclosures called mini-blocks, and Field-Programmable
Gate Array (FPGA) Digital Signal Processing (DSP) to
provide a small, flexible solution for ground based RF
modem applications.
RF configuration flexibility is enabled by the use of pin
compatible mini-blocks, which allow a single small
SLIQ module to host two modulators, two
demodulators, or one modulator and one demodulator
in any combination of three bands (S-band, L-band, or                                     Figure 2. SLIQ Front View
70 MHz). Mini-block construction of all RF/analog           Many of the techniques that resulted in a small, flexible
functions maximizes isolation of sensitive RF/analog        SLIQ solution were selected for the space based PST
signals from other signals, particularly digital ones.      implementation.
Wide tuning ranges results from the use of the direct
(I/Q) conversion techniques and frequency synthesizer       RT Logic/SEAKR PST Team
mini-blocks operating over nearly an octave in each
                                                            Since RT Logic had no space-qualified products when
configured band. Processing bandwidth is maximized
                                                            the PST opportunity was identified, it was determined
by 50 MHz quadrature sampling, which results in an
                                                            that teaming with a company with this experience was
instantaneous baseband signal bandwidth of 40 MHz.
                                                            needed to efficiently produce a space qualified product.
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                                  AIAA/6th Responsive Space Conference 2008
                              This work is declared a work of the US Government
                         and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
                                                                                                        AIAA-RS6-2008-6004


SEAKR Engineering has delivered many successful
space products, and also has expertise in application of
Xilinx FPGAs to the space environment through their
membership in the Xilinx Radiation Test Consortium
(XTRC). The teaming of RT Logic and SEAKR for
development of the PST has combined RT Logic signal
waveform processing expertise with SEAKR
Engineering’s space applications experience.

PST IMPLEMENTATION
The PST utilizes direct frequency conversion and
FPGA processing techniques developed for the SLIQ to
provide wide tuning range, wide processing bandwidth,
and configuration flexibility. The SLIQ mini-block
packaging approach was replaced by multi-chamber
clamshell (two-sided), shielded RF module construction
to improve shock and vibration tolerance and reduce
assembly costs, while maintaining maximum EMI                                Figure 3. PST Front View
shielding effectiveness. The SERializer/DESerializer
                                                                           Power
(SERDES) functions used in the SLIQ to optimize               28V DC       Supply
                                                                           Module
                                                                                       to all Modules
                                                                                       & Freq Ref

shielding through minimization of high-speed digital
connections were replaced by parallel interfaces in the       RS-422
                                                                                        Modulator
                                                                                                             Power
                                                                                                            Amplifier   RF Output
                                                              Control/                                      Module
PST to minimize size and power consumption.                    Status
                                                                                         Module


Commercial quadrature modulator and demodulator ICs
                                                                                        Calibration
were radiation tested to ensure compatibility with the           Mod
                                                                 Data
                                                                           Digital
                                                                           Module
                                                                                         Module
                                                                                        (optional)

space environment. Radiation tolerance of all other
semiconductor components was verified through                  Demod
                                                                 Data
                                                                                       Demodulator
                                                                                         Module
                                                                                                                        RF Input
identification of radiation test results for the same or
similar component built with the same IC process.
                                                                          Frequency
                                                                                       to Mod, Demod,
                                                                          Reference
                                                                                       & Cal Modules
                                                                         (Backplane)

Hardware
                                                                         Figure 4. PST Block Diagram
A picture and block diagram of the PST are shown in
Figures 3 and 4.                                           The Power Supply Module converts 28 VDC input
                                                           power into all DC voltages used by the rest of the
                                                           modules and the frequency reference.
                                                           The Digital Module hosts the Xilinx FPGA that
                                                           implements      all    DSP     modulator/demodulator
                                                           (mod/demod) algorithms and nonvolatile memory
                                                           capable of storing multiple FPGA configurations.
                                                           FPGA configuration scrubbing is provided to mitigate
                                                           radiation effects. The module also provides external
                                                           control/status and mod/demod data interfaces. The
                                                           Digital Module includes internal control/status
                                                           interfaces to all internal modules except the Power
                                                           Amplifier. It also sends/receives parallel digitized
                                                           signals to/from the Modulator, Demodulator, and
                                                           Calibration modules.
                                                           A high stability, low-noise oscillator located on the
                                                           backplane board produces the frequency reference
                                                           signals used by the Digital, Modulator, Demodulator,
                                                           and Calibration Modules.
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                                  AIAA/6th Responsive Space Conference 2008
                              This work is declared a work of the US Government
                         and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
                                                                                              AIAA-RS6-2008-6004


The Modulator (Mod) Module converts digitized               in the presence of Linear Energy Transfers (LET) of up
baseband transmit signals from the Digital Module           to 37 MeV•cm2/mg, and Single Event Upsets (SEUs)
FPGA to a modulated RF signal at a selected frequency.      must be statistically nonexistent at that level. The
That signal is amplified by the Power Amplifier             preferred method of meeting this requirement was to
Module to produce the final unit RF output.                 choose components already qualified at these radiation
                                                            levels. If qualified devices cannot be found for required
The Demodulator (Demod) Module amplifies,
                                                            functions, a component using the same process as a
translates from a selected frequency, and converts the
                                                            qualified component was selected. In two cases,
RF input signal to digitized baseband signals sent to the
                                                            radiation testing was required to qualify commercial
Digital Module FPGA.
                                                            components that did not meet the first two criteria.
If Mod and/or Demod Module RF input/output I/Q
                                                            The Analog Devices AD8347 quadrature demodulator
gain/phase/offset calibration is required and neither
                                                            and AD8349 quadrature modulator ICs were tested for
module must operate continuously, calibration is
                                                            both TID and ELDRS effects at Radiation Assured
performed periodically during non-operational intervals
                                                            Devices in Colorado Springs, Colorado. No electrical
using a direct connection between the Modulator and
                                                            degradation was detected for either device at a total
Demodulator Modules. If Mod or Demod calibration is
                                                            dose of 30 krad(Si). Heavy ion effects were tested at a
required and either module must operate continuously,
                                                            Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL)
calibration is performed through the addition of an
                                                            cyclotron. No latchup was observed for either device
optional Calibration (Cal) Module. The Cal Module is
                                                            over temperature, power supply, and LET variations.
capable of generating a reference signal for use in
                                                            Some Single Event Functional Interrupts (SEFIs)
Demod Module calibration or receiving a calibration
                                                            occurred during AD8349 testing at low temperature and
signal from the Mod Module during operation of the
                                                            a low power supply voltage, but the equivalent rate of
respective    Demod/Mod        Module.    Simultaneous
                                                            these events for a unit in LEO orbit is once in 276
calibration and operation are enabled through the use of
                                                            million years.
spread spectrum calibration signals at frequencies that
do not interfere with normal operations.                    Reliability and manufacturability criteria were also
                                                            established for PST component selection. Since parts
A view of the PST mechanical configuration is shown
                                                            screening requirements vary for different applications,
in Figure 5.
                                                            parts were selected that are available in versions with
                                                            the highest possible space or military screening levels
                                                            whenever possible. If a screened part is not available
                                                            for a required function, a commercial part is upscreened
                                                            through inspection, burn-in, test, and other qualification
                                                            procedures to produce a fully space qualified PST.
                                                            Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) were
                                                            determined to be acceptable for PST, since they have
                                                            been successfully flown on a number of space missions.
                                                            Surface mounted leadless components with leads
                                                            covered by the package were not used, since they can’t
                                                            be effectively inspected after installation.

                                                            Firmware
     Figure 5. PST Mechanical Configuration
                                                            RT Logic uses the term Firmware to describe a specific
IC Selection                                                FPGA configuration used for signal or data processing.
                                                            Initial PST firmware development is focused on
PST IC radiation specifications are 20 krad(Si) Total       providing support for SGLS and USB uplink
Ionizing Dose (TID) at the component level, or about        demodulation and downlink modulation. A block
100 krad(Si) at the unit level which includes 100 mil       diagram of the PST SGLS/USB firmware is shown in
combined module and unit level aluminum shielding           Figure 6. Triplication and voting functions used to
effects. ICs constructed using a bipolar process must be    mitigate radiation induced SEUs are not shown. Since
free from Extremely Low Dose Rate Susceptibility            the PST firmware is programmable, other waveforms
(ELDRS). Single Event Latchup (SEL) must not occur

                                                        4
                                  AIAA/6th Responsive Space Conference 2008
                              This work is declared a work of the US Government
                         and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
                                                                                                       AIAA-RS6-2008-6004


can be supported through additional future firmware              SPECIFICATIONS*
development with no hardware changes.
                                                                 Key PST specifications are presented in the following
     to/from       Control/
                                                                 paragraphs. *Specifications are subject to change without notice.
       8051        Status
  μController     Interface                                      Unit level PST specifications are given in Table 1.
                                                                         Table 1. PST Unit Level Specifications

                                                                       Dimensions                  6.85” W x 7” D x 3.86” H
   Telemetry                                       to IQ
       Data       Modulator
                                        Mod
                                                   Modulator           Weight/mass                 8 lb. (3.6 kg.)
                                     Calibration
       Input                                       DACs
                                                                       Receive only power          16 W
                                                                       consumption

                                                                       Transmit & receive          45 W
    from IQ                                        Command             power consumption
                  Demod
 Demodulator                        Demodulator    Data
                 Calibration
      ADCs                                         Output              Power input voltage         22 V to 36 V DC

       Figure 6. PST Firmware Block Diagram                            Power input isolation       1 M ohm min.

A parallel control/status interface allows the Digital                 Operational temperature     -24° C to +61° C
Module 8051 microcontroller to read and write parallel                 range
registers within the modulator and demodulator                         Vibration                   19 G RMS
firmware.
                                                                       Radiation tolerance         100 krad (Si) total dose
The modulator block accepts external telemetry data                                                outside chassis
that is first Bi-Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulated
onto a subcarrier that is then Phase Modulated (PM) on
an output carrier signal. The resulting digital signal is        Mod/Demod Hardware & Cal Firmware
sent to the Modulator Module through the Digital-to-             PST modulator/demodulator hardware and calibration
Analog Converter (DAC) output ports.                             firmware specifications are given in Tables 2 and 3.
The mod and demod calibration blocks perform gain,                Table 2. PST Demod Hardware & Cal Firmware
phase, and offset (voltage) correction operations for the                            Specifications
quadrature modulator and demodulator devices.
Calibration allows these devices to meet stringent                     Frequency ranges               1760 to 1840 MHz &
spurious level requirements.                                                                          2025 to 2120 MHz
Input signals are received from the Demodulator                        Noise figure                   1.3 dB
Module through the Analog-to-Digital Converter
(ADC) input ports. A PM demodulator is first used to                   Input threshold                -124 dBm
                                                                       (narrowband signal)
recover baseband or subcarrier modulation in both USB
and SGLS modes. Then, USB data extracted by a                          Dynamic range                  -40 dBm to threshold
subcarrier BPSK demodulator or SGLS command data
extracted by Frequency Shift Keyed Amplitude                           Bandwidth                      40 MHz
Modulation (FSK-AM) demodulator is sent to the                         Spurious response              -60 dBc (combined
command data output port.                                                                             hardware and firmware)

Software                                                            Table 3. PST Mod Hardware & Cal Firmware
                                                                                      Specifications
The PST software provides power up sequencing,
external control/status interface support, nonvolatile                 Frequency range               2200 to 2300 MHz
memory initialization, and test capabilities. The
external control/status interface allows internal parallel             Frequency stability           ±20 ppm max.
binary registers to be written for setting controls and
                                                                       RF output power               5 W min. (+37 dBm)
read for accessing internal status information.
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                                        AIAA/6th Responsive Space Conference 2008
                                    This work is declared a work of the US Government
                               and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
                                                                                                                         AIAA-RS6-2008-6004


       Output protection                            No damage, open or short              Communications Security (COMSEC) unit and sent to
                                                    circuit                               the PST. The data is modulated by the PST and sent
                                                                                          from the high power RF output through a diplexer and
       Spurious response                            -60 dBc (combined                     to the antenna for transmission to an earth station.
                                                    hardware and firmware)                Modulated uplink commands are received by the
                                                                                          antenna and coupled to the PST RF input by the
SGLS/USB Mod/Demod Firmware                                                               diplexer. Once it is demodulated within the PST,
                                                                                          command data is decrypted by the MCU-110 and
PST SGLS/USB Mod/Demod firmware specifications                                            passed to the C&DH subsystem. The PST can be
are given in Table 4.                                                                     configured for either SGLS or USB modes in this
 Table 4. PST SGLS/USB Mod/Demod Firmware                                                 environment using pre-loaded firmware.
                    Specifications
                                                                                          Global Positioning System (GPS)
       Demod acquisition range                            ±150 kHz
                                                                                          A Calibration Module can be developed that is capable
       Demod acquisition time                             0.5 sec.                        of receiving either a Modulator Module calibration
       (SGLS or USB)                                                                      signal or a GPS L1 signal (1575 MHz), or generating a
                                                                                          Demodulator Module calibration signal. This allows
       SGLS demod data                                    1 or 2 kbps FSK-
       rate/modulation                                    AM/PM                           modulator and demodulator calibration to be performed
                                                                                          at infrequent intervals, with GPS processing taking
       USB demod data                                     1, 2, or 4 kbps                 place the majority of the time. Firmware and software
       rate/modulation                                    BPSK/PM                         must be developed to implement GPS algorithms, but
                                                                                          the combination of transceiver and GPS capabilities
       Modulator data                                     1 to 128 kbps BPSK/PM
       rate/modulation                                                                    would likely reduce the size, weight, and cost of
                                                                                          separate transceiver and GPS receiver units.




APPLICATIONS
Potential applications of the PST are limited only by
frequency range, bandwidth, and FPGA processing
resources. A few possibilities are described below.

SGLS and/or USB Transceiver
Figure 7 shows a PST used as a SGLS and/or USB
transceiver integrated into a space vehicle.
                                                 28V DC




                         RS-422 Control/Status              RF Out




                                    Mod Data
     C&DH                                                            Diplexer   Antenna
                                                  PST
   Subsystem
               MCU-110

                                  Demod Data                RF In




Figure 7. PST SGLS/USB Transceiver Application
The Communications and Data Handling (C&DH)
subsystem controls and monitors the PST through the
direct RS-422 connection. Telemetry data from the
C&DH subsystem is encrypted by a MCU-110

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                                                  AIAA/6th Responsive Space Conference 2008
                                              This work is declared a work of the US Government
                                         and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
                                                                                           AIAA-RS6-2008-6004


Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Cross-
          Links
TDRS cross-link signals are within the tuning and
bandwith capabilities of the PST, so these waveforms
could also be supported through the development of
new firmware.

UHF/S-Band Mission Data Radios
The PST mechanical configuration contains a spare
card slot. This slot can be populated with a secondary
modulator module used to convert digitized baseband
mission data signals from the Digital Module FPGA to
a modulated RF signal at a selected UHF/S-Band
frequency.      Each of the PST modulators is
independently tunable across a 100 MHz output RF
band allowing for simultaneous operation of both
modulators.     The modulators can be configured
individually for independent use as a CC&T telemetry
transmitter and mission data radio applications.

Other Waveforms
Any current or newly developed waveform within the
tuning, bandwidth, and processing capabilities of the
PST can be supported through firmware development.
Decoupling of waveform processing algorithms from
the hardware platform provides opportunities to support
new requirements with minimum development costs.




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                                 AIAA/6th Responsive Space Conference 2008
                             This work is declared a work of the US Government
                        and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.

								
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