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					                                                                                         Nquthu Integrated Development Plan
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                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.  INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 1
2.  THE PLANNING PROCESS .................................................................................................... 2
  2.1. REQUIREMENTS................................................................................................................... 2
  2.2. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ........................................................................................... 2
  2.3. PROCESS PLAN ................................................................................................................... 3
  2.4. DISTRICT FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................................ 3
  2.5. PROCESS FOLLOWED .......................................................................................................... 3
3. MUNICIPAL VISION AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................ 4
  3.1. VISION ................................................................................................................................ 4
  3.2. OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 4
4. CURRENT REALITY ................................................................................................................ 5
  4.1. BASIC FACTS AND FIGURES ................................................................................................. 5
  4.2. IDENTIFICATION OF PRIORITY NEEDS/ISSUES ........................................................................ 5
    4.2.1    Ward Level Needs Identification ............................................................................... 5
    4.2.2.  Technical Needs Analysis .......................................................................................... 7
  4.3. SPATIAL ANALYSIS............................................................................................................... 8
    4.3.1.  Natural Characteristics............................................................................................... 8
    4.3.2.  Movement and Settlement ......................................................................................... 9
  4.4. LAND AND HOUSING........................................................................................................... 10
    4.4.1.  Land Ownership and Legal Issues .......................................................................... 10
    4.4.2.  Land Reform ............................................................................................................ 11
    4.4.3.  Housing .................................................................................................................... 11
  4.5. SOCIAL ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................. 12
    4.5.1.  Demographic Information ........................................................................................ 12
    4.5.2.  HIV/AIDS .................................................................................................................. 12
    4.5.3.  Socio-Economic Information .................................................................................... 14
  4.6. PROVISION OF SOCIAL AND MUNICIPAL SERVICES ............................................................... 15
    4.6.1.  Social Facilities and Services .................................................................................. 15
    4.6.2.  Municipal infrastructure and Services ...................................................................... 18
  4.7. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS......................................................................................................... 23
    4.7.1.  Major Sectors ........................................................................................................... 23
    4.7.2.  Employment Profile .................................................................................................. 25
    4.7.3.  Tourism .................................................................................................................... 25
  4.8. ENVIRONMENTAL ............................................................................................................... 26
    4.8.1.  Conservation Worthy Areas ..................................................................................... 26
    4.8.2.  Flora and Fauna....................................................................................................... 26
    4.8.3.  Wetlands .................................................................................................................. 27
    4.8.4.  Major Environmental Problems ................................................................................ 27
  4.9. INSTITUTIONAL AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS ............................................................................ 28
    4.9.1.  Institutional ............................................................................................................... 28
    4.9.2.  Financial ................................................................................................................... 29
  4.10. PRIORITY ISSUES IN CONTEXT ............................................................................................ 31
5. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ............................................................................................ 42
  5.1. KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS ............................................................................................... 42
  5.2. DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES .................................................................... 42
  5.3. FINANCIAL STRATEGY ........................................................................................................ 43
  5.4. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK ................................................................................ 44
    5.4.1.  Localised Spatial Development Principles ............................................................... 44
    5.4.2.  Spatial Framework ................................................................................................... 45
6. CAPITAL PROJECTS ............................................................................................................ 49
  6.1. SUMMARY LIST OF PROJECTS AND PRIORITIES........................................................................ 49
7. OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES .............................................................................................. 55
  7.1. FINANCIAL 5 YEAR PLAN .................................................................................................... 55
  7.2. CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN ............................................................................................... 55
  7.3. INSTITUTIONAL PLAN.......................................................................................................... 56
    7.3.1.  Proposed Structure .................................................................................................. 56
    7.3.2   Governance Structure .............................................................................................. 57
  7.4. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .............................................................................. 57



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8.     SPECIFIC PLANS .................................................................................................................. 61
     8.1. W ATER SERVICES DEVELOPMENT PLAN ............................................................................. 61
       8.1.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 61
       8.1.2. Strategy Guidelines.................................................................................................. 61
       8.1.3. Sectoral Setting ........................................................................................................ 62
       8.1.4. Sector Plan .............................................................................................................. 62
     8.2. INTEGRATED TRANSPORT PLAN.......................................................................................... 63
       8.2.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 64
       8.2.2. Strategy Guidelines.................................................................................................. 64
       8.2.3. Sectoral Setting ........................................................................................................ 65
       8.2.4. Sector Plan .............................................................................................................. 65
     8.3. INTEGRATED W ASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN ........................................................................... 65
       8.3.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 66
       8.3.2. Sectoral Setting ........................................................................................................ 66
       8.3.3. Sector Plan .............................................................................................................. 66
     8.4. INTEGRATED POVERTY REDUCTION AND GENDER EQUALITY PROGRAMME ........................... 67
       8.4.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 67
       8.4.2. Strategy Guidelines.................................................................................................. 67
       8.4.3. Sectoral Setting ........................................................................................................ 67
       8.4.4. Sector Plan .............................................................................................................. 68
     8.5. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME ....................................................................... 68
       8.5.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 68
       8.5.2. Strategy Guidelines.................................................................................................. 68
       8.5.3. Sectoral Setting ........................................................................................................ 69
       8.5.4. Sector Plan .............................................................................................................. 69
     8.6. INTEGRATED LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (LED) PROGRAMME.................................... 70
       8.6.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 70
       8.6.2. Strategy Guidelines.................................................................................................. 70
       8.6.3. Sectoral Setting ........................................................................................................ 70
       8.6.4  Sector Plan .............................................................................................................. 70
     8.7. DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN .......................................................................................... 71
       8.7.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 72
       8.7.2. Strategy Guidelines.................................................................................................. 72
       8.7.3. Sector Plan .............................................................................................................. 72




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LIST OF ANNEXURES
Annexure 1: Ward Profiles
Annexure 2: Maps
Annexure 3: Overall Project List
Annexure 4: Municipal Lead Projects
Annexure 5: Ward Priority Projects
Annexure 6: Municipal Projects
Annexure 7: Capital Investment Programme
Annexure 8: Projects by Service Provider
Annexure 9: Projects by Possible Funder


LIST OF MAPS
Map 1:     Regional Context
Map 2:     Administrative Arrangements
Map 3:     Prioritisation of Needs – Highest Priority
Map 4:     Population Density and Distribution
Map 5:     Settlement Pattern
Map 6:     Land use
Map 7:     Formal Housing
Map 8:     Household Income
Map 9:     Poverty Index
Map 10:    Education Facilities
Map 11:    Health Facilities
Map 12:    Community Facilities
Map 13:    Water Supply
Map 14:    Sanitation
Map 15:    Electricity
Map 16:    Transportation
Map 17:    Agricultural Potential
Map 18:    Environmental Analysis
Map 19:    Level of Priority – Water and Sanitation
Map 20:    Level of Priority – Roads
Map 21:    Level of Priority – Electricity
Map 22:    Spatial Development Framework
Map 23:    Location of Municipal Lead Projects




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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:       Tribal Areas within Nquthu
Table 2:       Key Activities
Table 3:       Basic Facts and Figures
Table 4:       Ward Needs
Table 5:       Needs Aggregation
Table 6:       Education Facilities
Table 7:       Health facilities
Table 8:       Community facilities
Table 9:       Settlement Webs in Nquthu
Table 10:      Demographic Profile of Nquthu Municipality
Table 11:      The Implication of HIV and AIDS for Planning in KwaZulu-Natal
Table 12:      Distribution of Employment Across Nquthu Municipality
Table 13:      Income profile of Nquthu municipality
Table 14:      Schools in Nquthu
Table 15:      Pension Pay Points
Table 16:      Level of Water Supply Service in Nquthu Municipality
Table 17:      Level of Sanitation Services in Nquthu Municipality
Table 18:      Level of Telephone Services in Nquthu Municipality
Table 19:      Taxi Ranks
Table 20:      Economic Profile of Nquthu Municipality
Table 21:      Potential Environmental Attractions for Tourism
Table 22:      Summary of Nquthu Municipal Budget
Table 23:      Distance to Access Water
Table 24:      Minimum Water Demand Projection
Table 25:      Levels of Service Provision
Table 26:      Needs Analysis – Schools
Table 27:      Needs Analysis – Crèches
Table 28:      Objectives and Strategies
Table 29:      Hub and Satellite Services
Table 30:      Proposed Satellites
Table 31:      Summary Project List
Table 32:      Projected Funding
Table 33:      Operating Expenses
Table 34:      Net Position
Table 35:      Directorate Functions
Table 36:      Performance Management
Table 37:      Water and Sanitation Objectives and Strategies
Table 38:      Road Infrastructure Objectives and Strategies
Table 39:      Waste Related Objectives and Strategies
Table 40:      Local Economic Development Objectives and Strategies




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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


AIDS           Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome
ASAP           As soon as possible
CMA            Community Managed Area
CMIP           Consolidated Municipal Infrastructure Programme
CTO            Community Tourism Organisation
DBSA           Development Bank of Southern Africa
DEAT           Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
DoT            Department of Transport
DTALG          Department of Traditional Affairs and Local Government
DWAF           Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
EIA            Environmental Impact Assessment
H/W            Highway
IDC            Industrial Development Corporation
KZN            KwaZulu-Natal
LED            Local Economic Development
NDA            National Development Agency
NGO            Non-governmental Organisation
RDP            Reconstruction and Development Programme
SAPS           South African Police Services
TBD            To be determined
VIP            Ventilated Improved Pit




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1. INTRODUCTION
The Nquthu Municipality (KZ242) is a newly established municipality having been
established through the demarcation process ending in December 2001. It comprises
the previous census district of Nquthu, extending from the Buffalo River in the west to
Babanango farms in the east, and from the Blood River in the north to Msinga in the
south. The Municipality covers an area of 1 451 km2, and is one of four municipalities
within the uMzinyathi District Council (see Map 1: Regional Context).

The seat of the municipality is Nquthu town, an urban centre serving as a provincial
administration centre. The area is administered as 13 wards. The total area of
Nquthu town and Ndonweni is 47km2.

Within the Nquthu Municipality there are eight tribal areas, as summarised in Table 1.

                      Table 1: Tribal Areas within Nquthu
   Tribal Area          Area (km2)      Wards falling within tribal area
   Emandleni            277.5           1 (part),2 (part)
   Hlatshwayo           58.2            5 (part),7 (part)
   Khiphinkunzi         163.9           5 (part),6 (part),8 (part), 10 (part),11
                                        (part)
   Mangwe Buthanani     86.2            4 (part), 10 (part)
   Mbokodwebomvu        80.6            2 (part), 4 (part)
   Molefe               545.0           3,5 (part),7 (part), 9, 11 (part), 12, 13
   Vulindlela-Sithole   15.3            1
   Zondi                41.7            4 (part), 5 (part)
   Total                1 405.4

The boundaries of these institutional systems are indicated on map 2: Administrative
Arrangements.

In terms of the Municipal Systems Act, the Nquthu Municipality is required to
undertake an integrated development planning process to formulate an Integrated
Development Plan (IDP). This process is a mechanism to eradicate the development
legacy of the past, and the IDP is a strategic planning instrument to guide and inform
the planning, budgeting, management and decision-making activities in the
municipality. An important function of the IDP is also to guide the budgets of other
sector departments (National and Provincial) to where their services and resources
are required, in terms of needs and priorities identified in the IDP. In addition to
guiding organs of state, the IDP should be an informative document to encourage,
and guide, potential investment in the municipality.




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2.      THE PLANNING PROCESS

2.1.    Requirements
The Municipal Systems Act (No 32 of 2000), together with the Local Government:
Municipal Planning and Performance Management Regulations, 2001 (R796 24
August 2001), sets out the core components of the IDPs, as well as the requirements
for public participation in their drafting.

The core requirements may be summarised as:
  A long term vision
  An assessment of the current level of development in the municipality
  Development priorities and objectives
  Development strategies
  A spatial development framework
  Operational strategies
  Applicable disaster management plans
  A financial plan
  Key performance indicators and performance targets

The approach adopted in the preparation of the IDP has been strongly guided by the
guidelines prepared by the Department of Provincial and Local Government as set
out in the IDP guidepack. The process is one that is integrative, sustainable, issue-
driven, people centred, practical and action oriented. The preparation of the IDP has
been undertaken in a phased manner, the focus of each phase being indicated
below:
 Phase 1: Analysis
 Phase 2: Development Strategies
 Phase 3: Projects
 Phase 4: Integration
 Phase 5: Approval.


2.2.    Institutional Arrangements
The Municipal Structures Act specifies a requirement of community participation in
the IDP process, thus ensuring that all role-players and stakeholders have an
opportunity to make inputs into issues directly affecting them. In order to achieve this,
a Representative Forum, comprising members from the local government structures
in the area, ward councilors, ward representatives, civic organisation representation
and representation from the government sector departments and other service
providers active in the area was established to provide input into the process. The
Representative Forum has met regularly to provide input into the process and to
comment on documentation emanating from the process.

An IDP Steering Committee was also established to provide management guidance
to the preparation of the IDP. The Committee comprises the Heads of Department of
the Nquthu Municipality as well as representatives from the sector departments. This
committee has met to discuss matters relating to the IDP, review documentation
prepared and provide overall guidance.

The day-to-day management of the IDP has been the responsibility of the Municipal
Manager, assisted by an Assistant IDP manager.




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2.3.    Process Plan
Prior to embarking on the preparation of the IDP, a process plan was prepared          and
adopted by the Nquthu Municipality. The Process Plan set out the following:
   A programme specifying the planning activities to be undertaken and                 the
    associated time frames
   Appropriate mechanisms, processes and procedures for consultation                  and
    participation of local communities, organs of state, traditional authorities,      and
    other role players in the IDP drafting process
   The institutional arrangements to manage the IDP
   The identification of all plans and planning requirements binding on                the
    municipality in terms of national and provincial legislation


2.4.    District Framework
A District Framework plan was prepared by the uMzinyathi District Council, and
provided for the linkage and binding relationships to be established between the
uMzinyathi District Council and local municipalities. The Framework Plan aimed to
facilitate proper consultation, co-ordination and alignment of the planning process of
the district municipality with that of the four local municipalities within the District.


2.5.    Process Followed
Although the process set out in the process plan was thorough and comprehensive,
due to a number of factors, such as delays in receiving, confirming and consolidating
data, delays in the holding of meetings due to weather (snow), and the overwhelming
response from community members in submitting projects for consideration, the
process adopted in the preparation of the Nquthu IDP was slightly different from that
set out in the process plan. The key activities in actual process followed in the
preparation of the plan are set out below.

The consultant to assist in the preparation of the IDP (SiVEST, assisted by Idonsa
Socio-Economic Development Agency) was appointed on 30 July 2001.

The following reports were submitted and Representative Forum meetings were held
during the preparation of the IDP:

                               Table 2: Key Activities
 Date                                Activity                 Comment/Topic discussed
                                     Phase 1: Analysis
 29 August 2001             Representative Forum            IDP Familiarisation
 5 September 2001           Representative Forum            Status Quo Presentation
                                                            Preparation        of        Needs
                                                            identification
 24 October 2001            Representative Forum            Needs Identification
                                    Phase 2: Strategies
 19 November 2001           Representative Forum           Draft Aggregation Report
                                                           Presentation of In-depth Analysis
 10 December 2001          Representative Forum            Draft Aggregation Report
                                                           In-Depth Analysis
                                                           Vision and Objectives
 29 January 2002           Representative Forum            Objectives and Strategies
                         Phase 3: Projects and Phase 4: Integration
 27 February 2002          Representative Forum            Projects and Integration
 3 April 2002              Representative Forum            Projects
                                                           Integration



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3. MUNICIPAL VISION AND OBJECTIVES

3.1.    Vision

    “Nquthu will offer optimal standards of development to its residents and attract
      tourists through its cultural heritage and historical and natural attractions.”


3.2.    Objectives
   To eradicate poverty and starvation
     Implement agricultural projects and programmes in all of Nquthu in next 2
        years
     Encourage establishment of firms and factories throughout all of Nquthu
     Exploitation and recycling of natural products by 2003
   To develop tourism attractions in co-operation with tourism roleplayers
   To ensure affordable access to water, sanitation and electricity by all households
    (reaching 80% of households by 2005)
   To see that Nquthu has 1 or 2 tertiary institutions based on self-reliancy
   To improve school structures (with 30% of schools having been reached by 2005)
   To ensure that all households have access to the municipal services of solid
    waste removal, roads and stormwater drainage by 2005
   To facilitate access by all households to health facilities within 5 km by 2005.

The vision and objectives were work-shopped with Councillors on 4 December 2001
and at the Representative Form meeting held on the 10 December 2001.




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4. CURRENT REALITY

4.1.    Basic Facts and Figures

                           Table 3: Basic Facts and Figures
       Facts and Figures
       Description                                              No of people
       Age:
       <20                                                         133 097
       21 - 60                                                     140 202
       >65                                                         10 475
       Age Total                                                   283 774
       Employed                                                    60 376
       Unemployed                                                  40 033
       Description                                           % of households
       Households without access to basic water supply:           45.2%
       Households without access to basic sanitation:             42.0%
       Households without Electricity:                            94.7%
       Households without access to Telephone:                    69.9%


4.2.    Identification of Priority Needs/Issues
The priority issues were identified through an issues/needs identification process at a
ward level and through the Representative Forum.

             4.2.1 Ward Level Needs Identification
The ward level identification exercise initially identified many issues within each ward.
Ward Committees were then asked to identify the five priority needs/issues within
their wards. Map 3: Prioritisation of Needs – Highest Priority thematically indicates
the highest priority by ward, while the table overleaf provides a summary of the
priorities indicated by each ward.

The ward-prioritised needs were then aggregated to obtain a municipal-level
indication of needs and issues, using a scoring system as follows:
     First priority - 5 points
     Second priority – 4 points
     Third priority – 3 points
     Fourth priority –2 points
     Fifth priority – 1 point

The scoring matrix is provided overleaf.




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                                      Table 4: Ward Needs
                                                           Ward
                          1                        2                       3                      4
                roads                water                      Water                 road & bridges
                clinic               toilets                    Roads                 water
Priorities      water                electricity                Electricity           electricity
                schools              roads                      Clinic                clinic
                                                                hall / small business
                toilets            cell phone aerial            centre                toilets
                          5                    6                           7                      8
                water              electricity                  Water                 water
                roads              water                        Electricity           electricity
Priorities
                electricity        tar roads                    Roads                 roads
                school             recreation                   Hall                  houses
                clinic             clinic                       School                clinic
                            9                 10                          11                     12
                roads              water                        Water                 roads
                crèches            electricity                  Electricity           water
Priorities      subsidised housing roads                        Hall                  electricity
                community hall     sports ground                Sports ground         hall
                sports stadium     toilets                      Clinic                schools
                           13
                electricity
                water
Priorities      roads
                toilets
                police station


                                   Table 5: Needs Aggregation
         Need                                              Ward                                   Total
                          1    2     3    4        5   6    7   8        9    10   11   12   13
Roads                     5    2     4    5        4   3    3   3        5     3    1    5    3     45
Clinics                   4          2    2        1   1        1                   5               12
Water                     3    5     5    4        5   4    5   5             5          4    4     54
Schools                   2                        2        1                            1           6
Sanitation                1    4          1                                   1    4          2      9
Electricity                    3     3    3        3   5    4      4          4          3    5     51
Telephone/                     1                                                   3                 1
Cellphone
Hall                                 1                      2            2         2     2          10
Recreation/                                            2                 1    2                      7
Sportsground
Housing                                                            2     3                          5
Creches                                                                  4                          3
Police Station                                                                                1     1

The needs listing from the ward level identification was then taken to a
Representative Forum meeting held on the 24th October 2001 At this meeting, the
following issues were agreed as the priority issues:

    1.   Water and Sanitation
    2.   Roads
    3.   Electricity
    4.   Clinics
    5.   Community Halls

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           6. Recreation facilities
           7. Schools
           8. Housing
           9. Crèches
           10. Safety and Security, including police station and cellphone aerials

       At this meeting stakeholders were invited to identify any other issues or needs that
       required attention. The following were identified:
            Land use management
            Tourism development
            Agricultural projects
            Skills development centre
            Disabled centre

       It was decided at the meeting that the skills centre and disabled centre could be
       included with the education issues in the accepted municipal-wide priorities list. It
       was also noted that land use management would be addressed as part of the spatial
       planning exercise of the IDP.

               4.2.2. Technical Needs Analysis
       To complement and cross check the priority needs identified in each ward, a
       technical needs analysis has been undertaken. This has focused on the delivery of
       municipal and social services, with need defined as where the accepted and defined
       minimum levels of service provision has not been attained. The minimum service
       levels or planning standards utilised for this exercise have been defined from:
        Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design (the „Red Book‟)
        Umzinyathi District Municipality: Proposed Water Services Policy
        KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Health Plan

       4.2.3.1.         Education Facilities
       The following standards were utilised to establish the demand for education facilities:
         Crèches – minimum population of 5000 people per crèche
         Primary Schools - minimum population of 3000-4000 people per primary school
         High Schools - minimum population of 6000 – 10 000 people per high school

                                        Table 6: Education Facilities
                   Crèches                          Primary Schools                     High Schools
Ward   Existing     Reqd         Shortfall   Existing    Reqd    Shortfall   Existing       Reqd    Shortfall
1      -           3            2            5          7       2            2            2         0
2      3           2            0            3          8       5            1            3         2
3      -           1            1            2          4       2            1            2         1
4      2           2            0            3          2       0            1            0         0
5      3           2            0            3          4       1            1            2         1
6      -           1            1            1          2       1            1            1         0
7      -           3            3            4          3       0            2            1         0
8      3           2            0            3          1       0            1            2         1
9      -           2            2            3          5       2            1            3         2
10     3           3            0            4          5       1            2            1         0
11     -           2            2            2          4       2            1            1         0
12     -           2            2            2          5       3            1            1         0
13     3           2            0            2          4       2            1            1         0

       4.2.3.2.         Health Facilities
       The demand for clinics (rural) was determined on the basis of 1 rural clinic per 10
       000 population.


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                                  Table 7: Health Facilities
                                                Clinics
                           Ward     Existing   Reqd        Shortfall
                           1        0          2           2
                           2        2          1           0
                           3        0          1           1
                           4        1          1           0
                           5        0          1           1
                           6        1          0           0
                           7        1          1           0
                           8        3          1           0
                           9        2          1           0
                           10       1          2           1
                           11       0          1           1
                           12       1          1           0
                           13       1          1           0

4.2.3.3.         Community Services and Facilities
The following standards have been used to determine the overall demand for these
services and facilities in the municipality.

                              Table 8: Community Facilities
   Service/.Facility                   Standard                      No         Existing     Shortfall
                                                                   Required
 Post Offices            1 post office per 11 000 population          12            2              10
 Police Station          1 police station per 25 000 population        5            3               2
 Fire Station            1 fire station per 60 000 population          2            0               2
 Children‟s Home         1 home per 200 000 population                 1            1               0
 Community               1 centre per 22 000 population                6            0               6
 Information Centres
 Library                 1 library per 50 000 population                3           2               1
 Community Centres       1 centre per 10 000 population                13           3              10


4.3.    Spatial Analysis

         4.3.1. Natural Characteristics
Nquthu is a high-lying area, with altitudes ranging from 901m to 1 500m above sea
level. It is drained by the Buffalo River and its small tributaries. The topography of
Nquthu is undulating. The northern areas are higher lying and undulating, while the
southern areas are more mountainous. In the southern areas, slopes reach gradients
greater than 20%, thus limiting settlement, while the northern areas are characterised
by gentler gradients.

Nquthu has a temperate to hot climate, with the mean annual temperature of about
170 C (KwaZulu-Natal Department of Traditional and Environmental Affairs, 1998).
The mean annual rainfall figures range from less than 400mm to 800mm. Climatic
patterns are also determined by the topography, and these in turn reinforce the
settlement patterns. The northern areas have a more moderate climate with higher
than average rainfall (734-764 mm p.a.), compared with the 646-665 mm p.a.
recorded in the southern areas. The temperature is also more moderate in the high
lying northern areas, with mild winter frost, while in the southern areas the summers
are hot and long and the winter‟s moderate. Some of the low-lying southern areas
are frost-free. The northern areas are therefore favourable for a wider range of
agricultural products.


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Nquthu has a complex geological structure consisting mainly of sandstone, dolerite
and diamictite. Such a complex structure is often associated with poor soils that are
highly susceptible to erosion and have a low agricultural potential. It is also
associated with a high water table. This will influence the location of future
development initiatives, agricultural potential and the nature of bulk services provided
in Nquthu.

The soil potential for agriculture has also contributed to the prevailing settlement
pattern. Areas such as Emandleni where the soil has high agricultural potential are
densely settled, while areas where the soil potential is very low are characterised by
dispersed settlements.

        4.3.2. Movement and Settlement
Although the original settlement patterns were strongly determined by agricultural
potential, climate and the availability of water, the transportation network has
influenced the expansion and consolidation of the settlement pattern.

4.3.2.1          Road Network and Accessibility
The main transportation route through Nquthu Municipality is the R68 linking Ulundi
and Newcastle/Dundee. Other important roads through the municipality are the R33,
passing through the northern part of the municipality, the road passing east of
Nondweni linking Vryheid with the R68 and the gravel road linking Nquthu with
Kranskop.

Due to these major routes crossing the municipality, Nquthu is fairly accessible, with
the route from Dundee to Melmoth being the shortest route from
Newcastle/Ladysmith to Ulundi and the north coast. At present this strength has not
been exploited to its full potential. However, the southern part of Nquthu, the Qhudeni
area, is very inaccessible, while large portions of the eMandleni area are highly
inaccessible.

4.3.2.2.         Settlement
The settlement pattern of Nquthu is largely dispersed rural settlements, with two
urban centres of Nquthu town and Nondweni. The population is distributed
throughout the municipality, although the southern areas are less densely populated
due to the topography. The average population density per square kilometer is 88.5,
which varies from a low of 44.0 in Ward 1 to a high of 187.2 in Ward 8. This is
illustrated in map 4: Population Density and Distribution.

The settlement pattern within the rural part of Nquthu has been influenced by
agricultural potential and access to physical and social infrastructure. A hierarchy of
settlements has developed, defined by the services available in each settlement and
the interaction between the settlements. The core settlements thus service webs of
settlements.

Korsman and Van Wyk identified primary, secondary and tertiary webs, each with a
defined core settlement. These webs and core settlements are summarised in Table
9 and indicated on map 5: Settlement Pattern. With the exception of the Qhudeni
web, the webs have developed along transportation routes. Qhudeni is remote and
isolated from the remainder of Nquthu, with access via the Kranskop road. This
spatial arrangement can form the basis for the implementation of the Rural Service
System, with the identified core settlements serving as the satellite service centres.
Details of the services available in each ward are contained in Annexure 1: Ward
Profiles.



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                         Table 9: Settlement Webs in Nquthu
  Web              Core Settlement / Satellite Service Centre     Ward Serviced
  Primary          Ngolokodo                                      3,13,12
                   Hlathidam                                      11,9,10
  Secondary        Nondweni                                       7,5
  Tertiary         Qhudeni                                        1
                   Isandlwana                                     2,4,10

Nquthu Town is almost centrally situated in ward 6, at the intersection of the R68
linking Dundee to Melmoth, the road to Vryheid via Blood River and the road to
Nondweni. It serves as provincial administrative centre, with offices of the
Departments of Education, Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, Works, Health,
Justice and Welfare, Department of transport, Safety and Security (SAPS), Post
Office, as well as a variety of social infrastructure. The town serves a large
surrounding rural population, located in Ward 6 and Ward 8 (Ndindini, Izicole, Luvisi,
Zinkondlwaneni, Ucilamehlo, Gubazi, Mfangomfango, Khayelisha, Sunrise, Mndeni,
Ezibomvu and Dunusa). The town is formally laid out and there is reportedly a town
planning scheme for the town, although it has not been possible to access this. In
terms of the settlement hierarchy set out in the Integrated Rural Development Policy,
Nquthu fulfils the role of the Provincial Administration Centre.

Nondweni is a resettlement town established during the apartheid era, and previously
administered by the Development Services Board. It offers a variety of social
infrastructure. In contrast to Nquthu, it does not serve a large rural population.

4.3.2.3.         Linkages
Nquthu is strongly linked to the surrounding towns of Dundee, Melmoth, Vryheid and
Newcastle. Dundee is linked to Nquthu by the tarred road and provides many of the
administrative and institutional needs, as well as serving as the commercial core for
higher order, wholesaling and light industrial activities and providing many
employment opportunities for Nquthu residents, particularly those in the southern
portion of the municipality.

4.3.2.4.         Land Use
Land use in Nquthu is primarily agriculture, mainly dryland subsistence, where
people keep livestock and grow crops such as maize and beans. This is the
predominant land use on the flat land and gentle slopes, and along watercourses. In
the central and northern areas the other predominant land use is unimproved
grassland, where livestock graze. In the southern areas, particularly in the steep
slopes, the land has not been developed and has remained as thicket and
bushlands.

Other land uses in the municipality are limited to small areas of forest plantation in
the central areas of Ward 6 and the urban/built up residential areas of Nondweni,
Nquthu town and Ngolokodo. A number of tourism attractions have also been
identified in the municipality, and form a small land use component.

The above is presented graphically on map 6: Land Use.


4.4.    Land and Housing

       4.4.1. Land Ownership and Legal Issues
Most of the land in the municipality, with the exception of that in Nquthu town and
Nondweni, is under tribal administration. Land in Nquthu town and Nondweni is state
owned.
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All tribal land is administered in terms of the KwaZulu-Natal Ingonyama Trust
Amendment Act, for the benefit, material welfare and social well being of the tribes
and communities that live on Ingonyama land. The tribal authorities make Land
allocations on tribal land and land is held under traditional communal tenure.

Some of the complications brought about by tribal land are:
 All development which takes place must first have the permission of the Tribal
  Authority and the Ingonyama Trust Board
 Access to finance and housing subsidies is limited due to limitations on security
  of tenure under traditional communal tenure.

      4.4.2. Land Reform
A number of claims have been lodged with the Department of Land Affairs:
 Lot 11 Nqutu no 9973
 Farm Carinmore 12014
 Farm Fairview 11262
 Farm Gist 11263
 Lot 547 Nqutu

These are currently being processed.

        4.4.3. Housing1
Housing in Nquthu is primarily traditional housing, with 73% of the households in the
area resident in structures built using traditional construction techniques and
materials. A small proportion of the households are resident in informal structures,
with just over a quarter of households (25%) resident in formal houses (western
style).

The distribution of housing types reflects the predominantly rural nature of the
municipality. Formal housing is generally associated with the urban centres of
Nquthu town and Nondweni, and proximity to main roads. From Map 7: Formal
Housing, it can be seen that the wards where the percentage of households resident
in formal housing is high, are those including the towns of Nquthu and Nondweni and
along the R68 and the road linking Nquthu to Vryheid. This includes Ward 6 (75%
formal housing), Ward 8 (56% formal housing), Ward 7 (46% formal housing), Ward
3 (44%) and Ward 11 (39%). In comparison, the rural wards, with more limited
access are those in which traditional housing predominates. In general, formal
housing is associated with high levels of municipal services than informal housing.

Housing typology can also be associated with income levels. It can be seen that the
areas in which households have higher income levels are generally those in which
there is more formal housing. This may be attributed to the higher costs of
construction associated with formal housing.

From the above, and assuming that the ideal is a formal house and a household size
of 6 persons, it can be calculated that the backlog of housing is in the region of 16
500 houses, predominantly in the rural areas.

In order to address the housing backlogs, Provincial Housing Board low cost housing
projects have been approved and implemented in Nquthu town and Nondweni, on
State land. There have been two projects in Nquthu town – Nquthu Extension (317
structures) and Nqutu Phase 2 (1 060 structures) and one project in Nondweni (1 834
structures).

1
    Housing typology figures based on 1996 Census data

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4.5.    Social Analysis
This section provides a broad overview of the social characteristics of Nquthu
Municipality. Detailed information relating to each ward is available in the Ward
Profiles contained in Annexure 1. The information presented in this section has been
sourced from the Demarcation Board website www.demarcation.org. It is based on
the results of the 1996 census.

        4.5.1. Demographic Information
The population of Nquthu is youthful, with 44.6% of the population between the ages
of 5 and 19 years and a further 14.7% between the ages of 0 and 4 years. Almost
46% of the population is below 15 years old, 4.9% are over 65. Males make up
44.5% of population, with the remaining 55.5% being female. These trends indicate
that most of the economically active population; particularly men are working outside
the municipality. Women remaining in the municipality are responsible for educating
the children as well as for managing the household and farming.


                Table 10: Demographic Profile of Nquthu Municipality
        Demographic Data                  No of people               %
        Total Population                  128 823
        Male                              57 301                     44.5
        Female                            71 484                     55.5
        <5 years                          18 911                     14.7
        5 – 14 years                      40 005                     31.1
        14-64 years                       63 630                     49.4
        >65 years                         6 277                      4.9

The large young population will need to be carefully planned for, in respect of
services required. These services will include schools, clinics, and general bulk
infrastructure. It will also be important for job creation to be prioritised to support this
growing population. Planning should also relate to facilities used by women including
farming land, water, communication, access to markets and general health facilities.

Dependency is a reflection of the number of people dependent on an employed
person. This varies from a low of 7.61 in Ward 6 to a high of 223.03 in Ward 1.
Dependency is particularly high in Ward 1 and is lowest in Ward 6. The average
household size is 6.5. This varies from a low of 5.4 in Ward 6 to a high of 7.1 in
Ward 10. Together, these indicators highlight the large youthful population and low
levels of employment experienced in the municipality.

        4.5.2.        HIV/AIDS
The HIV/AIDS epidemic is on one of the key challenges facing South Africa. It has
been estimated by UNAIDS that in 2000 19.9% of adults were infected, up from
12.9% in 1998 (MRC, 2001). It is suggested that by 2005/6 the population prevalence
will have stabilised at about 15% (MRC,2001). It has been reported that KwaZulu
Natal and Gauteng are the regions most affected by the AIDS pandemic. This is
partly due to high rates of urbanisation and high mobility among the residents in
these provinces. The seventh national HIV survey of women attending antenatal
clinics of the public health services in South Africa in October / November 1996
reported a 19% HIV rate, while in 1997 a higher rate of 26.92% HIV rate of mothers
in KwaZulu Natal was reported.

Information obtained from the Department of Virology in the Faculty of Medicine
(University of Natal) have indicated that approximately 56% of a sample of patients

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  from the Charles Johnson Memorial Hospital were HIV positive. Although this in only
  a sample, not necessarily representative of the Nquthu area, it does suggest high
  HIV/AIDS rates in the municipality.

  It is anticipated that this pandemic is likely to have profound negative impacts in the
  medium to long term. Projections of the demographic impact of HIV suggest that
  between 2000 and 2010 there will be between 4 and 7 million deaths from AIDS in
  South Africa, making AIDS the largest single cause of death (MRC,2001). These
  include the likely depletion of certain age groups more than others:
   Increase in the infant (below 1 year old) mortality rate
   Doubling of current under-5 mortality rate
   More than doubling of the premature adult mortality rate, indicated by the
       probability of a 15-year-old dying before the age of 60. It is suggested that this
       may rise to 80%.

  It will be important to factor into planning the impacts associated with this pandemic.
  These have been investigation by Whiteside et al (1995) and are summarised in
  Table 11.

       Table 11: The implication of HIV and AIDS for planning in KwaZulu-Natal

          Effect                            Indicator                             Action for Planners
1. Demographic
Slowing of population         Fewer births, higher mortality           Monitor demographic data; revise
growth                                                                 population projection
Changing structure            Higher mortality in 15-39 year age       Monitor demographic data and identify
                              group and higher infant mortality        implications of this for planning norm
2. Demand for Services
Decline in school entrants    Enrolment rates decline                  Monitor enrolments, ensure children not
                                                                       excluded because of poverty, liaise with
                                                                       Education Department
Increase in health care       More patients at clinics, hospitals      Monitor demand; identify how it will be
need                          and hospices                             met and change planning standards
                                                                       accordingly.       Liaise with Health
                                                                       department.
Increased mortality           More deaths                              Monitor mortality; provide cemetery
                                                                       space more rapidly.
Increased       dependency    Adult deaths, increase in orphans        Monitor and protect orphans, plan for
ratio (elderly, orphans)      and destitute elderly                    their and elderly people‟s needs. Liaise
                                                                       with relevant departments.
Housing needs                 Declining rate of population growth      Monitor demographic trends
Ability to pay                Changes in household income and          Evaluate the importance of this data to
                              expenditure patterns                     planning, develop mechanisms for
                                                                       monitoring changes and possibly
                                                                       assisting vulnerable groups.
3. Provincial / National Environment
Variable        sub-regional Increase HIV seroprevalence, high         Assess        sub-regional   vulnerability.
vulnerability                number of AIDS cases, mobility,           Consider making most vulnerable areas
                             poverty                                   priorities of development.
Change       in   economic Decline in savings and investment,          Include potential decrease in growth in
growth rates                 increased mortality                       plans, consider potential migration
Demand for          services Increased demand on state donor           Include potential demand in planning
coupled with decreased funds, with an increase in donor                processes, and indicate issues to
ability to pay               dependency                                government and NGO sectors dealing
                                                                       with donor agencies
Development projects          AIDS      spread    speeded      by      Consider AIDS Impact analysis for major
                              project/project made less viable by      projects – currently under development
                              AIDS
Provincial socio-political    KwaZulu-Natal seen as „plague‟           De-mystify HIV/AIDS plan to mitigate
environment                   province                                 impact, advocacy of prevention
  Source: Whiteside et al, The impact of HIV/Aids on Planning Issues in KwaZulu-Natal, Town and Regional Planning
  Commission, 1995.


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        4.5.3. Socio-Economic Information

4.5.3.1.         Income and Employment
The potential labour force of Nquthu (i.e. those between the aged of 15 and 64 years)
comprises 63 630 people. Of these 4 602 people or 7.2% are employed. Those who
categorise themselves as unemployed total 14 981 people or 23.5% of the
population. This is the category of people who are actively seeking employment. The
remainder of the potential labour force are not economically active. When considered
in the aggregate, it is noted that 95.8% of the total population are not economically
active, with a mere 3.3% of the total population being employed.

The high and increasing level of unemployment has been attributed to the influx of
farm labourers to the area from commercial farms in neighbouring municipalities, as
well as the movement of unemployed persons back their places of origin. In
particular, the decreasing employment in the national mining and manufacturing
sectors has contributed to this movement.

The table below shows the spread of employed persons across the municipality. It is
evident from this that employment is greatest is wards 3,6,8, and 11. These are the
wards around Nquthu town and Nondweni, thus indicating the concentration of
economic activities and government services in these localities. Ward 1 in contrast
has a very low level of employment (<1% of the potential labour force) highlighting its
inaccessibility.

        Table 12: Distribution of employment across Nquthu Municipality
                         Potential      Labour Number
                Ward     Force (16-64 years)   Employed       % Employed
                1        7869                  72             0.9%
                2        4464                  304            6.8%
                3        3308                  344            10.4%
                4        4790                  129            2.7%
                5        5097                  202            4.0%
                6        2269                  544            24.0%
                7        6864                  679            9.9%
                8        4527                  590            13.0%
                9        4926                  300            6.1%
                10       7179                  411            5.7%
                11       4328                  521            12.0%
                12       4004                  239            6.0%
                13       4005                  267            6.7%
                Total    63630                 4 602          7.2%

A dominant 26.2% of the employed population are in “Elementary” sales and services
related jobs, while 24% are professionally employed. 12.7% are employed in the
craft and trade industry with 11.5% being in service related industries, while 10.2%
are plant or machine operators/assemblers.          Less than 10% are in senior
management positions, technical, clerks or skilled (agricultural & fisheries)
occupations. Professional, technical and clerks are concentrated in Wards 6,7 and 8
- the wards with greatest access to the centres of Nquthu town and Nondweni. Those
employed in the crafts and trade, and plant and machine positions are more evenly
spread throughout the municipality.

Household income varies from a high of over R36 000 earned by less than 1% of the
total households, to a low of zero for 22.4% of the households. It was calculated that

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19.4% of households earned up to R2400 per annum, 26.7% of all the households
earn between R2400-R6000 per annum, while 15.7% of the households earned
between R6001 and R12000 per annum. This gives a total of 84.5% of households or
16 664 households earning below R12 000 per annum or R1 000 per month. In 1996,
5.3% of households earned R12001 to R18000 per annum, with the number of
houses earning over R18000 per annum dropping off quickly. Household income
appears to be lowest in Wards 1,2 and 4, with Ward 6 having the highest income.
The distribution of those households earning less than R1000 per month is presented
on map 8: Household Income.

                   Table 13: Income Profile of Nquthu Municipality
                  Income per month    Households           %
                  R 0 – R 500         13 561               68.5
                  R 501 – R1000       3 103                15.7
                  R 1 001 – R 3500    2 078                10.5
                  >R 3500             513                  2.6
                  Unspecified/NA      540                  2.7

4.5.3.2.         Poverty Level
Poverty level is derived from a combination of Lowest Household Income figures
(less than R500 per month), unemployment, dependency and inadequate access to
water. An index of 1 denotes highest level of poverty, while 5 denotes lowest poverty
levels. Poverty levels vary from a high of 1 in Ward 1 to a low of 5 in Ward 6. The
distribution of poverty, as indicated by the poverty levels is presented graphically on
map 9: Poverty Index.

These statistics indicate that while all areas of the Nquthu region need economic
upliftment, it is clear that attention needs to be focused on Ward 1 and 4 where
poverty levels are the highest. Poverty alleviation should be focused on job creation,
and increased water provision in the affected areas.


4.6.    Provision of Social and Municipal Services
This section of the report provides information relating to the provision of social and
municipal infrastructure and services. The information has been sourced from the
previous uMzinyathi Regional Council as well as the Demarcation Board, based on
the 1996 Census. An overview of the situation in Nquthu is provided in this section,
with details contained in Annexure 1: Ward Profiles.

        4.6.1. Social Facilities and Services

4.6.1.1.         Education
The educational needs of Nquthu are addressed by the circuit offices that manage a
total of 152 schools. A complete listing of the schools in each ward is provided in
Annuxure 1: Ward Profiles. The location of these is also indicated on the map 10:
Education Facilities.




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                             Table 14: Schools in Nquthu
                         Types of Schools         No Schools
                         Lower Primary            40
                         Primary                  12
                         Higher Primary           6
                         Combined Primary         52
                         Junior Secondary         15
                         Senior Secondary         27
                         Total                    152

The relatively young population of municipality places pressure on already
overcrowded facilities. In addition, teachers are not easily attracted to rural areas
such as Nquthu due to difficulties in finding accommodation and the limited access to
facilities for further training.

Addressing the educational demand over the long term is a complex matter taking
into account the impact of HIV/Aids has on population growth. On the one hand
there is an immediate need for more facilities which, taking into account the limited
budget, by the time they are constructed will be less needed.

Higher education facilities are located at Newcastle, Vryheid and Ulundi and do not
provide adequately for the needs of the urban and rural population. Access to these
facilities is a problem as well as the capacity of these facilities.

The distance training market has developed at a rapid rate over the past few years
and offers a variety of training opportunities to people in more remote areas such as
Nquthu. However, support services for students in the area is a problem.

4.6.1.2.         Health Infrastructure
There is one hospital in the municipality, namely the CJM Hospital which is in Nquthu
and reasonably centrally situated. The hospital, which has 534 beds and is classified
as a District Level 1 Hospital, offers the following services:
 24 hour casualty
 Outpatients
 Maternity
 Internal Medicine
 Surgical
 Orthopaedics
 Paediatrics
 Psychiatric
 Dental
 Primary Health Care

Ten satellite clinics serve the rural areas. These are supported by 3 mobile clinics,
which visit a total of 39 points on a regular basis. The location of the clinics, as well
as of the points for the mobile clinics is indicated on the map 11: Health Facilities.

The age structure of the Nquthu district will place pressure on the existing health
system since a large percentage of the population is very young. In years to come
the percentage of aged people will increase due to a longer life expectancy and
specialised health services will be in demand.

The HIV/AIDS epidemic will also place strain on the health infrastructure, due to
increasing demand for health treatment as opportunistic infections afflict members of
the population who are HIV-positive or have full-blown AIDS. In its terminal stages,
AIDS victims also require greater levels of health care.
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4.6.1.3.         Welfare Infrastructure
The offices of the Department of Welfare and Population Development are situated in
Nquthu. The office has a total of two welfare workers. The bulk of their work is
related to the aged and pensions.

Pensions amounting to R7 000 000.00 are paid out at 48 pension points to a total of
approximately 20 000 people per month. (Korsman and Van Wyk, 2000). The
payment points are indicated in the table below.

                            Table 15: Pension Pay Points
                     Ward                   Pension Point
                     1                      Qhudeni
                                            Ekuphakameni
                                            Thandinkosi
                     2                      Delowaziyo
                                            Nsimbane Store
                                            Mangeni Store
                                            Mbokodwebomvu
                     3                      Cross Roads
                     4                      Mangwebuthanani
                                            Silutshane
                                            Zondi Court House
                     5                      Ngwebini
                                            Maduladula
                                            Patsoana
                                            Mabululwana
                     6                      Ntanyandlovu
                                            Sunrise Store
                     7                      Mhlungwane
                                            Nondweni 2
                     8                      Nquthu Court House
                                            Khihpinkunzi
                                            Ndindindi
                     9                      St Augustines
                                            Jabavu
                                            Hlathidam
                     10                     Ngonini
                                            Msizani
                     11                     Vikindlala
                                            Mafitleng
                                            Luvisi Store
                                            Molefe Court House
                     12                     Thelezini
                                            Phakamani
                                            Ndatshane
                                            Nodwengu
                                            Mkhonjane
                     13                     Vryheid
                                            Nkande
                                            Haladu
                                            Batshana

Cash Paymaster Services visit clusters of the paypoints on a rotational system
through each month.

There are no specialised facilities to cater for the aged, disabled or those in need of
special care in the area.


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4.6.1.4.         Community Facilities
Three community halls have been identified:
 Phindagane Community Hall in Ward 2
 Ubudabuphangwa Community Hall in Ward 6
 Nkande Community Hall in Ward 3.

Sports fields (mainly soccer fields) are located at most of the schools throughout the
area. There are other sports fields in some wards. These generally comprise soccer
fields, and sometimes netball and tennis courts. There is, however, no large stadium
or sports centre

There are 8 tribal courts in the Municipality, one servicing each tribal authority.

Community facilities are centralised in Nondweni and Nquthu. The following facilities
are found in each of these towns:
 Police station
 Post office
 Library

The magistrate‟s court is located in Nquthu town. Another police station is located in
Mangeni. A postal cluster box is located in Ward 9.

The location of the facilities is identified on the map 12: Community facilities.

In general terms, the community facilities are clustered in Nquthu and Nondweni,
although some facilities are distributed more widely through the municipality.
Although this clustering is beneficial in that „one stop‟ assistance may be acquired,
accessibility of these services to households in the rural areas is more limited. This is
particularly so for those Wards which are further away from Nquthu town and
Nondweni, and do not have good roads or transport services to facilitate movement
to these centres.

        4.6.2. Municipal infrastructure and Services

4.6.2.1.         Water

Infrastructure
Water provision in Nquthu is the responsibility of the uMzinyathi District Council,
through the uThukela Water Partnership, with small projects implemented through
Aquamanzi.

Water is provided to the area through a system involving the extraction of 2.5ML per
day from the Buffalo River at Vant‟s Drift. This is then processed through a treatment
plant and terminates a rising main in Nquthu 20km away and a 10Ml reservoir
outside Nquthu. This system is operating at capacity presently. This water is then
reticulated to Nquthu town, Luvisi and Ndatshana servicing approximately 3 996
stands. Water is also reticulted to Hlatidam, Vulamehlo and Ziqazeni.

Nondweni is serviced through the extraction of 3.96Ml of water from the Nondweni
River which is treated and stored in 3 reservoirs with a total capacity of 1Ml.
Reticulation feeds the water to 2 434 stands.

Ngolokodo has a scheme fed from a borehole yielding 35 000l per hour. This water is
then reticulated to approximately 1 000 sites through a standpipe system.


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The extent of these reticulated systems is indicated on the map 13 titled: Water
Supply

There are several rudimentary supply schemes servicing some 20 000 families from
674 protected springs and boreholes with handpumps. Although it is assumed that
50% of these water supplies may not be operational, a yield of 17.5 litres per day per
person can be expected. In addition to this supply, water may be sourced from other
dams and rivers.

Levels of Service
It was reported that 5% of households had water on tap in the dwelling, with 3%
reporting that they had water on site. Just over a third of the households obtain their
water from a public tap, with 4% using a water tanker. Water from boreholes
accounted for 15% of the households, with a dominant 40% of the households using
water from natural sources.

           Table 16: Level of Water Supply Services in Nquthu Municipality
       Main Water Supply                                Households         %
       Piped Water (water in dwelling       or   yard   1 455              7.4
       standpipe)
       Public Tap (communal standpipe)                  6 523              33.0
       Borehole                                         2 876              14.5
       None                                             8 941              45.2

One of the major problems relating to water provision in this area is that existing bulk
lines are only present in Wards 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13. While reticulation is planned into
other wards, the situation presently requires that almost half of the population obtain
water from natural sources such as rivers and streams. This could potentially lead to
health problems due to lack of control over these water sources; cholera is a current
example of this problem.

National policy has set an aim of providing a basic volume of 6 kl of water per
household per month at no charge (free basic water policy). A pilot programme for
the implementation of this policy initiative is currently being implemented in the
uMzinyathi District and will consequently benefit Nquthu. Possible approaches to the
implementation are:
 Block tariffing with the first 6 kl free
 Targeted credit or subsidy reflected on user accounts
 Controlled volume to users through yard tanks, flow control devices etc

4.6.2.2.         Sewage Treatment
Nquthu has two water borne sewage treatment works, an older one on the eastern
side of town with a capacity of 1.35Ml per day and a new treatment works on the
west of town with a capacity of 0.538Ml per day.

Nondweni appears to be equipped with an underutilised pond system mainly for the
treatment of conservancy tank effluent. The effluent is deposited at the works plant.

Levels of Service
Of the households, less than 2% had flush toilets, with a dominant 56% having some
sort of pit latrine with 42% reporting that they had no sanitation at all. This situation
poses significant public health risks from the spread of communicable diseases, e.g.,
cholera. These health risks are often confounded by poor hygienic practices due to
lack of information or even resources (e.g., adequate water supplies and sanitation
facilities).

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Ward 6 appears to have the highest proportion of flush toilets (mainly in Nquthu
town) or pit latrines, while most households and public facilities in Nondweni, Ward 9,
Ward 11, Ward 12 (part) and Ward 13 (part) have Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines
(VIP‟s). Ward 1, 2 and 4 have the poorest sanitation conditions. Urgent attention
needs to be focussed on rectifying the situation, as it is in these areas where water
supply is predominantly from natural sources, which could be negatively affected by
the lack of formal sanitation.

           Table 17: Level of Sanitation Services in Nquthu Municipality
           Toilet facilities            No Households               %
           Flush/Chemical Toilet        307                         1.6
           Pit Latrine                  11 165                      56.4
           None                         8 309                       42.0

The level of service provision in relation to sanitation is presented graphically on map
14: Sanitation.

4.6.2.3.         Electricity and Lighting Facilities
Nquthu town and Nondweni are fed by a 22kV line from the ESKOM sub-station at
Vant‟s Drift. This is fed to 1596 sites with a prepaid metering system. Ngolokodo is
serviced from the Blood River station area. The alignment of this line, as well as the
percentage of households in each ward with an electricity supply is indicated on map
15: Electricity.

Levels of Service
It was reported that only 5.3% of the households used electricity from a municipality
for lighting, with less than 1% using gas, while 23% used paraffin, with a dominant
70% using candles for lighting.

The use of electricity is concentrated in Wards 6, 7, 9 (part) and 11(part), where the
distribution from the Vant‟s Drift sub-station is available.

4.6.2.4.         Telephone
Telephone systems are present in the larger centres as well as cell phone coverage.
A radio phone system has been established for the rural area. Card phones have
been established in several areas including hospitals, clinics and schools. A target
has been set to establish a card phone within 2km of every resident.

Levels of Service
It has been reported that only 1.1% of all households had a telephone in the dwelling,
while 28.9% had access to a public telephone, with almost 28% of the households
having no secure telephone access. Of those who have no secure telephone
access, only 6834 households (or 35% of all households) have no access to
telephones at all. Other households have access to telephones, either at a
neighbour, or a public telephone at a location not nearby. Lack of telephone access
is greatest in Wards 1,2, 4 and 13 (where over 90% of households have no access to
telephones).




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           Table 18: Level of Telephone Services in Nquthu Municipality
           Telephones                  No Households               %
           On Premises                 221                         1.1
           Public Phone                5 728                       28.9
           None                        13 846                      69.9

Where households do not have access to a telephone, this provides difficulties for
dealing with emergency and disaster situations, as the affected household will not be
able to raise the alarm or request assistance. Consequently, individuals and property
may be at risk.

4.6.2.5.         Refuse
Nquthu has a refuse site to the south-eastern section of town and has sufficient
capacity for a number of years. Nondweni has a solid waste site to the south east of
town, which also has sufficient capacity for a number of years.

Refuse is collected by the municipality in Nquthu town and Nondweni. In the
remainder of the municipality, there is no refuse collection and most refuse is burnt
by individual households.

4.6.2.6.         Transport

Roads
The main road in the municipality is the R68 tarred road from Dundee, through Vant‟s
Drift to Nquthu, through the Babanango, Melmoth and the northern KwaZulu-Natal
coast. The R54 provides the link between Blood River and Nquthu

District roads and access roads provide access throughout the central and northern
areas of Nquthu as indicated on map 16: Transportation. However, there is limited
access to Ward 2 and throughout Ward 1. Ward 1 is isolated from the remainder of
the municipality, only being accessible from the east from the Kranskop road.


Public Transport
Public transport in the area is primarily by taxi. These comprise local taxis, linking
areas within Nquthu. Local taxis operate on a hub-type system, with the nodal points
being Nquthu town and Nondweni. From these points, links to nearby major centres
such as Dundee depart. Discussions with local residents have indicated that the
existing services are perceived as not being reliable and as costly. Consequently,
there is also a reliance on obtaining lifts from individuals with private vehicles.

Nine major taxi ranks have been identified in the area, which service numerous taxi
rank. These are fairly evenly distributed throughout the municipal area. The table
below lists the ranks, and, their location per ward. The location of the major taxi ranks
is indicated on map 16: Transportation.




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                                 Table 19: Taxi Ranks
  Major Taxi Rank and Location              Smaller Ranks and Location
  Nondweni                                  Khiphinkunzi – ward 8
  Ward 7                                    Nondweni Supermarket – ward 7
                                            Nondweni Police Station – ward 7
  Qhydeni                                   Kuaboloyi –ward 1
  Ward 1                                    Entonyeni – ward 1
                                            Emesongweni-annana – ward 1
                                            Emakhyqwini Cllinic – ward 1
  Ncepheni                                  Isandhlwana – ward 4
  Ward 10                                   Esikholeni – ward 10
                                            Kwaphathaphetha – ward 10
                                            Kwaqule – ward 10
                                            Kwamosia – ward 10
  Masotheni                                 Kwekhuzwayo – ward 9
  Ward 9                                    E14 – ward 9
                                            KwaMadondo – ward 9
  Zicole                                    Zicole mbatha supply Store – ward 11
  Ward 11                                   Molefe Tribal Authority – ward 11
                                            KwaMnquni Store – ward 11
  KwaGrace                                  Nkande Clinic – ward 13
  Ward 3                                    Hdadu – ward 13
                                            Mhlangeni – ward 13
                                            KwaMasondo – ward 13
                                            Mqthombo – ward 13
                                            Machancha – ward 13
  Silutshana                                Kwafohlaza – ward 4
  Ward 2                                    Esidokeneni – ward 4
                                            KwaMlaba – ward 6
                                            KwaNkalenkala – ward 6
                                            Esibongile – ward 4
                                            Emabululwene – ward 5
                                            Emaqola – ward 5
  Hlathidam                                 Dlamini Station – ward 9
  Ward 9                                    Springlake – ward 9
                                            Nqudulvona – ward 9
                                            Ezinqhozeni – ward 12
                                            Mafitleng – ward 11
  Hlazakazi                                 Mqoqo – ward 2
  Ward 2                                    Nkunyana – ward 2
Source: Nquthu Municipality

There are no bus services in the municipality.

The limited public transport provision in the municipality places limitations on the
ability of individuals and households to access social services and facilities e.g.
health care and education, as well as travel to central places of employment.

Air Transport
There are two airstrips in Nquthu, located in Ward 6 and Ward 12. Although these
are not regularly used for commercial or charter flights they do provide opportunities
for emergency medical evacuations and other disaster management interventions,
should these be required.

4.6.2.7.         Cemeteries
At present each settlement / family has its own place. As the impact of the HIV/AIDS
epidemic is more fully felt in Nquthu, with higher mortality levels, the demand for
cemeteries will increase. A more co-ordinated approach is needed as these


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cemeteries are being developed on land with high agricultural potential, and the high
demand for land for burials will result in the cemeteries rapidly increasing in size.


4.7.    Economic Analysis
This section of the report highlights the economic trends in the Nquthu Municipality. It
is based on the available information for the area, which is relatively dated, having
been collected in 1991.

In 1991, Nquthu had a GGP of R 57,6 million. It had experienced a high growth rate
of 5.3% p.a. between 1980 and 1991, measured in constant prices. This was in
contrast to the population growth rate, which averaged 1% over the period, thus
resulting in the area becoming relatively more prosperous over this time.

         4.7.1. Major Sectors
The economic profile of the Nquthu Municipality is presented in the table below. This
indicates that the area is highly concentrated in its economic structure, with the
dominant activity being the services sector, accounting for almost half of all economic
activity. This concentration means that the economy is vulnerable to adverse
economic influences such as the decline of a particular sector.


                  Table 20: Economic Profile of Nquthu Municipality
           Economic Sector                            % Contribution to GGP
           Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing          11.2
           Mining and Quarrying                       18.3
           Manufacturing                              5.7
           Utilities                                  0.6
           Construction                               6.0
           Trade and catering                         2.0
           Transport and Communication                6.5
           Finance and Real Estate                    2.8
           Services                                   46.8
           Total                                      100.0
                 Source: DBSA 1995


Previous studies of the economy of Nquthu (Korsman and Van Wyk, 2000) have
found that the area has comparative advantages in the following sectors:
    Agriculture and Forestry
    Mining and Quarrying
    Construction
    Services

Significant commercial and industrial development is absents from Nquthu. It is
important to note that despite its relative importance, the services sector cannot be
considered a lead sector, as it is not a creator of wealth. The importance of the
services sector rather stems from the lack of any other significant economic activity in
the area and the concentration of civil service activities in the area.

The discussion below will focus on the most important sectors and their future.

4.7.1.1.         Services
The services sector is the largest contributor to GGP and employment in Nquthu.
This is due to the number of government institutions in the municipality:
    Department of Education
    Department of Health

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       Department of Justice
       Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs
       Department of Public Works
       Department of Health
       Department of Justice
       Department of Safety and Security
       Department of Home Affairs
       Department of Social Welfare and Population Development
       Road Traffic Inspectorate
       SAPS
       Municipal Administration

It is likely that this sector will remain an important economic sector in the municipality.

4.7.1.2.         Mining and quarrying
Nquthu lies within the important coalfields of KwaZulu-Natal and the sector is an
important contributor to the areas GGP. However, it is not as strong an employer,
perhaps due to the migrant labour system of the mines. However, the future
trajectory of this sector is tenuous, given the closure of mining operations due to the
downturn in the demand for, and price of coal.

4.7.1.3.         Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
The agriculture, forestry and fishing economic sector is dominated by agriculture in
the Nquthu area, with very limited forestry and an absence of fishing.

Nquthu is an area with moderate agricultural potential as indicated in map 17:
Agricultural Potential. In these areas, dry land crops can be cultivated, and the
carrying capacity of the veld is higher than other areas, although during a short
period of the year the veld is not suitable for grazing. The potential of this area, using
Bio-Resource Units has been estimated as approximately 13 000 ha with potential for
dryland crop production. The grazing potential has been estimated as just over 30
000 large stock units. There is potential for irrigation along the banks of the Buffalo
River.

Agricultural production within the Municipality is principally for subsistence purposes,
with few people actively involved in commercial production. Cropping currently takes
place on 2 750 ha, with production focused on maize (60%) and beans (5%). There
are no irrigation systems in place, although small areas are utilised for vegetable
production. Total stock numbers are 42 000 head of cattle and 14 000 goats. This
suggests that the full crop potential is not being utilised, but the full grazing quota is
being utilised, and there is a risk of overgrazing leading to environmental
degradation. There is thus potential for further development of the farming sector.

4.7.1.4.         Commerce
Commercial activities are the second most important employment generators in the
municipality. However, these are restricted to general dealers and the like, of which
117 stores have been identified in previous studies (Korsman and Van Wyk, 2000).
The majority of the stores are located in the business centre of Nquthu town. There is
a smaller concentration of commercial outlets in Nondweni, with isolated stores
servicing the settlements throughout Nquthu

A significant proportion of the economically active population is also involved in the
informal sector, with informal trading being particularly vibrant. Street traders are
concentrated in Nquthu town, in the vicinity of the bus and taxi terminus, near the
hospital, thus capitalising on the exposure to the market. Street traders are also

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active in Nondweni, and on „pension days‟ at the pension pay points throughout the
municipality.

        4.7.2. Employment Profile
The economic profile of the area is reflected in the employment profile. 1996 data
indicates that over 38% of all employed people are in Social Services, while over
14% are involved in trade, with 12% being employed in the Private Household sector.
Almost 10% of all workers are in the Construction sector, with less than 10% being
employed in the transport, manufacturing, mining, farming, utilities, businesses
services and exterritorial organisations sectors.

This data can be disaggregated by ward. This exercise indicates that in all wards
social services is the greatest employer. This is particularly evident in Ward 6, where
it employs about 60% of all employed persons. In other wards, such as 7, 8,9 and 11,
the social services sector employs approximately 30% of employed persons.

       4.7.3. Tourism
Tourism development is of importance due to the potential of the sector in Nquthu.
The area contains or is surrounded by important historical battle sites such as
Isandlwana, Rorkes Drift, Prince Imperial, Blood River, Fort Marshall and Fort
Newdigate. These are located on map 6: Land Use. Many of these are concentrated
in Ward 7. Other historical attractions include St Augustine and Masojeni in Ward 9.

The largest tourism operator in the area is Isandlwana Lodge, located in Ward 4 in
proximity to the Isandlwana Battlefield. Other establishments that could service the
tourism market in Nquthu include the Nquthu Hotel. However, the majority of
accommodation establishments are located outside the municipality, and tourists to
the area are primarily day visitors.

There are also significant natural attractions within the area that could be developed
for tourism. These are indicated in the table overleaf and on map 18: Environmental
Analysis.

The tourism sector offers opportunities for economic development, including activities
such as tourism accommodation establishments, art and crafts, guiding. These are
currently poorly developed and poorly recorded. These provide avenues for
increasing employment and levels, if appropriate support and guidance was provided
and long term marketing channels developed.




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                   Table 21: Potential Environmental Attractions for Tourism
      Ward         Mountains and Hills                                  Rivers and Waterfalls
      1            Qhudeni, Ubemba, Ntanyeni
      2            Isilubhane, Hlazakazi, Inkabane                      Mangeni Waterfall
                   Qwale Hill, Mxangala, Nkunyane Hill,                 Nzimane Waterfall
                   Ohlameni, Nhlanyane, Silutshane,                     Umzinyathi,     Mangeni,     Mpongoza,
                   Malakatha, Usundu, Ndutshana                         Mkholombe, Manzimnyama, Nsimbane,
                                                                        Mhosheni, Nxibongo, Nondweni
      3            Nkande                                               Mdlangevu, Ncome
      4            Uphinde,     Isiphezi, Kwa-Ngezi,
                   Emagoga, Isandlwana, Kwa-Thusi,
                   Ntalantal, Kwa-Ngome
      5            Manyangagane,          Kwa-Dcoko,                    Mpiseni, Ngwebini, Isikutu, Nqatha
                   Kwasompembe
      6            Nquthu
      7            Mhlungwane, Uthaka                                   Nondweni, Othaka
      8            Nsekwini                                             Batshe, Magonga, Gobitaza
      9            Masojeni, Ebinglagone                                Ncome, Hlathi, Bivane, Manzimyama,
                                                                        uMzinyathi (Buffalo)
      10           Ngendla, Ntangandlovu, Ntalantela,                   Ngobongo, Manzimyama, Batshe, Mhobo,
                   Nhlabamkesi, Nkengeni, Ncepheni,                     Nycana, Mhlazana, Umzinyathi, Ndlovini,
                   Nqwetshena                                           Phutuwana, Ngobiya
      11           Mkhenyane, Phunganhloye                              Luvisi, Batshe
      12           Thelezini, Uhaleni, Ntabakazulu                      Ncome, Mandozi, Lihogo
      13           Mabande, Nhlathi                                     Mfule, Batchana, Ncome, Vehmanzi


4.8.        Environmental
This section provides a synopsis of the main environmental features of Nquthu. It
also highlights environmental opportunities and constraints that could influence
spatial planning in this area.

        4.8.1. Conservation Worthy Areas
Conservation worthy areas include areas of historical, archaeological and ecological
significance. Two sites have been identified in Nquthu, both already protected.
These were identified by the Natal Parks Board (now the KwaZulu-Natal Nature
Conservation Services) in the early 1990s (see Map 18: Environmental Analysis).
These are the Nkandla community conservation area and Isandlwana battlefield.
Apart from these sites, there are other conservation worthy areas which fall just
outside the study area. Because of their close proximity to the study area, their
potential impact on infrastructure and other services in Nquthu needs to be
considered in the spatial plan.

Other conservation worthy areas are the landscapes in the more mountainous parts
of the municipality – Ward 1 in particular, as well as just east of Nquthu town and in
Ward 10. Intermediate value landscapes occur in Ward 2,4,5,6 and 10.

       4.8.2. Flora and Fauna
A detailed analysis of the fauna and flora was not undertaken. However, a SEA
conducted by KZN Wildlife has identified areas of intrinsic value2 for the distribution
of species:
   Grasslands: Areas of intermediate value have been identified around Nquthu
    town and in Wards 2,4 and 5
   Important Vegetation Communities: A band of high value has been identified
    around Nquthu town and in Ward 4 and 5, as well as in Ward 1.

2
    Value determined in relation to the provincial distribution of the species

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   Birds: Areas of high value for birdlife are identified in Ward 2 and in Ward 6 in
    close proximity to Nquthu town. Intermediate value areas are identified in a band
    running south east from Nquthu town.
   Invertebrates: High value areas for the distribution of invertebrates are the
    mountainous areas of Ward 1 and 2.
   Medicinal Plants: High value areas for medicinal plants occur in Ward 6 (near
    Nquthu town), and in Wards 1 and 2. Intermediate value land occurs in Wards
    5,4,2 and 1.
   Threatened Plants: Areas of high value land occur centrally in KZ 242 maingly in
    Wards 2,4 and 5.

        4.8.3. Wetlands
There are several small wetlands scattered across Nquthu, forming a band from
northwest (Ward 12) to south east (Ward 2). These have been categorised as of high
value. Wetlands perform a number of functions that are important to the ecological
sustainability. They have a distinctive and characteristic vegetation. They provide
habitats for migratory birds. They also play a significant role in recharging ground
water resources, trapping silt and improving water quality. Therefore, they must be
protected, irrespective of their size.

        4.8.4. Major Environmental Problems

4.8.4.1.         Soil Erosion and Land Degradation
The Environmental map, based on an analysis of land cover in Nquthu indicates that
soil erosion and land degradation are two major environmental problems in Nquthu.
Soil erosion occurs in areas where the competition for land has increased over the
past years, and where there is overgrazing. Areas around settlements need to be
protected and cattle routes need to be restructured to prevent erosion and
degradation. Erosion has been highlighted as a problem area in previous reports. If
erosion is not controlled in the area, it could lead to a number of problems including
siltation of rivers, loss of topsoil and agricultural land.

The direct implication of this problem on spatial planning is that it limits the amount of
land available for development. It also has a direct impact on the nature and location
of bulk services as well as developments that can be permitted in the area.

4.8.4.2.         Sewage and Sold Waste
There are no proper waste disposal facilities in Nquthu. Solid waste (including
hospital waste) is currently being disposed of in an open space in the town centre.
There is no waterborne sewerage system in the area. A few places are served by
septic tanks. The majority of the people use pit latrines, which tend to fill up quickly
and are sometimes drained into small rivers such as Nondweni and Ithaka.

One of the most important environmental risks is groundwater contamination by
sewage. This issue can only be addressed through the formalisation of sanitation.
This problem is most critical where there is no formal water supply and residents are
forced to draw water from streams or groundwater, which could be contaminated.

4.8.4.3.         Geohydrological
High water tables in certain areas will preclude development in these areas.

4.8.4.4.         Encroachment on environmentally sensitive areas
If development is not controlled it could encroach onto areas that are environmentally
sensitive and unsuitable for development.



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4.8.4.5.         Uncontrolled development
As well as encroaching on sensitive areas, uncontrolled development could hinder
the provision of essential services to settlements due to the lack of town planning
associated with uncontrolled development.


4.9.    Institutional and Financial Analysis

        4.9.1. Institutional
The Nquthu Municipality is a newly established municipality, having previously been
part of the uMzinyathi Regional Council. It also incorporates the established town of
Nquthu, which was previously administered by Umsekeli, and Nondweni.

The municipality is still in the process of establishing its staff and procedures, and
has been reliant on Umzinyathi District Council to provide capacity and support. The
Municipality is increasingly becoming self-sufficient, with the appointment of a full-
time permanent Municipal Manager.

Panel consultants appointed by the Department of Traditional and Local Government
Affairs to the District Council have a dual role of providing support to the DC and the
local municipalities within the District Council, Nquthu included. However, they have
spent the bulk of their time on District Council activities, with the result that there has
been relatively little activity on matters relating to Nquthu Municipality.

Although a collective executive municipality with 12 proportionally elected and 13
ward councilors, there are 8 traditional leaders within the area. It is important that
these leaders are included in the municipal affairs to ensure that there is participatory
democracy and community support for development proposals.

The staff complement of the Nquthu Municipality comprises staff transferred from
Umzinyathi District Council and Umsekeli. Sixty five staff from Umsekeli were
assigned to the Municipality along with forty one staff from Nondweni town. The
complement of semi- and unskilled staff within this is in excess of the requirements of
the municipality, and consideration has been given to the redeployment of staff to
other municipalities. In contrast, the appointment of suitably skilled staff to identified
critical management posts is still to be finalised.

The municipal staff structure (organogram) has not yet been finally agreed and
accepted by Council. Of particular concern at present, is the lack of a financial
services department within the municipality and the reliance on the District Council to
provide this function. It is noted that the District Council is also undercapacitated and
thus cannot provide the dedicated time to assist in meeting the requirements of the
Nquthu municipality. Also of concern is that the staff from Nondweni and Nquthu are
operating independently of each other as separate entities.

A study conducted by PriceWaterhouse Coopers has highlighted inefficiencies
among the staff. These may be attributed to the lack of skills development among
staff, as no training or mentorship programme is in place for staff. In addition, no
skills audit or training needs analysis has been undertaken, with the result that the
municipality is overstaffed in certain areas and there is a lack of skills in critical areas.

The present facilities in Nquthu are inadequate for the Municipalities requirements.
However, they can be utilised until alternative offices are built. The existing depot
facilities are however adequate, but require minor additions by way of a covered
parking area for plant and equipment. Satellite offices and depots have been
identified as a requirement for office (cashier, administration etc) and technical staff
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(technician, artisans, drivers etc) in the rural areas. It has been suggested that the
location of these be identified and planning undertaken during the preparation of the
IDP and established with the introduction of services.

In terms of regulations, these only exist in respect of Nquthu and Nondweni. These
cannot be extrapolated to the entire municipal area, as conflict is likely between the
regulations and traditional customs and practices in the rural areas. There is thus a
need for suitable bylaws to be drafted for the municipality as a whole.

There are few policies and procedures in place in the municipality. In particular, a
proper credit control policy is required, as is an indigent support policy, debt
collection policy, tariff policy, accounting policies and human resource policies, such
as employment and appointments policy, promotions policy, incentive scheme,
rewards system and performance management system.

        4.9.2. Financial
The Nquthu Municipality has not started out on a sound financial footing. A summary
of the total budget of the Municipality is provided in the table below.


                     Table 22: Summary of Nquthu Municipal Budget
                          Budget 2000/2001         Estimate 2000/2001       Budget 2001/2002

Income
Grant Income                                                                28 751 340
Nquthu                    6 678 575                4 764 794                11 289 757
Total                     6 678 575                4 764 794                40 041 097

Expenditure
Grant Expenditure                                                           28 751 340
Projects                                                                    2 861 398
Nquthu                    6 404 275                6 436 118                8 428 358
Total                     6 404 275                6 436 118                40 041 096
Surplus/ (Deficit)        274 300                  -1 681 324               0
Source: Nquthu Municipality: Director of Finance

Based on this, cash flow is likely to be a serious problem, as creditors will require
payment. The municipality does not have any cash resources apart from grants from
government.

4.9.2.1.         Income
The major source of income for the municipality is grants from government. The
following grants have been obtained for the 2001/2002 financial year:
     Consolidated Municipal Infrastructure Programme (CMIP) – R 2 349 000 for
       the provision of infrastructure, specifically low cost housing bulk connectors in
       Nquthu Phase 2.
     An amount of R420 000 was set aside by Umsekeli as counter funding for this
       project.
     Department of Housing – R 23,8 million for Nquthu – Low Cost housing Phase
       2
     Department of Local Government (establishment costs) – An amount of R 2
       mil has been allocated to Nquthu Municipality

The income generated from within the Municipality is comprised of income raised
from:
    Equitable share allocation from Umzinyathi District, totalling R 5,2 mil

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      Income from Trading services (water and electricity), totalling R 2,8 mil and R
      1,5 mil respectively
     Rates levied per square meter on properties in Nquthu town, totalling R1,2 mil
     Other income from the provision of :
           o Environmental Planning Services (building inspection, market stalls
               and recreation)
           o Subsidised Services (Cemeteries, Library, Public Halls)
           o Economic Services (Refuse Removal, Sewage Disposal)
       These services provide a joint income of R 557 075.

4.9.2.2.         Expenditure
The major expenditure items are activities associated with the grant funding.

An amount of R 2 961 398 has been committed to capital projects. As water has
been identified in the Interim IDP as a focus point for capital projects, an amount of R
2,861 million has been allocated to water and sanitation projects for the year
2001/2002.

Operating expenditure totals R 8,4 mil. This is comprised of:
    Salaries and Wages, totalling R 3.8 million or 46% of total operating
       expenditure.
    General Expenses, totalling R 3 mil or 35% of total operating expenditure
    Repairs and Maintenance, totalling R 1 mil or 12% of total operating
       expenditure
Contributions to Capital Outlay, totalling R 0.6 mil.




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4.10. Priority Issues in Context

                    ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 1 – WATER AND SANITATION
                              DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
Water and sanitation was prioritised as the first priority need as water is a basic need, utilised for
domestic uses such as cooking and washing, and is also essential to support basic economic activities
such as keeping livestock and to irrigate crops. Sanitation was combined with water as the two can be
effectively addressed together.

Statistics available indicate that only 7% of households have access to piped water supply and 47.5%
of households access water at a public/communal tap or from a rudimentary water supply system with
a borehole. Some 45% of households rely on natural water sources e.g. streams and rivers for water.
It has been indicated by the communities that there are concerns related to the quality of the water
available, particularly that drawn from natural sources, and the distances that people travel to obtain
water. The table below provides an indication on the distances people travel to access water:

          Nquthu                                      Distance
                       200m        400m     600m     800m 1000m           +2000m        Total
                       7%          19%      17%      12%    10%           36%           100%
          Central
          North        15%         27%      31%      14%    9%            13%           100%
          West         16%         28%      20%      12%    8%            15%           100%
          South        9%          19%      17%      11%    8%            36%           100%
          Table 23: Distance to access water

        Source: Ngagane Water Services

Projections have been undertaken to determine the minimum water demand at community standpipes
for Nquthu. These projections provide an indication of the number of starter water projects (boreholes
with rudimentary reticulation to standpipes) are required to service these areas. The results of this
projection are contained in the table below.


                    Table 24: Minimum Water Demand Projection – at Community Standpipes
     Settlement Information                Present Water Supply            Population       No of Starter Projects
                                                                            of Water              Required
  Bulk Supply       Water Supply      No of        Daily      Water        Supply Area      Water       Bulk Supply
     Area              Area           Water       Supply     Supply                         Supply          Area
                                     Points        (kl/d)   (l/cap/d)                        Area
  Central       Central                  15          45         6               7063          9
                Central                  20          60         16              3815          0
                Central                  14          42         10              4403          1
                Central                  7           21         9               2254          1              13
                Central                  3           9          6               1519          2
                Nondweni                 0           0          0               5061          0
  North         Ngolokodo                44         132         15              8757          0
                North Bulk 1             24          72         24              2968          0               0
                North Bulk 2             30          90         11              8204          0
  South         10c                      71         213         38              5670          0
                12c                      52         156         49              3199          0
                13c                      44         132         24              5502          0
                14c                      8           24         9               2597          1
                15c                      29          87         19              4571          0
                16c                      2           6          3               1743          4
                1c                       83         249         86              2898          0              17
                2c                       5           15         26               581            0
                3c                       0           0          0                938            3
                5c                       0           0          0               1855            6
                7c                       0           0          0                833            3
                9c                       7           21         16              1316            0
  West          RDP                     216         648         22              29540           0           0
  Source: Umzinyathi District Muncipality,2000




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The concerns raised by the community members relating to sanitation were that there is a lack of toilet
facilities in the municipality, with 42% of households having no toilet facilities at all. This is a health
risk, assisting the
spread of diseases such as cholera.

The uMzinyathi District Council is the Water Service Authority for the Nquthu area. They are currently
in the process of preparing a Water Services Development Plan to guide the provision of water and
sanitation in the
municipality. The preparation of this plan is being guided by the District Municipality‟s proposed Water
Services Policy, which sets the following levels of service. Based on this policy, the majority of the
households in the Nquthu Municipality would have a basic level of service of a low pressure yard water
system or rudimentary water supply system with rudimentary sewage services (VIPs).

                                      Table 25: Levels of Service Provision
  Settlement             Description                           Service Level                       Density
     Type                                               Water                Sanitation
 Formal             Urban formal layout        Full pressure            Waterborne          Medium-high
                                               reticulated
 Informal           Urban informal             Low pressure yard        Rudimentary (VIP    Medium-high (up to 11
                    layout                     system/ Full pressure    and night soil)     households per ha)
                                               reticulated
 Dense              Informal gathered          Low pressure yard        Rudimentary (VIP    Low-medium (up to 7
                                               system                   and night soil)     households per ha)
 Scattered          Informal scattered         Rudimentary water        Rudimentary (VIP)   Low (up to 3 households
                                               supply                                       per ha)
                                               system/Communal
                                               standpipe
 Rural              Scattered agriculture      Rudimentary water        Rudimentary (VIP)   Low (less than 1
                                               supply system                                household per ha)
  Source: uMzinyathi District Municipality, 2000

Priority Wards - water: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,12 and 13
Priority Wards – sanitation: 1,2,4,10 and 13.

Refer to map 19: Level of priority – water and sanitation
AFFECTED PARTIES                     NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED                     EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                              CONSEQUENCES

                                             RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                                ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 2: ROADS
                               DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
The need for road infrastructure, as well as, bridges, was identified. The need for roads was prioritised
for numerous reasons. Roads are considered important for people to access places - home, town and
schools, but they are also considered essential for security reasons. People have to travel by foot
and, in doing so are exposed to dangers (rape, theft, etc). Lack of access was especially stressed in
light of emergency services such as, ambulances and police cars. The people also consider the lack of
development in the area to be a result of the lack of roads. This is particularly noticeable in the tourism
sector, where there is limited access to tourism attractions, thus limiting the extent to which these
contribute to tourism development in the area.

The issue of stormwater management is closely linked to that of roads, as poor road conditions results
in increased stormwater runoff. This affects the houses of residents as well as contributing to
continued deterioration of the road conditions.

In terms of the Department of Roads' Draft Business Plan for 2002/2003, included is routine
maintenance (patch gravelling) on numerous roads in Nquthu. Further, the budget includes local road
construction and local road structures construction. Local Road construction includes:
 Mahlungulu H/W
 Mahlungwane H/w
 Ndwalane H/W
 Vuna Rd
 Nodwengu Rd
 Ngwebini Rd
 Sgubudu Rd
 Hlazwkazi Rd
 Qhudeni Rd
 Fahlaza Rd
 Sunrise rd
 Ntwehweni Rd
 Qwabe Rd
 Uthaka Rd

Local road structures budgeted for include:
 Nondweni bridge
 Uthaka bridge
 Jojosini Rd
 Nqulu Rd bridge

Priority Wards: 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,12 and 13
Refer to map 20: level of priority – roads
AFFECTED PARTIES                      NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED             EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                       CONSEQUENCES

                                      RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                             ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 3: ELECTRICITY
                                 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
The need for electricity was identified by many of the wards. Many households, administrative
facilities, as well as schools, in the area lack electricity. Not only is electricity considered essential for
household uses and self-development (children can‟t study at night) but most, if not all, modern
appliances require electricity – computers, televisions etc. Electricity is also prioritised as a need for
small businesses and the creation of employment opportunities, e.g., for welding.

From personal communication with Eskom, it is evident that Eskom has intention to electrify the area.
The following areas were mentioned:
 Buffalo bridge to Nondweni;
 Blood River Road to Nquthu, and,
 From Nquthu to Babango Road.

Priority Wards: 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,12 and 13.
Refer to map 21: Level of priority – Electricity
AFFECTED PARTIES                     NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED                 EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                          CONSEQUENCES

                                       RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                                ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 4: CLINICS
                                DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
The need for clinics was prioritised, as people have to travel long distances to get medical treatment.
As a result, their conditions are often worsened, or, pregnant women give birth at home. Further, it is
costly to travel such distances and sometimes people spend whole days at the clinics and still do not
receive medical attention. The communities consider, that a clinic will promote a healthier community,
and, will improve health care prior to people having to go to a hospital. Further, the communities need
a facility where they can get medical attention after hours.

It should be noted that the Department of Health considers the demand for clinics to reflect a broader
issue, that of poor living conditions. The approach adopted by the department is that addressing
primary issues such as water and sanitation will reduce the spread of disease. This, in turn, will reduce
the demand for clinic services to treat ailments.

Priority Wards: 1,3,4,5,6,8 and 11.
AFFECTED PARTIES                    NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED             EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                      CONSEQUENCES

                                     RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                        ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 5 – COMMUNITY HALLS
                               DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
A community hall is seen as essential to function as a community. It can be used for community
activities such as singing, weddings, youth development, and skills development such as handicrafts,
sewing and skill training. In doing so, employment opportunities will be improved. Very importantly,
the community hall is seen as a means of keeping the youth occupied and "off the streets" thereby
preventing them from getting involved in things such as crime and drugs.

Priority Wards: 3,7,8 and 12
AFFECTED PARTIES                  NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED             EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                     CONSEQUENCES

                                    RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                     ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 6 – RECREATION FACILITIES
                               DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
This category could include sports fields and stadiums, passive open space, libraries, and community
hall. These facilities were highlighted as a means to keep children happy and keep the youth from
boredom thereby removing the opportunities for them to become involved in crime etc. The community
input also recognised that exercise is important for a healthy lifestyle, and that recreational facilities
would provide opportunities for individuals to play sport.

It is evident from the input of the communities, that some communities have recreational facilities in
terms of a soccer field. However, some wards have no recreational facilities whatsoever.

Priority Wards: 6,9,10 and 11

AFFECTED PARTIES                    NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED              EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                       CONSEQUENCES

                                      RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                              ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 7 - SCHOOLS
                                DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
According to the needs identification by the communities, there a need for schools in some wards and
existing schools require upgrading. One of the concerns expressed is that children (even very young)
have to travel far distances to attend school in those areas where there are no nearby schools, and in
doing so are exposed to dangers such as rape and crossing high rivers. The community considers it
essential that the children are properly educated and in doing so, employment opportunities are
improved.
                                   Table 26: Needs analysis – schools

           Ward    Primary        Identified   Shortfall   High       Identified    Shortfall
                                 Requirement                        Requirement
          1        5         7                 2           2        2               0
          2        3         8                 5           1        3               2
          3        2         4                 2           1        2               1
          4        3         2                 0           1        0               0
          5        3         4                 1           1        2               1
          6        1         2                 1           1        1               0
          7        4         3                 0           2        1               1
          8        3         1                 0           1        2               1
          9        3         5                 2           1        3               2
          10       4         5                 1           2        1               0
          11       2         4                 2           1        1               0
          12       2         5                 3           1        1               0
          13       2         4                 2           1        1               0
        Note: Identified CP or combination of LP and CP for Primary Schools



From the needs table, it can be seen that there are areas where there are needs for new schools to be
constructed to meet the planning standards for school provision. However, the table does not indicate
those areas where more schools may be required so as to ensure that children do not have to travel
long distances to reach schools.

Priority Ward: Ward 1,5,7 and 12.

AFFECTED PARTIES                    NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED              EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                     CONSEQUENCES

                                      RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                              ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 8 – HOUSING
                                DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
There is a great backlog of housing in the Nquthu area, totalling some 16 500 units. Although this is
primarily due to most housing being traditional housing, violence in the area has been identified as
contributing to people being homeless or residing in unsuitable areas (characterised by violence). The
nature of the issue relating to housing is the ability to access finance for housing, as this is limited by
the tenure arrangements in the tribal areas (communal tenure) and the focus of existing housing policy
on urban areas.

Priority Ward: Wards 8 and 9
AFFECTED PARTIES                    NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED               EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                       CONSEQUENCES

                                      RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                            ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 9 – CRÈCHES
                              DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
Crèche facilities have been prioritised as a need as there is currently no registered crèches in certain
wards. The crèches need to be located close to the houses due to the age of theses children. It is
considered that the buildings can be used to accommodate higher classes.

                                 Table 27: Needs analysis – crèches
                         Ward        Identified       Existing    Shortfall
                                     Required
                         1       3                -              3
                         2       2                3              0
                         3       1                -              1
                         4       2                2              0
                         5       2                3              0
                         6       1                -              1
                         7       3                -              3
                         8       2                3              0
                         9       2                -              2
                         10      3                3              0
                         11      2                -              2
                         12      2                -              2
                         13      2                3              0



Priority Ward: Ward 9

AFFECTED PARTIES                     NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED               EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                         CONSEQUENCES

                                       RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                    ISSUE DESCRIPTION: ISSUE 10 – SAFETY AND SECURITY
                               DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
Safety and security was identified as a priority need to improve conditions for residents in the area, as
well as make the area attractive to visitors and potential investors. A number of contributory factors to
this issue have been identified. This include:
 The need for police stations in wards in order to maintain law and order, and, enhance security.
 Telephone connections to alert police to and call for ambulances in emergency situations. Cellular
     telephones are considered the better option, as there is the problem of copper theft with landlines.
     However, to ensure complete coverage of the area, more masts are required to be erected.

Priority Wards: Ward 2, 13
AFFECTED PARTIES                    NO. OF PEOPLE AFFECTED              EXTENT OF PROBLEM

CAUSING FACTORS                                       CONSEQUENCES

                                     RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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    5. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    5.1.    Key Performance Areas
       Based on the issues identified, the key performance areas for the Nquthu
        Municipality have been determined as:

       Poverty Alleviation
       Tourism Development
       Facilitating access to water, sanitation and electricity
       Encouraging the establishment of education facilities
       Improving existing school facilities
       Improving solid waste removal, roads and stormwater drainage
       Facilitating access to all health facilities

    5.2.    Development Objectives and Strategies
    The Local Council will continue to maintain existing services and infrastructure within
    the municipal area. Further, projects that have already been identified and initiated
    by the Local Council are to be continued. The following strategies have been
    proposed to guide future development in the area.

                               Table 28: Objectives and Strategies
Priority Issue    Objectives and       Strategies
                  Targets
Economic          To eradicate         Establish and implement agricultural projects and programmes
Development/      poverty and          in all of Nquthu in next 2 years
Poverty           starvation           Encourage establishment of firms and factories throughout all of
Alleviation                            Nquthu
                  Target 2005:         Exploitation and recycling of natural products by 2003
                  Ensure that at       Capacity building (skill & knowledge)
                  most 10% of the      Integration of programmes within government Departments and
                  population are       other organisations
                  below the            Construction of market structures
                  poverty line
                  To develop           Improve information relating to tourism attractions in the Nquthu
                  tourism              area
                  attractions in co-   Research into tourism development and requirements, potential
                  operation with       market
                  tourism              Development and promotion of tourism sites and activities e.g.
                  roleplayers          flea market, heritage week, tourism month etc.
                                       Develop and encourage tourism projects e.g. B&B, parks,
                                       cultural villages etc
                                       Improve community awareness of tourism, tourism opportunities
                                       and responsibilities
                                       Ensure that Nquthu is perceived as a safe and attractive tourism
                                       area
Water and         To ensure            Ensure that the water, sanitation and electrical concerns in
Sanitation (and   affordable           Nquthu are highlighted to the uMzinyathi District Council and
Electricity)      access to water,     Service providers
                  sanitation and       Establish link between Nquthu municipality, uMzinyathi District
                  electricity by all   Council and the service providers to ensure that relevant
                  households           information is obtained by the responsible authorities and that
                  Target 2005:         implementation is monitored
                  Reach 80% of         Ensure that levels of service provision are affordable to
                  households by        households in Nquthu
                  2005                 Encourage the provision of a yard connection for water
                                       provision


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Priority Issue    Objectives and         Strategies
                  Targets
Roads             To ensure that         Construction and maintenance of community access roads to
                  all households         those settlements which currently do not have access using
                  have access to         labour-based construction methods
                  the municipal          Upgrading and maintenance of community access roads which
                  services of solid      have deteriorated
                  waste removal,         Tarring and maintenance of roads which carry high traffic
                  roads and              volumes
                  stormwater             Construction and maintenance of stormwater drainage channels
                  drainage by            along all tarred and gravel roads, utilising labour-based
                  2005                   construction methods

                  Target 2005:
                  80% of
                  households to
                  benefit from this
                  objective
Electricity                              See water and sanitation above
Clinic            To facilitate          Increase mobile clinic services and stops
                  access by all          Provide clinics and medical facilities at community centres,
                  households to          utilising existing or multi-purpose structures
                  health facilities      Encourage integrated service delivery by variety of health care
                  within 5 km by         providers
                  2005
                                         Establish comprehensive demographic base to guide further
                  Target 2005: All       development of healthcare facilities
                  households to
                  have access
                  within 5km
Schools/          To improve             Renovation and fencing of schools using community based
Education         school structures      construction methods
                                         Provision of water, sanitation and electricity at schools
                  Target 2005:
                  Improvement of         Planting of trees for shade and windbreaks and school gardens
                  30% of schools         to ensure the creation of pleasant environments for learning
                  To      see     that   To initiate a study to assess the need for a tertiary institution i.e.
                  Nquthu has 1 or        feasibility study.
                  2           tertiary   To invite tertiary institutions to open satellite campuses or
                  institutions           further learning centres
                  based on self-
                  reliancy               To develop a skills training centre linked with Dept. of Labours
                                         training Programmes
                  Target 2005:           Private Investors in the area should be required to have a social
                  Operation of 1 or      plan – specifically geared towards skills investment
                  2 tertiary
                  institutions


    5.3.      Financial Strategy
    The finance division is responsible for financial planning, budgeting and
    management, tenders and procurement, grants, levies and rates and business plans.

    The main responsibility of the financial services department is the preparation of the
    annual budget and annual financial statements. The budget takes into account the
    new powers and functions of municipalities that came about with the changes in
    legislation. The department is also tasked with identifying ways of obtaining finance
    from Government and other organizations for projects identified by other
    departments.


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    The following strategies have been identified as necessary to inform financial
    planning for the development projects identified for the IDP:
       Revenue Raising Strategies
       Asset Management Strategies (at present, assets are being managed by the
        various departments which utilise them)
       Capital Financing Strategies
       Operational Financing Strategies

    These are being addressed by the Panel Support currently being provided to the
    Nquthu Municipality.

    In addition, for the efficient functioning of the municipality, the following financial
    management strategies are required and are in the process of being formulated:

                   Policy                                         Status
      Rates and Tariffs policy             In place
      Credit Control                       Will be put in place when financial system (IT) is
                                             in place
      Debt Collection                      In place
      Indigent Support                     Will be done by Panel Support
      Financial/ Accounting Policy         In place
      Financial Management Resources       Being done by Panel Support
      Allocations Policy                   Being done by Panel support


    5.4.    Spatial Development Framework
    The spatial development framework guides decision-making and action over a multi-
    year period. The spatial framework thereby informs future location decisions for
    development and service provision, as well as, creating a framework for investor
    confidence, facilitating both public and private investment in the district.

            5.4.1. Localised Spatial Development Principles
    Policy documents and legislation which provide spatial strategic guidelines include:
     The Development Facilitation Act
     The White Paper on South African Land Policy
     The Housing Act
     The Housing White Paper
     Green Paper on Development and Planning
     National Environmental Management Act.

    These spatial guidelines may be summarised as:
     Promote the integration of social, economic, institutional and physical aspects of
       land development.
     Promote integrated development in rural and urban areas, and with each other.
     Promote residential and employment opportunities, and in close proximity with
       each other.
     Optimise existing resources.
     Promote diverse combination of land uses.
     Promote compact cities and discourage urban sprawl.
     Assist in correcting historically distorted settlement patterns, and optimise the use
       of existing settlements.
     Encourage environmental sustainability.
     Meet basic needs in economically and environmentally efficient manner, and,
       should be viable.
     Provision must be made for security of tenure and different tenure options.
     Land development should be co-ordinated so as to minimise conflict and
       stimulate competition.
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   There should be a rapid release of land for development.
   That the disturbance of eco-systems and loss of bio-diversity are avoided, or
    where they cannot be altogether avoided, minimised and remedied
   Pollution and degradation of the environment is avoided, or where they cannot be
    altogether avoided, minimised and remedied
   Disturbance of landscapes and sites that constitute the nations cultural heritage
    are avoided, or where they cannot be altogether avoided, minimised and
    remedied.

       5.4.2. Spatial Framework
The accompanying Spatial Framework (Map 22) sets out the spatial development
framework for the Nquthu Municipality. The development framework for Nquthu
takes place within a larger framework of the uMzinyathi district.

The settlement hierarchy and development corridors provide a framework for the
future provision of bulk infrastructure, services and facilities, and support for local
economic development initiatives.

Following from the priority issues and building on the strengths of the Municipality it is
suggested that the main planning goals would be:
   Sustainable settlement development
   Creating favourable conditions for sustainable industrial production
   Creative favourable conditions for small and medium – sized enterprises
   Developing tourist industry
   Creating new jobs and fostering a general improvement of the living standards. In
    line with national policy, provision of clean drinking water to every household
    occupies a high priority in improving living standards.
   Sustainable agricultural development and regional processing
   Offering high quality and differentiated education in all part of the region
   Protection of biodiversity and conservation worthy areas i.e. promoting the quality
    of nature for sustainable development (see Local Agenda 21).

5.4.2.1. Settlement Hierarchy
The Rural Service System model proposes a tier model of service delivery3:

                                       Regional Centres



                     Provincial Rural Administration Centres (PRAC)



                         Small Emerging Rural Centres (SERC‟s)
                              Rural Service Centres (Hubs)
                                 Rural Satellite Centres



                                  Small or other settlements

SERCS are relatively far apart (60-80kms) and therefore the model proposes that
they in effect comprise of the following components4:
3
  The Integrated Rural Service System Work Group of the Provincial Growth and Development Strategy,
August 1999.
4
  ibid

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   Rural Service Centre, or hub, which is located at the SERC. This is the
    distribution and co-ordination point for locations within the service area of the
    SERC.
   Satellite service, or lower order hub, located within the service area of the SERC.
    Satellites will deliver supplementary services.
   Connecting infrastructure linking the hubs to the various satellites

To illustrate the difference between a hub and a satellite, Table 29 gives an indication
of typical services that could be provided at the hub and satellite.

                          Table 29: Hub and Satellite Services
              HUB SERVICES                       SATELLITE SERVICES
              Police station                     Routine patrol;
              Hospital                           Clinic/mobile service
              Welfare office                     Weekly mobile service
              Secondary & primary schools        Secondary & primary school
              Tertiary training facility         None
              Tribal court                       Tribal court
              Permanent information centre       Weekly mobile service
              Post office & post boxes           Postboxes
              Bank                               Mobile service
              Regular bus service                Weekly service
              Rural service information centre   Mobile service as required
              Periodical court                   No service

This model encourages service providers to work together in the integration of
service activities, the co-ordination service provision, reducing cost of services and
improving convenience to communities, through the spatial integration of services,
and, creates economic opportunities at the service delivery points. The spatial
hierarchy determines the hierarchy of service provision.


Hub
The service hub serves as a distribution centre to the rural areas, providing a range
of services and economic activities. The threshold of the hub is dependent on the
proximity of the nearest satellite.

A settlement is classified as a hub based on:
 The existing economic base of the settlement and future economic growth
   potential.
 Their location in terms of major transportation routes. Both are located at the
   intersections of development corridors.
 The existing and potential agglomeration effects.
 The level of existing public service provision
 Existing level of private / commercial investment in these urban areas.
 The existing level of infrastructural and logistical support from higher order
   centres.
 A need for services within the community and surrounding area.
 There is an existing level of local political organisation in these urban areas
 Land is accessible for development.

Within the Nquthu Municipality, Nquthu town serves as the service provision hub.




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Service Satellites
Service satellites are the lower order locality where a range of services and economic
activities could be concentrated in a sustainable way5.

It is proposed that the following settlements be developed as satellite service
locations:

                           Table 30: Proposed Satellites
                         Ward 1    Ntabasile
                         Ward 2    Hlazakazi Mission
                         Ward 3    Ngolokodo
                         Ward 4    Cross of Isandhlawana
                         Ward 5    Patsoana
                         Ward 7    Nondweni
                         Ward 8    Ndindindi
                         Ward 9    Hlatnidam
                         Ward 10   Ncepheni
                         Ward 11   Mafitleng
                         Ward 12   Mkhongana Store
                         Ward 13   Mphazima

The identification of satellites was based on the application of the factors determined
by the Rural Service System Workgroup to the Nquthu Municipality. These included:
 The density and distribution of the population to be served.
 The level of existing economic activity.
 Proximity of transport routes and modes of transport, location of taxi ranks.
 Topography of the locality.
 Level of service infrastructure.
 Input from the Ward Councilors

These settlements are strategically located to serve a surrounding population
threshold, and at these points there is a an existing level of investment (public /
private), albeit minimal in some. Appropriate infrastructure and services should be
channelled to all of the above-proposed satellites, and, thereafter (for the future IDP
for the following 5 years), supplementary analysis can take place of further
developing supplementary locations as lower order satellites (if necessary).

5.4.3.2 Development Corridors
Development corridors provide strong linkages between the main settlements in the
settlement hierarchy, as well as channeling movement within the municipality. They
also provide strong structuring elements to guide future development.

Primary Corridor
The primary corridors in the municipality are the R68 from Dundee to Nquthu and
then splitting to Melmoth or to Nondweni. These corridors serve to facilitate
movement as efficiently as possible through the area. As a result, there should be
little interruption to traffic flow along the corridor, although there is potential for
development at nodes such as Hlathi Dam and Silutshane along the corridor to
Melmoth and Nondweni.


Secondary Corridor
The secondary corridors in Nquthu are those which afford access to key settlements
and areas in the municipality. These also support the tourism industry. Key access

5
    ibid

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routes which should be developed as secondary corridors, with key economic and
community nodes along them include:
   The road from Nquthu town to Ngologkodo
   The road from Nquthu town to Ncepheni to Isandlwana and on to Mangeni
   The road from Qhudeni to the main Kranskop road

5.4.3.3.         Land Use

Residential
Residential settlement contains the existing settlements and areas of high population
densities in close proximity to existing settlements. It is proposed that future
residential use be contained within the existing settlements and development first
seeks to densify and infill these areas, as contained by the settlement edge.

The settlement edge is defined to prevent residential sprawl, and facilitate a planned
environment while protecting the natural environment so as to promote sustainable
development. It also facilitates the efficient delivery of services and infrastructure, as
well as maximise development opportunities and facilitate the efficient utilisation of
existing resources, services and facilities.

Within these settlements, industrial, commercial and other retail uses, as well as
other land uses may be located. These need to be carefully considered at a more
local scale.

Forestry
The land use “forestry” denotes the use of land for timber plantations and includes
associated uses such as tree farms, tree nurseries, the gathering of forestry products
or the performing of forestry services.

Forestry land use has been denoted to areas predominantly located near Nwuthu
town and along the western edge of the municipality. These are currently utilised as
commercial plantations and measure should be taken to continue such use and
prevent the loss of land to development. Land to the west is suited to the growing of
timber however, a detailed impact assessment should be required prior to the
commencement of forestry initiatives.

Conservation
These are areas of natural or conservation significance in the municipality. This
includes areas of natural features and protected areas. The land use “conservation”
has been denoted to these areas to protect and manage areas. Conservation efforts
should be applied to these areas including the wetlands on river tributaries. Of
particular importance for this land use is the conservation of areas of important
landscapes, primarily the mountainous terrain of Ward 1.

Agriculture
This term denotes the use of land, and associated buildings, for production of food
and fibre. The municipality is currently predominantly agriculture in nature, with
subsistence agriculture -livestock farming or cropping- being the dominant land use.
Future development of the municipality must seek to preserve the agricultural land in
the area, and develop specific potentials within the municipality as income-generating
opportunities. These potential areas influenced by the location of water sources and
the typography of the land. A detailed support study is required to assist in the
provision of agricultural support.




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6.      CAPITAL PROJECTS

6.1. Summary List of Projects and Priorities
Projects identified for the Nquthu Municipality have emerged from the priority needs
identified by the communities, the status quo of the area, the agreed vision,
strategies and objectives for the future development of the municipality, and the
projects already identified for implementation over the next 5 years.

In order to inform implementation, projects have been prioritised. Prioritisation has
been undertaken at a municipal level, where a list of Municipal Lead Projects has
been identified, as well as at ward level, where for each ward a summary project list
has been compiled. The ward prioritisation is a combination of the results of the
needs identification exercise undertaken during the analysis phase, as well as the
results of a prioritisation exercise undertaken by each ward.

The Municipal Lead Project list comprises the following projects, which are mapped
spatially on Map 23:
  Nquthu Local Business Support Centre
  Road Tarring in Nquthu town
  Mzinyathi Community Conservation Area
  Multi-purpose stadium
  Nquthu Taxi Rank/City
  Nquthu Shopping Centre
  Soil Erosion Control/ Environmental Management
  Emerging Farmers Support
  Winery Project
  Cultural Village

The Outline Business Plans have been put together through a combination of
drawing material from existing project business plans or funding applications,
available information collected by the consultants and through consultation with
members of the community. Annexure 3 contains a list of all projects identified, while
Annexure 4 lists the Municipal Lead Projects. Annexure 5 contains a listing of the
priority projects per ward, as well as the relevant business plans. Annexure 6
contains a listing of other projects identified during the planning process as well as
business plans for these.

This listing provides an indication of the priority projects which the municipality should
implement, as well providing guidance to the municipality in sourcing external
assistance, particularly funding. However, this list does not replace or suspend any
project for which funding has already been applied for or implementation
commenced. From this listing, prioritised lists for each service provider and funding
agency can be extracted as well as a listing that indicates the prioritised activities to
be undertaken by the municipality itself. The listing can also be utilised to guide the
use of funding that may be offered to the municipality. For example, if Funder A
approaches the municipality wishing to make an amount of money available to the
municipality for economic development, but is unsure as the projects to which this
could be applied, reference to the list could be made to identify the priority economic
development projects requiring funding. The responsibility for sourcing funding lies
with the municipality, assisted by the Councillors.

It is important to note that this priority listing will be annually reviewed, and as
projects are implemented, these will be removed from the list, new projects added
and the priorities reconfirmed, and if necessary amended. This will guide the

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budgeting process on an annual basis. Projects will only be implemented once the
long term operational impact on the municipality has been considered and there is
agreement and certainty that this can be met.




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                                                               Table 31: Summary project list
Key Performance          Ref                                  Strategies                                 Project            Project/Programme
      Area                                                                                                  Ref
1. Economic              1.1    Establish and implement agricultural projects and programmes in all of   1.1.1     Agricultural Irrigation Programme
Development                     Nquthu in next 2 years                                                   1.1.2     Agricultural Development Programme
                                                                                                         1.1.3     Community Gardens and Crop farming
                                                                                                         1.1.4     Emerging Farmers Support
                                                                                                         1.1.5     Winery Project
                         1.2    Encourage establishment of firms and factories throughout all of         1.2.1     Local Business Service Centre
                                Nquthu                                                                   1.2.2     Cement Products Manufacturing
                                                                                                         1.2.3     Sewing Cluster Project
                                                                                                         1.2.4     Nondweni Bakery
                                                                                                         1.2.5.    Nquthu Shopping Centre
                         1.3    Exploitation and recycling of natural products by 2003
                         1.4    Capacity building (skill & knowledge)                                    1.4.1     Skills Training Centre
                         1.5    Integration of programmes within government Departments and other        1.5.1     Service Providers Forum
                                organisations
                         1.6    Construction of market structures                                        1.6.1     Craft markets
                         1.7    Improve information relating to tourism attractions in the Nquthu area   1.7.1     Tourism Information Centre
                                                                                                         1.7.2     Site Signage
                                                                                                         1.7.3     Isandlwana upgrade
                                                                                                         1.7.4     Isandlwana Tourism Node
                                                                                                         1.7.5     Mzinyathi Community Conservation Area
                         1.8    Research into tourism development and requirements, potential market     1.8.1     Tourism Research Project
                         1.9    Development and promotion of tourism sites and activities e.g. flea      1.7.1     Tourism information Centre
                                market, heritage week, tourism month etc.                                1.9.1     Cultural Village
                         1.10   Develop and encourage tourism projects e.g. B&B, parks, cultural         1.10.1    Tourism Awareness Campaign
                                villages etc
                         1.11   Improve community awareness of tourism, tourism opportunities and        1.10.1    Tourism Awareness Campaign
                                responsibilities
                         1.12   Ensure that Nquthu is perceived as a safe and attractive tourism area    1.12.1    Crime reduction programme
                                                                                                         1.12.2    Cleaning campaign




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Key Performance           Ref                                  Strategies                                   Project             Project/Programme
       Area                                                                                                   Ref
2. Municipal             2.1    Ensure that the water, sanitation and electrical concerns in Nquthu are     2.1.1     Submission of the Nquthu IDP to the
Service Provision               highlighted to the uMzinyathi District Council and Service providers                  district to provide guidance
                                Establish link between Nquthu municipality, uMzinyathi District Council     2.2.1     Service Providers Forum
Issues:                         and the service providers to ensure that relevant information is obtained   2.2.1     Sanitation
1. Water and                    by the responsible authorities and that implementation is monitored         2.2.2.    Energy Policy
    Sanitation                                                                                              2.2.3     Ward Electrification Programme
2. Roads                 2.2    Ensure that levels of service provision are affordable to households in
3. Electricity                  Nquthu
                         2.3    Address water and sanitation schemes which are not currently                2.3.1     Sewage disposal Education Programme
                                delivering
                         2.4    Continue and complete existing water and sanitation projects before         2.4.1     Nquthu Regional Water Reticulation
                                implementing new projects                                                             Extension
                                                                                                            2.4.2     Ngolokodo Bulk water Feasibility
                                                                                                            2.4.3     Nondweni-Nquthu Bulk Water Feasibility
                                                                                                            2.4.4     Nquthu South Bulk Water Feasibility
                                                                                                                      Study
                                                                                                            2.4.5     Nquthu Rudimentary Water Supply
                                                                                                                      Scheme
                                                                                                            2.4.6     Ndindini/Ngolokodo Water Supply and
                                                                                                                      Sanitation Scheme
                                                                                                            2.4.7     Bambisani Sanitation
                                                                                                            2.4.8     Ndatshana Sanitation
                                                                                                            2.4.9     Nquthu 1 Sanitation
                                                                                                            2.4.10    Nquthu 2 Sanitation
                                                                                                            2.4.11    Nquthu 3 Sanitation
                                                                                                            2.4.12    Ndindini Water and Sanitation
                                                                                                            2.4.13    Nquthu 4 Water Bulk Reticulation and
                                                                                                                      Sanitation
                                                                                                            2.4.14    Vant‟s Drift Primary Bulk Supply Scheme
                                                                                                            2.4.15    Isandlwana
                                                                                                            2.4.16    Silutshane Water and Sanitation
                         2.5    Construction and maintenance of community access roads to those             2.5.1     Community Access Roads
                                settlements which currently do not have access using labour-based           2.5.2     Road Construction Programme
                                construction methods




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Key Performance           Ref                                     Strategies                                Project              Project/Programme
     Area                                                                                                      Ref
                         2.6    Upgrading and maintenance of community access roads which have              2.6.1     Upgrade D 1313
                                deteriorated
                         2.7    Tarring and maintenance of roads which carry high traffic volumes           2.7.1     Road Tarring in Nquthu village
                                                                                                            2.7.2     Road Upgrade – Dundee to Blood River
                                                                                                            2.7.3     Road upgrade P36/2
                                                                                                            2.7.4     P60 Gravel Road Extension
                                                                                                            2.7.5     Road maintenance
                                                                                                            2.7.6     Nquthu Taxi Rank
                                                                                                            2.7.7     Ngolokodo Taxi Rank
                                                                                                            2.7.8     Regravelling of P372
                         2.8    Construction and maintenance of stormwater drainage channels along          2.8.1     Stormwater drainage
                                all tarred and gravel roads, utilising labour-based construction methods
                                                                                                            2.9.1     Waste Education Programme
                                Other sub-sectors                                                           2.9.2     Refuse Disposal Management System

3. Social
Development and                 HEALTH
Facilitation
                         3.1    Increase mobile clinic services and stops                                             Increase clinics at schools
Issues:                                                                                                               Medical tents at pension points, post
4. Clinics                                                                                                            offices or common meeting places
5.Community
Halls                    3.2    Provide clinics and medical facilities at community centres, utilising      3.2.1     Clinic Upgrade
6.Recreation                    existing or multi-purpose structures                                        3.2.2     New clinics
Facilities
7.Schools
                         3.3    Encourage integrated service delivery by variety of health care providers   3.3.1     AIDS Resource Centre

                         3.4    Establish comprehensive demographic base to guide further                   3.4.1     Demographic study
                                development of healthcare facilities
                                EDUCATION
                         3.5    To initiate a study to assess the need for a tertiary institution i.e.      3.5.1     Feasibility study
                                feasibility study.

                         3.6    To invite tertiary institutions to open satellite campuses or further       3.6.1     Skills training centre
                                learning centres



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Key Performance           Ref                                  Strategies                                   Project             Project/Programme
     Area                                                                                                     Ref
                         3.7    To develop a skills training centre linked with Dept. of Labours training
                                Programmes
                         3.8    Private Investors in the area should be required to have a social plan –    3.8.1     School renovation programme
                                specifically geared towards skills investment
                         3.9    Renovation and fencing of schools using community based construction        3.9.1     School water and sanitation programme
                                methods                                                                     3.9.2     School electrification programme
                         3.10   Provision of water, sanitation and electricity at schools                   3.9.3     School greening
                         3.11   Planting of trees for shade and windbreaks and school gardens to
                                ensure the creation of pleasant environments for learning
                                                                                                            3.12.1    Multi-purpose centres
                                                                                                            3.12.2    Community Halls
                                                                                                            3.12.3    Creche‟s and pre-schools
                                                                                                            3.12.4    Sports Fields
                                                                                                            3.12.5    Parks and Resting Places
                                                                                                            3.12.6    Centre for the Disabled
                                                                                                            3.12.7    New Schools
                                                                                                            3.12.1    Multi-purpose Stadium

                                SAFETY AND SECURITY                                                         4.1.1     Cell phone coverage
                                                                                                            4.1.2     Police Stations
                                                                                                            4.1.3     Stock Pound
                                                                                                                      Crisis Centre
5. Planning and          5.1    To conserve areas of environmental importance                               5.1.1.    Soil Erosion Control / Environmental
Environmental                                                                                                         Management
Management
                         5.2    Prepare a Land Use Management System to guide land use                      5.2.1     Land Use Management System
                                                                                                            5.2.2     LUMS Training
                                                                                                            5.2.3     Water Course Protection
                                                                                                            5.2.4     Municipal By-Laws

                         5.3    To plan and support the development of the identified Rural Service         5.3.1     Isandlwana Upgrade
                                Centres
                         5.4    To facilitate housing projects in the municipality                          5.4.1     Housing Programme
                                                                                                            5.4.2     Reconstruction of Houses




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7.       OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES

7.1.     Financial 5 Year Plan
The following sources of funding for the Nquthu Municipality have been projected for the next
5 years. This provides the basis for the activities of the Municipality.

                                 Table 32: Projected Funding
     Funding         2002/2003         2003/2004        2004/2005         2005/2006        2006/2007
Inter-            Equitable Share   Equitable Share
governmental      R 6 151 249       R 7 405 332
grants
Rates (Nquthu     R 1 500 000       R 1 800 000       R2 000 000       R 2 300 000      R2 500 000
town)
Charges for       R 4 200 000       R 4 600 000       R 5 000 000      R 5 500 000      R6 000 000
other services
Other             DBSA
                  R 2 000 000
Total             R 13 851 249      R 13 805 332      R 7 000 000      R 7 800 000      R 8 500 000

No capital expenditure commitments have been made by the Nquthu municipality at
present. However, the municipality has operational expenses which must be met.
These have been forecast for the next five years as set out in the table below.

                                Table 33: Operating Expenses
                    2002/2003          2003/2004         2004/2005        2005/2006        2006/2007
Operational       R 10 510 000      R 11 140 000      R 11 808 400     R 12 516 904     R 13 267 918
Expenses

When compared with the estimated income, the dire situation within which the
municipality finds itself is becomes increasingly obvious:

                                    Table 34: Net Position
                     2002/2003         2003/2004         2004/2005        2005/2006        2006/2007
Net position      R 3 341 249       R 2 665 332       -R 4 808 400     - R 4 716 904    - R 4 767 918

The Financial Plan of the Municipality must therefore be based on accessing external
funding for capital investments and raising revenue through increased user charges
to cover its operating expenses.


     7.2. Capital Investment Plan
The proposed capital investment plan for the Nquthu Municipality is contained in
Annexure 7. However it must be stressed that the implementation and timing of any
of the projects contained in the plan is dependent on the success of the municipality
in accessing funding for the specific projects and the timing associated with the
release of such funding.

Appendix 8 contains a listing of the projects by service provider, while Annexure 9 is
a listing by potential funding source. These listings provide guidance as to the
potential sources of funding to be approached for projects to be implemented by the
municipality itself, as well as the service providers with whom the municipality must
interact to ensure the co-ordinated implementation of projects. This co-ordination is
even more important given the limited resources available within the municipality to
implement projects effectively.




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    7.3. Institutional Plan

      7.3.1. Proposed Structure
The agreed structure for the municipality is indicated on the diagram below.

                                       Municipal
                                       Manager


        Secretary

                                                                                      Audit



      Director:            Director:         Director:             Director:
      Finance              Technical       Corporate and           Planning
                           Services         Community
                                             Services


Within the Municipality, there are four directorates namely; Finance; Technical
Services; Corporate and Community Services, and, Planning. The table below
provides a summary of the functions undertaken within each directorate.

                             Table 35: Directorate Functions
                     Directorate                               Responsibilities
      Finance                                      Finance
                                                   Expenditure
                                                   Procurement
                                                   Budget Control
      Technical Services                           Roads and Stormwater Drainage
                                                   Building and Plumbing
                                                   Refuse Removal
                                                   Sanitation
                                                   Water
                                                   Cemetery
                                                   Parks
                                                   Pounds
                                                   Electrical
      Corporate and Community Services             Secretarial Services
                                                   Registry
                                                   Typing
                                                   Telecom
                                                   Printing and Messenger
                                                   Tea and Cleaning
                                                   Human Resources
                                                   Training
                                                   Legal
                                                   Community Services
                                                   Health
                                                   Library
                                                   Housing
                                                   Sports and recreation
                                                   Pounds
                                                   Cemetery
                                                   Protection Services
                                                   Fire
                                                   Traffic
                                                   Disaster Management

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      Planning                                 IDP
                                               LED
                                               Tourism
                                               SMME
                                               IT
                                               GIS

           7.3.2        Governance Structure
The municipality is currently structured on a „collective executive system‟ but a notice
was published in the Provincial Gazette on Friday 8 March to amend the structure of
the municipality to a „collective executive combined with a ward participatory system‟.
An Executive Committee is currently in place, the terms of reference of which are set
out below:
The Executive Committee, in performing its duties, shall :-
      (a)        Identify and develop criteria in terms of which progress in the
                 implementation of the strategies, programmes and services can be
                 evaluated, including Key Performance Indicators which are specific to
                 the municipality and common to local government in general;
      (b)        Evaluate progress against the key performance indicators;
      (c)        Review the performance of the municipality in order to improve:-
                          (i)    The economy, efficiency and effectiveness of the
                                 municipality;
                         (ii)    The efficiency of credit control and revenue and debt
                                 collection services; and
                         (iii)   The implementation of the municipality‟s by-laws

      (d)        Monitor the management of the municipality‟s administration in
                 accordance with the policy directions of the municipal council;
      (e)        Oversee the provision of services to communities in the municipality in
                 a sustainable manner;
      (f)        Perform such duties and exercise such powers as the council may
                 delegate to it in terms of the Municipal Systems Act;
      (g)        Annually report on the involvement of communities and community
                 organisations in the affairs of the municipality; and
      (h)        Ensure that regard is given to public views and report on the effect of
                 consultation on the decisions of the council.
The Ward Committees within the municipality have recently been established, and
Terms of Reference are currently being drafted for these committees.


    7.4. Performance Management System




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                                                              Table 36: Performance Management
The following targets and key performance indicators have been set for each of the Key Performance Areas identified in the IDP:

 Key Performance                      Target 2005                                           Indicator                                     Responsibility
        Area
Economic                 Maximum of 10% of the population              The number of jobs created through the                    Director: Planning
Development/             are below the poverty line                     municipality‟s local economic development initiatives
Poverty Alleviation                                                     including capital projects;
                                                                       The number of households with an income of less
                                                                        than R 1000 per month
                                                                       The number of households with an income below the
                                                                        poverty line

Municipal Service        80% of households to have access              The percentage of households with access to basic         Director: Technical Services
Provision                to water, sanitation, electricity, solid       level of water, sanitation, electricity and solid waste
                         waste disposal, roads and                      removal;
                         stormwater drainage                           The percentage of households warning less than
                                                                        R1100 per month with access to free basic services;


Social Development           Operation of 1 or 2 tertiary             The number of tertiary education institutions             Director: Corporate and
and Facilitation              education institutions in the             operating within the municipality                         Community Services
                              municipality                             The number of schools which have been
                             Improvement in infrastructure in          rehabilitated and renovated
                              30% of schools in the area               The % of households which do not have access to
                             All households to have access             health services within 5km of their homes
                              to health services within 5km
Institutional            Efficient, capable and representative         The number of people from employment equity target        Director: Corporate and
Development              municipal administration                       groups employed in the three highest levels of            Community Services
                                                                        management in compliance with the municipality‟s
                                                                        approved employment equity plan;
                                                                       The percentage of a municipality‟s budget actually
                                                                        spent in implementing its workplace skills plan




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 Key Performance                     Target 2005                                         Indicator                                  Responsibility
        Area
Financial                Financially sustainable and efficient      The percentage of the municipality‟s capital budget    Director: Finance
Sustainability           municipality                                actually spent on capital projects identified for a
                                                                     particular financial year in terms of the integrated
                                                                     development plan;
                                                                    Financial viability as expressed by the ratios:
                                                                     (i)        B-C
                                                                         A = ----------
                                                                               D
                                                                     Where:
                                                                     A represents debt cover
                                                                     B represents total operating revenue received
                                                                     C represents operating grants
                                                                     D represents debt service payments (i.e. interest +
                                                                     redemption) due within the financial year;

                                                                     (ii)       B
                                                                          A = --------
                                                                                C
                                                                     Where:
                                                                     A represents outstanding service debtors to revenue
                                                                     B represents total outstanding service debtors
                                                                     C represents annual revenue actually received for
                                                                     services

                                                                     (iii)     B+C
                                                                          A = ----------
                                                                                  D
                                                                     Where;
                                                                     A represents cost coverage
                                                                     B represents all available cash at a particular time
                                                                     C represents investments
                                                                     D represents monthly fixed operating expenditure.




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8. SPECIFIC PLANS

8.1.     Water Services Development Plan

       8.1.1. Introduction
The purpose of an integrated water service plan is to ensure that there is fulfilment of
sectoral planning requirements and compliance with sectoral principles, strategies
and programmes in the provision of water.

        8.1.2. Strategy Guidelines
The National Water Act, and, The Water Services Act provide specific strategic
guidelines for water use and provision, in South Africa. These acts are summarised
below for reference for water provision in the municipal area.

It is important to bear in mind that the national standard for per capita consumption is
25 litres per day (lcd), for basic water needs.

8.1.2.1.         The National Water Act, Act 36 of 1998
The National Water Act (NWA) calls for the protection of water resources as well as
the prevention and remedying of the effects of pollution. This Act governs all water
use in South Africa and imposes a catchment charge and a resource conservation
charge where there are competing beneficial uses or where such use significantly
affects other users.

The Water Act also introduces key proposals such as:
 All water in the cycle, whether on land, underground or in surface channels,
   falling on, flowing through or filtrating between such systems, will be treated as
   part of the common resource and to the extent required to meet the broad
   objectives of water resource management
 Water use allocations will no longer be permanent, but will be given for a
   reasonable period of time and provision will be made to enable the transfer or
   trade of these rights between users with Ministerial consent.

8.1.2.2.         Water Quality Management
South Africa‟s Constitution identifies water resource management as a national
competency, but environmental protection and pollution management as Provincial,
Local Government, or joint competencies. Simultaneously, the Constitution allows
for the development and implementation of national approaches, where these are
necessary to protect the environment or where national uniformity is required. This
therefore allows for a National Strategy to deal with water issues at national level.

DWAF adopts a precautionary approach when dealing with water quality
management issues. This includes:
1.   Preventing / minimizing waste through reduction at source
2.   Reducing the amount of waste, which reaches the water resource by
     establishing effluent standards, or management practices that trap and
     remove the waste before it reaches the water environment
3.   Exemptions from effluent standards or management practice only where it
     can be shown that the receiving water‟s fitness for use will not be significantly
     reduced.




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Water quality problems in dense settlements are common. All settlements have
some impact on the receiving water resource. The most important water quality
problems include:
 Microbiological contamination
 Nutrients
 Solid Waste
 Sediment
 Habitat Destruction

Appropriate planning of settlements in terms of their positioning relative to sensitive
water resources, their size and density, as well as services planned, is required to
mitigate impacts on water quality.

8.1.2.3.         Water Services Act (108 of 1997)
Four principles underlying the water strategy framework in South Africa are:
1.     Equity
2.     Optimal use
3.     Sustainable Use
4.     Responsibility and Accountability

This Act sets out the framework to ensure the provision of basic water supply and
sanitation and a regulatory framework for water service institutions:
 All water institutions are required to develop conditions for the provision of water
   services.
 The Act makes provision for the Minster to prescribe compulsory national
   standards, relating to, inter alia:
    The effective and sustainable use of water resources for water services
    The nature, operation, sustainability operational efficiency and economic
        viability of water services.
 The Act also makes provision for the Minister to prescribe norms and standards
   in respect of tariffs and may include for tariffs to be used to promote or achieve
   water conservation.
 The Act makes provision for the Minister to prescribe measures to be taken by
   water services institutions to conserve water.
 The Act makes provision for the prosecution of anyone who continues to make
   wasteful use of water after being called upon to stop by the Minister, a Province
   or any water services authority to be prosecuted.

       8.1.3. Sectoral Setting
8% of households have tapped water in the dwelling or on site. Over a third of the
households within Nquthu Municipality obtain their water from a public tap, with 4 %
using a water tanker. Water from boreholes account for 15% of the households.
40% of households use water from a natural source.

      8.1.4. Sector Plan
A Water Services Development Plan should include the following:
 Data sheets containing targets
 Existing and future consumer profiles and service level
 Water balance, water sources and quality
 Water service infrastructure
 Demand management
 Institutional management
 Finances and affordability



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The plan is to be prepared by the Water Services Authority (each local authority
should be represented on WSA planning team).

A Water Service Development Plan is currently being prepared by the Thukela Water
Partnership for the Umzinyathi District, which includes Nquthu. This will provide
guidance on the provision of water and sanitation for the municipal area.

It should incorporate or give effect to the following strategies identified by the Nquthu
Municipality:
             Table 37: Water and Sanitation Objectives and Strategies
                   Objective                                      Strategies
To ensure affordable access to water,          Ensure that the water, sanitation and electrical
sanitation and electricity by all households   concerns in Nquthu are highlighted to the
(reaching 80% by 2005)                         uMzinyathi District Council and Service
                                               Providers.
                                               Establish a link between Nquthu Municipality,
                                               uMzinyathi District Council and the service
                                               providers to ensure that relevant information is
                                               obtained by the responsible authorities and that
                                               implementation is monitored.
                                               Ensure that levels of service provision are
                                               affordable to households in Nquthu
                                               Address water and sanitation schemes which
                                               are not currently delivering.
                                               Continue and complete existing water and
                                               sanitation projects before implementing new
                                               projects.

The following prioritised list indicates projects that have been identified by the Nquthu
Municipality for the provision of water and sanitation within its area of jurisdiction:

   2.1.1.       Submission of the Nquthu IDP to the district to provide guidance
   2.2.1.       Service Providers Forum
   2.2.1.       Sanitation
   2.3.1.       Sewerage Disposal Education Programme
   2.4.1.       Nquthu Regional Water Extension Programme
   2.4.2.       Ngolokodo Bulk water Feasibility
   2.4.3.       Nondweni-Nquthu Bulk Water Feasibility
   2.4.4.       Nquthu South Bulk water Feasability study
   2.4.5.       Nquthu Rudimentary Water Supply Scheme
   2.4.6.       Ndindini/Ngolokodo Water Supply and Sanitation Scheme
   2.4.7.       Bambisani Sanitation
   2.4.8.       Ndatshana Sanitation
   2.4.9.       Nquthu 1 Sanitation
   2.4.10.      Nquthu 2 Sanitation
   2.4.11.      Nquthu 3 Sanitation
   2.4.12.      Ndindini water and Sanittation
   2.4.13.      Nquthu 4 Water Bulk reticulation and Sanitation
   2.4.14.      Vant‟s Drift Primary Bulk supply Scheme
   2.4.15.      Isandlhwana
   2.4.16.      Silutshane Water and Sanitation

8.2.      Integrated Transport Plan




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       8.2.1. Introduction
The National Land Transport Transition Act (Act No.22 of 2000) guides the
development of Transport Plans and tasks every transport authority, municipality and
core city to prepare an integrated transport plan of which a public transport plan
forms a component6.

        8.2.2. Strategy Guidelines
The Act sets out principles and policy to guide transport and development planning.
The key elements of this are:
 Public transport is aimed at providing affordable transport to the public and
   should forcus on the most effective and economic way of moving from one point
   to another in the system
 All roleplayers must strive to achieve an efficient land transport system through
   integrated planning, provision and regulation of infrastructure and services and
   diligent and effective law enforcement
 Public transport services facilities and infrastructure must be provided and
   developed so as to integrate the different modes of land transport.
 Public transport must be given higher priority than private transport.
 Investment in infrastructure and operations must promote economic, financial,
   technical and environmental sustainability.
 Promote co-ordination of institutional functions
 Land use transport functions must be integrated with related functions such as
   land use and economic planning and development through, amongst others,
   development of corridors, and densification and infilling, and transport planning
   must guide land use and development planning.
 Must consider special needs categories
 Participation of all interested and affected parties must be promoted, people must
   have the opportunity to develop the understanding, skills and capacity necessary
   for effective participation.

The Act specifies the requirements of transport plans as:
    Enhance the effective functioning of cities, towns and rural areas through
      integrated planning of transport infrastructure and facilities, transport
      operations including freight movement, bulk services and public transport
      services within the context of those integrated development plans and the
      land development objectives set in terms of section 27 of the Development
      Facilitation Act (67 0f 1995) or where applicable, land development objectives
      of that nature set in terms of relevant provincial law
    Direct employment opportunities and activities, mixed land uses and high
      density residential development into high utilisation public transportation
      corridors interconnected through development nodes within the corridors, and
      discourage urban sprawl where public transport services are inadequate.
    Give priority to infilling and densification along public transport corridors;
    Give higher priority to public transport than private transport by ensuring the
      provision of adequate public transport services and applying travel demand
      management measures to discourage private transport,
    Enhance accessibility to public transport services and facilities, and transport
      functionality in the case of persons with disabilities
    Minimise adverse impacts on the environment.
    Continuous process of transport planning

6
 The Act indicates that in the case of a district municipality, as defined by Local Government Municipal
Structures Act (117 of 98), it and its relevant local municipalities must agree on which of them must
prepare the plans.



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          Must try ensure so-ordination between land transport modes (where practical)
           to optimise accessibility and utilisation

         8.2.3. Sectoral Setting
The main road in the municipality is the R68 tarred road from Dundee, through Vant‟s
Drift to Nquthu, through the Babanango, Melmoth and the northern KwaZulu-Natal
coast. The R54 provides the link between Blood River and Nquthu. District roads
and access roads provide access throughout the central and northern areas of
Nquthu. However, there is limited access to Ward 2 and throughout Ward 1. Ward 1
is isolated from the remainder of the municipality, only being accessible from the east
from the Kranskop road.

Public transport in the area is primarily by taxi.

        8.2.4. Sector Plan
The updating of the plan should ensure that the plan gives effect to the strategies
relating to roads, which were identified, namely:

                 Table 38: Road Infrastructure Objectives and Strategies
                   Objectives                                       Strategies
To ensure that all households have access to    Construction and maintenance of community
the municipal services of solid waste removal,  access roads to those settlements which
roads and stormwater drainage by 2005           currently do not have access using labour-
                                                based construction methods
                                                Establish a link between Nquthu Municipality,
                                                uMzinyathi District Council and the service
                                                providers to ensure that relevant information is
                                                obtained by the responsible authorities and that
                                                implementation is monitored.
                                                Upgrading and maintenance of community
                                                access roads which have deteriorated
                                                Tarring and maintenance of roads which carry
                                                high traffic volumes
                                                Construction and maintenance of stormwater
                                                drainage channels along all tarred and gravel
                                                roads, utilising labour-based construction
                                                methods

The following prioritised projects are contained in the IDP for implementation :

     2.1.1.      Submission of the Nquthu IDP to the district to provide guidance
     2.2.1.      Service Providers Forum
     2.5.1.      Community Access Roads
     2.5.2.      Road Construction Programme
     2.6.1.      Upgrade D1313
     2.7.1.      Road Tarring in Nquthu Village
     2.7.2.      Road upgrade – Dundee to Blood River
     2.7.3.      Road upgrade P36/2
     2.7.4.      P60 Gravel Road extension
     2.7.5.      Road maintenance
     2.7.6.      Nquthu Taxi Rank
     2.7.7.      Ngolokodo Taxi Rank
     2.8.1.      Stormwater drainage

    8.3.   Integrated Waste Management Plan



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        8.3.1. Introduction
Integrated Waste Management Plans ensure that waste management complies with
sectoral principles and strategies. Further, it provides the basis for operational
planning and budgeting.

The formulation of a Waste Management Plan should comply with the requirements
set out in the White Paper in Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South
Africa.

Integrated Waste Management Plans are the responsibility of each local authority.
The plan should include, inter alia:
 background information
 strategic objectives
 instruments for implementation
 programmes for implementation
 community and public participation programme.

       8.3.2. Sectoral Setting
Nquthu has a refuse site to the south-eastern section of town and has sufficient
capacity for a number of years. Nondweni has a solid waste site to the south east of
town, which also has sufficient capacity for a number of years.

Refuse is collected by the municipality in Nquthu town and Nondweni. In the
remainder of the municipality, there is no refuse collection and most refuse is burnt
by individual households.

       8.3.3. Sector Plan
The Nquthu Municipality does not have an Integrated Waste Management Plan.
When formulating a Plan in accordance with the framework as set out in section 8.3.1
above, the plan should give effect to the following objectives and strategies.




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                  Table 39: Waste related objectives and strategies
                  Objective                                          Strategy
To ensure that all households have access to     Establish a link between Nquthu Municipality,
the municipal services of solid waste removal,   uMzinyathi District Council and the service
roads and stormwater drainage by 2005            providers to ensure that relevant information is
                                                 obtained by the responsible authorities and that
                                                 implementation is monitored.
                                                 Ensure that levels of service provision are
                                                 affordable to households in Nquthu

The following prioritised projects are contained in the IDP for implementation :
 2.1.1.       Submission of the Nquthu IDP to the district to provide guidance
 2.2.1.       Service Providers Forum
 2.9.1.       Waste Education Programme
 2.9.2.       Refuse Disposal Management System

8.4.     Integrated Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality Programme

       8.4.1. Introduction
The purpose of an integrated poverty reduction and gender equality programme is to
ensure that there are measures directed towards alleviating poverty and gender
inequalities in the municipality.

        8.4.2. Strategy Guidelines
Guidelines on gender equality and poverty alleviation are inherent in legislation and
policy documents such as the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP),
The White Paper on Local Government and SALGA handbook on gender and
development.

The principles of gender equality and poverty alleviation are also foremost in the
Constitution of South Africa. Section 9 of the Bill of Rights endorses equality, while
Sections 26 and 27 of the Bill of Rights deals with basic needs, stating that everyone
has the right to have access to housing, health care services, food and water, and,
social security.

        8.4.3. Sectoral Setting
55.5% of the population of Nquthu municipality are females. Women are largely
responsible for providing for the households within the municipal area as men are
largely working outside the municipality. Women remaining in the municipality are
responsible for educating the children, as well as, being responsible for managing the
household and farming.

The potential labour force of Nquthu (i.e. those between the aged of 15 and 64 years)
comprises 63 630 people. Of these 4 602 people or 7.2% are employed. Those who
categorise themselves as unemployed total 14 981 people or 23.5% of the
population. This is the category of people who are actively seeking employment. The
remainder of the potential labour force are not economically active. When considered
in the aggregate, it is noted that 95.8% of the total population are not economically
active, with a mere 3.3% of the total population being employed.

The poverty index for the municipality indicate that while all areas of the Nquthu
region need economic upliftment, it is clear that attention needs to be focused on
Ward 1 and 4 where poverty levels are the highest. Poverty alleviation should be
focused on job creation, and increased water provision in the affected areas.




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         8.4.4. Sector Plan
The Nquthu Municipality does not have a formal Poverty Reduction and Gender
Equality Programme in place. However, by the very nature of the contents of such a
programme, and, that of the proposed strategies and projects contained in the IDP, a
Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality Programme may be derived. Additional
activities required to complete this exercise will require alignment with the activities of
Service Providers active in project implementation in the area. The Programme will
give effect to the following agreed objective of the IDP:
 To eradicate poverty and starvation
     Implement agricultural projects and programmes in all of Nquthu in next 2
         years
     Encourage establishment of firms and factories throughout all of Nquthu
     Exploitation and recycling of natural products by 2003

A further element of the poverty reduction component of this programme is the
Indigent Policy of the municipality. This policy grants relief to the poorer sections of
the community of the municipality in the payment of service charges for services
provided. The implementation of the free basic water policy will afford further relief to
the poor in the municipality.

A further element of this programme is the approach adopted to the implementation
of projects. Where possible, infrastructure projects should be implemented using
labour based construction methods, which also afford opportunities to women.


8.5.     Integrated Environmental Programme

       8.5.1. Introduction
An integrated Environmental Programme contributes to a healthy environment by
ensuring that environmental issues are adequately addressed and, future projects
and development have no negative impact on the natural environment.

        8.5.2. Strategy Guidelines
Policy documents, which provide strategic environmental guidelines, include:
 National Environmental Management Act
 Local Agenda 21
 National Environmental Management Plans, and
 Provincial Environmental Implementation Plans.

A summary of relevant legislation is provided below.

8.5.2.1.         National Environment Management Act, Act 107 of 1998
(NEMA)
This Act aims to prevent / minimize damage to the environment, and to rehabilitate
already degraded environments. Chapter 1 of NEMA sets out the principles of the
Act and highlights further sustainable development. Of particular interest is 4 (a)
which outlines some key factors pertaining to sustainable development, some of
these include:

   That the disturbance of eco-systems and loss of biological diversity are avoided,
    or where they cannot be altogether avoided, are minimised and remedied.
   That pollution and degradation of the environment are avoided, or where they
    cannot be altogether avoided/remedied, are minimised and remedied;




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   That the disturbance of landscapes and sites that constitute the nation‟s cultural
    heritage is avoided, or where it cannot be altogether avoided, is minimised and
    remedied
   That waste is avoided, or where it cannot altogether be avoided, is minimised and
    re-used or re-cycled where possible and otherwise disposed of in a responsible
    manner
   That the use and exploitation of non-renewable natural resources is responsible
    and equitable, and takes into account the consequences of the depletion of the
    resource
   That the development, use and exploitation of renewable resources and the eco-
    systems of which they are part do not exceed the level beyond which their
    integrity is jeopardized

The “polluter pays” principle arising out of the Rio Summit in 1992, is also uplifted by
NEMA.       The costs of remedying pollution, environmental degradation and
consequent adverse health effects and preventing, controlling or minimising further
pollution. Environmental damage or adverse health effects must be paid for by those
responsible for harming the environment.

Subsection ( r ) clearly indicates that “ Sensitive, vulnerable, highly     dynamic or
stressed ecosystems, such as coastal shores, estuaries, wetlands,           and similar
systems require specific attention in management and planning               procedures,
especially where they are subject to significant human resources            usage and
development pressure.

        8.5.3. Sectoral Setting
The Nquthu Municipal area includes numerous conservation worthy areas of
historical, archaeological and 4ecological significance. Further, there is the presence
of thicket, bushland and wetlands in the area.

Major environmental problems in the area include:
 Soil erosion and land degradation
 Sewerage and solid waste
 Geohydrological
 Encroachment on environmentally sensitive areas, and
 Uncontrolled development.


       8.5.4. Sector Plan
The Nquthu Municipality does not have an environmental programme in place as
they do not have the staff to implement such a programme. However, given the
importance of some of the areas within the municipality for environmental and
conservation purposes and the need for specific activities to address areas of
concern, an environmental management plan is an important requirement for the
municipality.

This plan would need to address the following areas identified within the Spatial
Development Framework, as well as any specific issues raised during the formulation
of such a Plan:
   Recreation and Tourism Areas
   Land reform projects
   Conservation areas




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A key element of this plan would also need to be the preparation of management
guidelines, and obtaining the „buy-in‟ of the agricultural community for the application
of these guidelines, as they may pertain to sites of environmental importance e.g.
nesting sites for key bird species, habitat management for endemic species etc.


 8.6.     Integrated Local Economic Development (LED) Programme

      8.6.1. Introduction
The purpose of an integrated LED programme is to ensure a consistent and
conducive set of measures to promote a viable local economic activities and
employment generation.

        8.6.2. Strategy Guidelines
Policies, which provide strategic guidelines for LED, include:
 White Paper on Local Government, which encourages municipalities to address
    unemployment and to promote LED.
 Growth, Employment and Redistribution programme (GEAR) aims at achieving
    employment through economic growth and competitiveness.
 The Constitution of South Africa includes a constitutional mandate for
    municipalities to promote social and economic development.

        8.6.3. Sectoral Setting
The economic profile of the area is reflected in the employment profile. 1996 data
indicates that over 38% of all employed people are in Social Services, while over
14% are involved in trade, with 12% being employed in the Private Household sector.
Almost 10% of all workers are in the Construction sector, with less than 10% being
employed in the transport, manufacturing, mining, farming, utilities, businesses
services and exterritorial organisations sectors.

       8.6.4 Sector Plan
Although the Municipality does not have a formalised LED progamme, strategies
forming the core of the LED programme are those referred to earlier, viz:




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                         Table 40: LED Objectives and Strategies
                   Objective                                       Strategies
To eradicate poverty and starvation            Establish and implement agricultural projects
                                               and programmes in all of Nquthu in next 2
To develop tourism attractions in so-operation years
with tourism roleplayers                       Encourage establishment of firms and factories
                                               throughout all of Nquthu
                                               Exploitation and recycling of natural products
                                               by 2003
                                               Capacity building (skill & knowledge)
                                               Integration of programmes within government
                                               Departments and other organisations
                                               Construction of market structures
                                               Improve information relating to tourism
                                               attractions in the Nquthu area
                                               Research into tourism development and
                                               requirements, potential market
                                               Development and promotion of tourism sites
                                               and activities e.g. flea market, heritage week,
                                               tourism month etc.
                                               Develop and encourage tourism projects e.g.
                                               B&B, parks, cultural villages etc
                                               Improve community awareness of tourism,
                                               tourism opportunities and responsibilities
                                               Ensure that Nquthu is perceived as a safe and
                                               attractive tourism area

The projects and activities which give effect to the implementation of this programme
have been identified, in order of priority as:
 1.1.1.      Agricultural Irrigation Programme
 1.1.2.      Agricultural Development Programme
 1.1.3       Community Gardens and Crop farming
 1.1.4       Emerging Farmers Support
 1.1.5       Winery Project
 1.2.1.      local business Service Centre
 1.2.2.      Cement Products manufacturing
 1.2.3.      Sewing Cluster Project
 1.2.4.      Nondweni Bakery
 1.2.5.      Nquthu Shopping Centre
 1.4.1.      Skills Training Centre
 1.5.1.      Service Providers Forum
 1.6.1.      Craft Market
 1.7.1.      Tourism Information Centre
 1.7.2.      Site Signage
 1.7.3.      Isandllwana Upgrade
 1.7.4.      Isandlawana Tourism Node
 1.7.5.      Mzinyathi Community Conservation Area
 1.8.1.      Tourism Research Project
 1.9.1       Cultural Village
 1.10.1      Tourism Awareness Campaign
 1.12.1.     Crime Reduction Programme
 1.12.2.     Cleaning Campaign

 8.7.    Disaster Management Plan



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         8.7.1. Introduction
The purpose of a Disaster Management Plan is to enhance the municipality to
prevent, and to deal with, disasters and to avoid development that is subject to high
risk in terms of disasters.

        8.7.2. Strategy Guidelines
The Green paper on Disaster Management considers principles that should inform
the design of risk-reduction and disaster-management strategies. The Green Paper
states the following principles that need to be considered when shaping a vision and
guiding strategy to deal with disasters:
 It must focus on key areas
 Take care of the most vulnerable first.
 Foster a culture of prevention
 Integration into development
 Equity
 Ensure community involvement
 Driven in all spheres of government
 Transparent and inclusive
 Accommodate local conditions
 Have legitimacy
 Flexible and adaptable
 Efficient and effective
 Affordable and sustainable
 Needs orientated and prioritised
 Multi-disciplinary and integrated approach.

        8.7.3. Sector Plan

The following disasters/incidents have been identified for which an action plan should
be formulated:
 Flooding, cyclones, earthquakes
 Train, bus and major road collision
 Aircraft incident
 Fire incidents
 Toxic gasses and hazardous chemicals
 Terrorism, sabotage, bomb threats and explosions
 Strikes and civil unrest
 Influx
 Total electrical failure
 Radioactive material incidents
 anthrax

No specific communities have been earmarked as being at risk of the above.
However, communities which may have settled within the flood lines are more at risk
to flooding, while informal settlements, by the nature of their living environments and
material of their dwellings, are at a higher risk to fire incidents.




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                         Annexure 1: Ward Profiles




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                         Annexure 2: Maps




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                         Annexure 3: Overall Project List




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                         Annexure 4: Municipal Lead Projects




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                         Annexure 5: Ward Priority Projects




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                         Annexure 6: Municipal Projects




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                         Annexure 7: Capital Investment Programme




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                   Annexure 8: List of Projects by Service Provider




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             Annexure 9: List of Projects by Potential Funding Source




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