Andrew Jackson

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					Andrew Jackson
           The Battle of New Orleans
       1814 British begin plans to invade the U.S. from the
        south
       General Andrew Jackson\
    –     nicknamed “old Hickory” because of his toughness
    –     Led his forces against 8,000 British soldiers
       January 8, 1815
    –     Battle of New Orleans begins
    –     Jackson uses guerrilla tactics to fight the British
    –     2,000 British killed or wounded
    –     20 Americans killed or wounded
       Battle actually occurred 2 weeks after the war had
        ended
            The Age of Jackson

       The People’s President
    –       1826
        •    Thomas Jefferson dies at age 83
        •    John Adams dies at age 91
       Broadening Political Power

 New voices From the West
 – Declaration of Independence: All men are
   created equal
 – small group of white men were making all
   government decisions
          Broadening Political Power
    Western lands growing in population and power
    –   Westerners viewed “self-made” people with respect
        and put less stock in those of inherited wealthy
        families
    –   frontier life taught valuable life lessons on
        cooperation and facing hardships
    –   right to vote given to all white men not just rich
        property owners, tax payers, or religious affiliation
    –   eastern states begin to adopt the same principles
    1830s: number of eligible voters dramatically
     increased by 18
       Limits on the Vote (1820-
       1830)
 Free African-Americans lost right to vote
 Women, Native Americans, and slaves
   had no voting rights
       An End to the “King Caucus”

 candidates were decided in a closed
  caucus or political meeting
 party leaders were in charge of the caucus
  and nominated their own candidates
 practice became known as King Caucus
  candidates because of the closed nature of
  the selection process
        An End to the “King Caucus”

 nominating conventions
 – party leaders begin to listen to the voice of the
    new voters
 – nominating process became more open
 – delegates from each state cast votes for
    candidates
 expanded selection process increased
    voter turnout from 27% to 80%
       The Disputed Election of 1824

 The Candidates
 – Henry Clay from Kentucky (west)
 – Andrew Jackson from Tennessee (west)
 – John Quincy Adams from Massachusetts
   (east)
 – William Crawford from Georgia (south)
         The Disputed Election of 1824

 The Candidates
 – Henry Clay from Kentucky (west)
     •   friendly and outgoing
     •   liked by most people
     •   Great Negotiator nicknamed “The Great
         Compromiser”
     •   Member of the House of Representatives
       The Disputed Election of 1824

 The Candidates
 – Andrew Jackson from Tennessee (west)
 – Hero of the Battle of New Orleans
 – symbol of the self-made frontiersman
 – land and slave owner
 – able to relate to the “common man”
       The Disputed Election of 1824

 The Candidates
 – John Quincy Adams from Massachusetts
   (east)
 – son of John Adams
 – Secretary of State for James Monroe
 – disliked by many people
       The Disputed Election of 1824

 The Candidates
 – William Crawford from Georgia (south)
 – longtime member of Congress
 – Secretary of Treasury for James Monroe
       The “Corrupt Bargain”

 Jackson wins popular vote in 1824
 None of the 4 candidates won an electoral
  vote majority
 Election ends in a tie and decided in the
  House of Representatives
       The “Corrupt Bargain”

 Henry Clay had least amount of votes is
  out of the race
 William Crawford becomes ill and drops
  out of the race
       The “Corrupt Bargain”

 Henry Clay threw his support to Adams
 – Adams won the election and chose Clay as
   Secretary of State
 – Adams and Clay accused stealing the election
   in a corrupt bargain
 “Clay shines and stinks lie a rotten
   mackerel by moonlight” (John Randolph
   of Virginia)
       New Political Parties

 Democratic-Republican Party splits apart
   after the 1824 election
      New Political Parties

 National Republican Party
 – supported Adams and Clay
 – Eastern business owners
 – former Federalists
       New Political Parties

 Democratic Party
 – Andrew Jackson supporters
 – origin of today’s Democratic Party
 – southern plantation owners
       President from the West

 Jackson defeated Adams in a landslide
 Supported by new voters, city residents
   from the east, farmers in the south, and
   settlers from the west
        A New Spirit in the White House

   Jackson’s wife, Rachel died shortly
    before his inauguration
            A New Spirit in the White House

       The Spoils System
    –     Rewards for Victory
    –     Jackson had a very vindictive spirit
    –     Jackson fired many government workers when he
          took office
    –     “To the victor belong the spoils”
    –     Jackson began taking revenge on his political
          enemies by awarding jobs to his supporters
       Practice becomes known as the Spoils System
            A New Spirit in the White House

       An Unofficial Cabinet
       Kitchen Cabinet: personal advisors to
        Jackson
    –     Jackson relied on his own personal
          advisors rather than listen to the advice of
          his appointed official cabinet
    –     Jackson stated: “I do what I think is right
          and care nothing about what others may
          think about it”
        War With the Bank

 Shutting Down the Bank
 – National Bank started under George
    Washington by Alexander Hamilton
 – Andrew Jackson believed in limited
    government and wants to shut it down
 – All Federal money was deposited in the
    National Bank
 – National Bank controlled all of the credit and
    the amount state banks received
       War With the Bank

 Shutting Down the Bank
 – National Bank was hated by farmers (major
    Jackson supporters) and Andrew Jackson
       War With the Bank

 Shutting Down the Bank
 – Nicholas Biddle
 – National Bank President since 1823
 – Biddle asks Congress to renew National Bank
    Charter in 1832
       War With the Bank

 Shutting Down the Bank
 – Henry Clay pushed the National Bank Bill
    through Congress to try and push Jackson out
    of office during next election
        War With the Bank

 Shutting Down the Bank
 – If Jackson signed the bill he would loose
    support in the South and West
 – If Jackson vetoed the bill he would loose
    support of eastern business owners
 Jackson vetoed the bill and claimed the
   National Bank was corrupt and anti-
   American
        War With the Bank

 Jackson re-elected in a landslide in 1832
 – Jackson orders Secretary of Treasury Roger
    Taney to move federal funds from National
    Bank to specific state banks called Pet Banks
 – Nicholas Biddle attempted to restrict the
    amount of money taken out
 – Loss of federal funds and no new charter shut
    down the National Bank in 1836
          Crisis and Conflict

       The Tariff of Abominations
    –    1828: imported goods tax passed by
         Congress
    –    price of imported goods rose
          Crisis and Conflict

       The Tariff of Abominations
       Western farmers and eastern merchants
    –     American goods become cheaper
    –     favor the tax
          Crisis and Conflict

       The Tariff of Abominations
       Southern farmers
    –    depended on foreign imports (Civil War)
    –    southern good became more expensive
    –    opposed the tax
    –    call it the Tariff of Abominations
        The Argument for States’ Rights

 John Calhoun (Vice-President)
 – U.S. is a union between sovereign states
 – States have a right to nullify any federal law
 – States have a right to limit the Federal
    Government
        The Argument in Favor of the Union


 Daniel Webster, Massachusetts Senator
 – States’ Rights threaten the viability of the
   U.S.
 – “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one
   and inseparable
       Jackson vs. Calhoun

 States Rights supporters invite President
   Jackson to a dinner
  –   Jackson: “Our Federal Union must be
      preserved”
  –   John Calhoun: “The Union, next to our liberty
      the most dear”
 John Calhoun resigned as V.P. replaced
   by Martin van Buren
                Nullification Crisis

 Southern states continue to be angry over
  taxes passed by Congress
 Nullification Act
  –   Passed by South Carolina
  –   Declared Federal tariff to be null and void
  –   South Carolina threatened to secede from the
      U.S. if their state law was challenged by the
      Federal Government
              Nullification Crisis

 President Jackson threatened to use force
   to uphold Federal law
               Nullification Crisis

 1833 Compromise Tariff (Civil War in 30
   years)
  –   Proposed by Henry Clay
  –   Passed by Congress
  –   South Carolina accepted the compromise and
      repealed the Nullification Act
             Nullification Crisis

 Concept of secession begins to take hold
   in the south
        A Tragic Policy for Native Americans


 President Jackson vs. Native Americans
 – Sided with settlers and removal of Native
    Americans to lands west of the Mississippi
    River
 – Believed Native Americans should give up
    their lands to settlers and would live more
    freely west of the Mississippi
        A Tragic Policy for Native Americans


 1820s: about 120,000 Native Americans
  still east of the Mississippi River
 Southern cotton farmers wanted their rich
  land that would support their crops
 Began forcing Native American to trade
  their lands for land west of the Mississippi
  River
                      Resistance

 Cherokee Indians
 – Believed if they became “civilized” and
   adopted many “white customs’ that they
   would be accepted and left alone
 – developed a constitution, complex system of
   writing, newspapers (Cherokee Phoenix),
   and other things similar to southern settlers
 – believed they had the same rights as all
   Americans and as an independent nation
         Appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court

 Georgia claimed right to Cherokee Lands
 Georgia claimed right to make laws for all
  Cherokees
 Cherokee claimed rights that were promised by
  Federal Treaties as sovereign, self0ruling nation
 Chief Justice John Marshall sided with the
  Cherokee
 President Jackson sided with Georgia and
  ignored the U.S. Supreme Court
                The Trail of Tears

 Indian Removal Act of 1830
 – Federal $ to remove Native American west of
    the Mississippi
 – Native Americans refuse to recognize the law
 – President Jackson sent U.S. Army to enforce
    the law
 – Native Americans forced to sign new treaties
    giving up claim to their lands and move west
               The Trail of Tears

 Indian Removal Act of 1830
 – Cherokee hold out until 1838
 – Cherokee leader John Ross led the Cherokee
    to Indian Territory
 – 1/8 of the Cherokee People died in what
    became known as the Trail of Tears
             Osceola Makes War

 Seminole Leader form the Creek Indian
  Tribe in southern Florida
 Refused to give up lands when told to do
  so
 Drove a knife through the treaty when it
  was presented
             Osceola Makes War

 President Jackson had fought against the
   Seminole when he was hunting for
   runaway slaves who lived among them
                  Osceola Makes War

    Second Seminole War
    –   President Jackson send U.S. Army to fight against
        Osceola
    –   war lasts for 7 years
    –   Osceola captured, put in prison, and died one year
        later
    Some Seminole escaped and lived in the swamps
     and their descendants live in Florida to this day
          The End of the Jacksonian Era

       The Election of 1836
    –     Jackson leaves office
    –     Democratic Party vs. Whig Party
    –     election won by Martin van Buren
          Problems Left to Van Buren

    Van Buren
    –   not as skilled a politician as Jackson
    –   National Bank Charter expired in Jackson’s last year
        in office
    –   State Banks began to set their own rules
    –   Lending standards relaxed
    –   Too much money was printed
    –   Land prices began to rise and speculators kept buying
        land $$$
              An Economic Crisis

 President Jackson attempted to stop land
    speculation
   Speculators lacked gold and silver and
    land prices began to fall
   Land owners began to loose their lands
   Banks began to repossess property
   Land values dropped so fast banks could
    not sell it for what they owed
        Problems for Banks and Business

 People begin to fear that bank notes will
  be worthless
 People begin exchanging bank notes for
  gold or silver
 Banks having trouble doing business
        Problems for Banks and Business

 Southerners begin to default on loans
 Western settlers lost crops to bad weather
  default on loans
 People have little money and demand for
  factory goods fall
 Northeastern jobless/homeless rates begin
  to rise
              The Panic of 1837

 Important eastern banks closed and went
  out of business
 Other banks throughout the nation begin
  to close
 President Van Buren refuses to intervene
  in the crisis (Jackson philosophy)
               The Panic of 1837

 President Van Buren convinces Congress
  to establish a Federal Treasury
 No more Federal deposits in state or
  private banks
 Safeguards put in place to prevent states
  from issuing reckless loans