Learner Characteristics

					Kemp, Morrison and Ross Model
                                                Planning

                                                 Revision

                                               Instructional
                                                 Problems
                             Evaluation                           Learner
  Support Services




                            Instruments                        Characteristics




                                                                                   Implementation
                     Development of                                      Task
                       Instruction                Planning              Analysis


                         Designing
                                                                   Instructional
                        the Message
                                                                    Objectives

                                      Instructional      Content
                                       Strategies      Sequencing



                                         Formative Evaluation

                                         Project Management
Learner
Characteristics
Who will be receiving
the instruction (training?)
  Target Population

intended audience for
instruction
   Target Population

intended audience for
instruction




             try-out audience
       Implications for the Design of Instruction

   pace                           response mode
   practice                       number of
   relevance statements            examples
   attention                      amount of practice
   context of examples            feedback
   context of practice items      learner control
   concreteness /                 reading level
    abstraction                    vocabulary
   structure                      reinforcement
   medium                         time
   grouping                       learning guidance
   chunking
     Assessing Characteristics

   records
   interviews
   surveys
   observation
   job descriptions
   personnel profiles
   texts and articles
    General Characteristics



   age
   gender
   health
   language
   ethnic / cultural background
         Reporting General Characteristics
age           range and average      18 to 64 years old
                                     average age 42
              age groups             18 to 24 – 6 people
                                     25 to 30 – 14 people
gender        numbers                55 females
                                     32 males

health        condition and number   hearing impaired – 12
                                     visually impaired - 3

language      language and number    Spanish – 4
                                     Chinese - 5

cultural      culture and number     Native American – 5
                                     African American – 10
                                     Hispanic - 6
    Personal / Social Characteristics

   maturity level
   motivation level
   expectations
   vocation aspirations
   special talents / interests
   mechanical dexterity
   previous or current employment
   ability to work under various
    environmental conditions
       Reporting Personal/Social Characteristics

maturity level    high, medium, low   very mature
                                      mature
                                      immature
motivation        high, medium, low   highly motivated
level                                 somewhat motivated
                                      low motivation
expectations      specific list       streamline job
                                      performance

vocation          specific list       promotion
aspirations                           to become a trainer
                                      job change
special talents   specific list       cycling
and interests                         gardening
                                      baseball
       Reporting Personal/Social Characteristics

mechanical        list any unique problems      unable to use standard
dexterity                                       computer keyboard – 5
                                                people

previous or       specific list of job titles   CFO
current                                         trainer
employment                                      USCF official
ability to work   list any unique               need a quiet
under various     considerations                environment;
conditions                                      distractions interfere
                                                with learning
     Academic Characteristics

   education completed
   training levels completed
   special courses completed
   previous performance levels
   standardized test scores
   GPA
        Reporting Academic Characteristics
education         list academic levels and   high school - 15
completed         number of people
                                             post secondary - 30
                                             associate degree - 2
                                             undergraduate degree - 70
                                             graduate studies - 15
                                             masters degree - 10
                                             doctoral degree - 2
training levels   list actual levels and     Category A cyclist – 12
completed         number of people           people
                                             Dive Master – 6 people
special courses   list actual courses and    Red Cross CPR - 21
completed         number of people           Time Management Seminar
                                             – 5 people
previous          list actual level of       satisfactory or above – 14
performance       performance                people
level

standardized      range of actual scores     2.2 to 4.0 GPA
test scores                                  average GPA of 3.1
GPA               average scores             38 to 52 on the Iowa Basic
                                             Skills
    Specific Entry Characteristics

   prerequisite skills
   previous or current
    experience with
    topic
   reading levels
   attention span
   attitude towards
    work or the subject
      Reporting Specific Entry Characteristics

prerequisite   list all skills individuals   can use a microscope
skills         have                          familiar with Adobe
                                             Photoshop

previous or    list all experiences either health field
current        specifically or in general legal field
experience     categories                  management
                                           education
                                           business
                                           human resources
                                           politics
                                           manufacturing
                                           student
                                           information technology
                                           computers
                                           service repair
                                           sales
                                           arts (music, theatre, art)
       Reporting Specific Entry Characteristics


reading levels list specific reading   average reading level –
               levels                  12th grade

attention      approximate attention   20 to 30 minutes
span           span                    can maintain attention up
                                       to 1 hour of training
attitudes    report as positive,       indicates a positive
towards work negative, or midrange     attitude toward work – 41
or subject                             people
Learning Styles


   visual / auditory
   sensory / intuitive
   inductive / deductive
   actively / reflectively
   sequentially / globally
    Learning Styles Links

   Learner Characteristics and
    Instructional Design
      http://www.atl.ualberta.ca/articles/idesign/learnchar.cfm


   Learning Styles
      http://www.tecweb.org/styles/stylesframe.html
           Reporting Learning Style Characteristics

visual /         state self reported   95 people reported they
                                       prefer visual support
auditory         preference            when learning new
                                       material
sensory /        state self reported   21 people reported they
                                       use an intuitive
intuitive        preference            approach when learning
                                       new material
inductive /      state self reported   16 people reported they
                                       prefer a deductive
deductive        preference            approach when learning
                                       new material
actively /       state self reported   46 people reported they
                                       use an active approach
reflectively     preference            when learning new
                                       material
sequentially /   state self reported   76 people reported they
                                       prefer a global review
globally         preference            when learning new
                                       material
Environment
Characteristics
           What resources will the
           learners have for
           instruction (training?)
    Analyzing the Instructional Environment
   Policies
       Training methodology
       Time allowed for training
       Support for training requirements

   Technology
       Hardware
       Software
       Network connections

   Resources
       Meeting rooms
       Technical help
       Supplementary learning materials
      Documenting the Instructional Environment

policies     state specific policies for Students will be given
             training                    time during the work
                                         day to complete
                                         training.
technology   list all the specific       PC computers
             hardware and software       200 mgz
             students have available     20 GB hard drive
                                         512 mb memory
                                         Internet explorer 5.0
                                         dial-up internet
                                         connection
                                         Microsoft Office
resources    list all resources         Students will have a
             available to students      tech help line available.
                                        On site review sessions
                                        will be held when
                                        students request them.
    Summary

   It’s critical to determine the unique
    characteristics of your learners and
    the learning environment.
   Consider
     General characteristics
     Personal / Social Characteristics

     Academic information

     Specific entry characteristics

     Learning styles
             ~ Your Assignment ~
   Using the Learner and Context template,
    document a complete profile of your
    intended audience and learning
    environment.
     Specify the general characteristics
     Specify personal / social characteristics

     Specify academic information

     Specify entry characteristics

     Specify learning styles

     Specify the learning environment