Solna - Eurydice presentation

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					        European Education Policies
        and related Eurydice products




Wim Vansteenkiste
Eurydice
Solna
5 November 2009
     Introduction


• Introduction
• A new era in educational policymaking in Europe since
  2000:
  A European education area?
  Towards a knowledge society in Europe?
     Objectives


• to give a comprehensive and structured overview of the
  evolutions in European education and training policies
  since 2000
• to give you some thoughts (and inspiration) about
  international trends in education and training (bridge the
  gap)
• to relate these developments with the work of the Eurydice
  Network
     Structure


1.   Maastricht Treaty (1992)
2.   The knowledge-based society
3.   The Bologna Process in Higher Education (1998)
4.   EU : The Lisbon Summit (March 2000)
5.   Open Method of Coordination
6.   The Objectives Report (2001)
7.   Detailed Work Programme E&T 2010 (2002)
     Structure (2)


8.   Barcelona Summit (March 2002)
9.   Benchmarks and Indicators
10. Enhanced Cooperation in VET
    (Copenhagen Process)
11. Follow-up of E&T 2010
12. An updated strategic framework (2010-2020)
13. Trends in education and training
14. Related Eurydice products
     1. Maastricht Treaty (1992)


Treaty with focus on monetary, fiscal, economic, budgetary
    policies
•   Education (art. 149)
    “The Community shall contribute to the development of
    quality education by encouraging cooperation between
    Member States and, if necessary, by supporting and
    supplementing their action, while fully respecting the
    Member States for the content of teaching and the
    organisation of education systems and their cultural and
    linguistic diversity.”
     Maastricht (2)


Europe’s role : limited !


Contribute to the development of quality education
• Support and supplement actions
• Fully respect the responsibility of the member states
     Maastricht (3)


Community actions aiming at :
• Development of a European dimension
• Mobility of teachers and students
• Foreign language teaching
• Exchange of experience and information (Eurydice 1980)
• Cooperation between educational establishments
  - Socrates programme: Erasmus (1987), Comenius, Lingua,
    Grundtvig, Arion, Eurydice (1995-2006)
  - Lifelong Learning Programme (2007-2013):
    Comenius, Erasmus, Leonardo da Vinci, Grundtvig and
    a transversal programme, Jean Monnet programme
     Maastricht (4)

• Vocational training (art. 150)


  “The Community shall implement a vocational training
  policy which shall support and supplement the action of
  the Member States, while fully respecting the
  responsibility of the Member States for the content and
  organisation of vocational training”
     Maastricht (5)

Europe’s role : limited!
• Support and supplement the actions of Member States
Community actions aim to:
• Facilitate adaptation to industrial changes through
  vocational training and retraining
• Improve initial and continuing vocational training
• Facilitate access to vocational training and encourage
  mobility of institutions and trainees
• Stimulate cooperation on training between educational or
  training establishments and firms
• Leonardo da Vinci programme (1995-2006)
       Maastricht (6): conclusions


Subsidiarity in governance
“Whatever can be decided and executed at a lower shall be decided and executed at that
level”
“The Council (…) shall adopt incentive measures, excluding any harmonisation of the laws
and regulations of the Member States to contribute to the achievement of the objectives”

Co-decision procedure
(proposal of the Commission, co-decision of the Parliament and the Council)

Recommendations
(not obligatory, voluntary cooperation)

LLP-programme (decision)
Europass (decision) CV, mobility, diploma supplement,
language portfolio, certificate supplement.
    2. A knowledge-based society (1)

Rise of 2 fundamental concepts in the 90-ies


-   KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY


-   LIFELONG LEARNING
          A knowledge-based society (2)


White paper on growth, competitiveness and employment
 (1993) supported lifelong learning

White book (1995): Teaching and learning –
    Towards the Learning Society
-   linking education with economic competitiveness and social cohesion
- 5 priorities:
      •   Encourage the acquisition of new knowledge
      •   Bring schools and business closer together
      •   Combat exclusion
      •   Proficiency in 3 community languages
      •   Treat capital investments and investments in training on an equal base


1996: European Year of Lifelong Learning
- December: Council conclusions on a strategy for lifelong learning
      A knowledge based society (3)


The Cologne Charter (G8 – June 1999):
Aims and Ambitions for Lifelong Learning

“The challenge every country faces now is how to become a learning society and
to ensure that its citizens are equipped with the knowledge, skills and qualifications
they will need in the next century. Economies and societies are increasingly
knowledge-based. Education and skills are indispensable to achieving economic
success, civic responsibility and social cohesion. The next century will be defined
by flexibility and change, more than ever there will be a demand for mobility” (The
Cologne Charter – G8 – 1999)
     3. Bologna (1999)


Starting point: Sorbonne declaration (1998) – initiative of the
universities
Bologna declaration (June 1999)
      The Bologna Process aims to create a European
Higher Education Area by 2010, in which students can
choose from a wide and transparent range of high quality
courses and benefit from smooth recognition procedures.
       Reform is needed if Europe is to match the
performance of the best performing systems in the world,
notably the United States and Asia.
    Bologna (2)


The three priorities of the Bologna process are:
• Introduction of the three cycle system
  (bachelor/master/doctorate)
• Quality assurance
• Recognition of qualifications and periods of study (ECTS)
     Bologna (3)

Every second year the Ministers meet to measure progress and
set priorities for action.
   • Bologna (1999)
   • Prague (2001)
   • Berlin (2003)
   • Bergen (2005)
   • London (2007)
   • Leuven/Louvain-La-Neuve (2009)
   Conference: Vienna-Budapest (2010)
   Coordination: Bologna follow-up group
   More than the EU: 46 countries involved
Bologna (4)
        4. The Lisbon Summit (March 2000)


A strategic objective for the next decade:


  “To become the most competitive and dynamic
                 knowledge-based
     economy in the world capable of sustainable
               economic growth with
       more and better jobs and greater social
                     cohesion”
    The Lisbon Summit (2)


An overall strategy aimed at modernising the European social
model
•   by investing in people
•   by building an active welfare state
•   by combating social exclusion


Re-launch (2005)
     The Lisbon summit (3)


Invitation to education ministers
• Undertake a general reflection on the future objectives of
  education and training
• Focus on common concerns and priorities
• Respect national diversity
• Report to the European Council in spring 2001
     5. Open method of coordination


Definition :
     An instrument to monitor and follow-up on the
     implementation of commonly agreed objectives by
     spreading best practice and achieving convergence
     towards these objectives
    5. Open method of coordination (2)


How does the OMC work?
•   Fixing guidelines and timetables to achieve the
    strategic goal
•   Establishing quantitative and qualitative indicators
    and benchmarks
•   Periodic monitoring, evaluation, peer review as mutual
    learning processes
•   European guidelines are translated into national and
    regional targets
    Open Method of Coordination (3)


OMC helps countries in
• Developing their own policies
• Sharing good practice
• Reviewing the outcomes of their policies
    6. The objectives report (2001)


General aims for education and training
•   Development of the individual: realise his potential and
    live a good life
•   Development of the society: foster democracy, reduce
    disparities and inequities, promote cultural diversity
•   Development of the economy: ensure that skills of the
    labour force correspond to the economic and
    technological evolution
    The objectives report (2)


Challenges for Europe in this decade :
•   Changes in working life
•   Society, demography and migration
•   Equal opportunities and social cohesion
•   Enlargement (access of new countries)
Ambitious agenda for education and training systems
•   Improved quality and efficiency
•   Facilitation of universal access
•   Opening-up to the wider world
       Objectives report (3)

13 associated objectives


I. Increasing the quality and effectiveness of resources
  1.    Improving education and training for teachers and
        trainers
  2.    Developing skills for the knowledge society
  3.    Ensuring access to ICT for everyone
  4.    Increasing the recruitment to scientific and technical
        studies
  5.    Making the best use of resources
       Objectives report (4)


II. Facilitating the access of all
  6.    Open learning environment
  7.    Making learning more attractive
  8.    Supporting active citizenship, equal opportunities and
        social cohesion
       Objectives report (5)


III. Opening up education and training to the wider world
  9.    Strengthening the links with working life and research
        and society at large
  10. Developing the spirit of enterprise
  11. Improving foreign language learning
  12. Increasing mobility and exchanges
  13. Strengthening European cooperation
    7. Detailed work programme (Feb 2002)

‘Education and Training 2010’: an ambitious agenda
For the benefit of citizens and the Union as a whole the following
should be achieved in education and training by 2010:

• The highest quality will be achieved in education and
  training and Europe will be recognised as a world-wide
  reference for the quality and relevance of its education and
  training systems and institutions
• Education and training systems in Europe will be
  compatible enough to allow citizens to move between them
  and to take advantage of their diversity
    Detailed work programme (2)


• Holders of qualifications, knowledge and skills acquired
  anywhere in the EU will be able to get them effectively
  validated throughout the Union for the purpose of career
  and further learning
• Europeans, at all ages, will have access to lifelong
  learning
• Europe will be open to cooperation for mutual benefits
  with all other regions and should be the most-favoured
  destination of students, scholars and researchers from
  other world regions”
      8. Barcelona summit (March 2002)

• Introduction of instruments to ensure transparency of diplomas and
  qualifications (ECTS, diploma and certificate supplements, European
  CV)
• Closer cooperation in the context of the Bologna process
• Similar action in the area of vocational training
  (Copenhagen process)
• Improved mastery of basic skills by teaching at least two foreign
  languages from a very early age; establishment of a linguistic
  competence indicator in 2003 (sic !)
• Development of digital literacy; generalisation of an Internet and
  computer user’s certificate for secondary school pupils (ECDL)
• Importance of pre-school education
8. Barcelona summit (March 2002)


         Education and training
               are central
             to the Union’s
     economic and social strategy
                for 2010
    9. Benchmarks and Indicators


Policy rationale: Open Method of Coordination

Setting benchmarks is a crucial (to monitor progress

effectively), sensitive (setting benchmarks is highly

political) and a difficult (technically difficult) issue

2002: Standing group for Indicators and Benchmarks
      Benchmarks and Indicators (2)

5 benchmarks (May 2003) : to be achieved by 2010
• Early school leavers : An EU average of no more than 10 % early
  school leavers should be achieved
• Mathematics, science and technology : The total number of
  graduates in mathematics, science and technology should
  increase by at least 15 % while at the same time the level of
  gender imbalance should decrease
• Completion of upper secondary education: At least 85 % if 22-
  year-olds should have completed upper secondary education
• Basic skills : The percentage of low-achieving 15-years-olds in
  reading literacy should have decreased by at least 20 % compared
  to the year 2000
• Lifelong learning : The average level of participation in lifelong
  learning should be at least 12,5 % of the adult working age
  population (25-64 age group)
     Benchmarks and indicators (3)


Reaching the European benchmarks in the field of education would
imply in 2010:
 • 2 million fewer young people would have left school early
 • 2 million more would have graduated from upper secondary
   education
 • 200.000 less 15 years old would be low performers in reading
   literacy
 • 4 million more adults would participate in lifelong learning
 • All students leaving school would be able to communicate in
   two foreign languages
 (from Progress towards the Lisbon Objectives in Education and Training.
 Commission staff working document, Brussels, 16.05.2006)
Benchmarks and indicators (4)
    Benchmarks and indicators (5)


A new framework for indicators benchmarks
•   Communication of the Commission (21.02.07): “A
    coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks for
    monitoring progress towards the Lisbon objectives in
    education and training”
•   Council conclusions (30 May 2007)
     Benchmarks and indicators (6)


20 core indicators for monitoring progress towards the
Lisbon objectives in education and training
1) Participation in pre-school education
2) Special needs education
3) Early school leavers
4) Literacy in reading, mathematics and science
5) Language skills
6) ICT skills
7) Civic skills
8) Learning to learn skills
     Benchmarks and indicators (7)

9) Upper secondary completion rates of young people
10) School management *
11) Schools as multi-purpose local learning centres *
12) Professional development of teachers and trainers
13) Stratification of education and training systems *
14) Higher education graduates
15) Cross-national mobility of students in higher education
16) Participation of adults in lifelong learning
17) Adults’ skills
18) Educational attainment of the population
19) Investment in education and training
20) Returns to education and training *
     * The Council conclusions on a coherent framework of indicators and
       benchmarks identify 16 of the 20 suggested
       indicators for full exploitation or development work.
   Benchmarks and indicators (7)


Commission Staff Working Document:
    Progress towards the Lisbon Objectives in Education
    and Training – Indicators and Benchmarks
    2004-2005-2006-2007-2008-2009
        10. Copenhagen process (2002)


The Bologna process : paving the way

•       Ante : European higher education area
    -     Lack of transparency in structures
    -     No quality assurance mechanism
    -     No recognition of qualifications, credits
•       Post : The answer
    -     Bachelor – Master
    -     Accreditation – Quality control
    -     ECTS
    The Copenhagen process (2)


Rationale for enhanced cooperation in VET
• Current situation
     -   Highly fragmented VET : school-based, work-based
     -   No transfer of credits
     -   Uneven quality across countries
     -   New providers
• The answer
     - Greater transparency of structures
     - Recognition of qualifications and competences
     - Minimum standards in VET
    The Copenhagen process (3)


Work programme : development of tools to support
 transparency:
• Validation of non-formal and informal learning
  General principles (2004)
• Guidance - Resolution and manual for policy makers
  (2004)
    The Copenhagen process (3)

• European Qualification Framework (EQF)
  Recommendation approved in April 2008

• Instrument for credit transfer (ECVET)

  Recommendation approved in June 2009

• Criteria and principles for quality in VET
  Recommendation approved in June 2009
    The Copenhagen process (4)


• Follow-up conferences: Maastricht (2004), Helsinki (2006),
  Bordeaux (2008)
• Communication “New skills for new jobs” (December 2008)
     Country A     EQF         Country B
                 EQF Level 8

Q   NQF/
    NQS          EQF Level 7
                                   NQF/
                                   NQS     Q
                 EQF Level 6
Q   NQF/
    NQS
                 EQF Level 5
                                   NQF/
                                   NQS     Q
    NQF/         EQF Level 4
Q   NQS

                 EQF Level 3

    NQF/                            NQF
Q   NQS          EQF Level 2                   Q
                                   / NQS


                 EQF Level 1
        ECVET




Learning outcomes
Units
Credit points
Transfer
    ECVET voor Peter



Chicester college, UK                    Landstede, NL

 Learning outcomes                        Learning outcomes
 Peter                                    recognized as part of NL
                                          qualification Peter
 Assessed by competent
 body UK


 Credits awarded by                      Credits transferred and
 competent body UK                       validated by competent
                         Individual      body NL
                         transcript of
                         record
     11. Follow-up of E&T 2010


Working groups (2002-2004)
•   Education and Training of Teachers and Trainers
•   Key Competences
•   Language Learning
•   Information and Communication Technologies
•   Maths, Science and Technology
•   Making the best use of resources
•   Mobility and European cooperation
•   Open Learning Environment; Making Learning Attractive,
    Strengthening Links with Working Life and Society
•   Active citizenship and social cohesion
•   Reforming guidance and counselling
•   Recognising non-formal and informal learning
     Follow-up of E&T 2010 (2)


Clusters and peer learning activities (2006-…)

• Exchanges of information on different policy options can help
  advance reforms in national education and training systems
  and together with other mutual learning activities, form a
  key part of the Education and Training 2010 work
  programme.

• Such peer learning activities are organised by either groups
  ("clusters") of member states interested in specific topics, or
  by expert groups set up by the European Commission.
      Follow-up (3)

• Modernisation of Higher Education
• Teachers and trainers
• Making the best use of resources
• Maths, Science and Technology
• Access and social inclusion in lifelong learning
• Key Competences
• ICT
• Recognising non-formal and informal learning (Learning
  outcomes)
 In addition, the Copenhagen process organises specific peer learning activities
 for vocational education and training and the Working Group on the Adult
 Learning Action Plan organises peer learning in the field of adult education.
 There is also a European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network (ELGPN)
     Follow-up (4)


Joint biennial interim progress reports
(based on Member States’ national reports)

• 2004 The success of the Lisbon Strategy hinges on urgent
  reforms”
• 2006 Modernising education and training: a vital
  contribution to prosperity and social cohesion in Europe
• 2008 Delivering lifelong learning for knowledge, creativity
  and innovation
  http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/nationalreport_en.html
    Follow-up (4)

Other important documents and themes
• Efficiency and equity in European education and training
  systems (Communication September 2006)
• Delivering on the Modernisation Agenda for
  Universities: Education, Research and Innovation
  (Communication May 2006)
• It is never too late to learn (Communication on Adult
  Education October 2006)
• Key competences (Recommendation December 2006):
  Communication in the mother tongue; in foreign languages; mathematical
  competence and basic competences in science and technology; digital
  competence; learning to learn; social and civic competences; sense of
  initiative and entrepreneurship; and cultural awareness and expression.
     Follow-up (5)

• Improving the Quality of Teacher Education
  (Communication August 2007)

• Towards more knowledge-based policy and practice in
  education and training (Staff Working Document August
  2007)

• Action plan on Adult Learning (September 2007)

• Improving Competences for the 21st Century: An Agenda
  for European Cooperation on Schools (Communication
  July 2008)

• Migration & mobility: challenges and opportunities for EU
  education systems (Green book July 2008)
    12. Updated strategic framework (2010-2020)


• Context:
  EU Strategy for Growth and Jobs beyond 2010
  (Lisbon strategy post 2010)
  Education and Training as a key driver for Europe’s
  economic and social future
• Approved at the Council Meeting of 12 May 2009
    Updated strategic framework (2)


• Focus on implementation
• More flexible (with more specific objectives for shorter
  periods 2009-2011)
• Integrated approach (coordination and priority setting
  across different education and training sectors)
• Overall framework
    Updated strategic framework (3)


• 4 overarching strategic challenges:

   1. Make lifelong learning and mobility a reality
   2. Improve the quality and the efficiency of provision and
      outcomes
   3. Promote equity, social cohesion and active citizenship
   4. Enhance innovation and creativity
    Updated strategic framework (5)


1. LLL and learner mobility
- Strengthening ongoing reforms (EQF, NQF)
- Flexible learning pathways, transitions, recognition
- Adult learning and guidance
- A new boost for mobility
    Updated strategic framework (5)


2. Quality and efficiency
- Acquisition of key competences by everyone
- Professional development of teachers
- Governance and funding
- Languages (2 foreign languages)
- Basic skills in reading, mathematics and science
    Updated strategic framework (6)


3. Equity and active citizenship
- Early school leaving
- Pre-primary education
- Migrants
- Learner with special needs
- Intercultural competences
    Updated strategic framework (7)


4. Innovation and creativity
- Transversal key competences
- Knowledge triangle: education, research and innovation
- Promote creativity and innovation through developing
  specific teaching and learning methods
- Innovation rich institutions and partnerships
     Updated strategic framework (8)


Policy cooperation
- OMC (voluntary cooperation): common reference tools,
  peer learning and exchange of good practice, periodic
  monitoring and reporting (continuous evaluation), evidence
  and data from all relevant European agencies, networks
  and international organisations, use of the LLP (and other
  European funding opportunities ESF)
- Importance of Copenhagen, synergy with Bologna
- Cross sectoral cooperation (employment, enterprise, youth,
  culture, social policy, research…)
- Involvement of relevant stakeholders
- Dialogue with international organisations
     Updated strategic framework (9)

Working method:
- 2 year work cycles (2009-2011)
- Priority areas for each cycle
- Mutual learning
- Dissemination of results
- Progress report (at the end of each cycle)
Updated benchmarks
- Not concrete targets for individual countries
- Collective achievement
- National priorities by Member States
    Updated strategic framework (10)


- By 2020, an average of at least 15% should participate in
  lifelong learning
- By 2020, the share of low-achieving 15 year olds in
  reading, mathematics and science should be less than
  15%
- By 2020, the share of 30-34 year olds with tertiary
  educational attainment should be at least 40%
    Updated strategic framework (11)


- By 2020, the share of early leavers from education and
  training should be less than 10%
- By 2020, at least 95% of children between 4 years old and
  the age of starting compulsory primary education should
  participate in early childhood education
- Development of new benchmarks in mobility (2010),
  employability (2010) and language learning (2012)
    More information


More information on
      http://ec.europa.eu/education/index_en.htm
You can find all official documents on the main EU education
policy initiatives and outputs since the year 2000 on
      http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/comp_en.html#101
        13. Trends in Education and Training


Source: John A. Byrne; Business Week 28 August 2000

  • Characteristics      • 20th Century       • 21st Century

  • Organization         • The Pyramid        • The Web or Network
  • Focus                • Internal           • External
  • Style                • Structured         • Flexible
  • Source of strength   • Stability          • Change
  • Structure            • Self-sufficiency   • Interdependencies
  • Products             • Mass Production    • Mass Customization
      Trends (2)


• Characteristics     • 20th Century       • 21st Century

  •Reach                •Domestic            •Global
  •Inventories          •Months              •Hours
  •Strategy             •Top-Down            •Bottom-up
  •Leadership           •Dogmatic            •Inspiration
  •Workers              •Employees           •Free Agents
  •Job expectations     •Security            •Personal Growth
  •Motivation           •To compete          •To build
  •Improvements         •Incremental         •Revolutionary
  •Quality              •Affordable best     •No compromise
Trends (3)

•   national formal systems      •   more autonomous institutions
•   ivory tower                  •   open institution
•   state-owned                  •   competitive market-driven (HE)
•   national                     •   international
•   inspection                   •   accountability (QA)
•   freshman-focused education   •   lifelong learning
•   formal                       •   non-formal & informal
•   teacher-centered             •   learner-centered
•   programme prescribed         •   individual learning-path
•   non-accumulative             •   accumulative
•   learning process             •   learning outcomes
•   knowledge & skills           •   competences
•   intuitive policy             •   evidence based policy
              14. Eurydice Network



31 countries - 35 national units
(under Ministries’ responsibility)
    Eurydice (2)


• Mission statement:
  To provide those responsible for education systems and
  policies in Europe with European-level analyses and
  information which will assist them in their decision making
       Eurydice (2)


4 types:


1. Descriptions/overviews of
   national education systems

   National summary sheets
   Eurybase education system
   descriptions
   Structures (E&T)
Eurydice (3)



               2. Comparative studies
                  of wide-ranging topical issues
                 in European education, such as

               • School Autonomy
               • Levels of Autonomy and
                 Responsibilities of Teachers
               • National Testing
               • Arts and Cultural Education
               • Higher Education Governance
                   School Autonomy and Quality Assurance

Use of standard lists of criteria for external evaluation
of schools as entities for compulsory general education, 2006/07
Source: Eurydice
                           National Testing of Pupils in Europe


Main objectives of national tests, in primary and lower secondary education
(ISCED levels 1 and 2), 2008/09


Taking decisions about
   the school career of
                 pupils
    Monitoring schools
 and/or the educational
                system
  Identifying individual
         learning needs




                                         x = No national tests
       Eurydice (4)


3. Indicators
  Key Data on Education
  in Europe 2009
  and
Key Data series on
• Higher Education,
• Teaching languages, and
• Information and
  Communication Technology
                Typology of Education Systems

Projection of growth rates of the population in the 5-9 age group between 2000
and 2010, and between 2000 and 2020




                                                        Source: Eurostat, Population Statistics
               Typology of Education Systems

Main Models of Compulsory Education in Europe, 2006/07


                                                Single Structure
                                                (ISCED 1 + ISCED 2)

                                                Common core curriculum


                                                Differentiated branches /
                                                streams




                  Source: Eurydice
                            Teachers


Types of employment status available to teachers in primary education and
general secondary education, 2006/07




                                                 Civil servant status


                                                 Career civil servant status

                                                 Public sector employee with
         Source: Eurydice




                                                 contractual status
      Nos produits



4. Reference materials – e.g. Glossaries and the
  Thesaurus for Education Systems in Europe (TESE)
              14. Eurydice Network (5)

Work programme adopted (yearly)

                          preliminary          working group with
   Thematic              working paper          part of the NUs
  comparative           prepared by the
     study                  EACEA

                                               questionnaire/content
                         Working               guide prepared by the
promotion                method                EACEA and discussed
                                               with the working group
publication

         Checking (s)           analysis and          information
         by National             drafting by          collected by
            Units                the EACEA            all National
                                                          Units
                                                     4 strategic challenges for 2020

               Updated strategic Framework                               WP 2010-2011



       Informing policy-making and public debate                   Comparative studies
                                                                   Indicators


   Mutual understanding                              Comparable national descriptions



Mutual knowledge                                   Questions/answers
     Eurydice (7)


• Work programme 2010-2011 in line with the priorities of
  the E&T 2020 programme

   – Key Data on Higher Education and ICT

   – Focus on Higher Education

   – Comparative studies on Literacy, Maths and Sciences

   – Preparation of studies on learning mobility, languages
        Eurydice (8)



  All studies are
 available free of
     charge at


www.eurydice.org

				
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