Annex by yaofenjin

VIEWS: 88 PAGES: 182

									 European Senior Service Sector


  CATALOGUE
OF JOB PROFILES
AN AGEING EUROPE: Job Profiles of the Senior Senior Sector. Typology and Development.
Leonardo da Vinci project no. 134320-LLP-2007-DK-LMP



The report has been developed by the team:
Denmark                                Germany                                  Italy
Caesar Szwebs                          Tamara Frankenberger                     Francesca Scocchera
cs@amunordjylland.dk                   tamara.frankenberger@leg-nrw.de          f.scocchera@cooss.marche.it
Helga Pinstrup                         Jeanette Schmidt                         Claudio Sdogati
hp@amunordjylland.dk                   jeanette.schmidt@leg-nrw.de              c.sdogati@cooss.marche.it
                                                                                Elisabetta Piangerelli
                                                                                e.piangerelli@cooss.marche.it
                                                                                Diego Mancinelli
                                                                                d.mancinelli@cooss.marche.it


Poland                                 Portugal                                 UK
Maria Bogowolska-Wepsięć               Vanda Duarte                             Graham Smith
maria.bogowolska-wepsiec@umwd.pl       vanda.duarte@soprofor.pt                 graham.smith@strath.ac.uk
Antoni Zwiefka                         Pedro Pires
azwiefka@umwd.pl                       ppires@soprofor.pt




PROJECT PARTNERSHIP

                       AMU Nordjylland International Department, Denmark
                       www.amunordjylland.dk
                       LEG Arbeitsmarkt- und Strukturentwicklung GmbH, Germany
                       www.leg-as.de

                       Cooperativa Sociale COOSS MARCHE ONLUS, Italy
                       www.cooss.marche.it

                       Urząd Marszałkowski Woj. Dolnośląskiego, Wydział Zdrowia, Poland
                       www.umwd.dolnyslask.pl
                       Sociedade Promotora de Formacao, Lda, SOPROFOR, Portugal
                       www.soprofor.pt
                       University of Strathclyde, Senior Studies Institute, Scotland
                       www.strath.ac.uk/cll/seniorstudiesinstitute/



               Disclaimer
               The project is being funded with support from the European Commission. This publication
               reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any
               use which may be made of the information contained therein.




                                                            2
National Job Profiles
Austria                                                                 8
   Elderly care nurse (Altenpfleger/in)
   Registered nurse (Diplomierte/r Krankenpfleger/in)
   Home carer (Heimhelfer/in)
   Occupational therapist (Ergotherapeut/in)
   Home help (Haushaltshilfe)


Czech Republik                                                          14
   Nurse (Zdravotní sestra)
   Social worker (Sociální pracovník)
   Physiotherapist (Fyzioterapeut)
   Career Coordinator (Koordinátor pro kariéru)
   Cleaner (Uklízečka)
   Cook (Kuchař)
   Laundry person (Pracovník v prádelně)


Denmark                                                                 21
   Service assistant (Serviceassistent)
   Social and Health Assistant
   (Social- og sundhedsassistent , SOSU- assistent)
   Care helper (Social- og sundhedshjælper)
   Physiotherapist (Fysioterapeut)
   Property Service (Ejendomsservicehjælper, ejendomsservicetekniker)


France                                                                  29
   Family helper (Assistante de vie familles [AVF])
   Activity manager (Animateur [AMP])
   Agents of hospital services
   (Personnel de service hospitalier [ASH])
   Medical and psychological auxiliary
   (Aide médico psychologique [MP])
   Home helper (Agent à domicile or Aide à domicile)
   Home auxiliaries (Agent à domicile or Aide à domicile [AD]
   Auxiliaire de vie sociale [AVS]
   (Assistante de vie familles [AVF])
   Medical coordinator (Médecin Coordinateur)
   Nursing assistent (Aide soignant)
   Social helper (Auxiliaire de vie sociale [AVS])


Germany                                                                 41
   Elderly care nurse (Altenpfleger/in)
   Elderly care assistant (Altenpflegehelfer/in)
   Assistant elderly care nurse (Hilfskraft Altenpflege)
   Home Carer for private households
   (Pflegehelfer/innen im Privathaushalt)
   Live-in carer (Fachkraft für Altenbetreuung)
   Social assistant (Sozialhelfer/in, Sozialassistent/in)
   Gerontotherapist (Altentherapeut/in)

                                                   3
   Housekeeper (Hauswirtschafter/in)
   Housekeeping assistant (Hauswirtschaftshelfer/in)
   Concierge (Hausmeister/in)
   Volunteers (Freiwillige in der Altenpflege)


Greece                                                       53
   General Care Nurse (Nosileftis [nosileftria])
   Basic Assistant / Carer
   (Basikos (i) Voithos Frontidas tis Ygias)
   Home Carer / Family Assistant
   (Voithos frontidas sto spiti / Ikogeniakos(i) voithos)
   Psychologist / Sociologist (Psychologos / Kinoniologos)
   Social Worker (Kinonikos(i) Litourgos)

Ireland                                                      59
    Registered nurse
    Care assistant
    Home carer
    Overnight care service
    Handy person
    Activities organizer
    Housekeeper
    Kitchen staff
    Cleaner
    Meals at home
    Care home manager
    Administrative assistant
    Concierge
    Volunteers

Italy                                                        74
    Professional Nurse (Infermiere Professionale)
    Home Basic Assistant (Assistente Domiciliare)
    Family Assistant (Assistente Domiciliare)
    Socio-Health Operator (Operatore Socio Sanitario)
    Physiotherapist (Fisioterapista)
    Social Worker (Assistente Sociale)
    Kitchen Staff (Cook and Cook Assistant)
   (Personale di cucina [Cuoco ed aiuto Cuoco])
   Cleaner (Addetto Pulizie)
   Entertainer (Animatore)




                                                   4
Lithuania                                                                              84
   Nurse (Slaugytojas)
   Social worker (Socialinis darbuotojas)
   Assistant of social worker
   (Socialinio darbuotojo padėjėjas)
   Therapist (Terapeutas)
   Work therapist (Darbo terapeutas)


Netherlands                                                                           88
   Home carer (Zorghulp)
   Elderly care nurse (Bejaardenverzorg(st)er; Verzorgende IG)
   Geriatric nurse (Geriatrisch verpleegkundige)
   Occupational therapist (Ergotherapeut)
   Assistant / Auxiliary for care and public well-being (Assistent / Helpende Zorg & Welzijn)
   District (male) nurse (Wijkverpleegkundige)


Norway                                                                                 95
  Health worker (Helsefagarbeider)
  Physiotherapist (Fysioterapeut)
  Cook (Institusjonskokk)
  Cleaner (Renholdsoperatør /Renholder)
  Property maintenance /service worker (servicearbeider)


Poland                                                                                 101
   Nurse (Pielęgniarka)
   Carer in social help house (Opiekun w Domu Pomocy)
   Social worker (Pracownik Socjalny)
   Handicapped person’s assistant
   (Asystent osoby niepełnosprawnej)
   Environmental carer (Opiekun Środowiskowy)
   Occupational therapist (ZawodowyTerapeuta)
   Physiotherapist (Fizjoterapeuta)
   Massager (Masażysta)
   Geriatric doctor (Geriatra)
   Cook (Kucharz)
   Dietetician (Dietetyk)
   Volunteer (Wolontariusz)


Portugal                                                                               114
   Nurse (Enfermeira)
   Nursing home carer (Ajudantes de Lar)
   Home Carer (Ajudantes de Apoio Domiciliário)
   General Services Auxiliary (Trabalhador Auxiliar)
   General Service Supervisor
   (Encarregado Serviços Gerais)
   Socio-cultural Activities Organizer (Animador Cultural)
   Psychologist (Psicólogo)
   Chef (Cozinheiro)

                                             5
   Kitchen Help (Ajudante de Cozinha)
   Catering Auxiliary (Trabalhador auxiliar de Cozinha)
   Laundry Staff (Trabalhadores de Lavandarias e Roupas)
   Driver (Motorista)
   Physician (Médico)
   Administrative Services (Serviços Administrativos)
   Accountant (Contabilista)
   Technical Director (Director Técnico)


Slovakia                                                                                    132
   Nurse (Zdrávotna Sestra)
   Physiotherapist (Fyzioterapeut)
   Social worker (Sociálny pracovník)
   Cleaner (Sociálny pracovník)


Slovenia                                                                                    135
   Nurse (negovalka / negovalec v socialno varstvenem zavodu)
   Social home care worker
   (socialna oskrbovalka / socialni oskrbovalec na domu)
   Performer of social service
   (izvajalka / izvajalec socialnega servisa)
   Social worker (socialna delavka / socialni delavec)
   Social worker in institution
   (socialna delavka / socialni delavec v domovih za stare ljudi)
   Occupational Therapist in institution
   (delovna terapevtka / delovni terapevt v institucionalnem varstvu)
   Coordinator of Social Home Care
   (koordinatorica / koordinator socialne oskrbe na domu)
   Operator for long distance help
   (operaterka / operater pomoči na daljavo)
   Telephonic counsellor for elderly (svetovalka / svetovalec na telefonu za starejše ljudi in
   njihove svojce)
   Volunteers
   (voditeljica / voditelj skupin starih ljudi za samopomoč)


Spain                                                                                       149
  Nurse (Enfermeiro)
  Home Carer (Auxiliar de Apoio Domiciliario)
  Geriatric Auxiliary (Gerocultor)
  Nursing Care Technician
   (Técnico de cuidados auxiliares de enfermagem)
   Social Worker (Trabalhador Social)
   Occupational Therapist (Terapeuta Ocupacional)
   Physiotherapist (Fisioterapeuta)
   Speech and language therapist (Terapeuta da Fala)
   General Service Assistant (Ajudante de Serviços Gerais)
   Psychologist (Psicologo)
   Doctor (Médico)
   Director of Day Care Centre and Home Care Centre (Director de Centro de Dia ou
   Centro Residencial)


                                                   6
Sweden                                          162
  Nurse (Sjuksysteer)
  Assistant Nurse (Sjukbiträde)
  Social welfare officer (Socialarbetare)
  Occupational therapist (Yrkesrådgivare)
  Physiotherapist (Fysioterapist)


United Kingdom                                  168
   Registered nurse
   Care assistant
   Home carer
   Overnight care service
   Handy person
   Activities organizer
   Housekeeper
   Kitchen staff
   Cleaner
   Meals at home
   Care home manager
   Administrative assistant
   Concierge
   Volunteers




                                            7
AUSTRIA




Elderly care nurse Altenpfleger/in

Registered nurse Diplomierte/r Krankenpfleger/in

Home carer Heimhelfer/in

Occupational therapist Ergotherapeut/in

Home help Haushaltshilfe




                 8
Elderly care nurse (Altenpfleger/in)
Working field
  Primary care sector
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Nursing and caring for the elderly in their own homes (out-patient), in hospitals or
   nursing homes (in-patient)
   Providing personal assistance and supporting their clients in coping with their daily lives
   Taking on some housework (such as shopping, making the beds) and coordinating
   cleaning services
   Assistance with personal hygiene, preparing meals and eating
   Encouraging clients to participate in activities and social events
   Maintaining contacts with neighbours, family members etc.
   Assisting with the use of therapeutic appliances
   Implementing doctors' instructions (checking blood pressure and pulse rate), changing
   bandages, monitoring intake of medicines
   Cooperating with nurses and doctors

Employment possibilities
  Out-patient services provider ("home carers" = caring for people in their own homes)
  Nursing institutions and hospitals


Training and career opportunities
   Management functions in welfare services
   Training and instruction
   Specialising in event organisation, occupational therapy or terminal care
   Therapies, social and legal knowledge (for advisory activities)

Educational requirements
   Start with medium school leaving certificate (16+)
   Social care profession, regulated at federal state level, while moves are afoot to
   implement nationally standardised regulation
   Two to three-year vocational training at technical college in the field of nursing and care
   a social work academy


Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Vocational training for the entire field of social professions is being concentrated to an
   increasing extent at nationally standardised university level
   24-hour care (legalisation, increase in authority of carers, payment)
   Increased staff shortage in particular specialists in care environments




                                             9
Registered nurse
(Diplomierte/r Krankenpfleger/in)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Range of professions includes personal support, advice, accompaniment and care of ill
   and handicapped people

Employment possibilities
  Advanced health and nursing care
  Nursing homes and hospitals
  Out-patient services provider

Training and career opportunities
   Occupational medicine, research management, help with homecare, care management
   Executive functions (managers)
   Training and instruction
   University degrees for executives and instructors and for health and social
   management, hospital management, health instruction and training

Educational requirements
   Start with medium school leaving certificate (16 +)
   Since 1997, care profession with nationalised standards
   Three-year vocational training at colleges for general health care and nursing

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increasing need in the field of nursing care for the elderly
   Increasing staff shortages in care and nursing institutions in the field of private care




                                             10
Home carer (Heimhelfer/in)
Working field
  Person and household related services
Core tasks
   Household management, nursing and personal hygiene for elderly people, those in need of
   assistance and the handicapped
   Dealing with light housework such as tidying up, making beds, shopping, general errands,
   washing up, cleaning floors and washrooms, ironing
   Assisting with taking medicines
   Preparing simple meals
   Acting as a discussion partner
   Keeping the housekeeping book relating to expenses

Employment possibilities
  Out-patient social work services
  Nursing institutions and hospitals
  Social and health management

Training and career opportunities
    Management functions in welfare services
    Training and instruction
    Specialising in event organisation, occupational therapy or palliative care
    Therapies, social and legal knowledge (for advisory activities)

Educational requirements
   Start with medium school leaving certificate (16 +)
   Social care profession, regulated at federal state level
   Moves are afoot to implement nationally standardised regulation: e.g. statutory accelerated
   training courses leading to the "Home carer" qualification after 200 teaching periods each
   of theory and practical
   Two to three-year vocational training at technical college in the field of nursing and care a
   social work academy

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Vocational training for the entire field of social professions is being concentrated to an
   increasing extent at nationally standardised university level
   24-hour care (legalisation, increase in authority of carers, payment)
   Increased staff shortage in nursing institutions




                                              11
Occupational therapist
(Ergotherapeut/in)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Treating the sick and handicapped with personal responsibility in accordance with doctors'
   instructions by means of handicrafts and creative activities
   Training for self-helpInstructing in the use
   of therapeutic appliances for the purposes of prophylaxis, therapy and convalescence

Employment possibilities
  Nursing homes, sanatoriums and hospitals
  Medical surgeries
  Health tourism

Training and career opportunities
    Occupations in social management and with training agencies
    Self-employment


Educational requirements
   Starting point: Matriculation exams or health and nursing related degree
   Three-year undergraduate course at a medical-technical academy




                                            12
Home help (Haushaltshilfe)
Working field
  Household related services



Core tasks
   All housework that occurs: Cleaning the floors, hoovering the carpets and upholstery,
   cleaning windows and doors
   Doing the washing and ironing, minor repairs to clothing
   Doing the shopping and preparing meals
   Doing minor garden tasks (mowing the lawn, caring for plants etc.)

Employment possibilities
   Private households
   Cleaning agencies
   Public services, e.g. nursing homes and hospitals
Career options
   Openings for self-employed work

Educational requirements
   No formal vocational training schemes; essential knowledge and skills are taught within
   the organisation or through corresponding short-duration training courses (e.g. sewing
   and cooking)

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   This economic sector has developed very positively in recent years and will continue to
   offer stable occupational opportunities




                                            13
CZECH R.




Nurse Zdravotní sestra

Social worker Sociální pracovník

Physiotherapist Fyzioterapeut

Career Coordinator Koordinátor pro kariéru

Cleaner Uklízečka

Cook Kuchař

Laundry person Pracovník v prádelně




               14
Nurse (Zdravotní sestra)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Examination of the patient in their own environment
   Personal hygiene
   Personal hygiene in bed
   Adjustment of bed
   Diet use
   Preparation of drugs, their use and use control
   Local treatment
   Application of inhalation therapy,
   Training and taking of insulin
   Providing medical checks
   The collection of biological material
   Monitoring of vital functions
   Nursing rehabilitation
   Mobilization and activation of patients using exercises
   Training walk
   Monitoring any changes of health status of the patient, in order to consult a medical
   practitioner.
   Further cooperation in the direction of nursing health services,
   Using prescribed protective equipment, ensure the maintenance and cleanliness.
   Requesting for damage replacement.
   Participation in regular preventive medical examinations.

Employment possibilities
  Hospitals, polyclinics, out-patient clinics, social care institutions

Educational requirements
   Nurses must have a medical university degree.




                                               15
Social worker (Sociální pracovník)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Processes of individual therapeutic plans short and long term
   Carrying out social investigations in families, keeping the necessary documentation
   Gathering documentation and processing all documentation to the "Treaty" with all legal
   formalities
   Carrying out other necessary administrative work
   Monitoring the changes of law and regulations and putting them into practice
   Cooperating with doctors, hospitals, other social workers, social care offices
   Addressing the social needs of clients
   Participating in the implementation of new forms of work in the field of nursing services
   Ensuring their professional growth
   According to the needs of organization - carrying out further work, which corresponds to
   the type of work apropriate for an employment contract

Employment possibilities
  Health care institutions, social care institutions, education institutions


Educational requirements
   Professional social workers generally hold a professional degree in social work
   (university education).
   It is one of few professions having its own code of ethics.




                                               16
Physiotherapist (Fyzioterapeut)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Self-performed acts of professional rehabilitation, vocational testing of the population,
   developing of methodology for medical rehabilitation
   Implementation the physical education, physical therapy and treatment as instructed by
   doctor, individual or group work, carrying out training for the use of compensatory aids
   (orthopaedic) and equipment, carrying out self-sufficiency training to nursing department
   According to the instructions of a physician, contained in a treatment program,
   methodology and rehabilitation treatment plan is developed,
   The performance of monitoring of changes behavior of the population, any changes in
   their health or their lack of cooperation should be reported to the treating physician
   Reporting to doctors on the progress of treatment and rehabilitation of their patients
   Participation in doctor's surgery, if job is related to the rehabilitation.
   Cooperating with other healthcare workers, staff, methodology involved in rehabilitation
   nursing
   Creation of positive relations with people for therapeutic capacity in order to obtain their
   willingness to cooperate
   Prevention of people trauma.
   Timely reporting requirements regarding.materiál and technical equipment, providing their
   economical use.
   Careful and responsible handling the assigned material, equipment, tools, providing their
   after use cleaneing, sterilization, etc.
   Ensuring compliance with the principles of hygiene in workplace, and personal hygiene.
   Ensuring compliance with safety and health
   Identifing deficiencies for supervisor
   Controling of the medical personnel in the exercise rehabilitation minima
   Performing any other work associated with the work specified in the contract according to
   the instructions of supervisors
   Taking all necessary measures to prevent hospital infections, especialy damage to health
   at work, including occupational disease
   Increasing and improving their expertise and participation in health education
   Service of the instruments - magnetotherapy, ultrasound, paraffin bath, Solux, galva 5 -
   therapeutic currents
   Testing of the residents before starting and at the end of rehabilitation reporting to the
   doctor.
   Implementation of the practice of self-sufficiency in patients - organizing walks and other
   events according to situation.

Employment possibilities
  Therapists can be employed at health and social care institutions.

Educational requirements
   Physiotherapist must have a degree in physiotherapy from a recognized university




                                             17
Career Coordinator
(Koordinátor pro kariéru)

Working field
  Other working field (coordination)

Core tasks
   Comprehensive coordination and providing of care services for professional,
   methodological, operational and economic site, including control activities.
   Controls of a range of care and support carried out by "the Treaty" and individual care
   plans for individual clients
   Random checks of individual acts of SP recording of social services workers and results
   of any inspection records
   Carrying out inspections according to the annual audit plan
   Keeping records of complaints, the course of their solutions and conclusions
   Taking responsibility for processing monthly payments for the economic section
   Introducing into practice new forms of care services
   Participateing in the processing of internal guidelines related to the operation of care
   services and beeing responsible for compliance with all law related to the delegated
   section
   Being responsible for attendance records, the use of working time subordination of
   employees, leaves, records of overtime hours
   Responsible for the economic operation of social care unit, which provides a cost-cutting
   measures and the resources entrusted to be treated gently and efficiently
   Providing expertise on the work of subordinate staff
   Monitoring compliance and hygiene regulations
   Responsibility for the processing of statistical data for delegated section
   Responsibility for all necessary documents relating to the delegated section
   According to the needs of the organization - carrying out further work, which correspond
   to the type of work for an employment contract

Employment possibilities
  Various health and care institutions




                                            18
              Cleaner (Uklízečkaí)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
Cleaning of facilities is based on:
   Regular cleaning - sweeping, dust toweling, ventilation of rooms, garbage obtaining
   Cleaning of furniture and equipment
   Carpet cleaning / vacuum cleaner
   Cleaning tile
   Mopping and polishing of floors
   Washing and cleaning of lamps - 4 times a year
   Cleaning and disinfecting of lavatory - daily
   Cleaning and disinfection of wash basins, shower enclosures, bath
   Washing and cleaning of windows – twice a year
   Washing of mirrors, tiles, paint on the walls and polishing
   Cleaning radiators – once a month
   Cleaning after painting
   Care of floral decoration throughout the building - watering, change, shower and
   transplantation
   Cleaning of buildings - sweeping of sidewalks, washing of parapets, railings
   Using of prescribed protective equipment, providing the maintenance and cleanliness,
   asking for the damage exchange
   Participation in training for organizations to carry out checks of electrical appliances
   during the use.
   According to the needs of organization carrying out further work, which corresponds to
   the type of work apropriate for an employment contract.

Employment possibilities
  Various health and care institutions.

Educational requirements
Basic education




                                             19
              Cook (Kuchař)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
  Developments and production of hot meals, desserts and cold dishes of food, beverages
  manufactured, comply with hygiene standards and processes. in particular:
  Giving the dishes, including adjustments to the plates of food to the individual sections
  Carrying out all work related to the kitchen cleaning
  Using appropriate protective clothing, boots and head covering, which may not be used for
  outside work (kitchen and kitchens), and protective equipment, ensure the maintenance
  and cleanliness. In case of damage, asking for their exchange.
  Observation of personal hygiene at work - awareness of health problems attached to the
  job description.
  Participating in training for organizations to carry out checks of electrical appliances during
  the use.
  The resources entrusted to be treated gently and efficiently
  According to the needs of the organization - carrying out further work corresponding to the
  type of work appropriate for an employment contract.

Employment possibilities
  Various health and care institutions.




                                              20
Laundry person (Pracovník v
prádelně)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
In particular:
    Ensuring the collection, distribution and reception of underwear
    weighing of underwear
    Control of the state, degree and nature of damage
    maintenance of all equipment for washing, centrifugation, drying, ironing and pressing of
    clothes
    Preparation of the work, whitening, conditioner and disinfecting solutions
    Grading and checking of linen after washing, assembling the completed document by the
    client
    Where appropriate carring out repair underwear
    Keeping records of income and the linen
    Calculation of the price per transaction and collection of payments for the transfer of
    laundry
    Maintenance of all necessary documentation
    Taking care of all laundry equipment
    Respecting the internal regulation issued by the care unit for laundry care services
    Participation in training for organizations to carry out checks of electrical appliances during
    the use.
    Using prescribed protective equipment, providing the maintenance and cleanliness,
    requesting for the exchange of the damaged one.
    According to the needs of the organization carry out further work, which correspond to the
    type of work for an employment contract

Employment possibilities
  Various health and care institutions.

Educational requirements
   Basic education




                                               21
DENMARK




 Service assistant (Serviceassistent)

Social and Health Assistant
(Social- og sundhedsassistent, SOSU- assistent)

Care helper (Social- og sundhedshjælper)

Physiotherapist (Fysioterapeut)

Property Service (Ejendomsservicehjælper,
ejendomsservicetekniker)




                  22
Service assistant (Serviceassistent)
Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Cleaning, maintenance, catering and serving food and support to other service staff.
   Service assistants are also qualified to perform security and control functions. The
   qualifications allowed working with groups of various disabilities, and giving first aid.

   There are 3 main profiles of service assistants dependent on the work place type:
   - Service assistants working with cleaning at institutions, hospitals and in private
      homes (elderly, disabled).
   - Service assistants working with hospital services. The core tasks are extended with
      the transporting and assisting patients and serving food incl. dietical and nutrition
      knowledge. Work is often performed as team cooperation.
   - Service assistants working in enterprises has also special functions in cleaning of
      office environment, catering services for meetings and conferences, waste
      management and small tasks in the repair and maintenance.

Employment possibilities
  Professional cleaning, catering and service support in public and private sector:
  hospitals, nursing homes and enterprises.
  Employers types are typically cleaning companies, canteens, offices, schools, wellness
  centres and municipal home services (elderly, disabled)

Educational requirements
The job tasks are varied and the educational requirements correspond to responsibilities.
   Module1 – cleaning
   Cleaning and service in institutions and hospitals, in enterprises and private houses
   using the right tools and working methods; provision of service to users and customers
   and ergonomics.
   Module 2 - hospital services
   Moving and transporting patients to preparing dietically correct food and solve practical
   tasks associated with patients and deceased relatives. Moreover, planning and carrying
   out cleaning duties and work with other professionals in the hospital.
   Module 3 - enterprise services
   All-round services around at meetings and conferences; preparing light meals and
   providing office support, minor maintenance tasks.
   Duration
   varies between school and practice up to 2 years.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Strongly developing field where multi-functionality is required. Increasing tasks for
   working with elderly (home care tasks in municipalities) set pressure on extension of the
   job profile and corresponding changes in educational content of the training modules.




                                               23
Social and Health Assistant (Social-
og sundhedsassistent, SOSU-
assistent)
Working field
  Primary and secondary care sector

Core tasks
   Assessing, organising and carrying out complex care assignments covering the work
   field between care auxiliary and nurse occupational boundaries.
   Assessing, planning, carrying out and evaluating – basic social and nursing
   assignments in the welfare, nursing and care area of the social and health care sector
   Planning and conducting recreational activities, including the stimulation of physical,
   intellectual and creative needs identified in relation to the individual person and groups
   of citizens. Assistant supports and advises the user so he or she may be active in his
   daily life, use its resources and help to determine its own situation.

Care duties can vary depending of the work place requirements.
In hospitals care and nursing tasks are carried out in collaboration with nurses,
occupational therapists and physiotherapists Social and health assistant may also act as a
bridge between home and hospital, for example in helping terminally ill in their own homes.
The work requires independence and collaborative skills, initiative and decisiveness. Work
outside normal working hours depends on the profile of the work place.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing homes, in home care, day centres, in hospitals and other of establishments
  field (e.g. institutions for mentally or physically disabled).

Educational requirements
   The duration of the social and health service assistant programme is 20 months - with
   at least 32 weeks thereof spent in social and health Education College.
   Admission to the social and health service assistant programme normally goes via the
   social and health service auxiliary (helper) programme. If an applicant wishes to enter
   the social and health assistant programme directly without first completing the social
   and health service helper programme, the student must have a corresponding basis
   acquired through other relevant educational and/or work experience. Such experience
   must be of the same duration as the social and health service helper programme, i.e. 14
   months in all.

Content:
   Professional: health, nursing, medical subjects, social services and social science,
   psychology and pedagogy
General:
   English, science, English or other foreign languages

Optional:
   Public health and health promotion, cultural issues in care services and the workplace,
   management and organization, psychiatry, rehabilitation, social pedagogy and geriatrics
   Tuition includes thematic teaching, project work and practical subjects.


                                              24
Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The number of graduates in the field has stagnated somewhat in recent years which
   should be compared with increasing work force shortages in the care sector. Further to
   this 33 percent of workforce is over 50 years and approx. 18 percent are between 45
   and 49 years. About half can be expected to retire within the next 15 years.
   More and more adults coming from other branches apply for working in the care sector.
   It means that the educational and recruitment systems have to be more flexible and
   elaborate on more complex system of validation of competences.
   The competence profile of SOSU assistant is close to nurse profession and, due to lack
   of nurses; there is discussion if some of the nurse tasks could be taken by SOSU
   assistant. It sets a pressure on the concept of the profession, its boundaries and
   educational programmes.
   From the 1st of October 2008 all Social and Healthcare Assistants must hold Danish
   authorisation to be able to use the title Social and Healthcare Assistant in Denmark.
   Social and Healthcare Assistants educated outside Denmark must therefore apply for a
   Danish authorisation in order to use the title Social and Healthcare Assistant.
   Social and Healthcare Assistants will, as the first group of healthcare personnel, not
   receive evidence of authorisation on paper. Instead employers and others will be able to
   check the authorisation status in the register of National Board of Health
   (Sundhedsstyrelsen), which encompasses all authorised healthcare personnel. The
   register is only in Danish.




                                            25
Care helper (Social- og sundheds-
hjælper)
 Working field
   Primary and secondary health and care sector

 Core tasks
    Independently and together with others
    Offering practical and personal assistance in the daily life of elderly or disabled.
    Helping to support and motivate people with a view to promoting individual independence
    in order to maintain their normal life activities.
    Independently carrying out care assignments and elementary nursing assignments in the
    welfare, nursing and care areas of the social and health care sector.
    Practical tasks of cleaning, shopping, washing, cooking etc. for users of home services
    Personal care as toilet visits, the hair, tooth brushing, etc., and helps people to take
    clothes off and on
    Evening and night guards and working on Sundays and public holidays (if employed in
    nursing institutions)

 Employment possibilities
   Municipal and private home services, nursing homes, elderly centres, sheltered housing
   for elderly or disabled and day-care centres.
   Educational requirements: The duration of the social and health service helper
   programme is 14 months - with at least 24 weeks in social and health Education College.
   Admission to the social and health service auxiliary programme
   can be granted, provided the basic course has been completed, or that the
   applicant has at least one year of other education or one year of work experience after
   leaving the lower secondary school (i.e. having completed year 9), or other relevant
   experience acquired in Denmark or abroad that matches these qualifications.
   During social and health auxiliary education, the focus is on learning how to help the
   elderly, sick and disabled people in their own homes, having social contact with them,
   helping with personal care, cleaning, shopping and cooking.
   Content:
   Professional subjects: health, welfare and social science, psychology and pedagogy of
   activity and practical subjects
   Basic subjects: English, science, English or other foreign languages
   Optional subjects: public health and health promotion, cultural events in the care and at
   work, psychiatry, social pedagogy and geriatrics
   Training takes place in a wide range of social and health schools around the country.
   Completing the training to social and health auxiliary module or having equivalent
   qualifications in either education or work experience or a combination thereof for at least
   1 year and 2 months, gives admission to the main course of training for social and health
   assistant

 Development and expected changes in the future perspective
 The education is designed for young people, whence there is tendency of more and more
 adults and career changing people choosing this education. It sets a pressure of validation of
 prior competences and informal/non-formal learning. Advancements of technology (ICT and
 assistive technology) set demands on competence development



                                              26
Physiotherapist (Fysioterapeut)
Working field
  Primary and secondary care sector

Core tasks
   Key work areas are: rehabilitation, health promotion and prevention of physical damage
   resulting from illness, injury, disability or ageing. Physiotherapists help patients to identify
   and improve their movement and promote their patients' health and wellbeing. They
   support the rehabilitation process by developing and restoring body systems, in particular
   the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. They
   devise and review treatment including application of technological equipment.
   Physiotherapists also provide advice on how to avoid injury.

Employment possibilities
  Physiotherapists work in a range of health and care institutional settings, including
  hospitals, health centres, day centres for elderly, enterprises, private practice

Educational requirements
   Education lasts 3 1/2 years and consists of 14 modules with shift between the theoretical
   and practical education.
   Physiotherapists learn both theoretical and practical treatment, rehabilitation, prevention
   and health promotion with a focus on body and movement. Education gives theoretical
   knowledge about the body and its functions and trains in the practical treatment. At the
   same time students learn to be mentally equipped to treat sick people.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The professional group of physiotherapists is perceived as essential in health promotion
   and prevention strategies, especially for groups approaching senior age and active
   elderly people. Several projects have been launched in order to prevent advancement of
   typical diseases of old age, conducted at day centres for elderly.




                                                27
Property Service
(Ejendomsservicehjælper,ejendoms-
servicetekniker)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Provides all-round service, support, operation and maintenance throughout the housing
   sector:
   Servicing and guidance to residents
   Maintenance of outdoor areas
   Service, operation and maintenance of technical equipment
   Simple maintenance and replacement / repairs to buildings and installations, such as
   water, heating and electrical installations
   coordination and guidance of outside suppliers

Employment possibilities
  Typical employment place is a housing association.

Educational requirements
   Educational requirements correspond to variety of skills which are needed during
   servicing and contact with residents and performing many practical tasks every day.
   The basic course lasts 20 weeks including placement period. It can be extended up to 60
   weeks when choosing additional modules.
   Basic educational module
   - Building maintenance, waste management, safety and environment, servicing and
      guiding users and residents; collaboration with public authorities, craftsmen and
      others.
   - Guiding and advising residents and users of social activities, home maintenance.
   - Knowledge of elementary psychological problems when working with users and
      residents.
   Additional modules
   - Planning of maintenance tasks, elaboration of reports, budgets, solving managerial
      tasks when collaborating with craftsmen and making purchases.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a clear tendency for extending the soft tasks towards ability of working and
   supervising special groups of residents, for instance, disabled, elderly or ethnic
   minorities. There are already series of training courses and project in this area.




                                             28
 FRANCE




Family helper (Assistante de vie familles [AVF])

Activity manager (Animateur [AMP])

Agents of hospital services
(Personnel de service hospitalier [ASH])

Medical and psychological auxiliary
(Aide médico psychologique [MP])

Home helper (Agent à domicile or Aide à domicile)

Home auxiliaries (Agent à domicile or Aide à domicile
[AD]

Auxiliaire de vie sociale [AVS] / (Assistante de vie
familles [AVF])

Medical coordinator (Médecin Coordinateur)

Nursing assistent (Aide soignant)

Social helper (Auxiliaire de vie sociale [AVS])




                   29
 Family helper
(Assistante de vie familles [AVF])
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Family helpers work in the problem fields encountered by families. The tasks focus on
   parental responsibilities but also involve work with the sick, elderly, or disabled in their
   homes. The overall objective is to support individual autonomy and especially:
   - Habits, rules, and expectations of the person,
   - Maintenance of the house,
   - Mobility of the person,
   - The hygiene and food (dehydration, balanced meals ...)
   - The administrative (banking, social security, etc.).
   The profession is similar to 2 other job categories: "Agent à domicile", that exercises
   home help for elderly and "Auxiliaire de vie sociale‖ that works mostly with dependent
   disabled persons.

Employment possibilities
  Over 80% of home helpers work in the private sector, but some work in the context of the
  civil service.

Educational requirements
   State diploma (Diplôme d'Etat d'auxiliaire) is required for exercising this profession issued
   by the Ministry of Labour, social relations and Solidarity. The training can vary from 9 to
   36 months and is organized in modular form.
   The program is open to anyone aged 18 years, without any qualifications required.
   However, the applicant must satisfy a review to assess the pre-requisites which includes:
   a questionnaire focused on current social problems and an interview.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The market for the 3 job categories of home helpers is growing rapidly. There are, at the
   moment, 177.000 home helpers, as estimated by the Ministry of Employment, Industrial
   Relations and Social Solidarity. However, these jobs are often between the half-time and
   full time. The diversification and expansion of this sector is explained by the lengthening
   of life, the solvency of a growing number of retirees, the creation of personal autonomy
   allowance (APA), but also through the development of services for individuals and
   families.




                                               30
Activity manager (Animateur [AMP])

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   The AMP works typically in a team (composed of managerial level and care assistants).
   Their tasks are to increase seniors’ quality of life moments of joy, cultural activities and
   meeting with other people. Different levels of responsibility may exist from contact with
   the public to coordinate a team of professionals. Examples of concrete activities: games,
   theatre, music and artistic workshops, excursions.
   Activity mangers rely on diversified network in the local settings. They adapt methods of
   communication to different audiences (residents, families) to network (volunteers, other
   professionals) and know how to organize a project.
   All these professionals are supervised by a nurse who coordinates care with the medical
   coordinator or head of professional practices.

Employment possibilities
  Local authorities, mainly municipalities, Institutions of specialized service for disabled
  adults or elderly, social centres, touristic organisations, even the voluntary sector.

Educational requirements
   This job requires creativity, skills in communication and human relations.
   The training is certified by the DEFA (Diplôme d'Etat on Functions Animation) issued
   jointly by the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Youth and Sports.
   No degree is required to start but longer experience from labour market is required.
   Training includes 2 stages:
   General education which is composed of:
   5 training units (800 h):
   - Management-administration (160 h)
   - Social environment (160 h)
   - Pedagogy and Human Relations (160 h)
   - Methodology (160 h)
   - Specialised subject (160 h)
   An internship of 4 months full time or 8 months part time.
   The experiential part, which includes:
   - 12 months in activity management during which the student implements a plan of
       action and write a thesis
   - 200 hours of training.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Activities for seniors (animation pour personnes âgées) have been recently established
   as separate education in partnership with the University Claude Bernard Lyon I,
   concluded with a university degree entitled "Animation pour personnes âgées - Diplôme
   universitaire homologué niveau II, Bac + 3/4". It is designed for professionals who hold a
   diploma from the paramedics (physiotherapist, occupational therapist, nurse, nurse
   assistant ...), or activity manager.
   Training, over six months with sessions of group of one week per month. Each session
   includes theoretical input and sessions of practice at the institutions
   The program consists of three modules:

                                              31
   -    Knowledge of gerontological environment (socio-economic, psychological and
        relational, biological and neuro-motor);
    - Practices and methods of adapted physical activities (such as music therapy,
        occupational therapy)
    - General knowledge (anatomy physiological psychology)
More about the developments on the Website of the Ministries of Labour and Health:
http://www.metiers.santesolidarites




Agents of hospital services
(Personnel de service hospitalier [ASH])

Working field
  Primary and secondary care sector

Core tasks
   Agents of hospital services are responsible for professional maintenance of the premises
   and health care facilities, laundry, waste management and, on request, ensuring the
   comfort of patients.
   The tasks of the ASH: Maintaining building, cleaning rooms, disinfecting floors, walls,
   toilets and bathrooms; participating in the distribution of the daily meals; helping patients
   if requested of nursing staff.

Employment possibilities
  Health and care institutions (e.g. hospitals, retirement homes,) in public and private
  sector. In practice, the recruitment of ASH is done directly without competition.

Educational requirements
   Tasks are regulated by Article 11 of Decree 89-241 of 18 April 1989 (with amendments
   by Decree 2000 -844 of 31 August 2000). There are currently no formal requirements.
   The agents of hospital services are often hired with the BEP Health and Social Services
   BEPA BEP or Health and Social SEN.
   The training consists of 8-week period of job training spread over 3 stages in the field of
   health and / or social choice (Day care, nursery, kindergarten, retirement homes, geriatric
   ward)

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   3 years of work allows applying for training in ―nurse assistant‖ (aide-soignant). The few
   many private structures involve external cleaning companies and do not recruit directly
   ASH.




                                              32
Medical and psychological auxiliary
(Aide médico psychologique [MP])

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Medical and psychological assistance to persons in situations of dependency due to a
   disability, serious illness or old age.
   The main work field is within care, but interconnected to social or educational objectives.
   The primary aim is to break the isolation of the elderly, with respect of individual needs.
   The support covers the whole of daily life: meals, toilet, bed and lift are all tasks for the
   medical and psychological help.
   Often it works in collaboration with other social workers, and in some cases, nurses and
   paramedics.

Employment possibilities
  Institutions of specialized service for disabled adults or elderly. . So far, the Ile-de-France,
  Rhône-Alpes, Pays de la Loire and Pyrenees regions have been used the AMP mostly.
  Today other regions of France use this profession more and more.

Educational requirements
   Distributed over two years, it includes 495 hours of theory and 24 weeks of practical
   training in an institution. Each educational centre has its own rules for selection of
   candidates.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The profession of medical and psychological helper (AMP) is in full development. The job
   market is quite open in the light of needs within the host institutions for the elderly. More
   about the developments on the Website of the Ministries of Labour and Health:
   http://www.metiers.santesolidarites




                                               33
 Home helper
(Agent à domicile or Aide à domicile)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Giving psychological and practical support (health care, assistance with daily tasks as
   maintenance of the place of living, meal preparation, shopping, etc.) in everyday life for
   elderly.
   "Agent à domicile‖ has similar responsibilities as ―Auxiliaire de vie sociale‖ who works
   mostly with social issues and dependent disabled persons, and "Assistante de vie
   familles‖ who works with family problem fields.

Employment possibilities
  Over 80% of home helpers works in the private sector, but some work in the context of
  the civil service( e.g. ADMR, UNA)

Educational requirements
   State diploma (Diplôme d'Etat d'auxiliaire) is required for exercising this profession issued
   by the Ministry of Labour, social relations and Solidarity. The training can vary from 9 to
   36 months and is organized in modular form.
   The program is open to anyone aged 18 years, without any qualifications required.
   However, the applicant must satisfy a review to assess the pre-requisites which
   includes: a questionnaire focused on current social problems and an interview.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The market for the 3 job categories is growing rapidly. There are, at the moment, 177.000
   home helpers, estimated by the Ministry of Employment, Industrial Relations and Social
   Solidarity. However, these jobs are often between the half-time and full time. The
   diversification and expansion of this sector is explained by the lengthening of life, the
   solvency of a growing number of retirees, the creation of personal autonomy allowance
   (APA), but also through the development of services for individuals and families.




                                              34
 Home auxiliaries
(Agent à domicile or Aide à domicile
[AD], Auxiliaire de vie sociale [AVS],
Assistante de vie familles [AVF])

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   All 3 professions consist of the same type of tasks focusing on supporting independent
   life and well-being of the beneficiaries, giving psychological and practical support
   (health care, assistance with daily tasks, etc.) in everyday life.
   However typically they do not work for the same target group.
   "Agent à domicile‖ exercises home help for elderly. ―Auxiliaire de vie sociale‖ works
   mostly with dependent disabled persons.
   "Assistante de vie familles‖ works with families where the parents fails in their
   responsibilities.

Employment possibilities
  Over 80% of home helpers work in the private sector, but some work in the context of
  the civil service.

Educational requirements
   State diploma (Diplôme d'Etat d'auxiliaire) is required for exercising this profession
   issued by the Ministry of Labour, social relations and Solidarity. The training can vary
   from 9 to 36 months and is organized in modular form.
   The program is open to anyone aged 18 years, without any qualifications required.
   However, the applicant must satisfy a review to assess the pre-requisites which
   includes a questionnaire focused on current social problems and an interview

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The market for this job category is growing rapidly. There are, at the moment, 177.000
   home helpers, estimated by the Ministry of Employment, Industrial Relations and Social
   Solidarity. However, these jobs are often between the half-time and full time. The
   diversification and expansion of this sector is explained by the lengthening of life, the
   solvency of a growing number of retirees, the creation of personal autonomy allowance
   (APA), but also through the development of services for individuals and families.




                                              35
 Medical coordinator
(Médecin Coordinateur)

Working field
  Primary and secondary care

Core tasks
   Contributes to quality of care and support for people assisted by different stakeholders.
   Main tasks:
   - Assisting the director in definition of health care policies.
   - Developing and implementing the assistance of the multidisciplinary care team
   - Securing of the match between the patient and the different institutional capacities
   - Responsibility the medical records of patients and their maintaining
   - Cooperation with partners from other institutions or health services

Employment possibilities
  Hospital sector

Educational requirements
   Certified physician preferably specialising in gerontology (university degree or experience
   in gerontology, geriatrics DESC).
   The job requires a medical scope, high analytical, planning and organisational skills.




                                             36
 Nursing assistant (Aide soignant)

Working field
   Primary and secondary care sector
   Person related and household related services
Core tasks
   Accompanying persons in carrying out daily activities by supporting their independence
   and well-being in accordance with Articles R. 4311-3 to R. 4311-5 of the Public Health
   Code. Carers work in collaboration and under the responsibility of a nurse, often within
   a multi-functional team and participate in preventive, curative or palliative nursing.
   Identifying the basic needs of the person and assess his state of health, especially
   during an emergency (e.g. a fall, which may seem trivial at first can have serious
   consequences for a person) organize work in a team; know the techniques and safety
   rules; control of maintenance of premises and equipment.
   ―Aid soignant‖ in the public hospital can be placed on three levels, dependently on the
   finished education and experiences (validation of prior experience - la validation des
   acquis de l'expérience (VAE)): carer of standard class, carer of upper class, carer
   exceptional class (Aide-soignant de classe normale, aide-soignant de classe
   supérieure, aide-soignant de classe exceptionnelle)
   Required skills (basis for validation)
   Component 1: Accompanying a person in the essential activities of daily life in taking
   into account its needs and its degree of autonomy
   Skills:
   - Identify the basic needs of the person and take into account its culture, habits life,
        their choices and those of his family
   - Identify the autonomy and capacity of the individual
   - Provide assistance to the toilet, dressing, making meals, elimination and
        displacement by adapting to the needs and abilities of the person and respecting the
        rules of hygiene
   - Encourage the person to propose activities to maintain its autonomy and to create
        social bonding
   Component 2: Assessing the clinical condition of a person
   Skills:
   - Observe and assess the changes in his clinical condition,
   - Identify signs of distress and pain
   - Measure the vital signs using the tools
   - Identify anomalies in relation to the usual parameters associated with age
   - Identify the risks to the situation of the person
   - Recognize the urgency of a situation and alert
   Component 3: Adapting care level to the clinical condition of the person
   Skills:
   - Search for information on precautions to be followed when caring
   - Identify and apply the rules of hygiene and safety associated with medical care
   - Organize the work of care depending on the environment and the person
   - Choosing the appropriate equipment care
   - Perform care with respect for the person of their autonomy, their privacy and taking
        into account of equipment and materials for medical care related to hygiene and
        comfort, food, elimination, sleep and helps the nurse



                                             37
   - Adapt the rules for implementing the care of the person's condition and lifestyle
   - Evaluate the quality of care achieved and readjust if necessary
   Component 4: Using the preventive techniques for handling and safety rules for the
   installation and mobilisation people
   Skills:
   - Identify and apply the principles of ergonomics and handling in the mobilization of
       walking aids and travel
   - Identify and apply the rules of safety and risk prevention, including those related
       pathology and the medical devices
   - Install the person taking into account its needs, its pathology, disability, its pain and
       various medical appliances.
   Component 5: Establishing a communication tailored to the person
   Skills:
   - Listen to the person and his entourage and take into account the non-verbal signs of
       communication non-judgmental
   - Express and share in adapting its language in respect of the person and discretion
   - Explain the task is done, the reasons for action and provide professional advice on
       acts of everyday life
   - To express the needs and expectations of the person, reformulate and propose
       ways implementation of appropriate care
   - Provide practical information adapted at home in the service in respect of rules
   - Identify the limits of its scope of intervention in crisis situations, violence in taking
       back from the person and situation
   Component 6: Using the techniques of maintenance of premises and equipment
   specific to health facilities, social and medico-social
   Skills:
   - Identifying and selecting equipment and products appropriate
   - Determine and use the products according to the procedures and data sheets
   - Use appropriate cleaning techniques, including the fight against infections, in
       applying the protocols and rules of hygiene and safety
   - Identify and respect the input circuits, output and storage of linen, equipment and
       waste
   - Install furniture and equipment in the room by adapting it to the person
   - Using the techniques of storage and storage adapted
   - Assess the effectiveness of maintenance operations and identify any abnormality
   - Identify any deficiencies in the functioning of medical devices and alert

Employment possibilities
  Hospitals
  ‖HAD‖ (L’hospitalisation à domicile - Hospital at home) where care is provided by a
  multidisciplinary team, a physician coordinator, carers and social service.
  Residential care, retirement homes
  ‖SSIAD‖ (Les services de soins infirmiers à domicile- services to nursing at home)

Educational requirements
   Only completed education or validation of prior experience gives formal right of
   exercising this profession. The training lasts 10 months of which approximately 17
   weeks of lectures (in institute approved by the Ministry of Health) and 24 weeks of
   training.
   Access: candidates must pass the annual competition organized by schools of nursing
   assistants. No qualification is required to submit to the tests of eligibility, all of which are
   to be aged at least 17 years to 31 December of the year under review



                                                38
   The education consists of the following modules:
   - Accompanying a person in activities of daily living
   - The clinical condition of a person
   - Basic care
   - Ergonomics
   - Relationship / communication
   - Hospital hygiene
   - Communication
   - Organization of work

   More information: www.aide-soignant.com/

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Good employment possibilities
   After three years of professional practice, a nursing assistant can stand for selection
   tests for entry into training institute in nursing.
www.metiers.santesolidarites.gouv.fr and www.studyrama.com




                                              39
 Social helper
(Auxiliaire de vie sociale [AVS])

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Giving practical support in everyday life.
   The profession comprise similar tasks as "Agent à domicile‖ and "Assistante de vie
   familles‖. Whence home helpers works mainly with elderly, the social helpers works
   primarily with people disabilities. The purpose it to restore and promote the individual
   physical autonomy in daily tasks, including leisure activities in order to strengthen social
   inclusion of individuals.

Employment possibilities
  Over 80% of home helpers work in the private sector, but some work in the context of the
  civil service.

Educational requirements
   State diploma (Diplôme d'Etat d'auxiliaire) is required for exercising this profession issued
   by the Ministry of Labour, social relations and Solidarity. The training can vary from 9 to
   36 months and is organized in modular form.
   The program is open to anyone aged 18 years, without any qualifications required.
   However, the applicant must satisfy a review to assess the pre-requisites which includes:
   a questionnaire focused on current social problems and an interview.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The market for the 3 job categories is growing rapidly. There are, at the moment, 177.000
   home helpers, as estimated by the Ministry of Employment, Industrial Relations and
   Social Solidarity. However, these jobs are often between the half-time and full time. The
   diversification and expansion of this sector is explained by the lengthening of life, the
   solvency of a growing number of retirees, the creation of personal autonomy allowance
   (APA), but also through the development of services for individuals and families.




                                              40
GERMANY




Elderly care nurse (Altenpfleger/in)

Elderly care assistant (Altenpflegehelfer/in)

Assistant elderly care nurse (Hilfskraft Altenpflege)

Home Carer for private households
(Pflegehelfer/innen im Privathaushalt)
Live-in carer (Fachkraft für Altenbetreuung)

Social assistant (Sozialhelfer/in, Sozialassistent/in)

Gerontotherapist (Altentherapeut/in)

Housekeeper (Hauswirtschafter/in)

Housekeeping assistant (Hauswirtschaftshelfer/in)

Concierge (Hausmeister/in)

Volunteers (Freiwillige in der Altenpflege)




                  41
Elderly care nurse (Altenpfleger/in)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Care and nursing of the elderly in need (dealing with therapeutic and medical care
   tasks such as applying bandages, irrigation, administering medicines in accordance
   with doctors' instructions)
   Supporting the elderly in need with everyday survival tasks (e.g. personal hygiene,
   eating, dressing, accompanying them on visits to the authorities and doctors)
   Motivating them to take up fulfilling and interesting leisure time activities (instructions
   on health-promoting exercises, active leisure pastimes, etc.)
   Compassion and support for the terminally ill, caring for the deceased
   Organisational and administrative activities (such as generating care reports,
   managing patients' data)

Employment possibilities
  In-patient facilities, such as nursing or residential homes for elderly, gerontopsychiatric
  wards in hospitals, care clinics and convalescent homes, short-term care institutions
  Out-patient service providers such as mobile health care services, day-care
  institutions, private households, accompanied flat-sharing communities
  Career and continuing education opportunities, e.g.:
  - Certified geriatric carer
  - Business Manager (e.g. out-patient services provider)
  - Geriatric care consultant
  - Manager of an elderly care home

Educational requirements
   Entry requirements: school leaving certificate (medium level)
   Vocational training harmonised throughout Germany of which the theoretical part is
   taught at special Vocational Colleges for professional carers for the elderly and the
   practical aspects are taught in nursing homes for elderly
   3 years, full-time, vocational training, if part-time, up to 5 years
   Up to now low option to combine vocational training at a college as an elderly care
   nurse with a course of university studies
   Option for job specialisation: palliative medicine, gerontopsychology, intensive care
   nursing

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increase in patients suffering from dementia who need to be cared for at home
   Necessity to take account of the cultural background of the people, e.g. elderly
   migrants
   Increased use of technical equipment
   Very high staff turnover rates → Problems are the working conditions, low pay, lack of
   social recognition
   Trends: attended residential communities, courses of bachelor studies, case
   management, patient hotels,




                                               42
 Elderly care assistant
(Altenpflegehelfer/in)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Supporting elderly care nurses with all their activities relating to the care and support
   of the elderly in need
   Caring for the elderly within the context of basic care (such as assistance with
   personal hygiene, preparing meals, eating)
   Assistance with daily tasks (dressing / undressing, using the lavatory, administering
   medicines according to the instructions of the doctor, accompanying them on visits to
   the authorities and doctors)
   Involvement in occupations and activation tasks (e.g. handicrafts, making things)
   Compassion and support for the terminally ill, caring for the deceased

Employment possibilities
  In-patient facilities, such as nursing or residential homes for elderly, gerontopsychiatric
  wards in hospitals, care clinics and convalescent homes, short-term care institutions
  Out-patient service providers such as mobile health care services, day-care
  institutions, private households, accompanied flat-sharing communities
  Career and continuing education opportunities, e.g.:
  Certificate as elderly care nurse
  Professional elderly care nurse, social and health care

Educational requirements
   Entry requirements: school leaving certificate (main level, CSE)
   Vocational training at the ―Laender‖ level (level of federal states) taking place in
   vocational training colleges
   1 to 3 years of vocational training
   Final title differs from one "Land" (federal state) to another
   Option for job specialisation: palliative medicine, gerontopsychology, intensive care
   nursing

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increase in patients suffering from dementia who need to be cared for at home
   Necessity to take account of the cultural background of the people, e.g. elderly
   migrants
   Increased use of technical equipment
   Very high staff turnover rates → Problems are the working conditions, low pay, lack of
   social recognition
   Trends: attended residential communities, case management, patient hotels,
   accompanied senior citizen tourism




                                              43
Assistant elderly care nurse
Hilfskraft Altenpflege)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Assisting professional carers with particular care tasks, e.g.
   Assistance for elderly people / those in need of nursing care getting up, dressing and
   undressing, personal hygiene
   Assistance with eating
   Assistance with daily activities, e.g. going for walks, errands, shopping, making the
   beds
   Contact and starting point for all manner of queries

Employment possibilities
  Institutions in social and health care, e.g. nursing or residential homes for elderly,
  hospitals, day care centres
  Out-patient social work services
  Institutions offering flats with on-site care facilities
  Often those young men doing alternative military service

Educational requirements
   Entry requirements:
   - No vocational training required but it is an advantage
   - On-the-job training is given in the required activities
   Career and continuing education opportunities:
   - Elderly care assistant or elderly care nurse
   - Professional carer for the elderly and infirm

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Higher quality standards
   Frequent changes to care models available




                                              44
Home Carer for private households
(Pflegehelfer/innen im Privathaushalt)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Supporting, caring for and attending the elderly, ill and handicapped
   Performing simple care activities
   Providing practical assistance for living and performing basic care activities
   Doing shopping and visiting public offices, accompanying people to the doctor's, going for
   walks
   Helping people to tidy up, with daily personal hygiene, etc.
   Providing support with eating, making beds, contact starting point for all manner of issues

Employment possibilities
  Private households
  Out-patient social work services

   Career and continuing education opportunities:
   After several years of experience, there are a number of vocational training courses
   available in care, some accelerated, leading to qualifications as elderly care assistant or
   elderly care nurse, for example

Educational requirements
   Vocational training is not a requirement
   On-the-job instruction

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increase in patients suffering from dementia who need to be cared for at home
   Necessity to take account of the cultural background of the people, e.g. elderly migrants




                                              45
 Live-in carer
(Fachkraft für Altenbetreuung)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Supporting elderly people in need of assistance and care
   Many different aspects of work with varying requirements
   In nursing homes, emphasis is on health care and nursing
   In out-patient nursing, tasks may also involve planning and coordinating visits
   Supporting senior citizens in need of care in residential or in private homes and dealing
   with everyday tasks
   Taking on tasks in the home, shopping and preparing meals
   Arrange social contacts and encourage people to take part in cultural events
   Accompanying people to the Authorities and the doctor's
   Contact for queries and any problems experienced by elderly people and their families
   Compassion and support for the terminally ill, caring for the deceased

Employment possibilities
  Care institutions for the elderly
  Out-patient care and nursing services
  Geriatric wards in hospitals
  Private households

Educational requirements
   There are no specific legal requirements regarding school education
   Vocational and further training regulated by internal regulations of organisations offering
   training (no legal requirements).
   Courses take up to six months and are offered by privately-run training organisations.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Since 2008 (reform of care services), additional forms of care have been funded and
   these are opening up, in particular, additional fields of activity for professionals in the
   care of the elderly:
   In care and support centres as a result of the interlinking between nursing and social
   care and assistance activities
   In accompanied flat-sharing communities




                                               46
 Social assistant
(Sozialhelfer/in, Sozialassistent/in)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Supporting elderly people in need of assistance and care
   Many different aspects of work with varying requirements
   In nursing homes, emphasis is on health care and nursing
   In out-patient nursing, tasks may also involve planning and coordinating visits
   Supporting senior citizens in need of care in residential or in private homes and dealing
   with everyday tasks
   Taking on tasks in the home, shopping and preparing meals
   Arrange social contacts and encourage people to take part in cultural events
   Accompanying people to the Authorities and the doctor's
   Contact for queries and any problems experienced by elderly people and their families
   Compassion and support for the terminally ill, caring for the deceased

Employment possibilities
  Care institutions for the elderly
  Out-patient care and nursing services
  Geriatric wards in hospitals
  Private households

Educational requirements
   There are no specific legal requirements regarding school education
   Vocational and further training regulated by internal regulations of organisations offering
   training (no legal requirements).
   Courses take up to six months and are offered by privately-run training organisations.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Since 2008 (reform of care services), additional forms of care have been funded and
   these are opening up, in particular, additional fields of activity for professionals in the
   care of the elderly:
   In care and support centres as a result of the interlinking between nursing and social
   care and assistance activities
   In accompanied flat-sharing communities




                                               47
 Gerontotherapist (Altentherapeut/in)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Attending to, supporting and promoting elderly people in need of care
   Take on household and social-care tasks
   Can take over interim management of a household within the framework of family care
   in private households
   Supporting elderly care nursing
   Supporting those in need with day-to-day activities, e.g. doing shopping, preparing
   meals, caring for the washing and accommodation
   Basic care activities, help with personal hygiene, trained to be good listeners and
   encourage people to be active

Employment possibilities
  Nursing homes and residential homes for older and younger people, and the
  handicapped
  Out-patient services providers
  Family counselling centres, social services departments
  Private households

   Career and continuing educational opportunities, e.g.:
   - Qualification as an educational nurse
   - Professional educator

Educational requirements
   Vocational training at "Land" (federal state) level taking place in vocational training
   colleges
   2 to 3 years of vocational training
   Entry requirements: Lower school leaving certificate (3 year vocational training) or
   medium-level leaving certificate (2 years)
   Final title differs from one "Land" to another

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increase in patients suffering from dementia who need to be cared for at home
   Necessity to take account of the cultural background of the people, e.g. elderly migrants
   Increased use of technical equipment




                                               48
 Housekeeper (Hauswirtschafter/in)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Social care of the elderly care homes
   Making individual psychosocial diagnoses
   Drawing up therapeutic schedules together with the doctors
   Performing rehabilitation work, including physiotherapy for the elderly, gerontopsychiatric
   treatment and care and creative use of leisure time, meaningful activities and keeping
   senior citizens occupied
   Advice for the elderly and their families in matters relating to coping with life as an elderly
   person and legal issues connected with nursing for the elderly
   Instructing volunteers
   Planning and carrying out staff training courses within the organisation

Employment possibilities
  Nursing homes and residential homes for elderly people and handicapped
  Short-term care in nursing homes, hospices
  Out-patient services providers
  Gerontopsychiatric and geriatric clinics and hospital wards

Educational requirements
   Entry requirements for vocational training:
   Existing vocational training or degree in a subject area related to social care, some
   professional experience
   Further training takes a year full-time (including work experience). Part-time courses
   (weekend sessions) take one and a half years
   Career and continuing educational opportunities, e.g. group leadership, geriatric care,
   psychosocial care or care consultant

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Since 2008 (reform of care services), additional forms of care have been funded and
   these are opening up, in particular, additional fields of activity for professionals in the care
   of the elderly:
   Accompanied flat-sharing communities
   Specialisation, e.g. in the field of garden therapy
   Coordinating and organising the involvement of volunteers
   Gerontotherapists can, in future, have some of their work simplified by e.g. the use of
   auxiliary staff in caring for the elderly




                                               49
 Housekeeping assistant
(Hauswirtschaftshelfer/in)
Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Taking on housekeeping and basic care tasks in private households, care homes, and
   social institutions
   Taking care of families, individuals or groups
   Drawing up meal plans and preparing simple meals on the basis of the fundamental rules
   of healthy eating
   Cleaning living rooms, bedrooms, sanitary and utility facilities
   Taking care of plants in the rooms and on balconies and doing gardening
   Washing, drying, ironing clothes and doing darning
   Taking care of children, if necessary, and the sick and handicapped

Employment possibilities
  Care homes for children, elderly and handicapped
  Hospitals
  Private households
  Further employment opportunities: Youth Hostels, recreational and holiday
  establishments and hotels

Educational requirements
   Qualification for vocational training is, as a rule, a medium-level school leaving certificate
   Two to three years of vocational training at vocational training colleges, regulated at
   "Land" level
   Job access also possible via vocational training as a social assistant

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increasing need in out-patient care services such as accompanied flat-sharing
   communities
   Involvement of those being cared for in housekeeping activities
   Necessity to take account of the cultural background of the people, e.g. elderly migrants
   New nutritional and educational knowledge
   Taking on housekeeping and basic care tasks in private households (day-to-day
   management), care homes, and social institutions
   In contrast to housekeeping assistants, they are generally more closely involved in
   defining housekeeping tasks
   Scheduling and monitoring housekeeping budgets
   Taking care of families, individuals or groups
   Drawing up meal plans and preparing simple meals on the basis of the fundamental rules
   of healthy eating
   Cleaning living rooms, bedrooms, sanitary and utility facilities
   Taking care of plants in the rooms and on balconies and doing gardening
   Washing, drying, ironing clothes and doing darning
   Taking care of children, if necessary, and the sick and handicappede
   In rural areas, caring for commercial gardens, preserving and marketing of agriculture


                                               50
 Concierge (Hausmeister/in)

Working field
  Company related services

Core tasks
   Dealing with technical jobs around the house inside and outside the building
   (maintenance and repairs)
   Carrying out simple repairs in sanitary, metal and woodworking
   Checking fuses, fitting new lamps and changing bulbs
   Receiving goods deliveries
   Running errands, e.g. taking clothes to the laundry, parcels to the post office and
   smaller delivery jobs
   Dealing with painting and decorating indoors and sourcing appropriate materials
   Cleaning and caring for outdoor areas, mowing the lawns, trimming hedges and
   repairing broken benches
   In the winter, clearing the snow and spreading salt
   Disposing of recyclable materials, refuse and special wastes in an environmentally
   compatible manner

Employment possibilities
  Residential homes, nursing homes, housing companies, hotel and restaurants, local
  authorities, schools, large private households etc.

Educational requirements
   As a rule, technical training is required, e.g. in energy and building technology
   For latecomers to the job: Practical further training in house and building services
   (qualification awarded by German Chambers of Commerce) for those from technical
   professions and trades or related jobs (8 months including 2 months' work experience)

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Creating living accommodation appropriate to age is a central aspect of maintaining
   control over one's own life at an advanced age and requires cooperation from housing
   companies and local governments in particular
   Providing concierge services in individual housing estates and acting as a contact in
   residential areas, in particular for the elderly
   Qualification in social skills




                                             51
 Volunteers
(Freiwillige in der Altenpflege)

Working field
  Non-profit social services

Core tasks
Examples:
   Assistance coping with day-to-day tasks
   Individual accompaniment and care both in the household and also in care homes for
   elderly
   Relief for family members who have to care for the person in the home
   In rare cases, direct health care services are provided
   In care homes: support for those suffering from dementia - individual or group support
   Accompaniment and care during senior citizens' tourist trips, also for dementia suffers

Employment possibilities
  Care homes
  Clubs and societies, church groups, local government volunteer organisations,

Educational requirements
   Various qualifications available, both for young and older volunteers, e.g. further
   training in care homes for taking care of those with dementia
   Qualification in the fields of social, communicative and organisational skills
   Normally performed by organisers of voluntary work

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increasing loneliness of the elderly
   Problems with funding (personal and public) non-nursing accompaniment and care
   services (soft social needs)
   Building and expanding commitment by local citizens and organising self-help are key
   contributions to enable the need for care and nursing to be met in the future.
   Especially leisure time activities and day-to-day accompaniment of the elderly will
   have to be taken over to an increasing extent by volunteers
   Volunteer work have to be accompanied and coordinated by professionals




                                              52
GREECE




General Care Nurse (Nosileftis [nosileftria])

Basic Assistant / Carer
(Basikos (i) Voithos Frontidas tis Ygias)
Home Carer / Family Assistant
(Voithos frontidas sto spiti / Ikogeniakos(i) voithos)
Psychologist / Sociologist (Psychologos / Kinoniologos)

Social Worker (Kinonikos(i) Litourgos)




                     53
 General Care Nurse
(Nosileftis [nosileftria])
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
Main tasks are:
  To monitor of health parameters (blood pressure, sugar level, etc.);
  To implement the health programme of the patient/user;
  To look at the general medical / health condition of the elderly at home;
  To plan the examinations and visits programme (for elderly at home);
  To apply the diagnostic and therapeutic prescriptions

Employment possibilities
  In hospitals and clinics (health system).
  In residential elderly homes and nursing homes.
  Institutions for chronically disabled patients.
  In home care (Help at Home national programme).
  In Orthodox Church care institutions and services.

A higher degree give access to, de facto, highly valued qualifications in the employment
market which makes it easier for a nurse holding them to benefit of the best employment
possibilities.

Educational requirements
   Diploma of nursing from the Minister of Education (courses organised by Technological
   Education Institutes or Universities).
   Inscription to the register held at the Ministry of Health.
   Eventual post graduated specialisation.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Lack of resources addressed to the improvement of the Educational process;
   Pressure towards the national government to assure more training opportunities (career
   paths);
   Great extent of informal care in Greece, with effects in de-valorisation and de-
   qualification of registered nurses (increase of exclusives nurses);
   Increasing membership to the nurses' trade unions and corporation, in order to gain more
   visibility as association.




                                             54
Basic Assistant / Carer (Basikos (i)
Voithos Frontidas tis Ygias)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Basic carer (basic assistant) plays a supportive role within elderly and nursing home, as
   the Home Carer provide help at elderly home.
   Core tasks of carer/assistant are carried out in residential structures or daily centres;
   activities provided are:
   - Supporting personal hygiene (bath, clothing)
   - Cleaning of environment (elderly room and open spaces)
   - Feeding or helping in feeding
   - Helping for a correct mobilisation of the elderly
   - Stimulating the social interaction and relationship
   - Family assistance
   - Companionship

Employment possibilities
  In residential elderly homes and nursing homes.
  Institutions for chronically disabled patients.
  In Orthodox Church care institutions and services.
  Open Care Centres for the Elderly (O.C.C.E)
  Friendship clubs
  Centres for the care of the family

Educational requirements
   A good general basic education
   Basic training
   Experience not always required

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The growing number of elderly supports the forecast of a need of institutionalised care
   (see also the recent increase in the number of private nursing homes), due to new and
   more complex needs.
   It means, as a consequence, the need to move a significant number of carers (formal as
   well as informal) from the home care environment to the institutionalised care
   environment, with important future perspective for basic carers, in terms of major duties
   and task.
   Consequently, a greater involvement in the preparation, training and qualification is
   expected.




                                             55
 Home Carer / Family Assistant
(Voithos frontidas sto spiti /
Ikogeniakos (i) voithos)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   The home carer is the first line of support for the elderly living at their own home, as
   well as for their relatives and families.
   Activities provided:
   - Personal hygiene
   - Cleaning of environment
   - Cooking and feeding
   - Minor tasks (going for a walk with the elderly)
   - Family assistance
   - Companionship
Employment possibilities
   Help at home programme (municipality's most important social care programmes)
   Informal care

Educational requirements
   A basic education.
   Specific professional requisites are not necessary; the home carer participates to
   training initiatives, but no initial qualification is required.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
    The Home at Help Programme is one of the most important services in terms of
    elderly care. It is organised at municipal level, so the sense of community is well
    developed. In recent years, the programme has been providing caring service to a
    growing number of users, with a consequent demand of new (and prepared) home
    carer.
The main challenge is in terms of education and training, as in the short future it is
foreseen a training programme aimed ad qualifying the competences and skills of home
carers.




                                              56
 Psychologist / Sociologist
(Psychologos / Kinoniologos)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   To analyse users needs and requirements.
   To participate to the definition of the users’ programme, according to individuals needs
   and requirements.
   To monitor the user wellbeing, in the own home environment and/or within the nursing
   and elderly homes.
   To plan and to coordinate recreational, animation and social inclusion activities.
   To interact with users’ families and relatives.
   To provide specialised counselling to the elderly and their families.
   To provide preventive health services and psycho-social support to elderly and their
   families.

Employment possibilities
  Elderly homes and nursing homes (also from Orthodox Dioceses or other charities)
  Institutions for chronically disabled patients
  Home care (Help at Home programme)
  Open Care Centres for the Elderly (O.C.C.E)
  Friendship clubs

Educational requirements
   University Degree (4 years)




                                             57
Social Worker (Kinonikos(i)
Litourgos)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   To provide information and advice and seek ways of resolving the problem at hand.
   To coordinate the caring team and to get responsibility of the work programme of the
   elderly.
   To analyse elderly needs and requirements, in order to plan the most suitable and
   effective programme.
   To monitor and to support the elderly, through visits and interviews.

Employment possibilities
  Elderly homes and nursing homes (also from Orthodox Dioceses)
  Home care (Help at Home programme)
  Open Care Centres for the Elderly (O.C.C.E)
  Friendship clubs
  Centres for the care of the family

Educational requirements
   A good level of basic general education
   University degree (3 years)
   Register of the Social Worker

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   A wider range of activities for social worker, as it is still limited because of the strong
   social network of the supportive family, which is slowly changing.
   A stronger influence in the planning of the care support of the elderly, with more
   managerial and linking roles (not so much involved in daily care activities but more
   active in the definition of the programme, of the duties and of the team composition).
   An increasing need for upgrading competences and skills, facing a changing society
   (ageing of elderly, increase of older elderly, decrease of families and relative
   support): specific competences (e.g. Alzheimer), technological skills (e.g. AAL and
   ICT), managerial capabilities (team coordination, needs analysis).




                                                58
 IRELAND



Registered nurse

Care assistant

Home carer

Overnight care service

Handy person

Activities organizer

Housekeeper

Kitchen staff

Cleaner

Meals at home

Care home manager

Administrative assistant

Concierge

Volunteers




                   59
 Registered nurse
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Working out care plans for residents
   Working with external agencies e.g. doctor, social work, dentist, chiropodist etc.
   Discussing residents health with doctors and with relatives
   Keeping records of residents’ treatment and progress
   Administration of medicine for residents

Employment possibilities
   Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
   These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
   specifically for this purpose
   Promotion to Deputy Care Manager or Manager
   Additional responsibility element for training new staff

Educational requirements
   3 year Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE) in nursing – entry requirements at least 5
   Standard grades, but 2 Highers are preferred. An Access course or a National
   Certificate (NC) in pre-nursing may also give entry
   3-4 year degree in nursing. Entry requirements 2-4 Highers, preferably including
   English and a science subject
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) has placed the pre-registration
   degree programmes in nursing at Level 8 Honours Bachelor Degree (NQAI, 2004).
   The academic award is Bachelor of Science (BSc)
   With a degree in a biological or behavioural science, application can be made for a
   shortened course
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   In 2007 there was still a shortage of more than 3,000 nurses in Scotland. Figures also
   show that in general the nursing workforce is ageing, with over 15,000 working nurses
   aged over 50. One in ten nurses is expected to retire in the next five years. Demand for
   nurses is therefore expected to continue to grow
   British nursing qualifications are recognised in many overseas countries, so working
   abroad is possible
   Of all the branches of nursing, adult nursing offers the best chances of employment and
   is the most acceptable qualification abroad




                                             60
 Care assistant

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Helping with physical tasks and giving social and emotional support helping residents
   with personal care and being a friend to them – listening to their concerns and
   discussing any worries
   Arranging social events and activities for residents
   Making sure the residents cared for are not abused in any way
   Helping draw up, and review, care plans for the residents

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  With experience and further training become a senior care assistant, a supervisor or a
  senior manager is an option
  Take further qualifications to become a social worker or a nurse

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 and 3 Health and Social Care
   Some employers prefer a National Qualification (NQ) or National Certificate (NQ) in
   Care
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 4 / Level 5
   Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   Manual Handing Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a steady demand for care assistants and, as the number of older people
   increases, this is likely to continue. A lot of jobs are part time and involve shift work.




                                                61
 Home carer

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
Home Care covers a range of tasks including:
   Assistance with personal care including washing and dressing
   Assistance in getting ready for, and into and out of, bed
   Assistance with laundry
   Assistance with shopping
   Assistance with a range of practical/domestic tasks
   Help with meal preparation

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.
  Applying for promotion to a supervisory position.

Educational requirements
   A good general education is useful.
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 and 3 Health and Social Care
   Some employers prefer a National Qualification (NQ) or National Certificate (NQ) in
   Care
   Driving licence for travel to residents’ homes
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                              62
 Overnight care service

Working field
  Person related services and primary care sector

Core tasks
Visit the person at home through the night and provide the following support:
    Assistance to go to bed
    Assistance to toilet
    Assistance with catheter care
    Assistance with skin care

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.
  With experience and further training become a care assistant or supervisor
  Take further qualifications to become a social worker or a nurse

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 and 3 Health and
   Social Care
   Some employers prefer a National Qualification (NQ) or National
   Certificate (NQ) in Care
   It helps if you have a driving licence and for some jobs it is essential.
   Manual Handing Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                               63
 Handy person

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
To provide help with small repairs in the homes of older people, for example:
   Fixing a leaky tap
   Putting up shelves
   Changing a light bulb or fuse
   Repairing or replacing locks

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.

There is little scope for promotion. A supervisory post or trainers role may become available

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   trade papers e.g. electrician, plumber, joiner
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   A driving licence is useful for travel to residents’ homes
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                              64
 Activities organizer

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Working with staff and residents to find out what they need and selecting and organising
   activities
   Arranging publicity and promotion including writing press releases and organising
   tickets
   Arranging for stand design, catering, reception, speakers, transport, accommodation,
   lighting and sound systems and any special equipment
   Checking that health and safety regulations are complied with and arranging security
   Keeping records of bookings and arrangements
   Making sure that the event goes smoothly and within budget and arranging for the
   venue to be cleared on time at the end
   Evaluating the event and producing report
   Doing research to identify potential new activities
   Driving mini bus

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  There is no clear promotion structure. Progression may occur by being involved in more
  than one home within the company or more than one company

Educational requirements
   Initial training is by short courses in areas such as customer care, sales, marketing, IT
   and finance
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                              65
 Housekeeper

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Label residents laundry for easy identification
   Collect soiled laundry from residents’ rooms
   Familiarity with the machinery in the small laundry room
   Wash and dry laundry
   Press and hang laundry
   Return clean laundry to residents’ rooms

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  There is little scope for promotion. If the job involves a group of homes a supervisory
  post may become available
  The Guild of Cleaners and Launderers run a Qualification Star scheme which can
  include separate practical certificates and theoretical exams

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 Laundry Operations or Laundry
   Service Support and Level 2 Dry Cleaning Operations or Dry Cleaning Service Support
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             66
 Kitchen staff

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Planning out a range of meals (a menu), a whole meal or part of a meal
   Listing the ingredients, planning the quantities, fitting the costs to the budget, and
   arranging to buy them
   Organising other members of the kitchen staff, making sure that each part of the meal
   will be ready at the right time
   Using a variety of methods for cooking, food storage and food preparation
   Preparing and cooking the whole meal or being part of a kitchen team
   Experimenting with developing new recipes

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care:
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  apply for promotion to depute head cook or head cook

Educational requirements
   National Certificate (NC) or Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) in hospitality or food
   preparation and cooking or professional cookery
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   Basic Food Hygiene Certificate
   First Aid Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                              67
 Cleaner

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Scrubbing, mopping, sweeping, vacuuming or polishing stone, wooden, carpeted or lino
   floors
   Dusting, waxing or polishing furniture and windows, washing walls, cleaning ovens,
   cleaning toilets and emptying bins
   Using dusters, brushes, mops, pails of water, detergents, disinfectants, vacuum
   cleaners, electric floor scrubbers and polishers
   Move furniture around to clean underneath
   Doing a fuller cleaning for a special occasion: washing walls, paintwork and
   shampooing carpets

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  Apply for promotion to a supervisory position
  Become self employed

Educational requirements
   A good general education is useful.
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                              68
 Meals at home

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Driving a meal delivery van
   Liaising with residents
   Form completion / admin tasks

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.
  Supervisor post or trainer’s role

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Basic Food Hygiene Certificate
   A driving licence essential for travel to residents’ homes
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                              69
 Care home manager

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Promote a caring environment for clients through the provision of high standards of
   professional practise which are conducive to the physical, emotional, social, intellectual
   and spiritual needs of the clients
   Ensure the care home is managed to care commission standards
   Comply with all company policies and procedures, regulations and statute to ensure the
   highest possible regulatory rating
   Maintain sound working relationships with regulators, GPs associated with the home
   and other appropriate outside agencies
   Keep the Manager informed promptly of all significant matters relating to the Home.
   Assume 24/7 accountability for the home, delegating as appropriate when not
   personally on site. Visit all areas of operation in the Home at frequent and regular
   intervals, demonstrating personal visibility and availability, including night and weekend
   visits if necessary
   Monitor the physical maintenance of the home, liaising with the Regional Manager as
   necessary for recommendations for expenditure
   Selection and appointment of staff in accordance with statutory and regulatory
   constraints. Staff induction, training, supervision and appraisal
   Ensure that the home is well promoted in the local community
   Maintain contacts list and follow up all enquiries from potential residents
   Manage the home in line with budget, or seek approval before any departure from
   budget assumptions occurs

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care:
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose.
  An experienced care manager can apply for promotion to managerial posts - senior
  care manager, principal care manager, service manager, assistant director and director
  Train as a trainer or assessor of other care workers

Educational requirements
   Relevant qualification such as a degree or diploma in social work, nursing, or
   occupational therapy
   3 year Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE) in nursing – entry requirements at least 5
   Standard grades, but 2 Highers are preferred. An Access course or a National
   Certificate (NC) in pre-nursing may also give entry
   3-4 year degree in nursing. Entry requirements 2-4 Highers, preferably including English
   and a science subject
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 4 Registered Manager in Health and
   Social Care or else Health and Social Care
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) has placed the pre-registration
   degree programmes in nursing at Level 8 Honours Bachelor Degree (NQAI, 2004).The
   academic award is Bachelor of Science (BSc)


                                             70
   Training in counselling is useful
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




 Administrative assistant

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Organising the day-to-day work of the office
   Setting up office procedures and systems
   Organising residents’ care charges and billing
   Dealing with purchases and invoices
   Reviewing office budgets and payroll systems
   Introducing new technology to the office
   Writing and distributing reports and memos to staff
   Arranging diaries, meetings and discussing business with senior staff

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  Office manager for the company
  Training of staff in new IT systems
  New staff induction opportunities

Educational requirements
   Upgrading from being a clerical or administrative assistant
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ), National Certificate or National Qualification
   (NC or NQ) or Higher National Certificate (HNC) in business administration or a similar
   subject
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   HNC or Higher National Diploma (HND) or a degree in administration or business
   studies before entering your first job
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 7 Ordinary
   Bachelor Degree
   IT skills
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                            71
 Concierge

Working field
  Company related services

Core tasks
   Opening up the buildings in the morning and locking them up at night
   Cleaning and maintaining common areas such as entrances, stairs and lifts
   Operating the heating, lighting and alarm systems, switching them on and off from a
   central point and setting timers
   Carrying out minor repairs and reporting major problems
   Ordering fuel and equipment
   Looking after security in the buildings and monitoring visitors both face to face and by
   CCTV
   Acting as key holder, dealing with emergencies such as burglaries at night
   Operating the switchboard, passing on messages, accepting deliveries and distributing
   mail
   Keeping the garden areas tidy

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  There is little scope for promotion. If the job involves a group of homes a supervisory
  post may become available

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   Driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             72
 Volunteers

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
Professional and group advocacy for people over the age of 65 years
   To be involved in the assessment/review process for residents
   To listen to the resident
   To support the resident in engagements with organisations that have power over them
   To be the resident’s voice and offer support to help him/her make decisions
   To give information to help the resident make his/her decision
   To be loyal to the resident
   To express the wishes, needs and opinions of the resident
   Offer advice on benefits or legal issues where appropriate

Employment possibilities
   Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
   These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
   specifically for this purpose
Development Opportunities in a range of Advocacy roles e.g.
   Professional Advocate- usually paid but can be a volunteer, providing support on
   specific issues, usually for a limited time.
   Citizen Advocate-ordinary, unpaid citizens, supporting only one person over a longer
   period.
   Work for an organisation e.g. Age Concern
   Train as an Advocacy Trainer

Educational requirements
   Good general education
   Advocacy Training
   Counselling Skills




                                            73
   ITALY




Professional Nurse (Infermiere Professionale)

Home Basic Assistant (Assistente Domiciliare)

Family Assistant (Assistente Domiciliare)

Socio-Health Operator (Operatore Socio Sanitario)

Physiotherapist (Fisioterapista)

Social Worker (Assistente Sociale)

Kitchen Staff (Cook and Cook Assistant)
(Personale di cucina [Cuoco ed aiuto Cuoco])
Cleaner (Addetto Pulizie)

Entertainer (Animatore)




                  74
 Professional Nurse
(Infermiere Professionale)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   The main tasks are:
   - The prevention of the illnesses;
   - The assistance to elderly people;
   - The health education;
   - The planning, the management and the evaluation of the nursing;
   - The correct application of the diagnostic and therapeutic prescriptions.

Employment possibilities

   In residential facilities, in daily centre, in hospitals, in health / medical centres, at elderly’
   homes
   In the whole social and health sector: social facilities, health centres and hospitals; they
   can also work for more than one institution, being a self-employed worker.

Educational requirements
   A good general education.
   Degree of Nursing Sciences.
   Registration in the national roll of the Nurses.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The work possibilities of the Professional Nurse are many; in Italy there’s a lack of these
   profiles and, as a consequence, they are extremely required from the labour market.




                                                 75
 Home Basic Assistant
(Assistente Domiciliare)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   He/she guarantees the maintenance of the residual abilities of the person giving a help
   only for the non sustainable activities by the assisted elderly.
   He/she develops all the activities of care of the person, personal hygiene, bath, clothing,
   and help in the assumption of the meals, help for a correct deambulation.
   He/she develops activities of care, cleaning and hygiene of the house of the assisted
   people.
   He/she stimulates the assisted elderly to the maintenance of social relationships with
   the relatives and the neighbours.
   He/she performs simple administrative tasks for the assisted person, also
   accompanying the elderly in getting out.

Employment possibilities
  At the home of the assisted person
  The job developed by the Home Basic Assistant concerns above all the personal
  hygiene and that of the users’ house, as well as the assistance to the elderly.
  The job of the Home Assistant takes place in the large majority of the cases in
  relationship with the public body (Municipality and/or Local Health Unit) and consists in
  the care of the elderly for some weekly day hours (usually no more than 15/20 hours
  per week)
  Through the experience and the seniority of service he/she can find a job in social
  residential and daily facilities.
  With a further training (as, for instance, for Socio-Health Operator) he/she can find a job
  in health facilities and in hospitals.

Educational requirements
   A good general education.
   It could be required, depending from the regions and the specifications of the contracts,
   a basic qualification (in average among the 400/600 hours of Vocational Training,
   requested only for home care).

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Considering the actual growing number of the over 65 and the more and more great
   resort to the domiciliary assistance, it’s foreseeable a numerical increase of this profile.
   Many of Home Assistants are now getting through the training for Socio-Health
   Operator, in order to get the opportunity to work in a facility instead of on domiciliary
   base.




                                               76
 Family Assistant
(Assistente Domiciliare)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   He/she guarantees the maintenance of the residual abilities of the person giving a help
   only for the non sustainable activities by the assisted elderly.
   He/she develops all the activities of care of the person, personal hygiene, bath, clothing,
   and help in the assumption of the meals, help for a correct deambulation.
   He/she develops activities of care, cleaning and hygiene of the house of the assisted
   people.
   He/she stimulates the assisted elderly to the maintenance of social relationships with the
   relatives and the neighbours.
   He/she performs simple administrative tasks for the assisted person, also accompanying
   the elderly in getting out.

Employment possibilities
  Home of the elderly person
  The job concerns above all the personal hygiene and that of the house, as well as the
  assistance to the elderly; the profile is similar to the Home Assistant, but the difference is
  in the self-employment and the private contract amongst the elderly (and his/her family)
  and the Assistant. It is not a service provided by the local municipality or by the local
  Health Unit.
  Through the experience and the seniority of service he/she can find a job in social
  residential and daily facilities.
  With a further training (as, for instance, for Socio-Health Operator) he/she can find a job
  in health facilities and in hospitals.

Educational requirements
   A basic education.
   Specific professional requisites are not required; often the Family Assistants are not
   Italian, so a linguistic training could be necessary (even if not obligatory).
   Depending from the regions it can be required a basic qualification (in average 100 hours
   of Vocational Training), in order to apply for the subscription to a Local Roll of Family
   Assistants, where families and elderly can get assistants.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Considering the actual growing number of the over 65 and the more and more great
   resort to the home assistance, it’s foreseeable a numerical increase of this career brief.
   The sector of the Family Assistants is widespread in Italy and often there isn’t a specific
   regulation, out of the control of the public authorities.
   The job relations, often irregular, are directly stipulated among the family/elderly and the
   Family Assistant.




                                              77
 Socio-Health Operator
(Operatore Socio Sanitario)

Working field
  Person related and household related services
  Core tasks
  The main tasks are:
  - Assistance to the person in the daily activities and the personal hygiene;
  - Realization of simple activities of diagnostic and therapeutic support;
  - Collaboration to the activities finalized to the maintenance of the residual psycho-
      physical abilities;
  - Re-education, reactivation, functional recovery;
  - Realization of the activities of animation and socialization of individuals and groups;
  - Support to the medical and health staff in taking care and in managing the person,
      namely in residential facilities;
  - Cleaning and maintaining the environmental hygiene.

Employment possibilities
  In residential facilities, in daily centres as well as at elderly’ home
  The job carried out by this profile concerns above all the personal hygiene of the elderly
  (and that of his/her house in case of home service), as well as the assistance to the
  elderly concerning his/her needs of daily life.
  Through a further training of the duration of 200 hours, the Socio Health Operator
  becomes Socio-Health Specialized Operator, with more typical health / medical tasks.
  Educational requirements
  A good general education.
  A vocational training in Socio-Health Operator (whose duration can vary according to
  the professional qualifications already achieved and to the previous working
  experience).

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a very good demand of this professionalism, in the socio-health services and
   facilities as well as in public hospitals. That’s because such profile can manage some
   health / medical tasks, and thus it can face the chronicle lack of professional nurses.
   Moreover, it is becoming the basic level (starting and, in some case, compulsory
   qualification) for those working in the health and care sector, so many other job profiles
   are starting a training in order to obtain such a title.




                                              78
 Physiotherapist (Fisioterapista)
Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   They are health operators in the rehabilitation area and they carry out activities finalized
   to the prevention, the care, the rehabilitation, and the procedures of functional evaluation.
   Physiotherapists work in collaboration with other Social and Health Operators.

Employment possibilities
  In residential facilities, in daily centre, in users’ home, in rehabilitation gyms.
  In public and private facilities, in social cooperatives or in partnership, in home care, in
  specialised gym. The physiotherapist can work by own, as self-employed worker.

Educational requirements
   A good general education.
   Degree in Therapist of the Rehabilitation.
   Registration in the national roll of the Therapists of the Rehabilitation. The registration is
   possible only after getting through a qualifying examination for the profession.

   Every year the physiotherapist must attend re-training courses, according to the ECM -
   Continuous Education in Medicine procedures.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Considering the growth of over 65s and the more and more frequent pathologies
   concerning the mobilisation, it’s foreseeable a numerical increase of this career brief, in
   all employment opportunities.




                                               79
 Social Worker (Assistente Sociale)

Working field
  person related services

Core tasks
   He/she guarantees the maintenance of the residual abilities of the person, giving a help
   only for the activities not sustainable from the assisted person.
   He/she carries out all the activities of care of the person, personal hygiene, bath, clothing,
   and help in the assumption of the meals, help for a correct deambulation.
   He/she carries out activities of care, cleaning and hygiene of the life places of the
   assisted people.
   He/she stimulates the assisted person to the maintenance of social relationships with
   relatives and neighbours.
   He/she performs external errands and simple administrative matters for the assisted
   person; he/she accompanies the elderly in getting out for the maintenance of the residual
   abilities.

Employment possibilities
  Home of the assisted person
  The job carried out by this professionalism concerns above all the personal hygiene and
  that of the house, as well as the assistance to the elderly.
  It’s possible to find a job in public bodies or private corporations. In the public body it’s
  specifically required the career brief of Social Assistant; in the private corporations,
  besides this specific function, many Social Assistants carry out also the duty of
  coordinators of structures and services for elderly people.

Educational requirements
   A good general education.
   Necessary is the Degree in Social Service.
   Necessary is the registration to the National Professional Roll of the Social Assistants.
   The registration is possible only after getting through a qualifying examination for the
   profession.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Considering the actual growing number of the over 65 and the more and more great
   resort to the socio-health services, it’s foreseeable a numerical increase of this career
   brief, particularly in the public bodies.




                                              80
Kitchen Staff (Cook , Cook Assistant)
(Personale di cucina [Cuoco,aiuto Cuoco])
 Working field
   Household related services

 Core tasks
    The Cook handles the preparation of the meals in the facilities kitchen, or in the
    canteen/restaurant, coordinating the kitchen staff, taking care of the cleaning, hygiene,
    order, maintenance of the tools and the machinery.
    The Cook makes the orders to the suppliers, according to the weekly menu.
    The Cook is responsible for the hygiene of the foods, of the cooking and of the equipment
    of the kitchen and the other rooms.
    The Cook Assistant prepares the meals in collaboration with the chef that replaces in his
    absence; he’s employed in the cleaning of the equipment of the kitchen and in the
    cleaning of the other rooms.

 Employment possibilities
   In residential facilities or daily centres
   These facilities provide 24 hours or daily support to elderly people, in accommodation
   specifically designed for this purpose. In case of residential facilities, breakfast, lunch and
   dinner are provided; in daily centre lunch is provided, together with mid-morning and mid-
   afternoon snacks.
   Also, there is the service of meals at home for elderly, where meals are prepared by
   canteens, restaurants or charity organisations.
   The cook has the possibility to become the chef that is the head of the kitchen; he also
   can be a teacher in training courses.
   The Cook assistant, with experience and further training, has the possibility to become a
   Cook.

 Educational requirements
    A good general education.
    For the Cook: certificate of compulsory education and certificate of vocational training
    released by a Professional Public Institute for the Hotel Services, the Restaurant
    Services, with the specialisation in kitchen operator or a certificate of qualification
    released after the participation to vocational training courses recognized from the State or
    from the regions.
    For the Cook Assistant: any specific training is requested.
    For both profiles, a specific professional experience can be requested.
    Training certificate for ―Handling of foods‖ activities.

 Development and expected changes in the future perspective
    There are good job perspectives for this professionalism, as it covers a wide perspective
    of needs (not only elderly). The service of meals at home is become more and more
    popular, also provided by elderly association and voluntary institutions. In any case, the
    preparation of meals must respect a set of rules and procedure of hygiene, whose
    training is fundamental.




                                               81
 Cleaner (Addetto Pulizie)

Working field
  Household related services
  Core tasks
  The activity consists in tasks of cleaning:
  Sweeping and washing of the floors of all the places, of the staircases, of the baths and
  of the walls;
  Taking care of all the activities of cleaning and sterilization of the objects and furniture.
  Caring, cleaning and hygiene of the life places and of all the aids and equipments
  utilized by the users.
  Caring the change of the laundry.

Employment possibilities
  In residential and daily facilities, hospitals, elderly’ homes.
  Activities of rearrangement, settlement, cleaning of the inside and outside places also
  with the aid of appliances.
  Through the experience and the seniority of service he/she can find a job in socio-
  health structures.
  Cleaners can find employment opportunities through cleaning associations and
  cooperatives, providing the cleaning service to individuals and organisations.

Educational requirements
   A good general education.
   Any title of study or professional one is required to do this task.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Considering the actual growth of the number of the over 65 and the more and more
   great resort to the domiciliary assistance, it’s foreseeable a numerical increase of this
   career brief.
   This career brief is also spendable in the whole system of the socio-health services and
   therefore it has good work perspective employability even if there’s a low quality of the
   salaries.




                                               82
 Entertainer (Animatore)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   He/she is responsible for the organisation of free time and the entertainment of people
   living in residential and/or in daily facilities;
   He/she is responsible for the organisation of leisure activities within tourist tours
   addressed to elderly (senior on holiday cruiser).
Employment possibilities
   In residential or daily facilities
   He carries out activities mainly related to the improvement of the social relations of
   individuals and groups, exploiting their ludic, expressive, creative abilities, in
   collaboration with other social carers.
   With further and specific training he/she has the possibility to become a coordinator of
   leisure and entertainment activities, especially in holiday's centre and tourist tours.

Educational requirements
   A good general education.
   Law requirements aren't foreseen for this profile, in many cases it’s convenient (or
   requested form the public body) that the animator has peculiar qualifications achieved
   through specific vocational training courses recognized from the State or from the
   regions.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The Animator can work in facilities for elderly people, disabled as well as youngsters.
   Good perspective of employment can be foreseen in environment or touristic projects,
   where the capacity of achieve the active involvement and participation from the
   participants is necessary.




                                             83
LITHUANIA




Nurse (Slaugytojas)

Social worker (Socialinis darbuotojas)

Assistant of social worker
(Socialinio darbuotojo padėjėjas)
Therapist (Terapeutas)

Work therapist (Darbo terapeutas)

Cleaner (Valytojas)




                      84
 Nurse (Slaugytojas)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Nursing of patients, reception in out-patient facilities or hospitals, registration of
   information on patients and continuous observation of their mental and physical
   condition, first-aid provision, nursing of patient at domicile.

Employment possibilities
  Can be employed in hospitals, polyclinics, out-patient facilities, social care institutions.
  The work of nursing staff is organized on rota basis (including night time).

Educational requirements
   Nurses must have a medical education




 Social worker (Socialinis
darbuotojas)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Social worker compiles and analyses information about a person (family), carries out the
   assessment of the need for social services, organizes and coordinates the provision of
   social services.
   Social work is a professional activity aimed at improvement of relations between people
   and their environment, strengthening the adaptation of a person to the environment and
   helping the integration into society.
   The social work encourages people to take part in tackling their social problems.

Employment possibilities
  Can be employed in health care institutions, nursing hospitals, social care institutions,
  education institutions.

Educational requirements
   Education of social work is necessary (higher university or non-university education),
   clear value system.
   It is one of few professions having is own code of ethics.


                                                85
 Assistant of social worker
(Socialinio darbuotojo padėjėjas)

Working field
   Person related and household related services
Core tasks
   Assistant of social worker carries out the assignments given by social worker also
   provides the social services on his own account or under supervision of the social
   worker.
   Main tasks: helps the elderly or disabled people with domestic chores, personal
   hygiene, provides prescribed medicine, runs errands on patients behalf.

Employment possibilities
  Can be employed at health care institutions, nursing hospitals, social care institutions,
  education institutions.

Educational requirements
   Basic education




Therapist (Terapeutas)

Working field
  Person related services
Employment possibilities
  Therapists can be employed at health and social care institutions.




                                             86
 Work therapist (Darbo terapeutas)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Work therapist is a qualified professional whose task is to assess, treat and rehabilitate
   children and young people having physical, coordination and information handling
   problems.

Employment possibilities
  Work therapists can be employed at health and social care institutions.




 Cleaner (Valytojas)

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Cleaning of facilities

Employment possibilities
  Can be employed in various health and care institutions.

Educational requirements
   Basic education




                                             87
NETHERLANDS




 Home carer (Zorghulp)

 Elderly care nurse (Bejaardenverzorg(st)er;
 Verzorgende IG)
 Geriatric nurse (Geriatrisch verpleegkundige)

 Occupational therapist (Ergotherapeut)

 Assistant / Auxiliary for care and public well-being
 (Assistent / Helpende Zorg & Welzijn)
 District (male) nurse (Wijkverpleegkundige)




                   88
 Home carer (Zorghulp)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Support for the elderly in need of assistance in the household, e.g. assistance with
   personal hygiene, preparation of meals, dressing & undressing, using the lavatory
   Involvement in occupations and activation tasks (e.g. handicrafts, making things)

Employment possibilities
  Facilities for "at-home care"
  Nursing homes (for elderly)

Educational requirements
   Professional qualification, 1 year

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increase in patients suffering from dementia who need to be cared for at home
   Trends: Case management




                                             89
 Elderly care nurse
(Bejaardenverzorg(st)er;Verzorgende
IG)

Working field
  Primary care sector
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Supporting the elderly in need with everyday survival tasks (e.g. personal hygiene,
   eating, dressing, accompanying them on visits to the authorities and doctors)
   Motivating them to take up fulfilling and interesting leisure time activities (instructions
   on health-promoting exercises, active leisure pastimes, etc.)
   Basic support in care and medical assistance: (injections, catheters, transfusions,
   bandage changing, medicines in accordance with instructions issued by a doctor, etc.)

Employment possibilities
  Facilities for "at-home care"
  Nursing homes for elderly and hospices
  Gerontopsychiatric wards in hospitals, convalescent homes and rehabilitation clinics

Educational requirements
   Professional qualification, 3 years

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increase in patients suffering from dementia who need to be cared for at home
   Increase in gerontological technology

Trends: Case management




                                               90
 Geriatric nurse
(Geriatrisch verpleegkundige)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Care tasks (assistance with personal hygiene, eating, dressing etc.)
   Support in care and medical assistance such as infusions, changing bandages,
   medicines in accordance with instructions issued by a doctor, etc.
   Motivating patients to take up fulfilling and interesting leisure time activities

Employment possibilities
  Facilities, such as nursing homes (for elderly), gerontopsychiatric wards in hospitals,
  care clinics and convalescent homes

Educational requirements
   Three-year vocational training

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increase in patients suffering from dementia who need to be cared for at home
   Increase in gerontological technology
   Trends: Case management




                                             91
 Occupational therapist
(Ergotherapeut)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Occupational therapy, rehabilitation activities
   Gerontopsychiatric treatment and care
   Creative use of leisure time

Employment possibilities
  Nursing homes, residential care homes for the elderly and handicapped
  Gerontopsychiatric and geriatric clinics and hospital wards

Educational requirements
   College of Higher Education, 3 to 4 year




                                              92
 Assistant / Auxiliary for care and
public well-being
(Assistent / Helpende Zorg & Welzijn)
Working field
  Services related to the residential area

Core tasks
   Various services for those in need and the elderly in the residential or local area, e.g.
   activities in the local area and leisure time activities
   Assistance in the household, e.g. preparing meals
Employment possibilities
   Institutions involved in welfare and social services, e.g.
   Local meetings of residents
   Neighbourhood houses

Educational requirements
   Vocational training as an Auxiliary aid 1½ years, as an Assistant 2 to 3 years

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increases in the numbers of elderly people and those suffering from dementia who are
   cared for at home or in their residential areas
New Social Law passed in 2007 in the Netherlands to ensure that the elderly and handicapped
can live independent lives (local government tasks)




                                              93
 District (male) nurse
(Wijkverpleegkundige)

Working field
  Primary care sector
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Advisory service and source of information for those in need and the elderly living at home,
   e.g. drawing up care and nursing schedules
   Basic support in care and medical assistance, e.g. measuring blood pressure, changing
   bandages, giving injections
   Encouraging patients to remain mobile and active

Employment possibilities
  Facilities for "at-home care" (e.g. out-patient services provider)

Educational requirements
   College of Higher Education, 3 to 4 years

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Increases in the numbers of elderly people and those suffering from dementia who are
   cared for at home or in their residential areas
   New Social Law passed in 2007 in the Netherlands to ensure that the elderly and
   handicapped can live independent lives (local government tasks)




                                               94
NORWAY




Health worker (Helsefagarbeider)

Physiotherapist (Fysioterapeut)

Cook (Institusjonskokk)

Cleaner (Renholdsoperatør /Renholder)

Property maintenance /service worker
(servicearbeider)




                    95
 Health worker (Helsefagarbeider)
Working field
  Primary and secondary care sector
  Person-related services

Core tasks
   Practical care and environmental work for patients and users of health and social
   services. Key tasks include:
   - carrying out of professional and caring health assistance
   - health-promoting, preventive, rehabilitating and care and nursing activities
   - planning, implementation and participation in the overall treatment scheme for
       patient/user
   - working in accordance with hygienic, nutritional and ergonomic principles
   - handling medicines in accordance with prevailing laws and regulations
   - record keeping, documentation and reporting
   Works independently and in collaboration with other staff groups; important
   competences are awareness of own behaviour and the behaviour of users, various
   communication techniques and conflict, objective observation, precise feedback and
   relevant regulations regarding confidentiality and privacy
   Additional information: http://vilbli.no/4daction/WA_Kursbeskrivelser/?Kurs=V.HSHEA3----
   &ASP=1108387&Ran=18500&Niva=V&Kompetanse=V.HS3003&Return=WA_Kompetanseoppslag&Lan=3&TP=10-
   06-09


Employment possibilities
  Health workers work for the special health service, in mental health care at all levels,
  and in institutions and various care giving and treatment facilities in the public and
  private sector.

Educational requirements
   "Helsefagarbeider" is a protected title for authorized carer introduced in 2008 in all
   relevant educational entities. Education focuses on care tasks extended with basic
   nursing (anatomy, typical diseases, drugs and technical equipment).
   Education consists of two stages. The basic introduction module is called health and
   social studies with abbreviation VG1. Thereafter there is choice between 7
   applications (VG2), which leads to 9 occupations, one of the areas being
   "helsefagarbeider". Totally 4 years of education incl. apprenticeship.
   VG1 common subjects: English, Physical Education, social studies
   G2, Common thematic subjects: health promotion, communication and interaction,
   activities that promote health, well-being and quality of life, planning, implementation,
   documentation and assessment of their own work, regulatory and professional ethical
   guidelines, basic nursery

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Health worker unites 2 former job profiles: auxiliary nurse (hjelpepleier) and care
   worker (omsorgsarbeider) developed for some years as complementary categories.
   The initiative behind the new job profile (Aksjon Helsefagarbeider) is a part of an
   extensive strategy changing the structure of the care sector in Norway (Parliament Act
   25 ―Future challenges of the care sector‖; Care Plan 2015). Introduction of the new
   profile is followed by accreditation/ validation procedure for the auxiliary nurse and
   care worker finishing in 2010.



                                              96
   The arguments of introducing a new wider job profile has been threefold:
   - Intended increase of the proportion of personnel with higher education and by this
      higher standards and assurance of the quality;
   - Change in the status of the care worker by giving the profile more professional
      image
   - The statistics confirm that there is a bigger demand of applying for education at
      higher level than for courses providing lower skills; the change is expected to
      attract especially young people




 Physiotherapist (Fysioterapeut)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Working with people who need treatment, training and rehabilitation after injuries and
   illness, as well as relapse and health promotion.
   Physiotherapy as a subject is about the body movements and functions in a health
   perspective. Profession requires both theoretical knowledge about the body structure
   and function, and practical skills.
   Physiotherapy is aimed at individuals and groups and environment. Physiotherapists
   often collaborate with other health professionals.
   Health promotion and disease prevention has a central place.

Employment possibilities
  Municipal health services, hospitals, institutions, and in private companies.

Educational requirements
   Physiotherapy is a three-year bachelor program offered at several colleges in Norway.
   Continuing Education.
   Norwegian Physiotherapist Association (NFF) is organizing training in many different
   areas of the discipline, see more in: http://www.fysio.no/FAG/Spesialistordningen




                                             97
 Cook (Institusjonskokk)
Working field
  Company related services

Core tasks
The nature of institutional cookery lies in being responsible for 24-hour provisioning and
production of adequate food for those who require special diets. Key tasks include:
   Treatment and handling of raw produce
   Planning and putting together a variety of diets
   Production and distribution of all meals included in 24-hour provisioning
   Quantities, prices, and calculation of the nutritional content of recipes
   Budgeting and menu-planning for longer periods, with a view to variation, -access to
   raw goods and produce, and users" culinary traditions
   Use and maintenance of machines and other equipment

Employment possibilites
  Private or public kitchens at institutions – for example, in the health and social sectors
  (hospitals and retirement homes), schools, on oil and gas platform hotels (flotel), or in
  canteens.

Educational requirements
   The institutional cook is a additional module in restaurant and food processing sector:
   totally 4 years education incl. 3 modules and apprenticeship

Additional information:
   http://vilbli.no/4daction/WA_Kursbeskrivelser/?Kurs=V.RMIKO3&ASP=1108387&Ran=18500&Niva=V&Kompetanse=
   .HS3003&Return=WA_Kompetanseoppslag&Lan=3&TP=10-06-09




                                                    98
 Cleaner
(Renholdsoperatør /Renholder)

Working field
  Household related services
  Company related services

Core tasks
   The industrial cleaner plans and performs professional cleaning services:
   Cleaning and maintenance of walls, ceilings, inventory, and floors.
   Selection and use of the right chemicals
   Selection of suitable methods for cleaning and using machines and equipment for
   such work
   Service, customer relations, and communication
   Indoor climate and hygiene
   Calculations and planning, use of ICT tools

Professional cleaning in institutions, commercial buildings and enterprises. Cleaning work
is in creating a pleasant and healthy indoor environment.
An industrial cleaner should be able to choose the right chemicals for the cleaning of
various surfaces and handle the various machines in the work. You have knowledge of
indoor air quality and hygiene and have expertise in ICT technology.

Employment possibilites
  As the cleaning operator is the usually employed in a cleaning company, which
  performs professional cleaning work for other institutions or enterprises ,examples:
  day care facilities, hospitals, retirement homes, schools, kindergartens, large
  businesses, shopping centres and transportation as trains and aircraft

Educational requirements
   Education course is over four years in secondary schools and in apprenticeship;
   Education comprises basic module and 2 additional modules :building and
   construction, surface treatment, industrial cleaning

Additional information:
http://vilbli.no/4daction/WA_Kompetanse?ASP=1108387&Ran=18500&Niva=V&Kurs=V.BABAT1----
&Return=WA_KURSBESKRIVELSER&Lan=3&TP=10-06-09&Kompetanse=V.BA3016


Developments/expected changes (future perspective)
Occupations within the cleaning industry have undergone a renewal and
professionalization in recent years. Profession has as a consequence of this has been
more flexible and attractive.




                                                     99
Property maintenance /service
worker (servicearbeider)
Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   management, operation and maintenance of central heating, sanitary facilities,
   ventilation and electrical systems, assessing energy consumption in different types of
   buildings

Employment possibilites
  Organisations responsible for building maintenance and service

Educational requirements
   The relevant education can be accomplished at School for Property Services
   (Eiendomsserviceskolen). Education duration: 1 year as part-time or distance. Entry
   Requirements:
   Completed secondary school, skilled worker, or experience in connection with the job,
   training, volunteer activities and positions within various organizations. construction
   process, building types, building

Developments/expected changes (future perspective)
   Professionalization of the profile is expected




                                            100
 POLAND




Nurse (Pielęgniarka)

Carer in social help house (Opiekun w Domu Pomocy)

Social worker (Pracownik Socjalny)

Handicapped person’s assistant
(Asystent osoby niepełnosprawnej)
Environmental carer (Opiekun Środowiskowy)

Occupational therapist (ZawodowyTerapeuta)

Physiotherapist (Fizjoterapeuta)

Massager (Masażysta)

Geriatric doctor (Geriatra)

Cook (Kucharz)

Dietetician (Dietetyk)

Volunteer (Wolontariusz)




                   101
 Nurse (Pielęgniarka)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   A nurse is responsible—along with other health care professionals—for the treatment,
   safety, and recovery of acutely or chronically ill or injured people, health maintenance of
   the healthy, and treatment of life-threatening emergencies in a wide range of health
   care settings. Nurses may also be involved in medical and nursing research and
   perform a wide range of non-clinical functions necessary to the delivery of health care.
   Nurses also provide care at birth and death. In general terms, the nursing process is the
   method used to assess and diagnose needs, plan and implement interventions, and
   evaluate the outcomes of the care provided. Like other disciplines, the profession has
   developed different theories derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and
   paradigms or worldviews to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific
   goals. Currently, two paradigms exist in nursing, the totality paradigm and the
   simultaneity paradigm.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Home, Residential Care home and out-patient-services
  Nurses throughout the world are increasingly employed as registered nurses, advanced
  practice nurses, clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners.

Educational requirements
   College/ University education - Nurse Education consists in the theoretical and practical
   training provided to nurses with the purpose to prepare them for their duties as nursing
   care professionals.
   Poland requires any registered nurse to have at least a bachelor's degree. At the top of
   the educational ladder is the doctoral-prepared nurse. Nurses may gain a PhD or
   another doctoral degree, specializing in research, clinical nursing, and so forth. These
   nurses practice nursing, teach nursing, and carry out nursing research.
   In some parts of Eastern Europe, nurses are high school graduates with twelve to
   eighteen months of training.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Geriatric nursing is the specialty that concerns itself with the provision of nursing
   services to geriatric or aged individuals.




                                              102
 Carer in social help house
(Opiekun w Domu Pomocy)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   The help and accompanying the elderly people in everyday actions in range of self-
   service and the personal hygiene (the toll, bathing, dressing, combing the, shaving, the
   help in making bed, change of bed underwear, taking part in rehabilitation or activating
   practices recommended by doctor or therapist),
   Taking care as well as the health and personal hygiene of elderly and ill persons and
   dependent,
   Activating the person under charge to enlarge his life independency,
   The advising in range of planning of expenses or the way of spending the free time,
   Mobilizing person under charge to active spending free time as well as unreeling his
   interests,
   Giving first aid,
   The active participation in process of rehabilitation and the person undercharge's
   activation as well as the executing of definite tasks under supervision or on the doctor's
   order be the therapist,
   Formation in person undercharge's the closest surroundings positive interpersonal
   reports,
   Giving support in difficult and critical situations.

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care

Educational requirements
   Post High School education

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   The stimulation of development of activations for persons' staying in house of social
   help as well as using for this aim a varied methods and tools for rehabilitation or
   therapy;
   accompanying and help for social help house person in satisfying the needs and the
   executing actions in range of self-service and personal hygiene,
   The organization and spending free time in constructive way by person under charge
   enabling the self - realization, development of interests the as well as integration with
   family and other persons, activation and the strengthening of professional actions
   resulting with realization of individual plan of work the and help for staying in house of
   social help.




                                              103
 Social worker (Pracownik Socjalny)

Working field
  Person related service

Core tasks
   Social and medical rehabilitation programme concerns the health, psychical,
   professional, social and cultural needs of the handicapped person,
   The creation of the rehabilitation programmes and the help for handicapped person,
   The advising in range of medical services, rehabilitation, professional the qualifying,
   social contacts, cultural services, recreation and environmental integration,
   The diagnosing of life conditions and possibilities of removing the every type of
   barriers (the psychological, social, architectural, communication etc.),
   Stimulating the handicapped person's activity as well as their family in aim of
   satisfaction and needs,
   The planning, controlling and estimation of the individual programme, plan of help the
   handicapped person,
   the including in programmes of the handicapped person institution and the testifying
   the rehabilitation units services,
   Co-operation with Medias to facilitate search sponsors and supporters in workings for
   handicapped persons'.

Employment possibilities
  Elderly Care, 24 Hour Supported Living Service
  Social help house
  Educational requirements
  Post High School education

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   leveraging of the handicapped person's life quality by executing the everyday day
   actions, training of independence as well as (in some cases) creation of conditions for
   independent rehabilitation,
   the supporting and the strengthening of help system for handicapped persons with
   possibilities of the realization of social and professional rehabilitation optimum
   programme
   Individual rehabilitation programmes and handicapped person's independence.




                                            104
 Handicapped person’s assistant
(Asystent osoby niepełnosprawnej)

Working field
  Person related service

Core tasks
   Social and medical rehabilitation programme concerns the health, psychical,
   professional, social and cultural needs of the handicapped person
   The creation of the rehabilitation programmes and the help for handicapped person,
   The advising in range of medical services, rehabilitation, professional the qualifying,
   social contacts, cultural services, recreation and environmental integration,
   The diagnosing of life conditions and possibilities of removing the every type of barriers
   (the psychological, social, architectural, communication etc.),
   Stimulating the handicapped person's activity as well as their family in aim of
   satisfaction and needs,
   The planning, controlling and estimation of the individual programme, plan of help the
   handicapped person,
   The including in programmes of the handicapped person institution and the testifying
   the rehabilitation units services,
   Co-operation with Medias to facilitate search sponsors and supporters in workings for
   handicapped persons'.

Employment possibilities
  Elderly Care, 24 Hour Supported Living Service
  Social help house

Educational requirements
   Post High School education

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   leveraging of the handicapped person's life quality by executing the everyday day
   actions, training of independence as well as (in some cases) creation of conditions for
   independent rehabilitation,
   the supporting and the strengthening of help system for handicapped persons with
   possibilities of the realization of social and professional rehabilitation optimum
   programme
   Individual rehabilitation programmes and handicapped person's independence.




                                             105
 Environmental carer
(Opiekun Środowiskowy)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Help for person under charge in everyday home actions (doing purchases, clearing,
   boiling, washing),
   Taking care as well as healthcare, personal hygiene of ill/elderly people and dependent
   (the toll, bathing, combing the, shaving, the dressing, making the bed and change of
   bedding as well as the underwear of the person immobilized in bed as well as the
   conduction of the simplest rehabilitation practices, co-ordinated with doctors,
   Giving first aid in cases of emergency of health and life,
   Mobilizing person under charge to active spending of free time and unreeling his
   interests,
   Activating person under charge to enlarging his life independence,
   Advising in the range of home planning and the organizing,
   Contacting with different kind of institutions in aim of solving health, material, housing,
   family and legal problems of person under charge,
   Initiating positive personal relations of person undercharge's in the closest surroundings
   and especially with members of his family.

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  Environmental Help System

Educational requirements
   Post High School education

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Giving the help and the service to persons protractedly ill, elderly, lonely and
   dependent, which do not have sufficient family or other persons support.




                                             106
 Occupational therapist
(ZawodowyTerapeuta)

Working field
  Person related service

Core tasks
   Occupational therapist links, provides for contacts, estimates situation and leads
   therapeutic occupations. Ooccupational therapy as a profession concerned with
   promoting health and well-being through occupation. The primary goal of occupational
   therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life. Occupational
   therapists achieve this outcome by enhancing the individual's ability to participate, by
   modifying the environment, or by adapting the activity to better support participation.
   Another way of thinking about the ideas contained in these definitions could be:
   Occupational therapy is about understanding the importance of an activity to an
   individual, being able to analyze the physical, mental and social components of the
   activity and then adapting the activity, the environment and/or the person to enable them
   to resume the activity.
   Services typically include:
   Teaching new ways of approaching tasks,
   How to break down activities into achievable components e.g. sequencing a complex
   task like cooking a complex meal,
   Comprehensive home and job site evaluations with adaptation recommendations,
   Performance skills assessments and treatment,
   Adaptive equipment recommendations and usage training,
   Environmental adaptation including provision of equipment or designing adaptations to
   remove obstacles or make them manageable,
   Guidance to family members and caregivers,
   The use of creative media as therapeutic activity,
   Occupational therapists use therapeutic activity or therapeutic occupation to improve an
   individual's occupational performance and increase function in activities of daily living
   (ADLs).

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care

Educational requirements
   College, University or Medical Academies

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   A core and unique feature of occupational therapy practice is the use of occupation as a
   therapeutic medium. An occupational therapy core skill as defined by The College of
   Occupational Therapists (COT) is the use of activity as a therapeutic tool.




                                             107
 Physiotherapist (Fizjoterapeuta)

Working field
  Person related service
  Company related services

Core tasks
   Physiotherapists treat patients with physical difficulties resulting from illness, injury,
   disability or ageing. They treat people of all ages including children, the elderly, stroke
   patients and people with sports injuries.
   Physiotherapists work with patients to identify and improve their movement and
   function. Treatment involves encouraging exercise and movement by the use of manual
   and mechanical techniques, such as therapeutic movement and exercise therapy,
   massage, manipulation and electro and/or hydrotherapy.
Typical work activities include:
   Working with patients to identify the physical problem;
   Developing and reviewing treatment programmes;
   Assisting patients with joint and spinal problems, especially following surgery;
   Helping patients' rehabilitation following accidents, injury and strokes;
   Supervising physiotherapy assistants;
   Writing patient case notes and reports;
   Collecting patient statistics;
   Educating and advising patients and their carers about how to prevent and/or improve
   conditions;
   Keeping up to date with new techniques and technologies available for treating patients;
   Liaising with other healthcare personnel to supply and receive relevant information
   about the background and progress of patients, as well as referring patients who require
   other specific medical attention.

Employment possibilities
  Physiotherapists may work in settings such as:
  Care/Nursing Home - Residential Care
  Community health centres
  Fitness centres, health clubs or spas
  Government and health planning agencies
  Home care
  Continuing care facilities
  Hospitals and rehabilitation centres
  Physiotherapy clinics and multi-disciplinary clinics (for example, pain clinics)
  Sport and recreation facilities.
  Physiotherapists may advance to supervisory or management positions in large
  organizations, or move into teaching and research positions.

Educational requirements
   Registration as a physiotherapist requires a degree in physiotherapy from a recognized
   university and successful completion of a competency exam.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
The increasing complexity of physiotherapy has led to the formation of specialist groups,
but the future of the profession is based on prevention as well as therapy and rehabilitation.


                                             108
 Massager (Masażysta)

Working field
Person related service (care)

Core tasks
   Massager executes massage labour
   Boosting the body’s immune system functioning.
   Decreasing the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.
   Reducing anxiety and lowering blood pressure in stroke patients.
   Reducing headache frequency
   Easing alcohol withdrawal symptoms
   Decreasing pain and anxiety in hospitalized cancer patients.

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  Independent professional

Educational requirements
   Collage and post High School education

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Massage therapy for cancer-related fatigue
   Massage for chronic low back pain
   Massage therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee
   Massage after surgery to help with post-operative pain




                                            109
 Geriatric doctor (Geriatra)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Geriatric doctor recognizes, differentiates and treats with nonsurgical methods of
   disease stepping out in elderly people. Elderly people particularly are subjected to
   polypharmacy due to many causes. Some elderly people have multiple medical
   disorders; some use many herb & OTCs; some adult physicians just prescribe
   medications to their specific specialty without reviewing other medications used by the
   elder patient. The polypharmacy may result in many drug interactions and may cause
   some drug adverse reactions. Drugs are excreted mostly by kidneys or liver which
   maybe impaired in elderly and medication might need adjustment

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  Outpatient Clinics

Educational requirements
   Medical Academies - Geriatricians are primary care physicians who are board-certified
   in either family medicine or internal medicine and have also acquired the additional
   training necessary to obtain the Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQ) in geriatric
   medicine.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Rehabilitation is essential to the care of elderly people. Keeping elderly people fed
   until they died is not enough- they need diagnosis, treatment, care and support.
   Elderly people should be able to gain some degree of independence with the correct
   assessment and treatment.




                                            110
 Cook (Kucharz)

Working field
  Household related services
  Company related services

Core tasks
   Planning out a range of meals (a menu), a whole meal or part of a meal
   Listing the ingredients, planning the quantities, fitting the costs to the budget, and
   arranging to buy them
   Organising other members of the kitchen staff, making sure that each part of the meal
   will be ready at the right time
   Using a variety of methods for cooking, food storage and food preparation
   Preparing and cooking the whole meal or being part of a kitchen team
   Experimenting with developing new recipes
   Calculation of value and energetistic nutritious aftermath;
   Taking materials and semi-manufactured articles to culinary productions;
   Protecting before damage materials, semi-manufactured articles and finished articles;
   The opinion of materials, semi-manufactured articles and the finished articles and
   proper husbanding them;
   The preliminary processing of materials (hand, mechanical, thermal);
   Gastronomy partition of the different animals' meat; - executing different technicians
   and methods
   Peaceably with raw materials norms

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home – Daily and Residential Care
  Kitchen Staff - apply for promotion to head cook

Educational requirements
   Certificate from High Scool




                                            111
 Dietetician (Dietetyk)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Dietetician defines the norm of correct nourishment as well as a diet

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care

Educational requirements
   College/Unicersity education




                                            112
 Volunteer (Wolontariusz)

Working field
  Non-profit social services

Core tasks
   Professional and group advocacy for people over the age of 65 years
   To be involved in the assessment/review process for residents
   To listen to the resident
   To support the resident in engagements with organisations that have power over them
   To be the resident’s voice and offer support to help him/her make decisions
   To give information to help the resident make his/her decision
   To be loyal to the resident
   To express the wishes, needs and opinions of the resident
   Offer advice on benefits or legal issues where appropriate

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing House
  Age Concern Advocacy Service

Educational requirements
   Good general education

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Development Opportunities in a range of Advocacy roles according to unpaid Work for
   an organisation e.g. Age Concern




                                          113
PORTUGAL


Nurse (Enfermeira)

Nursing home carer (Ajudantes de Lar)

Home Carer (Ajudantes de Apoio Domiciliário)

General Services Auxiliary (Trabalhador Auxiliar)

General Service Supervisor
(Encarregado Serviços Gerais)
Socio-cultural Activities Organizer (Animador Cultural)

Psychologist (Psicólogo)

Chef (Cozinheiro)

Kitchen Help (Ajudante de Cozinha)

Catering Auxiliary (Trabalhador auxiliar de Cozinha)

Laundry Staff (Trabalhadores de Lavandarias e Roupas)

Driver (Motorista)

Physician (Médico)

Administrative Services (Serviços Administrativos)

Accountant (Contabilista)

Technical Director (Director Técnico)


                     114
 Nurse (Enfermeira)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Providing nursing care to patients, in medical and care assisting institutions;
   Administrating medication and giving treatments as prescribed by physicians,
   according to service policies and procedures and nursing techniques;
   Working with external agencies, such as doctor, dentists, physiotherapists, opticians,
   etc.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.
  Doing tasks in Care Homes, Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres, Private Clinics,
  Hospitals and Medical Centres.

Educational requirements
   A Nursing degree
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a steady demand for professionals in the nursing care service sector.




                                            115
 Nursing home carer
(Ajudantes de Lar)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Nursing Home Care works directly with the elderly, providing them hygienic-sanitary
   home conditions.
   Home Care covers a range of tasks including:
   Welcoming residents and helping them in the initial process of using equipment and
   services;
   Assisting residents during the day or over night, inside and outside the institutions and
   services, guiding, helping and motivating them through conversation, identifying their
   interests and motivation and participating in the activities;
   Ensuring the meals;
   Collecting and taking care of supplies and equipment used during meals;
   Providing hygiene and comfort care to residents, collaborating in care services that
   don’t require specific and special skills, like applying medical creams, changing small
   bandages and administrating medication as prescribed by the physician.;
   Changing bedding and bathroom towels, as well as residents’ clothing; taking care of
   clothing, clean or dirty, and its delivery;
   Controlling of hygiene and comfort items;
   Reporting any important situations to the institution;
   Driving institution’s vehicles.

Employment possibilities
  Doing tasks in Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres, and Hospitals.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.
  Become self-employed.

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a steady demand for labour force in the nursing care service sector, especially
   qualified labour force.




                                             116
 Home Carer
(Ajudantes de Apoio Domiciliário)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Home Care works directly with the elderly, providing them hygienic-sanitary home
   conditions.
   Home Care covers a range of tasks including:
   Assistance with personal care including hygiene and comfort;
   Meals delivery;
   House cleaning;
   Home laundry delivery;
   Escorting patients when needed;
   Being alert to the client’s behaviour to be able to identify any abnormal situations and
   report them to the Technical Director;
   Providing the Technical Director with a list of necessary materials;
   Being alert to the conditions of the clients’ equipment.
   Providing a good and healthy environment for the client, understanding him/her and
   respecting his/her individuality and privacy and his/her family’s;
   Providing the client with external services, such as buying medicines and basic goods.

Employment possibilities
  Home Help: Personal and personalised services to individuals and families in their
  own homes, when they cannot fulfil, temporarily or permanently, their basic needs
  and/or everyday tasks, whether for illness, disability or other reasons.
  Doing tasks in Nursing Homes, Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres, and creating his
  own job;
  Become self-employed.

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a steady demand for labour force in the care service sector, especially
   qualified labour force.




                                            117
 General Services Auxiliary
(Trabalhador Auxiliar)

Working field
  Household related services and other working fields

Core tasks
   Cleaning facilities;
   Ensuring the transportation of food and other products;
   Serving meals in canteens;
   Handing out the post;
   Transporting corpses;
   Other non-specific tasks within the job category.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities. ensure
  Day Care Centres, Kindergartens, Leisure Centres, and Schools.

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience
   Dynamic




                                           118
 General Service Supervisor
(Encarregado Serviços Gerais)
Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Organising, coordinating and monitoring the work of the section and of those under
   his/her supervision;
   Establishing, through discussion with the sector employees, work schedules and shifts,
   firing staff and sector procedures;
   Keep his/her sector inventories up to date.

Employment possibilities
  Doing tasks in Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres, Private Clinics, and Hotels.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.

Educational requirements
   Secondary education (12th grade)
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience
   Dynamic
   Good planning and organising skills




                                           119
 Socio-cultural Activities Organizer
(Animador Cultural)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Organising, coordinating and selecting activities within the institutions’ goals;
   Spending time with residents, and trying to develop important values (belonging,
   cooperation and solidarity), as well as allowing residents to develop their expressive
   and functional capacity, through pedagogical methods and activities.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Day Care Centres, Kindergartens, Leisure Centres, Schools, Hotels
  and Town Halls.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities. develop

Educational requirements
   Vocational Courses in Socio-cultural Activities
   A Degree in Socio-cultural Activities
   With or without experience
   Dynamic
   Creative
   Good interpersonal and group communication skills




                                            120
 Psychologist (Psicólogo)

Working field
  Primary care sector
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Studying and analysing residents’ behaviour and mind mechanisms, investigating mind
   problems, using specific techniques;
   Analysing interpersonal relationships’ problems;
   Studying and analysing internal and relational issues affecting residents;
   Investigating differential factors – biological, environmental and personal;

Employment possibilities
  Doing tasks in Nursing Homes, Home Help, Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres,
  Private Clinics, Hospital, and Medical Centres.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.

Educational requirements
   A Degree or a PhD in Clinical Psychology
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With experience




                                           121
 Chef (Cozinheiro)
Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Helping prepare whole meals and taking responsibility for the following meals:
   - breakfast (nursing home)
   - lunch
   - afternoon snack
   - dinner (nursing home)
   Supervising kitchen cleaning;
   Reporting the list of necessary kitchen supplies to superiors;
   Asking the General Service Supervisor for necessary ingredients and taking
   responsibility for them;
   Taking responsibility for equipment maintenance, making sure that it is in good
   conditions.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.
  Home Help provides personal and personalised services to individuals and families in
  their own homes, when they cannot fulfil, temporarily or permanently, their basic
  needs and/or everyday tasks, whether for illness, disability or other reasons.
  Restaurants, Hotels, Schools.

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   Good appearance
   With experience
   Dynamic
   Organisation and planning skills




                                            122
 Kitchen Help (Ajudante de Cozinha)

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Auxiliary in kitchen and dining halls
   Following the chef’s guidance;
   Cleaning the kitchen;
   Take the chef’s place when needed.
Employment possibilities
   Restaurants, Hotels, Schools
   Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
   permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
   living, social activities and leisure activities.

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   Good appearance
   With or without experience
   Dynamic
   Organisation and planning skills




                                           123
 Catering Auxiliary
(Trabalhador auxiliar de Cozinha)

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Preparing dining halls, cleaning them and organising the tables;
   Handing out and collecting dishes, cutlery, etc. to/from the tables;
   Handing out the meal serving dishes, as well as bread, fruit and drinks;
   Doing the dishes, and cleaning tables;
   Preparing meals;
   Cleaning various places.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.
  Restaurants, Hotels, Schools

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   Good appearance
   With or without experience
   Dynamic




                                            124
Laundry Staff (Trabalhadores de
Lavandarias e Roupas)

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Manual or mechanical washing of clothes from the service sector and clients;
   Ironing and folding clothes, and other laundry tasks;
   Taking care of clothing and its delivery;

Employment possibilities
  Doing tasks in Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres, Private Clinics, Hospitals and
  Laundries.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.
  Home Help provides personal and personalised services to individuals and families in
  their own homes, when they cannot fulfil, temporarily or permanently, their basic needs
  and/or everyday tasks, whether for illness, disability or other reasons.

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience
   Dynamic




                                           125
       Driver (Motorista)

Working field
  Other working field

Core tasks
   Driving motor-vehicles with nine or more seats along programmed routes, with safety
   and the vehicle in good condition. He/She must drive the routes according to time
   schedules, and is responsible for maintenance and cleaning of the vehicles. He/She
   can also drive cars.

Employment possibilities
  Doing tasks in Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres, Private Clinics, and Road
  Networks.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education
   A category D driving license
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience




                                           126
 Physician (Médico)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Doing medical exams, requiring exams to help in the diagnosis, and doing diagnosis;
   Sending the patient to specialists when necessary for specific treatments and/or exams;
   Selecting and recommending drug therapy and other appropriate therapies according to
   the disease, illness or injury;
   Doing surgical interventions.

Employment possibilities
  Doing tasks in Home Care Centres, Hospital Centres, Day Care Centres, Private
  Clinics, Hospitals, and Medical Centres.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.

Educational requirements
   A Medical Degree (MD) or PhD
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a steady demand for professionals in the medical care service sector.




                                           127
 Administrative Services
(Serviços Administrativos)

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Dealing with clients’ payments;
   Dealing and checking suppliers’ invoices according to the Account Plan;
   Preparing payments to suppliers and taxes;
   Dealing with banks;
   Filing documents and the post;
   Signing in clients, residents and employees, updating their records;
   Welcoming;
   Assisting the Board and the Technical Director;
   Keeping computer records of all the institution’s activities.

Employment possibilities
  Doing tasks in any sector
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.
  Home Help provides personal and personalised services to individuals and families in
  their own homes, when they cannot fulfil, temporarily or permanently, their basic needs
  and/or everyday tasks, whether for illness, disability or other reasons.

Educational requirements
   Secondary education (12th grade)
   Good appearance
   Good interpersonal skills
   With or without experience
   Dynamic
   Good planning and organising skills




                                           128
 Accountant (Contabilista)

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Office Worker - keep check financial accounts
   Organising and managing accounting services; advising on accounting problems;
   planning the accounting circuits analysing all of the company’s activity sectors, in order
   to guarantee a gathering of necessary elements to determine costs and results.;
   Creating the account plan in order to get the best elements to the economic financial
   management; supervising and examining accounting records and account books,
   coordinating and managing the sector employees;
   Preparing the necessary accounting elements to define a budget policy, organising and
   controlling the budget implementation;
   Creating or examining trial balances and other accounting information and reporting
   them to the administration or to public services;
   Account controlling, closing accounts and making the balance sheet, which he/she
   signs;
   Preparing the financial explanatory report regarding the accounts’ presentation;

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Day Care Centres, Kindergartens, Leisure Centres, Schools, Hotels,
  Town Halls, private companies, accounting offices, etc.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.

Educational requirements
   A Degree in Accounting, or Management
   With or without experience




                                             129
Technical Director (Director Técnico)

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   The Technical Director is responsible for reporting to the Institution’s Board every
   issue regarding the institution.

Social Service
   Studying and defining general rules and policies for Social Service in the Institution;
   Ensuring and promoting the collaboration with Social Services from other institutions
   and entities;
   Cooperating with the residents in solving their social adjusting or readjusting problems;
   Examining residents’ socio-economic situation and allowing, when necessary, home
   care help;
   Welcoming new residents, helping in their integration;
   Organising and updating the residents’ files;
   Contacting their families and the community, aiming at their participation and
   collaboration with the institution’s activities;
   Promoting the relationship between residents and their families;
   Promoting a good and appropriate relationship between the staff and the residents;
   Ensuring the maintenance of hygienic conditions and accident prevention;

Management
  Managing the institution, coordinating staff’s activities;
  Providing food served up in the best conditions, making the menus together with food
  technicians;
  Promoting work meetings with residents and staff, focusing on interpersonal
  relationships;
  Attending the Board meetings when important; item
  Asking the Board for new equipment;
  Suggesting repairs when needed;
  Collaborating in the staff assessment and suggesting wages according to job and
  function;
  Suggesting hiring new staff when necessary;
  Preparing, analysing and giving opinion about hiring staff;
  Asking competent services, especially Social Security, for information.

Activities
    Encouraging activities, collaborating and motivating residents’ initiative
    Motivating residents to participate in activities proposed by the community.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Day Care Centres and Home Care Help.
  Nursing Homes provide social care to elderly people: collective housing (temporary or
  permanent), all meals, comfort, hygiene and health care, promoting residents’ social
  living, social activities and leisure activities.


                                             130
   Home Help provides personal and personalised services to individuals and families in
   their own homes, when they cannot fulfil, temporarily or permanently, their basic
   needs and/or everyday tasks, whether for illness, disability or other reasons.

Educational requirements
   A degree in Social Services, Sociology, Psychology, and Law.
   Experience or internship in the sector.




                                          131
SLOVAKIA




Nurse (Zdrávotna Sestra)

Physiotherapist (Fyzioterapeut)

Social worker (Sociálny pracovník)

Cleaner (Sociálny pracovník)




                 132
 Nurse (Zdrávotna Sestra)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Nursing of patients process is the method used to assess and diagnose patients. Duties
   are based on registration of information on patients and continuous observation of their
   mental and physical condition, first-aid.

Employment possibilities
  Can be employed in hospitals, polyclinics, out-patient clinics, social care institutions.

Educational requirements
   Nurses must have a medical education Medical university degree.




 Physiotherapist (Fyzioterapeut)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Qualified professional whose task is to assess, treat and rehabilitate. Physiotherapists
   treat patients with physical difficulties resulting from illness, injury, disability or ageing.

Employment possibilities
  Therapists can be employed at health and social care institutions.

Educational requirements
   Physiotherapist must have a degree in physiotherapy from a recognized university




                                                133
 Social worker (Sociálny pracovník)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Social worker professional activities are based on improvement of relations between
   people and their environment and adaptation of a person to the environment by helping
   the integration into society.

Employment possibilities
  Employed in health care institutions, nursing hospitals, social care institutions,
  education institutions.

Educational requirements
   Professional social workers generally hold a professional degree in Social Work
   (university education).
   It is one of few professions having is own code of ethics.




 Cleaner (Sociálny pracovník)

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Cleaning of facilities

Employment possibilities
  Can be employed in various health and care institutions.

Educational requirements
   Basic education




                                             134
SLOVENIA




Nurse (negovalka / negovalec v socialno varstvenem zavodu)
Social home care worker
(socialna oskrbovalka / socialni oskrbovalec na domu)

Performer of social service
(izvajalka / izvajalec socialnega servisa)

Social worker (socialna delavka / socialni delavec)
Social worker in institution
(socialna delavka / socialni delavec v domovih za stare ljudi)

Occupational Therapist in institution
(delovna terapevtka / delovni terapevt v institucionalnem
varstvu)

Coordinator of Social Home Care
(koordinatorica / koordinator socialne oskrbe na domu)

Operator for long distance help
(operaterka / operater pomoči na daljavo)

Telephonic counsellor for elderly (svetovalka / svetovalec
na telefonu za starejše ljudi in njihove svojce)

Volunteers
(voditeljica / voditelj skupin starih ljudi za samopomoč)




                  135
 Nurse (negovalka / negovalec v
socialno varstvenem zavodu)
Working field
  Primary care sector
  Person related services

Core tasks
Nursing and care of residents: following the instructions from medical nurse, graduate
medical nurse or doctor, involved into organisational nursing team. Basic nurse’s tasks are
follow:
     Planning and organizing of work in cooperation with superiors;
     Preparation of self, working place and shifts;
     Making of nursing and care of residents in Social Institutions;
     Helping of residents at doing of life activities;
     Acting in unpredictable situations and performing of basic procedures of first aid;
     Encouraging of health ways of living;
     Safe treatment and hygiene maintenance of shifts;
     Controlling an reporting about material quality;
     Recording of services;
     Ensuring of quality and control of own work;
     Maintenance of medical technical and nursing shifts, working tools, instruments and
     apparatuses;
     Cooperating with residents, their relatives, professional and other collaborators;
     Protecting of own health and health of others;
     Protecting of environment in special working conditions.

With regard to nursing and care of residents, their often tasks are follow:
   Orientation measuring and registration of life functions;
   Swaddling of legs, according to medical nurse order;
   Helping at moving and maintaining of residents’ motive abilities;
   Putting of residents in physiologic positions;
   Assistance at putting of residents in therapeutic positions, according to occupational
   therapist’s order;
   Implementing and maintenance of personal hygiene according to residents’ needs;
   Helping at purgation and secretion;
   Assistance at maintenance of social contacts;
   Serving of food;
   Feeding, helping at feeding through mouth in case of normal oesophageal reflexes;
   Cleaning and disinfection of beds;
   Cooperating at care of the dead resident.

Employment possibilities
  Residential care for elderly people, which is implemented through Public Social Security
  Institutions and private institutions with license; work requires IV level of
  pretentiousness.

Educational requirements
   Secondary vocational school (three years).


                                            136
Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Possibility of nurse into more demanding tasks; increasing of role at users’ social
   involvement and socializing; development of special knowledge, as dealing with
   dementia; greater acquaintance with medical problems in case of hurt illness,
   respiratory organs, brain illness, diabetes, motive illness; development of social skills
   towards supporting of residents with their social network, ability of self-evaluation,
   involvement in supervision process.




                                              137
 Social home care worker
(socialna oskrbovalka / socialni
oskrbovalec na domu)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
Social Home Care Workers are key profession within network of community services,
towards helping of users at their independence. Such assistance offers to users a greater
opportunity for staying and living in their homes and local communities.

Social home care workers are implementing follow main tasks:
   Assistance in housekeeping;
   Bringing of prepared meals;
   Assistance at feeding;
   Supplying of provisions and other basic products;
   Preparing of meals;
   Basic cleaning of residential rooms;
   Making of bed and basic maintenance of bedroom;
   Assistance at maintenance of personal hygiene, washing;
   Assistance at dressing and undressing;
   Assistance at vital necessities;
   Maintained and nurse of personal orthopaedic shifts;
   Assistance at keeping of social contacts;
   Support at restoration of environmental social network;
   Cooperation with volunteers and relatives;
   Accompaniment of user in case of urgent obligations;
   Informing of coordinator about the user’s condition and needs.
   Cooperation at preparing of user for other forms of care (residential care).

Employment possibilities
Institutions and units of Social Home Care (public service): homes for elderly people; units
for social home care within Centres for Social Work; private performers with licence and
other private performers with permission for work.
Educational requirements

   Verifiable program within Social Welfare, field of Home Social Care (III. level of
   pretentiousness)
   NVQ (National Vocational Qualification for Social Home Care Worker (certificate) (IV.
   level of pretentiousness)
   Competences for work: pleasure to work with people,
   Ability of empathy, honesty, respect of human dignity, acceptance of different habits,
   organisational abilities, flexibility, initiative approach, hand skills, optimistically
   adjustment, communication skills, patience, tolerance, etc.




                                             138
   Emotional and personal stability, politeness, inventiveness, accuracy, work with feeling,
   skilfulness, rationality, and demarcation between personal and working problems, open
   personality.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
Specialization of Social Care on V. level pretentiousness (more pretentious care, working
with users with complicated health diagnosis, disabilities on which special care is needed
etc.), professional development within long-term care.




                                            139
 Performer of social service
(izvajalka / izvajalec socialnega servisa)
 Working field
   Person related and household related services

 Core tasks
 Social service performers supplement public network of Social Home Care, by organizing of
 additional services, which are available to users in case of extra payment. This is a additional
 way of getting of desired service closer to own home, what affects also on users’ feelings
 about own safety.

 Performers of Social service are implementing first of all follow tasks:
    Encouraging of users towards independence and self-care;
    Involving of users in daily activities;
    Helping of users at their involving in environment, as support for their involving in groups
    for self-help or associations;
    Cooperation at organizing of voluntary activities on users’ homes;
    Associate ship (reading, conversation, walk), informal conversations;
    Accompaniment of users at urgent occupations (doctor, bank);
    Providing of users with prepared meals on their homes;
    Purchase and bringing of provisions and other requisites;
    Preparation of food or other heating, help at acquisition of stores;
    Washing and ironing of linen;
    Maintenance of garden and flat’s surrounding;
    Radically cleaning and repair in apartments, equipment and decoration;
    Accompaniment of users’ visits of shops, performances, relatives or holidays;
    Pedicure, hairdressing and other similar services for nursing of body and maintenance of
    appearance;
    Nursing of domestic animals;
    Controlling of taking of users’ medicaments;
    Guardianship and superintendence of users’ condition (dementia, during night, worsening
    of feeling).

 Employment possibilities
   Social Service (ordered service, not included in public service) – Private initiative within
   Social Welfare field.

 Educational requirements
    Vocational education;
    Verified program within Social Welfare, related to Social Home Care;
    NVQ (National vocational Qualification), Social Home Care worker (certificate);
    Acquisition of permission for work for implementing of Social Service.

 Development and expected changes in the future perspective
 Increasing of cooperation between private performers of Social Service and public organized
 Social Home Care.




                                              140
 Social worker
(socialna delavka / socialni delavec)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
Different programs have been formed within social work with elderly people, including
public institutions and non-governmental organisations as well. Basic issues, with which
social workers are daily faced on this field, are following:
    Distress and troubles of people related to aging and experiencing of oldness;
    Violence to elderly people;
    Material threat;
    Needs to peoples’ placing within residential care, Social Home care and other services
    in local environments;
    Loneliness;
    Disability.

Social workers are working with following methods:
   Counselling;
   Treatment (individual, group);
   Intervention;
   Representation;
   Supply and care.

Employment possibilities
Centre for Social Work; Care Homes for Elderly; Units of Social Home Care; Providing of
programs for elderly people within private and non-governmental organisations.

Educational requirements
Diploma of Social Work (level 6/I, 6/II, 7), professional examination for Social Welfare field.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
Increasing of knowledge from gerontology within study program, development of supporting
methods for work with elderly people, supervision and mediation.




                                              141
 Social worker in institution
(socialna delavka / socialni delavec v
domovih za stare ljudi)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
Regarding the residential care, social worker’s job includes preparation of elderly person for
residential care, for his/her arrival and for residence in residential home. Social workers
tries that maximal life options at each individual are considered in his/her situation.

Social worker’s basic occupations are as following:
   Assistance at sorting of necessary documentation, which is needed for acceptance in
   home and realization of first visit;
   Acceptance of resident;
   Assistance at inclusion in new environment;
   Individual work with residents;
   Psycho-social help related to solving of personal and social distress and troubles;
   Assistance at developing of social contacts with other residents;
   Cooperation with relatives;
   Connecting with other institutions;
   Administration of documentation.

Professional work in social service within residential care is based on three levels:
1. Level: tasks related to applicants and their relatives before the acceptance into
Residential care:
    Survey of received applications;
    Advisory conversation and visiting of applicant in domestic home;
    Field visits for those applicants, who are not movable;
    Sorting out of applicant’s documentation and its preparation for Commission for
    acceptance and dismissal;
    Organising of meetings for applicants and their relatives in Homes for Elderly people,
    aimed at preparing of applicants for home life, presenting of professional services, visits
    of homes themselves;
    Writing of social anamnesis;
    Assistance at applicant and family (sorting of guardianship for special cases, legal
    representative, mandatory, guardianship for person, whose ability to take about own life
    is legally reduced);
    Enforcement of other kind of assistance before acceptance.

2. Level: tasks related to acceptance of new applicant in care home for elderly people:
    Preparation of necessary documentation for acceptance of new applicant;
    Work with new accepted residents in their relatives;
    Acquaintance with professional staff on department;
    Placing of resident in room and acquaintance with cohabitant and to other residents on
    department;

                                              142
   Informing of new resident with certain regulations and instructions (daily rules,
   regulations about paying of services for care, agreement about providing of residential
   care services);
   Signing of certain forms, which are necessary for undisturbed work of professional staff
   for resident’s goods;
   Acquaintance of resident with ways of home’s life, including safety, privacy, resident’s
   rights and duties;
   Dealing with personal matters for residents (personal and health cards, financial issues,
   declaration of permanent or temporary residence, sorting of guardianship);
   Working cooperation in professional team, aimed at dealing with social welfare and
   health issues;
   Connecting with other professional services within home and outside (Centre for Social
   work, Institution for Health Insurance, Institution for pension insurance, hospitals, local
   community);
   Leading of group in home and cooperation related to different home’s events (picnics,
   birthdates of residents, trips);
   Making of reports and statistics.

3. Level: helping of new residents and their relatives towards including and adaptation into
new life environment:
    Voluntariness – development of volunteer work for schoolboys/ schoolgirls and
    students, residents’ relatives and external volunteers (active elderly people);
    Encouraging of residents for involvement in different activities in home;
    Advisory conversations with residents, on individual and group level (more focused to
    personal residents’ issues);
    Organizing of occasional meetings for residents’ relatives;
    Introducing of professional team’s and residents’ work (exhibitions of handwork, work
    with dementia);
    Organizing of different kind of artistic workshops in home, done by external performers;
    Making of individual plans for each new accepted resident and accompaniment of
    outlined objectives.

Employment possibilities
  Social service in care homes for elderly people: Residential care for elderly People is
  implemented through Public Social Security Institutions and private institutions with
  license; works requires VII. level of pretentiousness.

Educational requirements
   Diploma from Social work (level 6/I, 6/II, 7); professional examination for Social Welfare
   field.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Expansion of social work within residential care, aimed at strengthen of individual
   approach at work with residents, followed by increasing of resident’s impact on their
   lives and their quality of life; increasing of social work’ influence.




                                             143
 Occupational Therapist in
institution
(delovna terapevtka / delovni terapevt
v institucionalnem varstvu)
Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Occupational therapist tries to enlarge or activate certain old people’ abilities through
   activities, which are initiated by them. Sometimes occupational therapists’ work includes
   strengthening of certain user’s muscle and skills, sometimes their work request usage of
   certain shifts or adaptation of environments.
   Occupational therapist need to be capable to evaluate users’ limited abilities and their
   wishes to be active, and accordingly motivate them in this respect. Motivation for user is
   something, what need to be highly encouraged.
   Basic tasks of occupational therapist are follow:
   Maintance and learning of daily activities at users (personal hygiene, dressing,
   undressing, feeding), what also includes the training of nurse staff;
   Usage of orthoscopic and orthopaedic shifts (wheelchair and other shifts);
   Functional training after injuries and damages;
   Therapeutic activities including little therapeutic techniques (knitting, crochet, bobbin-
   work, drawing, painting) and other animating activities;
   Housework activities (baking of biscuits);
   Activities for maintance and increasing of cognitive abilities (exercises for training of
   memory);
   Activities for maintance of social contacts (events; occurrence, social meetings, choir,
   home newspaper);
   Usage of tests (CMOP, AMPS).

Employment possibilities
  Residential care homes for elderly people, which is implemented through Public Social
  Security Institutions and private institutions with license.

Educational requirements
   Diploma from Occupational Therapy (level 6/I, 6/II, 7, 8/I), professional examination from
   Health Security field.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Occupational therapists’ flexibility and their expertise, of wide spectrum of human
   functioning (role within society towards individual activity, physical abilities and
   motivation) give them indispensable role in professional groups within health and social
   institutions. They intend to increase their professional role in case of understanding of
   dementia.




                                            144
 Coordinator of Social Home Care
(koordinatorica / koordinator socialne
oskrbe na domu)
Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Coordinators’ work within Social Home Care is oriented towards management and
   professional work. Their basic tasks are follow:
   Finding of needs for social home care service, which need to be ensured within public
   service;
   Consultation with local communities about needs and assurance of sufficient financial
   means;
   Preparation of program for expansion of activity and fulfilment of needs for better quality
   of elderly lives;
   Receiving of orders from interested users and making of agreements about service;
   Accompaniment of changes in users’ needs;
   Preparing of individual helping plans;
   Accompaniment of implemented service on the field;
   Ensuring of protective and other working means for employed staff;
   Arranging of social home care workers’ work;
   Cooperating with other existent performers of help and services in local community;
   Cooperating with users’ relatives;
   Providing of evidence about implemented services and reporting.

Employment possibilities
  Institutions for Social Home Care within Social Welfare field; units of social home care
  within Homes for Elderly people; units of social home care within Centres for social
  work; private performers with licence and other private performers with permission for
  work.

Educational requirements
   Diploma from Social Work or Health Nursing, exceptionally some other diplomas; (level
   6/I, 6/II, 7), professional examination within Social Welfare field, exceptionally Health
   Protection.
   Skills, such as: driving license B category (car); knowledge for work on computer.
   Other demands: complex knowledge from Social gerontology field, experience with
   work with old people.
   Abilities for leading and coordinating, communicative skills, judging of applicants’ right
   for service, accuracy, reliability, emotional stability.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Giving bigger attention to promoting of service among potential users; efforts for
   development of Social care profession, including strengthening of organisational issues
   and cadre issues (organisational improvements, reducing of working stress and rising of
   occupational diseases).




                                             145
Operator for long distance help
(operaterka / operater pomoči na
daljavo)
Working field
  Person related services (technical)

Core tasks
   Operator’s work is based in technological equipped room, where he/she is connected
   with users by using special telephonic line. Contacting with users through this line
   guarantee them distance help.
   Basic operator’s tasks are as following:
   Receiving of the users’ calls, coordination and organizing of relevant help;
   Coordination with performers of intervention on the field and other included services at
   users’ care;
   Periodic restoration of contacts with users, accompaniment of their condition and acting;
   Offering of social support to users and their social network;
   Administration and updating of evidence about service’s right;
   Restoration and administration of evidences about technical equipment and periodic
   checking of its functioning;
   Administration and updating the base of data about service performers in local
   environment;
   Acquisition of information about service performers in local communities and their
   mediation to users;
   Effort for constant individual and organizational improving the quality;
   Helping at harmonization of Social Home Care implementation at involved users.

Employment possibilities
  Social service in Social Welfare field; Centres for Social Home Care.

Educational requirements
   Secondary general or professional education (V. level),
   Training for work with operating system,
   Knowing the programmed tools for computer work,
   Knowledge within fields of first aid, gerontology, technical and other shifts for users with
   special needs,
   Skills: communicational skills, accuracy, reliability, tolerance, kindness, emotional
   stability, ability of fast judgment and deciding, flexibility, organisational skills.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Development of more kind technology for users; placing of service within public service
   for Social Home Care (the service is currently payable by users).




                                              146
 Telephonic counsellor for elderly
(svetovalka / svetovalec na telefonu
za starejše ljudi in njihove svojce)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Program is oriented towards elderly people and their relatives. Program is based on
   telephonic counselling, which is guided by trained counsellors, partly within their formal
   employment, partly as volunteers.
   Telephonic counsellor’s key tasks are as following:
   Informing of elderly and their relatives, including their confrontation with distress, related
   to their oldness, enforcement of rights regarding decision for residential care, social
   home care, connecting with networks for self-care in communities;
   Supporting to old people in distress, as a result of their exclusion, negligence, violence
   and other kind of personal shocks;
   Supplementing of list with existed rights of old people within Social Welfare, Health
   Protection and other fields
   Updating of data about public network with addressees and contacts, which are
   available for users;
   Cooperating in conversation and constant answering (also by mail, if necessary) and
   summarizing of notes with our answers, with which we answered to user:
   Involvement in intervision (peer consulting) and supervision advanced improving of
   quality.

Employment possibilities
  Non-governmental sector: Networks of developmental and experimental programs
  within Social Welfare field.

Educational requirements
   Diploma (level 6/I, 6/II, 7) knowledge, skills and competences within counselling area,
   experience with work with old people, knowing of systems; Social Welfare, Health
   Protection, Pension and Invalid Protection.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Spreading of knowledge from professional fields as gerontology, counselling,
   connecting with other services.




                                              147
 Volunteers
(voditeljica / voditelj skupin starih ljudi
za samopomoč)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
Elderly people Self-help Group is a coincidental group of collected individuals – elderly with
the aim to become a lasting and friendly group. Provider of such groups is a qualified
leader, who is responsible for satisfaction of nonmaterial following needs:
    Basic of interpersonal relation;
    Experiencing of oldness’ sense;
    Connectedness of all three generations.
Leader is animating users towards different activities, on which outcomes some other
aspects are taking place simultaneously, such as:
    Solving of problems, related to users’ loneliness;
    Reducing of social distress;
    Development of self-help, solidarity and mutual help;
    Strengthening and spreading of social network;
    Maintenance of psychophysical activity;
    Acceptance and preparation on oldness;
    Encouraging of voluntary work;
    Encouraging of synergy between generations and solidarity;
    Connecting of professional services of public sector with Non-Governmental sector;
    Making of interlacement of professional and voluntary work.

Employment possibilities
  Voluntary sector: Social Welfare –self-help groups for elderly

Educational requirements
   Training for leading self-help groups for elderly

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   To increase the connectedness of elderly for self-help groups with other similar
   programs, which are preparing, developing and implementing by different Non-
   Governmental Organisations.




                                             148
      SPAIN



Nurse (Enfermeiro)

Home Carer (Auxiliar de Apoio Domiciliario)

Geriatric Auxiliary (Gerocultor)

Nursing Care Technician
(Técnico de cuidados auxiliares de enfermagem)
Social Worker (Trabalhador Social)

Occupational Therapist (Terapeuta Ocupacional)

Physiotherapist (Fisioterapeuta)

Speech and language therapist (Terapeuta da Fala)

General Service Assistant (Ajudante de Serviços Gerais)

Psychologist (Psicologo)

Doctor (Médico)

Director of Day Care Centre and Home Care Centre
(Director de Centro de Dia ou Centro Residencial)




                     149
 Nurse (Enfermeiro)
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Collaborating in the implementation of the Individual Care Plan.
   Working with health services.
   Collaborating when the client/patient needs to do complementary medical exams or
   any external consultation prescribed by the physician.
   Preparing and administering medication as prescribed.
   Monitoring patient’s daily hygiene.
   Bandaging and nursing consultation.
   Ordering pharmacy supplies.
   Training professionals concerning sanitary aspects.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Home, Day Care Centres, Home Care Services, Rehabilitation Centres, Day
  Hospitals, Health Services

Educational requirements
   A nursing degree

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a steady demand for professionals in this sector.




                                        150
 Home Carer
 (Auxiliar de Apoio Domiciliario)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   The Professional who, under supervision from Home Help Coordination Team, provides
   caring duties (personal or domestic) at the client’s home.

   Carrying out the personal care plan, accomplishing its goals.
   Helping in daily activities (hygiene, food, dressing, etc.)
   Escorting the client/patient.
   Administering medication or performing treatments prepared by the nurse or as
   prescribed by the doctor.
   Providing domestic tasks that are essential to the client/patient’s life quality.
   Collaborating with the different professionals from the Team, according to competencies
   and specific training.

Employment possibilities
  Home Help Services

Educational requirements
   Compulsory Education and vocational training courses and interdisciplinary continuous
   training.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There will be a great demand within the scope of the Autonomy and Dependency Care
   System.




                                           151
 Geriatric Auxiliary (Gerocultor)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   It is the professional who cares directly for the elderly in care homes and day care
   centres.
   Playing a part in tasks planning.
   Providing hygiene, food, recreation and transportation care.
   Assisting in the care service to family members and in the psycho-educational groups to
   family.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes and Day Care Centres

Educational requirements
   Vocational Training Course

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There will be a great demand within the scope of the Autonomy and Dependency Care
   System.




                                           152
 Nursing Care Technician
(Técnico de cuidados auxiliares de
enfermagem)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   The Professional who provides directly sanitary activities and assistance to the
   Institution.
   Assisting the client/patient in his/her daily activities (hygiene, food, transportation,
   dressing, going to the bathroom, changing his/her position, etc.)
   Escorting the client/patient when needed and helping in free time management.
   Administering oral medication or performing treatments prepared by the nurse.
   Collaborating with the different professionals from the various services to carry out the
   personal care plan.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Day Care Centres, Rehabilitation Centres, Day Hospitals

Educational requirements
   Vocational Training Course in Nursing Care Technician

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There will be a great demand within the scope of the Autonomy and Dependency Care
   System.




                                             153
 Social Worker (Trabalhador Social)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
The social worker informs, assists and guides people concerning the social resources;
develops activities stimulating a good relationship between people; promotes conflict
resolution; develops action plans along with other professionals in social and health medical
services.
   Gathering social information about the client/patient and his/her family.
   Doing socio-economic studies of the clients/patients.
   Providing information concerning the available services.

In a Nursing Home:
    Welcoming the elderly and following closely their integration process.
    Informing about the services available in the nursing home, their procedures and
    conditions, putting the elderly and their family in contact with the person in charge of
    each area.
    Making the information and communication between the elderly – family – nursing home
    easy when necessary and regarding the autonomy level of the elderly.
    Creating and implementing personal care plans, in collaboration with the different
    departments, in order to make the integration and ability development of the elderly
    easy.
    Doing individual social work, through active listening, aiming to find solutions for each
    problem.
    Managing pocket money or doing the shopping for those who are more dependent.
    Informing the different services about those people who can have leisure and free time
    activities.
    Organising recreational activities in collaboration with the other departments, such as
    the occupational therapy department.
    Informing and assisting families when the elderly die.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Day Care Centres, Rehabilitation Centres, Health Medical Services,
  Home Care Services

Educational requirements
   A degree in Social Work
   Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There’s always a great demand in this social area.




                                            154
 Occupational Therapist
(Terapeuta Ocupacional)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
Occupational Therapy is a socio-sanitary discipline that evaluates people’s ability to
perform their daily activities (food, personal hygiene, self-care, etc.) and instrumental
activities (housework, shopping, using money, etc.).
    Assessing the client/patient’s level of independence and autonomy.
    Teaching how to use technical help and prosthetics to improve the client/patient’s
    personal independence and autonomy.
    Training the professionals (auxiliary) who work directly with the client/patient.
    Assessing homes and improves their access.
    Performing personal or group treatments.
    Training and assisting families.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Day Care Centres, Rehabilitation Centres, Day Hospitals, Health
  Medical Services

Educational requirements
   A degree in Occupational Therapy

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There will be a great demand within the scope of the Autonomy and Dependency Care
   System.




                                              155
 Physiotherapist (Fisioterapeuta)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Using physiotherapy techniques.
   Doing physiotherapy treatments under physician supervision.
   Assessing and monitoring treatments.
   Advising other professionals about mobilisation and treatments when           there
   physiotherapy techniques are involved.
   Assisting and collaborating in treatment revision and assessment sessions.
   Playing a part in training and information plans to the families.
   Prescribing technical help.
   Playing a part in training other professionals.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Home, Day Care Centres, Rehabilitation Centres, Day Hospitals, and Health
  Services.

Educational requirements
   A physiotherapy degree

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There will be a great demand within the scope of the Autonomy and Dependency Care
   System.




                                         156
 Speech and language therapist
(Terapeuta da Fala)

Working field
   Person related services
Core tasks
The speech and language therapist is the professional specialised in human
communication problems.
   Assessing speech and language competences and those of the speech and food
   organs.
   Helping speech, language, feeding and voice problems.
   Helping reading and writing problems.
   Helping cognitive difficulties (thought and memory).
   Training the other team professionals.

Employment possibilities
  Rehabilitation Centres, Nursing Homes, Home Care Services, Day Care Centres

Educational requirements
   A degree in Speech and Language Therapy

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There will be a great demand within the scope of the Autonomy and Dependency Care
   System.




                                         157
 General Service Assistant
 (Ajudante de Serviços Gerais)

Working field
  household related services

Core tasks
   Performing basic kitchen services, following instructions from the technicians.
   Cleaning of the institution.
   Maintaining cleaning, machines, fixed installations and their accessories.
   Providing canteen and room table service.
   Laundry

Employment possibilities
  Day Care Centres, Rehabilitation Centres, Day Hospitals, Medical Centres.

Educational requirements
   Primary schooling or equivalent.

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
There’s a steady demand within the scope of the Autonomy and Dependency Care System,
as they are a key part for these institutions to work




                                            158
 Psychologist (Psicologo)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Doing mind evaluations to the patient.
   Interviewing the families.
   Identifying his/her psychological necessities.
   Prevention and treatment of depression, etc.
   Creating specific action plans according to the patient’s condition (old people with and
   without cognitive decline, disabled people, and people with mental illness).
   Creating a set of actions to best adapt the elderly to a Nursing Home, such as
   psychological evaluation regarding the change of environment, the social pattern, etc.
   Creating new strategies to improve the patient’s memory and language.
   Creating strategies to improve the patient’s social competences.
   Training the other professionals so that they can deal better with the client’s problems,
   in general and in particular.
   Collaborating in the creation and implementation of the Personal Care Plans.
   Preventing, evaluating and taking action when professionals are burned-out.
   Supporting the families and carers.
   Supporting psychological-educational and psychotherapeutic groups and groups of
   mutual help.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Day Care Centres, Rehabilitation Centres, Home Care Services, Day
  Hospitals, Private Clinics

Educational requirements
   A Degree or PhD in Clinical Psychology

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   Because of the Dependency Law there will be a demand for more interdisciplinary
   teams. Professionals should specialise in the various areas of Social Care.




                                             159
 Doctor (Médico)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Doing medical evaluations and diagnosis according to the evaluation.
   Asking for medical exams to help diagnosis.
   Working with local health medical services whenever necessary and in the patient’s
   best interest.
   Selecting and recommending drug therapies and other appropriate therapies
   according to the patient’s disease, illness or injury.
   Monitoring the nurses’ work.

Employment possibilities
  Nursing Homes, Rehabilitation Centres, Day Care Centres.

Educational requirements
   A Medical Degree (MD) or PhD




                                           160
Director of Day Care Centre and
Home Care Centre
(Director de Centro de Dia ou Centro
Residencial)

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Representing the Institution Centre and Management.
   Applying the procedure rules of the Centre and cooperating with official institutions.
   Advising and assisting according to his/her competences in participation organs, using
   all personnel and technical resources from the Centre.
   Implementing, organising and coordinating duties of the professionals, aiming to
   accomplish Centre’s goals.
   Managing Centre’s personnel.
   Any other task asked for his/her superiors regarding the Centre’s needs.
   Responsible for communicating to the Board of the Institution all issues regarding the
   Centre.
   Cooperating with the client/patient’s family in solving his/her adaptation and social re-
   adaptation problems.
   Organising and updating each client/patient’s record, which has the confidential
   information.
   Promoting a proper relationship between the staff and the clients/patients.
   Ensuring that the food is cooked and served properly and in best conditions, preparing
   menu plans along with the technicians.
   Asking the Board for new items or equipment necessary to the Centre.
   Suggesting and asking the Board for repairs when needed.
   Collaborating in the staff assessment and suggesting wages according to job and
   function.
   Suggesting personnel admission when needed.
   Suggesting for personnel admission when there are long-term absences of staff
   members.

Employment possibilities
  Home Care Centres, Day Care Centres, Home Care Services, Rehabilitation Centres.

Educational requirements
   A degree

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   In Spain institutional resources are still scarce, so the demand will rise.




                                              161
 SWEDEN




Nurse (Sjuksysteer)

Assistant Nurse (Sjukbiträde)

Social welfare officer (Socialarbetare)

Occupational therapist (Yrkesrådgivare)

Physiotherapist (Fysioterapist)




                 162
 Nurse (Sjuksysteer)

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
All the medical tasks:
     care of wounds
     distribution of medicine
     responsibility for documentation
     handle the aid to elderly people

Employment possibilities
  care for the elderly
  medical responsibility for elderly people within home help
  care homes for elderly

Educational requirements
   Higher education, 3 years
   Applying for promotion to supervisory position, supervisor of a district or head of a care
   home for elderly




                                             163
 Assistant Nurse (Sjukbiträde)

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
   Washing clothes
   Cleaning apartment
   Home care service
   Preparing meals
   Support when shopping, errands, chemist, post,
   Accompanying service: visiting hospital, recreation activities, visiting graves of the family
   Emergency call system for the home
   Arranging craftsmen

Employment possibilities
  24 hour supported living service
  Home help
  Care homes for elderly

Educational requirements
   The Health Care Programme, 3 years, Upper secondary school or Adult education, 1
   year, studying only the subjects specific to the programme
   Can’t be promoted to a supervisory position without higher education




                                              164
 Social welfare officer
(Socialarbetare)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Therapeutically talks
   Guidance
   Economy

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  Home help
  Care home for elderly
  Economy
  Applying for promotion to supervisory position, supervisor of social welfare officers in
  the municipality

Educational requirements
   Graduate from a School of Social Studies, 3 years




                                             165
 Occupational therapist
(Yrkesrådgivare)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Working in team with the physiotherapist
   Making apartment suitable for disabled elderly people
   Working with fine motor ability
   Prescribing aid for everyday life like bathroom, cups, walking fames

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  Rehabilitation
  Home help
  Care home for elderly
  Applying for promotion to supervisory position, supervisor of rehabilitation, head of a
  unity within elder care

Educational requirements
   Higher education, 3 years




                                            166
 Physiotherapist (Fysioterapist)

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Consultations,
   Working in team with the occupational therapist
   Trying out and writing out aid like walking fames
   Ergonomic examination

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  Rehabilitation
  Home help
  Care home for elderly

Educational requirements
   Higher education, 3 years
   Applying for promotion to supervisory position, supervisor of rehabilitation, head of a unity
   within care for the elder




                                             167
          UK



Registered nurse

Care assistant

Home carer

Overnight care service

Handy person

Activities organizer

Housekeeper

Kitchen staff

Cleaner

Meals at home

Care home manager

Administrative assistant

Concierge

Volunteers




                       168
 Registered nurse
Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Working out care plans for residents
   Working with external agencies e.g. doctor, social work, dentist, chiropodist etc.
   Discussing residents health with doctors and with relatives
   Keeping records of residents’ treatment and progress
   Administration of medicine for residents

Employment possibilities
   Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
   These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
   specifically for this purpose
   Promotion to Deputy Care Manager or Manager
   Additional responsibility element for training new staff

Educational requirements
   3 year Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE) in nursing – entry requirements at least 5
   Standard grades, but 2 Highers are preferred. An Access course or a National Certificate
   (NC) in pre-nursing may also give entry
   3-4 year degree in nursing. Entry requirements 2-4 Highers, preferably including English
   and a science subject
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) has placed the pre-registration
   degree programmes in nursing at Level 8 Honours Bachelor Degree (NQAI, 2004).
   The academic award is Bachelor of Science (BSc)
   With a degree in a biological or behavioural science, application can be made for a
   shortened course
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   In 2007 there was still a shortage of more than 3,000 nurses in Scotland. Figures also
   show that in general the nursing workforce is ageing, with over 15,000 working nurses
   aged over 50. One in ten nurses is expected to retire in the next five years. Demand for
   nurses is therefore expected to continue to grow
   British nursing qualifications are recognised in many overseas countries, so working
   abroad is possible
   Of all the branches of nursing, adult nursing offers the best chances of employment and
   is the most acceptable qualification abroad




                                            169
 Care assistant

Working field
  Primary care sector

Core tasks
   Helping with physical tasks and giving social and emotional support helping residents
   with personal care and being a friend to them – listening to their concerns and
   discussing any worries
   Arranging social events and activities for residents
   Making sure the residents cared for are not abused in any way
   Helping draw up, and review, care plans for the residents

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  With experience and further training become a senior care assistant, a supervisor or a
  senior manager is an option
  Take further qualifications to become a social worker or a nurse

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 and 3 Health and Social Care
   Some employers prefer a National Qualification (NQ) or National Certificate (NQ) in
   Care
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 4 / Level 5
   Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   Manual Handing Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland

Development and expected changes in the future perspective
   There is a steady demand for care assistants and, as the number of older people
   increases, this is likely to continue. A lot of jobs are part time and involve shift work.




                                               170
 Home carer

Working field
  Person related and household related services

Core tasks
Home Care covers a range of tasks including:
   Assistance with personal care including washing and dressing
   Assistance in getting ready for, and into and out of, bed
   Assistance with laundry
   Assistance with shopping
   Assistance with a range of practical/domestic tasks
   Help with meal preparation

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.
  Applying for promotion to a supervisory position.

Educational requirements
   A good general education is useful.
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 and 3 Health and Social Care
   Some employers prefer a National Qualification (NQ) or National Certificate (NQ) in
   Care
   Driving licence for travel to residents’ homes
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             171
 Overnight care service

Working field
  Person related services and primary care sector

Core tasks
Visit the person at home through the night and provide the following support:
    Assistance to go to bed
    Assistance to toilet
    Assistance with catheter care
    Assistance with skin care

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.
  With experience and further training become a care assistant or supervisor
  Take further qualifications to become a social worker or a nurse

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 and 3 Health and
   Social Care
   Some employers prefer a National Qualification (NQ) or National
   Certificate (NQ) in Care
   It helps if you have a driving licence and for some jobs it is essential.
   Manual Handing Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                              172
 Handy person

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
To provide help with small repairs in the homes of older people, for example:
   Fixing a leaky tap
   Putting up shelves
   Changing a light bulb or fuse
   Repairing or replacing locks

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.

There is little scope for promotion. A supervisory post or trainers role may become available

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   trade papers e.g. electrician, plumber, joiner
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   A driving licence is useful for travel to residents’ homes
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             173
 Activities organizer

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
   Working with staff and residents to find out what they need and selecting and organising
   activities
   Arranging publicity and promotion including writing press releases and organising
   tickets
   Arranging for stand design, catering, reception, speakers, transport, accommodation,
   lighting and sound systems and any special equipment
   Checking that health and safety regulations are complied with and arranging security
   Keeping records of bookings and arrangements
   Making sure that the event goes smoothly and within budget and arranging for the
   venue to be cleared on time at the end
   Evaluating the event and producing report
   Doing research to identify potential new activities
   Driving mini bus

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  There is no clear promotion structure. Progression may occur by being involved in more
  than one home within the company or more than one company

Educational requirements
   Initial training is by short courses in areas such as customer care, sales, marketing, IT
   and finance
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             174
 Housekeeper

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Label residents laundry for easy identification
   Collect soiled laundry from residents’ rooms
   Familiarity with the machinery in the small laundry room
   Wash and dry laundry
   Press and hang laundry
   Return clean laundry to residents’ rooms

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  There is little scope for promotion. If the job involves a group of homes a supervisory
  post may become available
  The Guild of Cleaners and Launderers run a Qualification Star scheme which can
  include separate practical certificates and theoretical exams

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQs) Level 2 Laundry Operations or Laundry
   Service Support and Level 2 Dry Cleaning Operations or Dry Cleaning Service Support
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                            175
 Kitchen staff

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Planning out a range of meals (a menu), a whole meal or part of a meal
   Listing the ingredients, planning the quantities, fitting the costs to the budget, and
   arranging to buy them
   Organising other members of the kitchen staff, making sure that each part of the meal
   will be ready at the right time
   Using a variety of methods for cooking, food storage and food preparation
   Preparing and cooking the whole meal or being part of a kitchen team
   Experimenting with developing new recipes

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care:
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  apply for promotion to depute head cook or head cook

Educational requirements
   National Certificate (NC) or Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) in hospitality or food
   preparation and cooking or professional cookery
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   Basic Food Hygiene Certificate
   First Aid Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             176
 Cleaner

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Scrubbing, mopping, sweeping, vacuuming or polishing stone, wooden, carpeted or lino
   floors
   Dusting, waxing or polishing furniture and windows, washing walls, cleaning ovens,
   cleaning toilets and emptying bins
   Using dusters, brushes, mops, pails of water, detergents, disinfectants, vacuum
   cleaners, electric floor scrubbers and polishers
   Move furniture around to clean underneath
   Doing a fuller cleaning for a special occasion: washing walls, paintwork and
   shampooing carpets

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  Apply for promotion to a supervisory position
  Become self employed

Educational requirements
   A good general education is useful.
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             177
 Meals at home

Working field
  Household related services

Core tasks
   Driving a meal delivery van
   Liaising with residents
   Form completion / admin tasks

Employment possibilities
  Care for the elderly
  24 Hour Supported Living Service
  The main aim of this service is to enable individuals to live, with support, in their own
  homes and communities.
  Supervisor post or trainer’s role

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Basic Food Hygiene Certificate
   A driving licence essential for travel to residents’ homes
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                             178
 Care home manager

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Promote a caring environment for clients through the provision of high standards of
   professional practise which are conducive to the physical, emotional, social, intellectual
   and spiritual needs of the clients
   Ensure the care home is managed to care commission standards
   Comply with all company policies and procedures, regulations and statute to ensure the
   highest possible regulatory rating
   Maintain sound working relationships with regulators, GPs associated with the home
   and other appropriate outside agencies
   Keep the Manager informed promptly of all significant matters relating to the Home.
   Assume 24/7 accountability for the home, delegating as appropriate when not
   personally on site. Visit all areas of operation in the Home at frequent and regular
   intervals, demonstrating personal visibility and availability, including night and weekend
   visits if necessary
   Monitor the physical maintenance of the home, liaising with the Regional Manager as
   necessary for recommendations for expenditure
   Selection and appointment of staff in accordance with statutory and regulatory
   constraints. Staff induction, training, supervision and appraisal
   Ensure that the home is well promoted in the local community
   Maintain contacts list and follow up all enquiries from potential residents
   Manage the home in line with budget, or seek approval before any departure from
   budget assumptions occurs

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care:
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose.
  An experienced care manager can apply for promotion to managerial posts - senior
  care manager, principal care manager, service manager, assistant director and director
  Train as a trainer or assessor of other care workers

Educational requirements
   Relevant qualification such as a degree or diploma in social work, nursing, or
   occupational therapy
   3 year Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE) in nursing – entry requirements at least 5
   Standard grades, but 2 Highers are preferred. An Access course or a National
   Certificate (NC) in pre-nursing may also give entry
   3-4 year degree in nursing. Entry requirements 2-4 Highers, preferably including English
   and a science subject
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 4 Registered Manager in Health and
   Social Care or else Health and Social Care
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) has placed the pre-registration
   degree programmes in nursing at Level 8 Honours Bachelor Degree (NQAI, 2004).The
   academic award is Bachelor of Science (BSc)
   Training in counselling is useful

                                             179
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




 Administrative assistant

Working field
  Other working field (administrative)

Core tasks
   Organising the day-to-day work of the office
   Setting up office procedures and systems
   Organising residents’ care charges and billing
   Dealing with purchases and invoices
   Reviewing office budgets and payroll systems
   Introducing new technology to the office
   Writing and distributing reports and memos to staff
   Arranging diaries, meetings and discussing business with senior staff

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  Office manager for the company
  Training of staff in new IT systems
  New staff induction opportunities

Educational requirements
   Upgrading from being a clerical or administrative assistant
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ), National Certificate or National Qualification
   (NC or NQ) or Higher National Certificate (HNC) in business administration or a similar
   subject
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   HNC or Higher National Diploma (HND) or a degree in administration or business
   studies before entering your first job
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 7 Ordinary
   Bachelor Degree
   IT skills
   A driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                            180
 Concierge

Working field
  Company related services

Core tasks
   Opening up the buildings in the morning and locking them up at night
   Cleaning and maintaining common areas such as entrances, stairs and lifts
   Operating the heating, lighting and alarm systems, switching them on and off from a
   central point and setting timers
   Carrying out minor repairs and reporting major problems
   Ordering fuel and equipment
   Looking after security in the buildings and monitoring visitors both face to face and by
   CCTV
   Acting as key holder, dealing with emergencies such as burglaries at night
   Operating the switchboard, passing on messages, accepting deliveries and distributing
   mail
   Keeping the garden areas tidy

Employment possibilities
  Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
  These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
  specifically for this purpose
  There is little scope for promotion. If the job involves a group of homes a supervisory
  post may become available

Educational requirements
   A good general education
   First Aid Certificate
   Manual Handling Certificate
   Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) Level 2 Cleaning and Support Services
   (Caretaking)
   The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) places at Level 3 Certificate,
   Junior Certificate / Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate
   Driving licence is useful and may be essential for some jobs
   An enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland




                                            181
 Volunteers

Working field
  Person related services

Core tasks
Professional and group advocacy for people over the age of 65 years
   To be involved in the assessment/review process for residents
   To listen to the resident
   To support the resident in engagements with organisations that have power over them
   To be the resident’s voice and offer support to help him/her make decisions
   To give information to help the resident make his/her decision
   To be loyal to the resident
   To express the wishes, needs and opinions of the resident
   Offer advice on benefits or legal issues where appropriate

Employment possibilities
   Care/Nursing Home and Residential Care
   These homes provide 24 hour support to people in accommodation that is designed
   specifically for this purpose
Development Opportunities in a range of Advocacy roles e.g.
   Professional Advocate- usually paid but can be a volunteer, providing support on
   specific issues, usually for a limited time.
   Citizen Advocate-ordinary, unpaid citizens, supporting only one person over a longer
   period.
   Work for an organisation e.g. Age Concern
   Train as an Advocacy Trainer

Educational requirements
   Good general education
   Advocacy Training
   Counselling Skills




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