guidance by ashrafp

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									Health and safety services




           Working environment
                      Guidance




                                 (Page 1 of website guidance)
Contents


Introduction

Health
      Temperature
      Ventilation
      Lighting (including emergency lighting)
      Workstations and seating
      Housekeeping, cleanliness and waste removal
      Room dimensions and space

Safety
      Traffic - safe passage for pedestrians and vehicles
      Windows, floors and doors
              Transparent or translucent surfaces
              Windows, skylights and ventilators
              Cleaning windows safely
              Doors and gates
              Condition of floors and traffic routes
      Falls and falling objects
      Maintaining the workplace, equipment, devices and systems

Welfare
      Sanitary conveniences
      Washing and changing facilities,
            Washing facilities
            Changing facilities
            Clothing storage
      Pregnant women and nursing mothers




                                                          (Page 2 of website guidance)
Introduction
This guidance will help you ensure your workplace meets the health, safety and
welfare needs of everyone working in it. The information is set out in three main areas:
health, safety and welfare:


Health

The measures in this section contribute to the general working environment of people
in the workplace.

Temperature

Personal preferences make it impossible to specify a temperature that satisfies
everyone. The risk to workers’ health increases as conditions move away from
temperatures generally accepted as ‘comfortable’, so a reasonable working
temperature must be maintained in all workplaces during working hours.

Heating or cooling methods must not give rise to fumes in the workplace, which could
cause injury.

Work in cold environments
Workplaces should normally be maintained at a minimum of 16°C, reducing to 13°C if
the work involves demanding physical effort. But there are some exceptions to this
minimum temperature:
    Rooms where it is impractical to keep this temperature
    Rooms where special processes take place, such as chilled food production
    Rooms open to the outside

Work in hot environments
Maximum working temperatures are not specified and no legislative guidance is
available for determining what is ‘reasonable’. However, an HSE leaflet ‘Thermal
comfort in the workplace – guidance for employers’ defines an acceptable zone of
comfort for most people in the UK is between 13°C and 30°C.

If a room cannot be kept comfortably cool throughout, local cooling should be
provided. In extremely hot weather, fans and ventilation can be used instead of local
cooling.

If workers are exposed to uncomfortably high temperatures despite local cooling,
suitable rest facilities should be provided. Systems of work such as task rotation must
also be introduced to limit the time workers are exposed to these temperatures.

Action required
    Provide a means for measuring the workplace temperature
    Identify areas in the workplace where the temperature is too cold or hot
    Establish if it is possible to maintain a reasonable working temperature
    Take remedial action to control any temperature problems at the source

                                                               (Page 3 of website guidance)
      Where this is not possible, provide alternative measures such as cooling or
       heating equipment
      Ensure such appliances are safe and without risks to health (eg. that they do
       not introduce an additional fire hazard)
      In cases of extreme weather, monitor the situation


Ventilation

Every enclosed workplace must be ventilated by sufficient fresh or purified air (HSE
guidance states that this is 5 to 8 litres per second per person). All mechanical
ventilation systems must be regularly maintained, and water-supplied devices such as
air conditioning units must be tested for legionella.

Action required
If you have any doubts about the efficiency of the current ventilation system, contact
Estate Services for advice. This includes problems such as:
     Stuffy workplaces
     Visible contamination of work surfaces
     Unpleasant odours
     High incidence of minor illnesses such as flu-like symptoms or headaches.


Lighting (including emergency lighting)

Every workplace must be provided with suitable and sufficient lighting. Emergency
lighting must be provided if needed to help people escape or to shut down processes
if normal lighting fails.

Action required
     Ensure work is carried out by natural light wherever possible
     Take precautions against glare
     Ensure lights are positioned to avoid any risks to health and safety, such as fire
       hazards.
     Provide and maintain emergency lighting in any room where people would be
       exposed to danger if the artificial lights failed.
     Ensure supplementary lighting is provided as necessary.
     Provide safe access to clean and replace lights or windows.
     Develop safe systems of work for cleaning and replacement lights or windows.
If you suspect the level of lighting is inadequate, contact Estate Services for advice.


Workstations and seating

Workstations should be arranged so they are suitable for any person who is likely to
work there, and for any work which is likely to be done. Every workstation must be
designed to enable any person using it to leave it swiftly or be assisted in the event of
an emergency.



                                                                (Page 4 of website guidance)
If work is done sitting down, seats should be provided which are suitable for the
people using them and for the work being done. Seating must give adequate support
to the lower back and footrests should be provided for people who cannot place their
feet on the floor. For more information on workstations, read our display screen
equipment guidance

Action required
    Arrange workstations so each task can be carried out safely and comfortably
      (including the need for swift exit)
    Ensure arrangements take into account the special needs of the individual
      worker
    Review the arrangements for changes of personnel and work tasks
    Provide seating for employees where their tasks allow it and provide footrests
      where required.


Housekeeping, cleanliness and waste removal

Every workplace and the furniture, furnishings and fittings must be kept clean, along
with other surfaces such as floors, walls and ceilings. Cleaning and waste removal
must be carried out when necessary, and waste must be stored in suitable receptacles
and not be allowed to accumulate.

Action required
    Assess individual workrooms for cleanliness requirements
    Ensure workrooms are cleaned to the appropriate standard
    Agree a cleaning schedule for workrooms, including:
         o Routine cleaning
         o Non-routine spillage procedures
         o Precautions against risks created by cleaning, such as wet floors
    Contact cleaning services via Estate Services to organise suitable cleaning
      schedules


Room dimensions and space

Every room where people work should have enough floor area, height and unoccupied
space, with enough free space to allow people to move about easily.

As a guide, each person should have at least 11 cubic metres of space to work in –
This means the volume of the room when empty, divided by the number of people
normally working in it should be at least 11 cubic metres. In rooms with high ceilings,
any area above a height of three metres is generally unusable, so only count up to
three metres high when calculating the available space.

11 cubic metres per person is a minimum and may be sufficient depending on the
layout, contents and nature of the work. The figure does not apply to:
    Retail sales kiosks, attendants’ shelters, machine control cabs or similar small
       structures where space is necessarily limited
    Rooms used for lectures, meetings and similar purposes

                                                                (Page 5 of website guidance)
Action required
    Count the number of people working in the individual room(s)
    Measure the volume of the room(s)
    Ensure the room is not overcrowded
Refer to the ‘Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 - Approved
Code of Practice’ for further guidance


Safety
The measures outlined in this section contribute to the safety of the general working
environment.

Traffic - safe passage for pedestrians and vehicles,

Traffic routes for people and vehicles must be suitable and sufficient for their intended
use. They must be arranged so vehicles using them do not endanger people working
nearby. There must be sufficient separation of vehicles and pedestrians at doors and
gates, and where both use the same route there must be sufficient separations
between them.

All traffic routes must be signed where necessary for health and safety.

Action required
    Survey pedestrian and vehicle movements on the premises
    Ensure traffic and pedestrian routes are suitable for use
    Implement safe systems to minimise risks involving vehicles
    Ensure pedestrians and vehicles are kept separate
    Develop systems to prevent pedestrians and vehicles from colliding
    Ensure all dangerous openings have been securely fenced
    Ensure all traffic routes are clearly indicated and have appropriate signage
    Ensure safe procedures are adopted for loading and unloading vehicles

Windows, floors and doors

Transparent or translucent surfaces
If transparent or translucent surfaces are positioned where people could come into
contact with them, they must be marked or incorporate features to make them more
noticeable.

The following must be made of safety material or be protected against breakage:
    Windows
    Transparent or translucent surfaces in:
          o Walls
          o Partitions
          o Doors
          o Gates



                                                                (Page 6 of website guidance)
Action required
Where necessary, every window, transparent or translucent surface in a wall, partition,
door or gate must be made of a safety material or protected against breakage. This is
especially important for:
           Glass in doors and gates, or the side panel if it is at shoulder level or
             below
           Glass in windows, walls or partitions at waist level or below
These surfaces must be marked or incorporate features to make the surface obvious.


Windows, skylights and ventilators
If a window, skylight or ventilator can be opened, then it must be safe to open and
must not cause a risk once it is open.

Action required
    Assess whether the action of opening, closing or adjusting any window, skylight
      or ventilator presents a risk to safety
    If the assessment reveals a risk then it must be remedied


Cleaning windows safely
All windows must be designed and constructed so they can be cleaned safely.

Action required
    Assess whether all windows and skylights can be cleaned safely, taking into
      account equipment used in conjunction with the window or of devices fitted to
      the building
    If any windows and skylights cannot be cleaned safely, then make suitable
      provision to permanently resolve this problem
    Ensure windows, skylights and ventilators can be opened, closed or adjusted
      safely, and when open they should not be dangerous


Doors and gates
Doors and gates must be suitably constructed and fitted with safety devices if
necessary. Doors and gates that swing both ways and all doors on main traffic routes
must have a transparent viewing panel.

Action required
    Survey traffic routes to ensure appropriate doors are fitted
    Ensure any powered and sliding doors are fitted with the appropriate safety
      devices




                                                               (Page 7 of website guidance)
Condition of floors and traffic routes
Every floor in a workplace and the surface of every traffic route should be suitable for
the purpose for which it is used - this includes floors inside and outside. Surfaces must
be kept free from:
    Obstructions
    Slippery materials
    Unprotected holes and
    Trip hazards

If any holes are found outside on pedestrian routes, take measures to solve the
problem and prevent slips, trips and falls. Handrails should be considered for all
slopes.

Action required
    Assess the condition of all floors and traffic routes and implement permanent
      corrective measures where required
    Inspect the surface of floors and traffic routes regularly to find conditions that
      would be likely to:
         o Cause a person to slip, trip, fall
         o Lose control of anything being carried
         o Cause instability or loss of control of vehicles or their loads
    Consider the use of handrails for any slope


Falls and falling objects

Measures must be taken to prevent:
   Any person falling a distance likely to cause personal injury
   Any person being struck by a falling object likely to cause personal injury
   Tanks and pits may also need to be covered if there is a risk of people falling
     into a dangerous substance

Action required
    Install the appropriate fencing or covers where there is a risk of:
         o Falling either from a height or
         o Falling into a tank containing dangerous substances or
         o Objects falling onto people
   Where these risks exist, clearly indicate the danger

      Where fencing or covers cannot be provided or have to be removed, install a
       safe system of work including
          o Access restrictions
          o Instruction
          o Supervision
          o Training
          o Permit-to-work systems and the provision of personal protective
              equipment (PPE) including safety harnesses where appropriate




                                                                (Page 8 of website guidance)
      Where it is impossible to prevent falling objects, provide appropriate PPE. See
       PPE guidance for more information
      Ensure that where fixed vertical ladders are installed, they conform to the
       appropriate guidelines. (A permanent staircase is always preferred)
      Take the appropriate precautions when carrying out any kind of roof work
       (contact Estate Services for more details)
      Ensure any changes of level are marked to make them obvious
      Ensure materials and objects are stored and stacked in a way so they are not
       likely to fall and cause injury
      When loading or unloading vehicles, avoid people having to climb on top of
       vehicles or their loads - if this is unavoidable, safety lines and harnesses should
       be provided


Maintaining the workplace, equipment, devices and systems

The workplace and certain equipment must be maintained in an efficient state, in
working order and in good repair.

A suitable system of maintenance must be introduced for mechanical ventilation
systems, equipment and devices which would cause a risk to health, safety or welfare
if a fault occurred. Always consult guidance from the manufacturer when doing this.

Action required
    Identify any equipment that could affect health and safety in the workplace if it
      fails (including mechanical ventilation systems)
    Establish if a system of maintenance is required to ensure their efficient
      operation
    Devise a safe system of maintenance
    Appoint a competent person to carry out the maintenance
    Ensure the equipment is maintained according to that system
    Ensure any potentially dangerous defects are rectified
    Keep suitable records of the maintenance




                                                                (Page 9 of website guidance)
Welfare
The measures outlined in this section contribute to the welfare of people in the
workplace.

Sanitary conveniences

Suitable and sufficient sanitary conveniences must be provided in readily accessible
places for all people at work. Sanitary conveniences will only be suitable if:
    The rooms containing them are adequately ventilated and lit
    They and the rooms containing them are kept in a clean and orderly condition,
       and,
    Separate rooms containing conveniences are provided for men and women
       except where each convenience is in a separate room and the door can be
       secured from inside


Washing and changing facilities,

Washing facilities
Conveniently located washing facilities must be provided in the workplace. Suitable is
defined as facilities that:
    Are provided in the immediate vicinity of every sanitary convenience
    Include a supply of clean hot and cold or warm running water as is possible
    Include soap or other suitable means of cleaning
    Include towels or other suitable means of drying
    The rooms are sufficiently ventilated and lit
    The washing facilities and the rooms are kept in a clean and orderly condition
      and are properly maintained

Changing facilities
Suitable facilities must be provided for people to change their clothing when:
    The person has to wear special clothing for work
    The person is unable to change in another room for reasons of health or
       propriety

Separate facilities should be provided for men and women, or separate use of the
facilities organised. The facilities must be properly maintained and must ensure the
privacy of the user.

Clothing storage
Storage accommodation must be provided for special work clothing and workers’ own
clothing where changing is a necessary part of the job.




                                                              (Page 10 of website guidance)
Pregnant women and nursing mothers – Areas for drinking, eating and resting

Drinking water
An adequate supply of wholesome drinking water must be provided and maintained
for all people at work. Every supply of drinking water must;
     Be readily accessible at suitable places
     Be conspicuously marked by a suitable sign
     Be provided with suitable cups or other drinking vessels

Facilities for resting and eating meals, and rest areas for pregnant women and
nursing mothers
Rest facilities must be provided in readily accessible places. These must include one
or more rest rooms and should also include facilities to eat meals. Suitable facilities
must be provided for any working pregnant women or nursing mothers to rest.

Action required
    Ensure an adequate number of WCs and washing facilities are provided
    Ensure the correct facilities are provided in each WC and wash station
    Ensure the facilities are maintained in a clean state and good working order
    Ensure an adequate supply of wholesome drinking water is provided
    Provide adequate rest facilities
    Provide adequate changing facilities and accommodation for clothing
    Ensure the needs of pregnant women and nursing mothers are considered




                                                              (Page 11 of website guidance)

								
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