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4G Networks


									4G – Next Generation
Joseph Bedell
 4G is the fourth generation of cellular
  devices. The future of handheld device’s
  wireless communications.
 Demand for IP based devices.
 Successor to 3G standards.
 You will get a basic understand of 4G’s
  design goals and implementation
  differences from 3G.
 4G is being designed to be able to handle the
  requirements of the future.
 Ability to download a HD movie in 5
  minutes to watch offline.
 Handle a 20 person conference call with all
  users connected through 4G.
 Video conferencing anywhere in the world.
History of the G’s
   1G – First generation of wireless telephones
    ◦ Analog – 1980’s
   2G
  ◦ Digital – 1990’s
 3G - simultaneous use of speech and data
  services and data rates (14Mb/s)
  ◦ Data – 2001
• Removing the walls between these different protocols
4G’s goals
   1Gb/s between two stationary objects
   100Mb/s between two moving objects
   More users per call – conference calling
   Smooth transitions between servers
   Legacy support – 1G, 2G, 3G
   All IP packets being sent back and forth
 Based on packet switching only
 Require low-latency data transmission
 By time 4G is rolled out all of the IP’s will
  be updated to IPv6
 Won’t need NAT’s, only will need for
  older devices not yet converted to IPv6
Utilizing the spectrum
 In order to get more devices working at
  the same time with increased speeds on
  the network the underlying algorithms
  and protocols will need to be updated.
 Coding techniques will need to utilize
  highly adaptive modulation.
 Hybrid multiple access techniques
 Spectrum aware and resource-aware
  MAC/link layer
 Ability to manage packets at different
Seamless Integration
   Adaption layers
    ◦ In order to allow all different devices to
      communicate under the same protocol
      added layers will be required.
Physical Layer upgrades
 With wanting true broad band speeds we
  will need to do more than just upgrading
 OFDM(Orthogonal frequency-division
    ◦ Frequency-division multiplexing
    ◦ Data is divided into multiple parallel data
      streams, one for each sub-carrier.
   Dynamic management of the allocated
    ◦ DSA – dynamic spectrum assignment, can
      provide application discovery.
   Dynamic management of the multiple
    access schemes
    ◦ Will be hybrids of
      FDMA – frequency-division multiple access
      TDMA – time-division multiple access
      CDMA – code division multiple access
Adaptation continued….
   Dynamic soft channel management
    ◦ Control modulation for each channel to
      manage: Constellation sizes, Power levels, Code sizes, Channel

   Dynamic layers and fast adaptation
    ◦ Each layer will have their individual roles as well as
      ARM requirements
    ◦ Higher level layers will need to provide signaling
      information in a efficient manner(embedding or out-
      of band signaling)
Antenna Systems
 Antenna’s are the back bone
  of this network, sending and
  receiving the required
 MIMO (multiple-input
    ◦ Ability to use more then one
      antenna at both transmitter and
      receiver to improve
      connectivity (parallel
   When a user is mobile the phone needs
    to reconnect to the new antenna, even if
    in standby.

   Each server change requires the mobile
    node to update it’s local pages, this is
    what will hurt battery life.

   Intra-Domain Mobility Management
    Protocol (IDMP)

   Sends multiple copies of data to
    neighboring subnets
    ◦ Subnets which the mobile device will
       be moving into
 Through modularization of the different layers
  able to combine all different devices under
  same protocol.
 Ability to smoothly transition from one server
  to another, still maintaining your connection.
 Utilize whatever medium you have to the
  fullest extent with new algorithms.
 Each device will have its own v6 IP
   “Next-Generation Wireless Communications Concepts and Technologies”;
    Berezdivin, Breinig, and Topp; IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40 pp.
   “IDMP-Based Fast Handoff and Paging in IP-based 4G Mobile networks”;
    Misra, A et al; IEEE Communications Magazine, vol 40, pp 138 – 145, March


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