MAY 1967 HEALTH i«f ," '* ..::••'..• j&^ij &jtjjj^F>* ^ \. LWVI m Break with Coffee By J. DeWitt Fox, M.D. VER SINCE THE DAY that the head of a sometimes more irritable action. This accounts for E Moslem monastery, according to a Syrian legend, noticed that eating coffee berries made his goats frisky and he brewed some to keep his the heart flutter and thump that some get after coffee drinking. High blood pressure victims are warned against monks awake at evening prayers, the world has been its use because the action of the caffeine in coffee is excited over the "cup that stimulates." unpredictable; it may make the blood pressure go I'm here to offer a bit of advice for the millions up by stimulating the heart or make it drop by dilat- who are making themselves think that a cup of coffee ing blood-vessels close to the skin. Obviously, in a dis- calms the nerves—the people who would like to avoid ease where quiet relaxation and sedation are impor- the jitters and jumps, to sleep better at night, and tant the stimulation of coffee is not to be desired. not to have those tiny tremors that for all the world The fatigue factor, which coffee seems to erase, look like a case of nerves or old age creeping up to is one of its worst dangers, though the effect most tap them on the shoulder. sought after by many. Coffee erases feelings of fatigue. I realize that I'm taking my life in my hands It blots out the danger signals, and while your body to discuss a subject dear to so many. I know full well is crying for rest, relaxation, and a reclining posi- it is said that Sultan Sclim I liked coffee so much tion on a soft bed, you lash it relentlessly when you that he hanged two Persian doctors who said it was give it coffee. You virtually say, "You aren't really bad for the health. However, this is a fate I hope tired," and the coffee stimulation says, "Go to it. Get to escape. back to work. You're good for another full evening of Let me assure you that I am as much in favour fun or frenzy." of a pleasant social chat and a break from office Although the toxic effects of coffee are usually routine as you are. I am sure such a break increases not noted until late, most drinkers experience them efficiency, as many industrial administrators have sooner or later. Insomnia, restlessness, and excite- proved. But what many persons may not realize is ment are the earliest signs. Later, ringing in the ears that the cup of coffee they drink during a period of and flashes of light are common. Rapid heart with relaxation may account for some of their nervous- fluttering may appear, then muscle tremors and ness, insomnia, even palpitation of the heart, head- quickened breathing. Frequency of urination due ache, or aggravated high blood pressure. to the stimulation of the kidneys by the diuretic action According to many pharmacology reports, the may be present also. amount of caffeine given therapeutically—100 to 150 Now, we have no complaint against caffeine as milligrams—is found in the average cup of coffee. such. It has its place in medicine and a valuable Doctors use this dose to stimulate a patient who has place in the hands of physicians. The rest period, been in a coma, is intoxicated, or is otherwise in the social session, the fun fest, all have their place. danger of collapse. It is useful for its strong central- But we feel sure that many a coffee drinker doesn't nervous-system stimulation. Yet every day millions are realize that he comes away from these "breaks" bombarding their brains with this powerful stimulant. stimulated rather than relaxed. He went to drink It is not uncommon for doctors to ask their pa- coffee already nervous, and after his cup of coffee tients, "How much coffee do you drink?" came away even more so, although he may have felt "Oh, three cups a meal or so, Doctor.' less fatigued and frazzled because the coffee had Now you figure up how much caffeine is in that momentarily erased his tired feeling. After he got back day's quota of coffee. There is 900 to 1,350 milligrams to the office or later in the day he noted a letdown, —several times the normal therapeutic dose. which required either another cup of coffee or an- The stimulative effect of this caffeine makes peo- other cigarette to pick him up to the normal level ple feel more alert and makes their brains spin rapidly. of activity. Many a coffee drinker will note that he talks faster So we do recommend a break with coffee. Break and almost incessantly after a cup of coffee. the habit with a good drink during your social session. The action of coffee on the body is the action Make it a relaxing drink such as milk or fruit juice. of caffeine, which is to stimulate the brain and all Make your drink a body builder, not a body its reflexes. It stimulates the heart to stronger and breaker. HKRALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 CLIPPINGS AND COMMENTS Vol. 44, No. 5 HEALTH May 1967 The Indian Academy of Medi- cal Sciences will hold its next part Editor .......................... THOMAS A. DAVIS I Membership Examination for Assistant Editor .............. GEORGE C. THOMAS admission to membership in cer- tain medical specialties on July 3. MEDICAL. CONSULTANTS Particulars concerning the exami- nations and application forms may J. B. Oliver, M.D. A. J. Patt, M.D. Elizabeth J. Hiscox, M.D. be obtained from the Executive I. R. Bazliel, Ex-Maj., I.M.S. S. J. Yawalkar, M.B.B.S., D.V.D., M.D. Director, Indian Academy of Medi- cal Sciences, C. H. E. B. Building, Temple Lane, Kotla Road, New ARTICLES Delhi-1. * Break With Coffee .................... J. DeWitt Fox, M.D. 2 A man-made epidemic! That is Finger-nail Facts ................... .Robert P. Little, M.D. 4 what the U. S. National Advisory Keeping Father Young and Healthy Clifford R. Anderson, M.D. 6 Cancer Council says about the prevalence of various types of The Menopause .................... Harold Shryock, M.D. 9 cancer brought on by cigarette Forming and Breaking Habits (Part I) ...... Harold Sherman 10 smoking. Can't Sleep? .................... Mary Bayley Noel, R. N. 12 * Diseases of the Mouth ............ Richard C. Leonard, D.D.S. 14 Don't be fooled into thinking that if you take multi-vitamins The Common Cold ...................... T.R. Flaiz, M.D. 16 the rest of your diet is cared for The Art of Relaxing ........................ Evelyn Forbes 18 automatically. Multi-vitamins may Dandruff ............................ Paul D. Foster, M.D. 21 be fine as a dietary supplement (even then they should be pre- To Mention the Unmentionable ...... William T. Gibb, M.D. 22 scribed by a doctor). But your Treatment for Burns ..................... .Archie M. Smith 30 diet must still be adequately bal- Bicycling for Health .................................... 36 anced with proteins and calories. * The world's most comprehensive FEATURES one-volume guide to drugs and medicines in current use has been Letters to the Editor ...... 5 Garden 'Round Your House 26 published in London by the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Your Radio Doctor ........ 6 Little People .............. 28 Britain. The book contains 1,250,- Warning Signals .......... 23 Doctor Advises ............ 32 000 words and includes entries on 4,000 drugs and several times that Medicine Today ........ 35 number of medicines. In the five years taken to produce the book, new drugs have been introduced A SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST PUBLI- 130/C Dhanmandi Road, Dacca; Ceylon— CATION issued monthly by the ORIENTAL 15/2 Alfred House Gardens, Colpetty, at a rate far outstripping that of WATCHMAN PUBLISHING HOUSE, P.O. Colombo 3; West Pakistan—Oriental Watch Box 35, Poona 1, India. man Publishing House, 32 Mozang Road, any previous period. But all of SUBSCRIPTION RATES: 1 yr. Rs. 11.25; Lahore; Burma—Book & Bible Home, 88 2 yri. Rs. 21.95; 3 yrs. Ri. 32.45; 5 yri. U Wisara Road, Rangoon. the material has been brought up Rs. 53.25. to date. Foreign: Malaysia, $12.00. CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Send new SUBSCRIPTION PAYMENTS: Our address, with wrapper from magazine, or The volume also includes infor- representatives are authorized to receive cash reference number on wrapper, to indicate old or cheques and to issue official receipts for address. mation on old drugs which, al- same. For orders sent to publishers, make NON-RECEIPT OF MAGAZINES: In- cheque or money order payable to Oriental quire at local post office before informing us. though not now widely used, are Watchman Publishing House, Salisbury Park, If possible, send magazine wrapper when occasionally asked for. Poona 1. writing regarding non-receipt. REGIONAL OFFICES: Andhra, Kerala, EXPIRY NOTICE: X on wrapper of Madras and Mysore—13, Cunningham Road, magazine indicates subscription has expued. Bangalore 1; Gujarat and Maharashtra—16 PICTURE CREDITS Club Road, Bombay 8; Uttar Pradesh, East Owned by the Oriental Watchman Publish Punjab, Delhi and Adjacent States—27, Bara- ing House, P. O. Box 35, Poona 1, mad Cover: Colour transparency by Vidyavrata. khmmba Koad, New Delhi; Bihar, Orissa, West printed and published by V. Raju at and 6—B. Bhansali; 7—G. C. Thomas; 12, 17, Bengal—Morabadl Villa, Ranch!, Bihar; Asiam for the Oriental Watchman Publkhint HOUM, 21—G. T. Zachariah; 14—Tara Jauhar; 26— —MonothymuMi. Bhilloai; Kut Pakistan— Poona 1. 2515-67. B. Ranganathan. HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 By Robert P. Little, M.D. FINGER-NAIL FACTS ID YOU KNOW that your finger-nails, like D claws, hoofs, and hair, are merely altered skin? The horns of most animals are an outgrowth of bone. But the horn of the rhinoceros, like your mon on the toe-nails. When the nail is injured by manicuring or in other ways, ridges or white spots may appear on your nails and remain for some time. The so-called Beau's lines are transverse furrows nails, is only altered skin, a sharpened callus, so to caused by some systemic disease serious enough to ar- speak, on which this pachyderm impales his enemies. rest nail growth. When your vital force returns, your Perhaps you will be more likely to believe this when nails start to regrow, but a furrow marks the change. you remember how hard a humble corn can be. Since your finger-nails grow at the rate of one milli- You should never forget that nails are a part of metre a week you can calculate the time of the illness your body and very much alive at the root and in by measuring the distance of the Beau's lines from the the deeper layers. You are reminded of this when a root. Beau's lines have been seen after arsenic poison- splinter enters the quick. Now it follows that if your ing, typhoid fever, influenza, measles, malaria, and nails are a part of you, they share in your diseases. many other diseases. For example, when your hair is lost because of that Sometimes the whole nail overgrows and becomes strange form of baldness called alopecia areata, you thick and horn-like. Such nails may be associated with may also shed your nails. any chronic skin disease. Are your finger-nails pitted? If so, you should When the circulation in your arms and legs is consult your physician, for pitted nails are sometimes interfered with or weakened, your finger-nails may a symptom of psoriasis. Indeed, pitted nails may become curved around the ends, called clubbing. long precede the other symptoms of this annoying but This symptom was mentioned by Hippocrates as seen generally harmless disease. in tuberculous patients, and today such nails are called Nails shortened by biting may regrow when the Hippocratic. habit is stopped or they may remain permanently When finger-nails are depressed in the centre shortened. Nail biting is a nervous trouble, and you they are called spoon nails. This trouble is sometimes may need to consult a psychiatrist for relief from it. seen with anaemia in middle-aged women, and is Sometimes the root of your nail is injured by associated with sore lips and difficulty in swallowing. blows or by catching your finger in your car door. But there are other causes for spoon nails, for example, The nail may then fall. It regrows after a lapse of eczema, nervous prostration, and nail biting. time, but if the root has been permanently damaged Sometimes the nails separate into layers. This your nail will be deformed. condition is frequently seen in typists. It is favoured Sometimes injury is followed by a thickened nail by long nails and certain nail enamels that produce resembling a ram's horn. The trouble is more com- chemical changes in the nails. To page 31 H«RALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Every once in a while we like to share with VALUED ABOVE ALL OTHERS our readers letters we have received from fellow Dear Editor: readers. This month is one of those times. And right I value your health magazine above all magazines here we may add, we are always happy to receive now in circulation in India. It is really interesting, comments from our subscribers. educational and above all can be understood even by The Editors non-medical men. My wife and I take very keen interest in your magazine and look forward to receiv- A "PRINCELY PURPOSE" ing the next month's copy. We have solved a lot Dear Sir: of problems through your esteemed magazine. A. R. Shenow I have been reading your fine health magazine since Rangat, Middle Andaman the last five years and have gained very useful knowl- edge about many diseases and their remedies. Surely your magazine is serving a princely purpose. HELPS TO FACE LIFE Laxmi Kant Sheewe Dear Sir: Nawalgarh, Rajasthan I have been studying your Herald of Health for a long time constantly with a great interest. It gives me a PEACE CORPS SUBSCRIBER good knowledge of various problems that come in everybody's life and this background of acquired Dear Sir: knowledge from your journal has enabled me to face some of them fully equipped and I overcame a few I first observed your magazine on a table while wait- of the obstacles in this way. ing to see someone in his office. I would very much Zorawar Singh Dhindsa like to subscribe to your magazine, the Herald of XV Corps, A.P.O. Health, as it should be valuable to me here in the village. I am with the American Peace Corps in a "ENROL MY NAME" food production project but I am always coming up against health problems. Dear Sir: William W. Bowers I have read your health magazine. I greatly appreciate Manvi Taluka, Mysore the valuable articles that appear in the magazine every month. Will you please enrol my name. LIBRARY READER BECOMES SUBSCRIBER A. Bano Rawalpindi, W. Pakistan Dear Sir: "ONLY MAGAZINE FOR HOME AND I have been reading the magazine, Herald of Health, HAPPINESS" in our college library. But I felt that I must be the regular subscriber to your office for this magazine. Dear Sir: I found deeply interesting topics in it about health. Kindly appraise us with a copy of Heraldt of Health Please inform me about the annual charges of the for the preview of our students and staff. One of our magazine and give surety that I will be able to have members had commented that it is the only magazine the services of your office. I hope that you will favour for home and happiness. May God bless it, give it a me and oblige. long life and more popularity. Rawi Prakash Mrs. Kaul Sonepat, Punjab Karnal, Punjab HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 B. Bhansali Keeping Father Young and Healthy Clifford R. Anderson, M.D. N£ OF THE strangest mysteries of our time O is the discovery that in many ways men are not the stronger sex after all. Yes, I know that men usually have a few powerful muscles in their intelligent classes of society. This has been true ever since modern medical science conquered the germs that were destroying the lives of so many mothers fol- lowing childbirth. arms and legs and backs. Yet the fact remains that There are a number of reasons for this strange the majority of women today are living longer than "weakness" in the male of the species. These reasons their husbands. This seems to be true in all parts of are just as important to the women as to the men, the world. Almost everywhere the women outnumber perhaps even more important. Of course it is natural the men. Yet every year more boys are born than to draw the conclusion that wars are responsible for girls. The sad fact is that men are dying off at a this difference in numbers between the sexes. While faster rate than women, especially among the more this is true in some cases, it is only part of the an- HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 the sensible things of life. It is so hormones have the power to pro- much better for him to devote his tect a woman's body from the YOUR RADIO time to productive pursuits than to ravages of disease. Men are more DOCTOR destroy himself by bad habits of vulnerable because they do not behaviour and occupation. All have these protective substances cir- through life girls seem to have a culating in their blood stream. And better chance of survival. Even here is another startling fact. A wo- before they are born nature seems man no longer has this natural pro- swer. Doctors are now finding that to have provided them with blood- tection after she has passed through the situation is nearly as bad dur- vessels that are less likely to be- the normal child-bearing age. ing the years of peace. Well might come diseased. The reason for this Once past the menopause a wo- we ask why men are dying at an is that the race can survive only if man is more subject to the earlier age. And if we know the the young mothers are strong and degenerative diseases, although answer, is there anything that can healthy. Boys are handicapped she is still far better off than her be done about it? Yes, we do know right from the start. It is a fact husband in this respect. the answer, at least in part. And that more baby boys are born than No field of medicine is demand- there is much that we can do to girls. At the same time more of ing so much study today as these help our men not only to lengthen them become sick in the years of degenerative diseases which arise their lives, but also to remain infancy and childhood. The mor- from the wear and tear of life. For healthy all their days. tality of male children is higher in generations doctors have been almost every case. working toward the prevention of Unnecessary Risks death in babies and older chil- Males Have a Built-in Handicap dren. It was a marvellous day when Many of the causes of early that great scientist, Semmelweiss, death in men can be prevented. So the average male starts out in discovered the cause of "childbed Ail it takes is normal intelligence life with a built-in handicap. This fever" in the wards of his maternity and good common sense. One is true all through nature. The hospital in Vienna and Budapest. reason is that many men follow queen bee lives longer than the As a result millions of mothers' very hazardous occupations. They drone, the queen ant lives longer lives have been saved, and many work in dangerous places, and than the male ant, and most other millions of children have grown up some of them deliberately take insects are the same. This same in happier homes because mother risks that are often unnecessary. trend can be seen in all the higher was spared to care for them and This is true whether they are flying species of the animal kingdom. a plane, demolishing a tall building And it is true in humans. The or merely climbing up on the roof male may have heavier bones and for some reason or other. Another stronger muscles, but he has these reason is "showing off." This mainly that he might provide for seems to be almost natural for the and protect the female. This may male sex from babyhood to old be hard for some men to accept, age. Some men pay for this foolish- but they are none the less true be- ness with their lives. For instance, cause they are the basic facts of five times as many males are nature. drowned each year as females, Medical research workers in merely because the men take so Britain have found that a man many more chances. It would be under the age of fifty has eight wise for mothers to teach their sons times more chance of suffering to take less risks where life and from a heart attack than a woman health are at stake. Instead of ex- of the same age! This is true of pecting them to grow up experi- almost every other disease, with the menting with death, why not teach exception of diabetes and cancer them to respect life and devote of the breast. Men are carried their tremendous energies to some- off more quickly by tuber- thing more constructive? culosis, polio, influenza, and G. C. Thomas If you have a young son in the various diseases of the blood- your home, it would be Well to be- vessels and the kidneys. Doctors A woman more easily releases her pent- gin teaching him right now to do now believe that the female sex up emotions than a man. HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 love them all through their grow, and other vices than women in before he was aware of what was ing years. Today many of mother's general. going on. Just before he died he health problems are being solved. started something of real value in But What about father? Is he any How Men Can Help Themselves saving the lives of other doctors better off? Not much. In fact he and professional men. His slogan is still as susceptible as ever to most Can a man do anything to over- was "a family doctor for every of the diseases and injuries that come the natural handicaps of his doctor's family." The suggestion have plagued him for so long. sex? Yes, there is a lot he can do. is valuable not only for doctors He can take better care of himself. but for men in every walk of life. Our Competitive World It is a fact that women usually Gentlemen, let's stop putting off take better care of themselves than that all important medical exami- men. You will find them going nation. Why not make an appoint- But this is not all, for in our to their doctors for help far more ment right now? Or better still modern age we have added many frequently than their husbands. let your wife make it for you. She new stresses and strains peculiar to And when they are sick they are has more at stake than even you our own age. Life is speeded up more willing to go to bed and stay have in this. enormously. Modern man is more there until they are well. Men in tense. He is under far more pres- general make very peculiar pa- Stop Killing Yourself, Father! sure than ever in a highly competi- tients. They deeply resent the tive world. As the main bread- slightest illness because they seem And here are a few more sug- winner of the family he is exposed to think it is unmanly to be sick. gestions that are equally impor- to the endless aggravations of And some of them are awfully tant in your future. Stop killing modern living. These lower his scared of a needle prick. Many of yourself with too much work and vitality and increase his chance them will refuse to seek proper not enough rest. Don't try to whip of having ulcers, high blood pres- medical help largely out of fear up your jaded nerves and flagging sure and many other conditions of what the doctor might find. muscles by using stimulants. These peculiar to our time. But the This attitude is ridiculous, and only cover up the problem; they strange thing about women is that sometimes it is tragic. It may ac- never solve it. The use of alcohol in most of them can stand high blood count for the fact that so many any form is really never a real help pressure far better than their hus- men are not as well as they might to the body, but when it is taken to bands. Their arteries are more be. No Woman should rest content excess it is definitely harmful. It flexible and less likely to be until her husband has gone to his is wiser to do without such doubt- damaged by the increased pressure. doctor for a complete medical ful stuff. For the same reason a Again the female hormones seem examination at least once each year. man would be wise not to smoke, to come to her defence and pro- This is good insurance, not only for especially if he wants to live a long tect her from any serious damage. her husband, but also for herself and happy life. Primary cancer of This continues as long as those and for the rest of the family. the lung is menacing the life of hormones are in circulation in the Even doctors need to bear this many a man today. Yet it is a blood stream. When they cease to in mind, for many a doctor today fact that this dreadful disease circulate she begins to lose her pro- is suffering from some disabling hardly exists among those who do tection, although this change comes disease that might have been not smoke. The same is true to on rather slowly. prevented if he had gone to some some extent in men who are sub- Women have other advantages other doctor for counsel early ject to ulcers and heart disease. in that they can find release from enough. Smoking raises the blood pressure. worry and tension by weeping and One famous doctor died of can- It constricts the smaller blood ves- hysterical behaviour. Men have cer of the rectum simply because sels and increases the hazards of fewer safety-valves for their emo- he did not think he could afford coronary thrombosis and other tional tensions. Society demands the time for a thorough examina- serious conditions. that they keep themselves under tion. He was sure that all he had control. They have to "swallow was "a simple case of haemor- What About Diet? their feelings," so they are more rhoids." Unfortunately he waited apt to develop ulcers, high blood too long before he sought profes- Finally a word about diet. This pressure and heart disease. And this sional advice. The little lesion that is an extremely important factor lack of an easy emotional outlet could easily have been removed in in the life of every man. Too many may account for the fact that far the earlier stages finally found its choose a very poor diet, one more men arc addicted to alcoliol way to other parts pf his body To page 29 or HEALTH, MAY 196? THE MENOPAUSE By Harold Shryock, M.D. J. S. Most* H OW DOES A WOMAN know when her meno- pause has arrived? Why are some women more nervous at the time of the change than others? Can a woman bear a child after age forty-five? Does body begin to co-operate with the ovaries in making it possible for her to become a mother. At the menopause, the ovaries cease production of ova and the large amounts of hormone that they a woman lose interest in the intimacies of marriage normally produce during the child-bearing period. after she passes the change? Do hormone shots pre- With reduction in ovarian hormone, the uterus no dispose to cancer? longer prepares each month for the possibility of Such questions indicate that a lot of women— pregnancy, and menstruation ceases. and men—are not clear on the basic facts of that Just as adolescence arrives when the ovaries be- interesting transition in a woman's experience called come active, so the menopause occurs when the the menopause. ovaries become inactive. The exact cause of this The menopause is adolescence in reverse. At change in the activity of the ovaries is obscure. It is adolescence, a young woman enters the period of life as if the ovaries live their lives at a faster pace than during which she is capable of bearing children. The the other organs of the body. After about thirty years menopause marks the end of the child-bearing period. of producing ova and hormones, they retire from At adolescence, a young woman's ovaries begin active duty. to function. From then on for thirty or more years The exact pattern by which menstruation ceases the ovaries produce an ovum each month except dur- at the time of the menopause varies from one woman ing pregnancy or serious illness. If fertilized by a male to another. In some it stops abruptly. More commonly sex cell, this ovum can develop into a baby. At ado. it decreases month by month until it finally ceases. lescence, the uterut and other organs in a woman's To page 24 HBRALD or HSALTH, MAY 1967 What you continue to picture in your mind, in other words, tends eventually to come to pass in your life. You can see from this how important it is for you to control your mind and. the nature of your Forming thought pictures at all times, because you are what you think. For example, if I had decided that I wanted to smoke or drink, I would have been a smoker or and Breaking drinker today. If I had pictured myself as a doctor instead of a writer, and had held to that picture, I would have been a doctor. You can be or do or have Habits whatever you want in life within reason, if you apply your mind to it and put forth the necessary effort in that direction. It is, therefore, imperative that you decide what Part One kind of habits you are going to take with you on the journey through life. Do you want to acquire habits which may well destroy your health, happiness, and By Harold Sherman everything you are starting out to achieve—a hus- band or wife, a home, children, and satisfaction gained from worth-while accomplishments. D O YOU KNOW how your mind really works, and how habits are formed in your mind? The chances are you do not, because this is The choice is yours, and if you are not yet in- volved with a habit which can prove injurious it need not be a difficult choice to make. not taught in schools or colleges. There your mind is It is entirely different, however, if you have usually filled with technical and useful knowledge already started such a habit as smoking or drinking. about everything else but your own mind. You prob- I am using them as illustrations because they are two ably know the least about your mind, yet upon it you of mankind's most prevalent habits that are doing must basically depend for every good thing you de- damage to physical and mental health. Should you sire. If your mind is not functioning properly, if it is wish to break a habit like this before it gets too strong the victim of destructive habits, you will be severely a hold on you, you have a job on your hands. It is handicapped in life. much easier to keep from developing a habit than Here in a caspsule, is what you need to know it is to eliminate a habit once it is established. about the operation of your own mind: This is true because every time you repeat an You think in mental pictures. Everything that act, it is stored away in your mind in the form of has ever happened to you in life, since the time you a mental picture along with the emotional reaction were born, is recorded in your subconscious mind, you had at the time. These feelings are strengthened in the form of mental images. Associated with every- and intensified by repetition. When you want to one of these mental pictures is the feeling or emotional memorize something you repeat it over and over reaction you had at the time. These experiences, bad again until the mind finally grasps it. Then you can as well as good, continue to exist in your mind as recite it almost without thinking. It has become a desires and repressions. What you have experienced part of you. that has given you pleasure, you want to repeat. What you have experienced that has caused you grief or A habit is nothing but a mental pattern, a way displeasure, you want to keep from happening to you of doing something, which becomes as apparently again. You might even wish to forget it or bury it in natural to you in time as breathing. And this habit your mind entirely. always stays with you until you do something to get But, like it or not, you must face the fact that rid of it. you are the result today of all your past thinking. Before an appetite is created it has no emotional There is a creative law of mind that "like always hold upon you; but when you have a new experience attracts like." If you picture something in your mind which is repeated until you get accustomed to it, you that you very much want, and keep on picturing it, may come to enjoy it and even look forward to ex- you are apt to attract this experience to you. But periencing the same type of sensation again. because of this creative power in your mind, if you Many men and women have testified that they picture something happening through fear, you are didn't find smoking or drinking appealing in the be- apt to bring this happening to you. ginning, but they kept on because someone else 10 OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 You think In mental pictures. The subconscious mind stores all your experiences in the form of mental images. And what you continue to picture in your mind, influences your actions. J. S. Mate* seemed to be enjoying the habit, and they eventually came to like it, too. In addition, few people derive pleasure out of doing things alone, and smoking and drinking are usually associated with sociability. This has led to the excuse that many people offer: "I don't particularly care for these habits, but I engage in them just to be sociable." How do you break a smoking or drinking habit? If you really want to stop, there is no halfway point. You can't succeed by tapering off, cutting down so much a day until you are down to no smokes and no drinks. Neither can you win by saying to yourself, "I'm going to go without a smoke or a drink for a week, or a month, or a year!" A prominent businessman had become an alco- holic, a fact he did not wish to admit. He said to his friends, "I can quit any time I want to quit. To prove it to you I am quitting right now and will not take even one drink for at least a year!" True to his promise, this man, to the amazement of his friends, did stop. But exactly on the day and date when the year ended, he went on the biggest binge of his life. He had counted the days and the months while this desire built up inside him, but his integrity—the habit he had established of keeping any promise he might make—kept him from drink- ing until the time he had set Was up. Then, released thank God at the end of each day that they have from the promise he had made himself and others, gone that day without a drink, and pray for the he cut loose. strength to live the next day in the same sober The average human being is placed under too manner. great a strain, once he has become a smoker or a To give up smoking or drinking, you must have drinker, to declare that he will never take another an incentive, something to replace the desire to drink smoke or drink. He is constantly in the company of and to smoke. You must have an inner conviction others who are smoking or drinking and is tempted that you will be better off in every way, freed of these to do likewise, many times a day. It is easier to over- habits, and that smoking and drinking can be and are come an urge at the moment than to say to oneself, "I harmful; that they will, if not discontinued, keep you am never going to taste a cigarette or a drink again." from attaining things in life which mean much more Alcoholics have learned the hard way that they to you than any number of smokes or drinks. must pursue sobriety on a day-to-day basis. They (Continued next month.) HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 11 an't sleep? A TWELVE-YEAR-OLD BOY, on hearing his mother complain at breakfast of being unable to sleep, said, "Well, Mother, it was all because you didn't stop your mind from racing around. I know how to do it; I just don't think about anything." He was giving sound psychological advice. By Mary Bayley Noel, R.N. There is always something wrong when one cannot sleep. And the cause may be either physical or mental. While insomnia is met with in a number of affections, it is more often due to conditions which are entirely within our control. Either we are the nervous, worrying type of individual, or we have unfortunately acquired some mistaken habit. There are many of us who begin the night by thinking and planning, and often when we afterward try to dismiss all these thoughts, the condition is beyond our control; that is, the mind goes on working automatically. We should go to bed to sleep, and leave the planning for the daytime. Since sleeplessness is an unnatural state, it is well do dis- cover as soon as possible what is responsible for it, and, hav- ing determined the cause, to correct it before it has become a habit. As fully one-third of our time is spent in bed, it is worth our while to be very sure that we have a comfortable bed. Many a wakeful night may be caused by an uncomfortable bed. ' The importance of a well-ventilated room should not be overlooked. A stuffy room, with the bed pushed into the corner, is not conducive to sleep. A fresh, gentle breeze blowing over the sides of the face or from the feet often entices the elusive sleep we are seeking. "Keep your feet warm and your head cool" is an old saying. However logical it may be from other standpoints, it is sound advice for securing sleep. If the feet are cold one can- not sleep because this usually indicates there is too much blood in the brain which makes it overactive. Taking a hot bath before retiring is, of course, an ex- cellent way to equalize the circulation, and for some people G. T. Zaduriab it produces a pleasant feeling of drowsiness. Its effect, how- 12 HBRALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 eVer, varies with the person, and one must be his exercise can be taken to aid digestion. On the other own judge as to whether or not it suits him. Some hand, going to bed with an empty stomach is a com- people are too much stimulated, and are thus kept mon cause of wakefulness. Ordinarily, if more than awake. These people may require the unpleasant four and a half hours have elapsed since the last bath of just tepid water, which causes them to meal, something hot before retiring will work like a emerge almost shivering. After such a bath, one charm in promoting sleep. This should, however, be should hurry to bed, not stopping for a vigorous some easily digested food, such as hot milk or malted rubdown. When the chilly feeling abates, a mild glow milk with biscuits, or hot broth. Especially is it will come over the body, after which, if one will desirable to take something warm if you have been follow the little boy's advice and not think about doing any mental work, as the warmth stimulates anything, he will very likely fall asleep. the lining of the stomach and draws the blood into When one cannot sleep, the same principle as it and away from the brain. the tepid bath may be utilized by throwing back the One should not retire, however, just after eat- bedclothes and remaining uncovered until the body ing a heavy meal, as digestion is not so active when becomes chilly. Then cover up, and sleep is likely one is in a reclining posture. Moreover, the sleep to come when the body becomes warm. Of course, if that follows is more apt to be disturbed by dreams. the night is hot, anyway, this will not work. One who sleeps badly should be very careful Anyone who is subject to insomnia should by all about disarranging the hours of sleep for many suc- means avoid using the mind just before retiring, as cessive nights. Bear in mind that sleep is, after all, mental work draws as excess of blood to the brain one of our most regular and constant habits, and and causes it to become very active; then when sleep when we begin to break our regular hours, we lose is sought, the mind keeps turning over and over the the habit. The habit of sleep is, however, so deeply activities of the day, and works despite our will. ingrained that with effort and persistence we can When one must do mental work at night, a brisk easily acquire it again. walk in the open air before retiring is the best method of clearing the mind of fatigue. When insomnia has forced itself into our lives, Of all the physical causes for insomnia, indiges- one of the most important things is to stop worrying tion is the most prevalent. Of all the varieties which about not sleeping. As soon as we make going to sleep play havoc with sleep, those which produce a conscious effort, it becomes more and more an fermentation are the most distressing; espe- elusive thing. There is nothing that will tend to keep cially is this true if the fermentation has any tendency one awake more than worrying about not going to to cause gas and pain. Of the many expedients that sleep. Staying awake will do no material harm if it may be utilized for the treatment of sleeplessness due does not extend over too long a period. When one is to gas the simplest is a glass of hot water taken at bothered this way, the thoughts should always be bedtime, and this is usually effectual. Its efficiency focused on pleasant things, and comfort may be may sometimes be enhanced by the addition of a taken from the fact that ten hours of rest awake is simple aromatic, such as a few drops of essence of said to equal six hours of sleep. peppermint or aromatic spirits of ammonia. It should Many people read after retiring, for its effect be taken one half hour before going to bed, as move- in purging the mind of "the cares that infest the ments of undressing facilitate expulsion of gas from day." Such reading matter should be selected with the stomach, either by eructation or by sweep- care, and before beginning to read, all preparation ing it into the small intestines, where contact with should be made for surrendering to Morpheus. When the bile, which is antiseptic, prevents further fermen- reading in bed, one must have proper pillows so that tation. the body is comfortably upright, in order that read- Often the awakening at 2 or 3 A.M. is due to ing may not be too hard on the eyes. (Take care eating too much food or too much starch and fat food not to smoke in bed.) When reading to induce sleep, at the evening meal, as the liver is at the height of it is said that hard books are better than easy ones. its work eight hours after a meal. By eating a small The thought behind this is that when reading a hard meal in the evening or by eating less fat and starch book the brain must engage in vigorous action that at the evening meal, this awakening at two or three would tax it under normal conditions, or surrender may be avoided. to sleep. People with weak digestions should have a light The late Dr. Willian Osier, who was not only a evening meal, taking the heavy meal at midday, when great physician, but a philosopher, To page 20 Sleep is largely an attitude of mind and body. HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 13 the Mouth Richard C. Leonard, D.D.S. I N ONE SENSE the title of this article aids in prepetuating an erroneous idea. It implies a sep- aration of the mouth from the rest of the body. is hoped, to emphasize properly the importance that attaches to mouth disorders both as purely local con- ditions and in relation to systemic health. This is quite a common attitude toward the mouth Symptoms of the systemic disease syphilis are —and too often its health is looked upon as being a sometimes found in the mouth. This malady, one condition unto itself with no connection, either in of the venereal diseases, is usually considered as being cause or result, with like health or ill-health of other a blood or sometimes, in its ultimate form, a nervous body parts. system disease. But in its various stages varying symp- Because the mouth is part of the body, diseased toms are manifested in different parts of the body, conditions within the "gateway to the body" will including the lips and soft tissues of the mouth. Of usually be found to have a source in some other part course, but few mouth "sores" are of syphilitic origin. of the body, or they will be found to have definite Only the competent physician or dentist should be effects upon these other parts. Even the common tooth, depended upon as a diagnostician in cases of mouth ache, so seemingly a purely mouth ailment, would ailments suspected of being symptomatic of this dis- not occur were it not for the blood stream. So a better ease. And he, the physician or dentist, will not con- tide for this discussion would be "body diseases mani- firm such a diagnosis on the mere appearance of the fested by mouth ailments." mouth tissue, but may, upon suspicions aroused by This discussion will be limited to the more com- mouth conditions, confirm or disprove his tentative mon diseases of the soft tissues of the mouth (i.e., belief by means of laboratory blood tests, other clini- gums, palates, inside cheeks, and tongue). These in cal evidence, and a history of each individual case. order of their discussion are: syphilis, inflamed gums, The gums of the mouth are plentifully supplied scurvy, pyorrhoea, Vincent's infection, or trench mouth, with blood-vessels. As a result they are, in health, and lip and mouth ulcers. Necessary brevity will not pink and firm. In ill-health, of either local or systemic permit even naming all such diseases; and, in some origin, the gums reflect the disorder by varying de- cases there can be only passing reference to those grees of inflammation, tenderness, and the easy ten- mentioned. But, in fact, mere reference is all that is dency to bleeding. Such cases may be due to inade- necessary, for there is no intention that this article quate care of the gums. In the process of brushing the should serve as a basis of self-diagnosis of one's mouth teeth, they may be insufficiently massaged to main- ailments. Rather, its purpose is merely to outline or tain their "tone," their firmness, and their resistance mention conditions the self-knowledge of which to external pressure. These simple inflammations are should result in competent dental treatment and, it not in themselves serious, but the causes may be 14 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 serious, as, also, may be the results curative treatment in actual cases, make for progressive extension of of neglect of even mild cases. and tooth-paste ads emphasizing the condition are known. Among Among the diseases that in their its prevalence (with little regard these are nutritional disturbances early stages appear akin to com- for facts as to that prevalence), and inadequacies; incorrect meet- mon gum inflammations, is scurvy. pyorrhoea has become "popular- ing of upper with lower teeth, with Scurvy is a "deficiency disease." ized" in the public mind. Cases of resultant too great pressure on cer- Deficiency diseases result from diets comparatively mild inflammation tain teeth; lack of mouth cleanli- that contain an insufficient amount (gingivitis) have been self-diag- ness and faulty restorations (fillings, of some element of nutrition essen- nosed as the disease. Bleeding gums, etc.). Correction of these factors, tial to body development and func- whatever the cause, have been plus surgical treatment of the af- tion. In the case of scurvy the looked upon as undoubtedly symp- fected areas, results in "cures." missing essential is vitamin C. Its tomatic of pyorrhoea. Those curious But such cures are to be had only lack results in gum inflammation individuals who seem determined through skilful treatment by a den- in early stages, and later in actual to suffer from every disease, the tist, just as the disease is to be loosening of the teeth. Other soft discussion of which becomes a avoided only by following his ad- tissues may become involved, show- public pastime, have become dis- vice before the condition actually ing large areas of sloughing mem- gruntled when competent profes- occurs. No tooth-paste or powder brane. While extreme cases, long sional opinion has confuted their or mouth-wash should, of itself, be unattended, may have serious and own assumption that they "have a looked upon as a possible preven- even fatal results, the treatment of bad case of pyorrhoea." Small tive or cure of the disease. all cases with an adequate supply wonder that in self-defence, as well Actually, although the gums are of the necessary vitamin C will as to protect the public, some den- usually involved, the disease centres usually result in a prompt response tists finally fell back on the more on the peridental membrane, a and eventual cure. technically descriptive and less fibrous tissue that by its attach- Vitamin C of adequate amount familiar term "periodontoclasia" ment to tooth root and bone holds is to be had by inclusion in one's (from the Greek peri, around; the tooth fairly solidly in the bony diet of green leafy vegetables, odous, odont, tooth; clasia, break- socket. Pyorrhoea "eats away" this preferably uncooked, citrus fruits, ing up) in place of using the term tissue, beginning at the neck of the and tomatoes. Extreme cases of "pyorrhoea." tooth and eventually going farther scurvy symptomized by mouth ail- But by whatever name it is down along the root. This results ments should, of course, be subject to called and in spite of the fact that in loosening of the teeth and the treatment by a dentist or physician, "four out of five" probably do not formation of pus in "pockets" in who will supplement the diet with suffer from it, the condition is an the gums adjacent to the tooth root. soothing care of the condition in important disease which may result Inflamed, sore gums are a natural the mouth itself. very seriously, and which should result of the deeper-seated condi- Few, if any, diseases, either of be given early and prompt atten- tion. the body or localized in any part, tion. This means that regular, Another disease of the mouth is have had as much propaganda periodic examination of the mouth Vincent's, which was existing long spread regarding them as has pyor- should be a routine practice. before, but was "popularized" rhoea. What with the dental pro- A specific cause of pyorrhoea has during World War I as "trench fession, honestly striving to render not been determined. Factors that To page 29 How dental decay starts and develops. HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 15 The Common Cold What is it? What can you do about it? By T. R. Flaiz, M.D. HE COMMON COLD is so ance is low. So, when you are ad- cus, streptococcus, or pneumococ- T common that many are vised to stay at home and care for unaware of the dangerous your cold, remember it is not you cus. Let us notice next the cause of possibilities resident in this ailment. alone who are concerned; those the cold. Perhaps if we understand It is true that practically no deaths with whom you may be associated the cause we will be better able to occur as an immediate result of in the office, in the factory, in the avoid the onset of the cold the common cold. There are, how- schoolroom, or in the vehicle in in the first place. ever, many deaths that result from which you may be travelling are A cold is an epidemic disease, diseases precipitated by the com- involved too. spread from person to person just mon cold. We cannot, therefore, Because a cold is so frequently as smallpox, measles, or chicken-pox brush this ailment aside as of little accompanied by sore throat, bron- is spread. There are two conditions medical significance. chial inflammation, congestion of necessary for the acquirement of a Altogether too frequently people the lungs, ear infection—and some- cold. consider it a vigorous and cour- times with considerable fever— 1. The general resistance of the ageous gesture to disregard a cold many people are not familiar with body and its specific resistance to or to work through the course of the nature of the cold itself. The colds must drop below a certain a cold as though all were well. But cold is a virus disease characterized point. Because we carry in our the person with a severe cold by varying degrees of generalized system a certain amount of resist- functions with a lower level of aching and body pain, headache, ance against colds, we are able to mental acuity, hence is not as weakness, and, as it advances, by associate with other people who reliable, accurate, or productive the free flowing of a serous fluid have colds and yet not come down as a person in health. In the inter- from the nasopharyngeal mem- with the ailment. ests of safety, air pilots are removed branes. 2. The second condition neces- from duty during the period they Some will say, I always get a sary for the acquiring of a cold is are suffering from a severe cold. sore throat and severe bronchitis exposure to the actual infection, Perhaps we should note, first of with considerable congestion of the the virus of the cold, usually gratu- all, that the person with a cold— bronchial region and the lungs, itously supplied by your seat mate like all the rest of us—does not live when I have a cold. It is true that in the train or bus, by a fellow unto himself. The person who is in many cases of a severe cold, worker in the office, by a student working in close relationship with there are complications such as in the school, or by a passer-by other people should bear in mind these; but these are not the cold on the street who could not get his that his presence, particularly in itself. Specific and separate disease handkerchief to his nose before the initial stages of a cold, and for conditions develop because of the sneezing. a day or two thereafter, is carrying lowered resistance incident to the Many people are sure they a contagion that he may well be cold, and they are caused by a caught cold from getting their feet conveying to others whose resist- specific germ, usually staphylococ- chilled, from sitting in a draught, II HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 A hot foot bath is an excellent way to treat a head cold. Keep the feet in hot water for fifteen or twenty minutes. This will help to draw the congestion away from the head and relieve the irritation in the sinuses. A hot bath will also aid in relieving nasal congestion. from getting chilled on this or that infection to the island again. Those in relieving the uncomfortable occasion. Such exposures cannot whose resistance has dropped in the symptoms of a cold. Several of the cause colds. If the person is in a meantime are likely to fall prey to conservative pharmaceutical con- weakened or rundown condition, this newly introduced virus. The cerns have prepared cold tablets and if his specific resistance to a cold temperatures of that far north that contain ingredients to help cold is lower than it should be, area throughout the winter did not relieve the headache and diminish then severe chilling can further produce colds; it required lowered the secretions and nasal congestion. lower his body resistance, opening resistance and the introduction of Towels wrung from boiling the way for catching cold—but the infection to produce the cold. water and applied steaming hot— only if one is exposed to an active It should be stated frankly that at least as hot as can be tolerated cold by someone in the environ- there is no known specific treat- —to the face, and alternated with ment. ment for the cold. There are, shorter periods of application of A good illustration of the role however, ways that one can ease very cold towels, may bring con- of the cold carrier is seen in the the discomfort produced by the siderable relief from the head experience of the people who live disease and hasten recovery of the discomfort of a cold. on the isle of Spitsbergen, several body's strength to the level that Plenty of rest, particularly with hundred miles north of northern will permit return to work. Bed a good, full night's sleep—even Norway. Within a few weeks after rest perhaps is precaution number with some assistance if necessary— the last ship leaves in the fall, the one in hastening a return of the is a very important factor in last colds on the island have run body to its full strength. If bed hastening recovery from a cold. their course. There may be no more rest is not possible, the more quiet Antibiotics are of no value in colds experienced by the people one can be during the course of the treatment of the simple, un- on the island through the winter. the cold the more rapid the course complicated common cold. Unfor- When the first ship arrives in of recovery is likely to be. Food tunately, many people use antibio- early summer, there usually will be should be light and there should tics, combined with other medica- on board someone with a cold, be a large intake of fluids—partic- tion, for the treatment of colds. and this person may be the means ularly citrus fruit juices. of communicating the cold-virus Some medications are helpful To page 31 HERALD or HEALTH, MAY 1967 17 Relax, for health's sake, says the doctor. For the sake of your looks, relax, says the beauty expert. But for the busy housewife, with one ear open for the baby and the other for the milkman, relaxation seems an impossibility. And yet, if she is to keep her health, her youth, her looks and her serenity, this relaxation habit must be formed. Holiday time is surely the golden opportunity to learn the drill and form the habit, More important than a long trip, a new swimming stroke, or new friends, let this be your holiday achievement. Art Tension is one of the big social problems of our time, and it is mixed up with all sorts of physical disorders, some of them trivial, some of them serious. Most of us suffer from it to some degree, but it can be overcome by learning how to relax physically and to maintain serenity. These two achievements are so inter-dependent that it is difficult to know1 where one ends and the other begins! Test for Tension Test yourself now for tension—now, this minute! As you read this, are you perched upon the edge of your chair, tense and taut, or are you sitting well back upon your seat with the spine supported, and every muscle relaxed? Teach yourself to watch out for tension habits, and when you find yourself sitting By Evelyn Forbes forward in bus or train, clutching your parcels in an agonized manner, sit back, re-arrange your parcels and relax. And when you're writing a letter or doing ac- counts, how often do you find your leg wound tightly round the chair so that you can hardly stand when you get up? Unwind yourself, sit well back in the chair, take a deep breath and go on with the job in a comfortable and relaxed way. Stretching Every morning—yes, every morning—while you are on holiday, I want you to stretch on waking, reaching up with your arms until you feel the pull upon your sides. Now turn over on your right side and with your left hand on your left shoulder raise the bent arm toward your head. Repeat this several times until your rib muscles have been well and truly stretched, then turn on your left side and repeat the stretch with your right arm. Turn on to your back again and stretch your legs, starting at the heel so that your toes turn up as you reach toward the end of the bed. These stretching movements help you to get rid of muscular tensions and aid relaxation. During each day, at some point, stretch, yawn and relax. If you find this difficult at first, do this exercise. 18 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 Standing with the feet apart, chest with the heels touching but- ing them gently and relaxing after rise on tip-toe and stretch up as if tocks. Stretch out your legs and each breath. Go on to the muscles you were reaching for the sun, repeat the exercise. If you have of back and spine and finally those fingers, arms, shoulders, chest, a few extra minutes for relaxing, of neck, face and head. Relax the stomach, legs, and toes as taut as rest in this position with the soles jaw and now the eyes, letting them if they were made of wood. of the feet facing each other, their roll upwards as in sleep. Now begin to relax from the outer edges supported by the wall. finger-tips down, letting hands and On a Cloud arms loosen up and relax, the head droop, the shoulders, chest, stomach Relax in Bed Relax the mind as well as the and leg muscles go limp in turn. Now flop on sand or grass, under body. Conjure up some pleasant At night, stretch and relax in scene, relive a favourite walk. the sun or in the shade, and relax bed. Lie flat on your back, pulling consciously for at least ten minutes. Imagine a night sky full of stars. the pillow down on your shoulders If complete relaxation has been at- Do this every day of the holidays. on either side of your head so If you are an exercise enthusiast tained, you will feel as if you were that the head is supported by it floating on a cloud, completely you may be interested in some instead of being held up by your other relaxation movements. disembodied. neck. If your neck still feels tense, Stand with the feet together, Home again, when you are back lift it from the pillow and let it head and shoulders drooping for- in the familiar routine, keep up drop loosely backwards. Repeat ward, arms well in, hands touch- your stretching session in the morn- this two or three times until the ing, palms both toward you. ing, your relaxing drill at night, neck feels relaxed. Breathe in deeply, raising your and plan for at least a ten-minute head and making an upward, out- With the arms at sides and feet break during the day. ward and downward circle with apart, concentrate upon the limp- Punctuality and tidiness are two the arms, ending with the palms ness of each part of the body in tension-breakers, and the more turned outward at your sides. turn, working upwards and in- carefully you plan your day, the Breathe out as you again bend wards, beginning with the legs less likely you are to get the no- your head and shoulders and cross from the muscles of the feet to the time jitters. My own serenity safe- your arms. Repeat five times. thighs and hips, from the muscles guard on a more than usually Lie on the bed or floor with the of the hands to the muscles of crowded day is to set the alarm legs raised and knees straight, the upper arms and shoulders. half an hour earlier than usual, soles of feet raised against the wall. Now concentrate upon the have a rather long stretching Now bend your knees on to your abdomen, waist and chest, expand- session, and then use the rest of J. & Mom HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 19 the extra time to set down on paper sions and gives a feeling of have said that they mentally sang the day's activities, proving to wonderful well-being. themselves to sleep. myself that everything can be If you have a few moments, rest There are two things that have fitted in—including a relaxation in a comfortable chair, loosen the never failed us—a cup of very hot period. top of your dress and then massage milk, and repeating, mentally, Those of you who work outside the back of your neck with deep while contemplating a scene of the home can also find time for pinching movements working from quiet and tranquillity, such as rest periods. You can teach your- the spine upward right up to the twilight in a beautiful garden, or self to relax in bus or train, sitting hairline. Do this for a few minutes cows grazing in a distant meadow. well back, with your hands lightly and it will help to make you feel Other simple expedients which clasped, eyes closed. relaxed. have been found by many to pro- mote sleep are: Raising the head Every so often during the day, Tour Own Method a little higher than usual; extend- stop by an open window and breathe deeply. When you go to ing the arms above the head; lying Whatever trick of relaxation on the back in an easy position, wash your hands in the cloakroom, yawn and stretch and when you suits you best, find it and stick to with the arms fully extended and come again, relax for half an hour it. It can make a world of dif- close to the body; or placing the ference. But sometimes a state of hands back of the head and bring- before starting upon your evening's work or pleasure. tension may be too severe for self- ing to mind scenes of beauty and help. Here, there is only one thing tranquillity. Another simple ex- Worries Overcome to be done. Call at the surgery pedient is to imitate the slow, and seek your doctor's help and rhythmical breathing of sleep, guidance. while listening carefully and not- Nebulous worries make for ten- For most of us, however, a long ing if the breathing is smooth and sion, but it is no good telling you not to Worry—something practical way ahead of worrying the doc- regular. Attention to this will often must be done about it. Here is tor, there is a great deal that can force out intrusive thoughts that be done in learning how to relax. prevent sleep. my plan to overcome those anxious Now is the time to start—and The late president of a promi- worried feelings. then this holiday will be even nent college advocated this: Take a pencil and paper and more memorable and even more Take a long, deep breath while bring your bothers out into the rewarding. lying on the back, with the eyes open. Whether they are large closed and with the hands resting worries or trivial ones, drag them over the abdomen; let the action out, one by one. CAN'T SLEEP? of the abdomen during inspiration When you have written them all From page 13 lift the hands slightly outward; at down, consider the first one. Is the same time slowly open the eyes there anything you can do about a poet, and a wise teacher in both at the end of inspiration. During it? If there is, write the procedure the care of the body and the health expiration let the hands fall in- down opposite the worry, and re- of the mind, advocated having a ward, and at the same time drop solve to do it. If there is nothing few bedside books—great, rich, the eyes so that they are closed to be done, take your pencil and wise books—and reading words at the end of the expiration. Re- cross it out, preferably with a red of strength and comfort before we peat this ten times; then take ten pencil. This will help to chase it fall asleep. They will then sink into breaths in the same way with the from your consciousness. the mind like seeds that have been eyes open, and ten with eyes closed, There are numerous aids to sown. alternating. When the eyelids be- relaxation and each must find his Various people have found ways gin to feel heavy and the body own. Sir Winston Churchill found of quieting the mind and coaxing tired, go through the exercise more relaxation in bricklaying; Bernard sleep. Everyone has heard of and more easily. Shaw chose wood-chopping. For "counting sheep," a practice that There is nothing that will induce one it is a hot bath, for another was first advocated by the poet sleep so much as exercise in the a walk with a dog, or an hour Wordsworth. But some who have open air. One who has been en- with the children. tried it have said that the bleating gaged in vigorous out-of-door Hair-brushing can be very re- of the sheep kept them awake; so work, or some sort of exercise in laxing, and many Women find they found sleep by counting the open air will rarely, if ever, that face massage, professionally oranges on a beautiful green tree be found complaining of inability given or self applied, relaxes ten- located in a peaceful setting. Others to sleep. 20 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 from the air, never looking clean for long. These conditions can result from hormone imbalance; eating habits that include too many sweets, starches, or alcohol; fatigue, chronic infection, excessive perspi- ration, climatic conditions, emo- tional tension, bacteria, or illness— either singly or in combination. The application of many patented hair preparations turns out to be Dandruff attention to symptoms rather than to the cause of the disturbance. The person who is apparently in good physical and mental health but whose hair is dull and full of dry, flaky dandruff, can do much to help the problem. He should By Paul D. Foster, M.D. pay particular attention to diet and maintain scrupulous cleanliness. Men should always avoid using water to keep the hair in place. Brushing will help to stimulate the oil in the hair. Persistent cases of G. T. Zachnriah dandruff should receive medical at- tention, for loss of hair may occur. each day as all the rest of the N O DOUBT a staggering amount of money is spent each year for treatments and preparations to cure dandruff body. Very oily hair with persistent greasy dandruff is a barometer Normally the hair maintains a that sometimes indicates a more delicate balance among its several difficult condition. This condition and baldness. Lured by fancy parts. If the balance is disturbed is often found among teen-agers labels and spurred by "scare" ad- by attacking germs, by illness, or who have adolescent acne. In vertising, many people run the full by faulty nutrition of the body, their case it is largely attributable gamut of lotions, salves, ointments, it will rapidly show changes. to overactive oil glands triggered balms, "medicated" shampoos, Dandruff—a name commonly by a change in the sex hormone restoratives, hot packs, vibrators, used to designate any kind of scale balance of the body. It occurs more and sundry other procedures sug- that appears on the scalp or in frequently in dark people for they gested by friends, family, drugstore the hair—can occur from a variety usually have larger and more ac- clerks, and hairdressers. of causes, but its appearance al- tively secreting sebaceous glands The hair, like other body parts, ways indicates that some change than people with light complexions. has its own mechanism for has occurred in the balance mech- In adults, particularly in men, this maintaining health. The hair anism of the hair. The dry type condition may be a forerunner to lives solely in the skin, enclosed of dandruff, which falls from the loss of hair, especially if baldness in a small pocket called a follicle. hair onto the shoulders whenever runs in the family. It has its own life cycle, including it is disturbed by combing or brush- In the oily scalp condition it is periods of growth and rest. Each ing, results from a lack of suffi- always advisable to consult a physi- hair is attached to a tiny bulb, cient natural oil. In the presence cian and have the cause corrected, which rests in the inner skin on of dry dandruff the hair is dry for oily areas provide excellent sites the papilla. The papilla furnishes and without lustre. Conversely, for bacterial and fungus growth. nourishment for the hair through when oil glands of the hair are If no serious condition exists, it blood-vessels. In addition, each secreting an excessive amount of will be worth the special skill re- hair is equipped with an oil gland, oil, greasy and dirty scales appear, quired to correct it for cosmetic which is squeezed by a small and the hair becomes coated with reasons alone. If, on the other muscle, causing the oil to flow. the same oily substance, which hand, the problem is more serious, The scalp secretes as much oil catches dust and sooty particles To page 27 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 21 TO MENTION THE UNMENTIONABLE By William T. Gibb, M.D. the caecum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, A N OLD NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN prov- erb says that the only way to cross a lake is to cross the lake—if you have a job to do, do it the descending colon, and the sigmoid flexure. It leads to the rectum and the anus. The colon is lined and get it over. The more you beat around the bush with mucous membrane throughout. The last two the more complicated and difficult it becomes. inches of the anus change from mucous membrane Diseases of the anus and rectum present a painful to a transitional kind of tissue known as squamous and difficult experience. Best get the proper treatment (scaly) epithelium, which merges with the skin. The and have it over with. Your doctor can give you mucous membrane is insensitive, but the squamous help. epithelium is delicate and sensitive to pain. Physicians and surgeons give anal and rectal Generally, diseases of the anus are painful, but diseases serious consideration. In fact, there are spe- those farther up may not cause any pain. cialists known as proctologists who devote their study The anus is the opening only; the anal canal to this area of the body. extends about one and a half inches above, the A factor of importance when considering dis- rectum is about six inches beyond. The cutoff muscle eases of the anus and rectum is the universal concept (sphincter) of the anus is divided into two parts— that faecal discharges are dirty. This idea is deep-seated the internal sphincter, which is a connection of the and almost instinctive. Even doctors are so affected, circular muscle of the colon; and the external and the study and treatment of diseases in this area sphincter, which is part of a separate muscle called have not advanced so rapidly as treatment of diseases the levator ani. These muscles are controlled by both arising elsewhere in the body. the conscious mind and the autonomic (or automatic) Not many years ago the general practitioner nervous system. and internist rarely used the proctoscope or sigmoid- The following is a review of the common diseases oscope in examining a patient. There was no real of this area: reason for the taboo except that the area in question 1. The most common condition is anal itching, was not quite respectable. The examination itself is or pruritus ani—a distressing complaint that may not easy and carries practically no risk to the doctor if respond to any form of treatment. done properly. Now, I am glad to say, practically The more obvious forms associated with pin- every careful doctor uses the instrument. worms, fungus infections, diabetes, acidity of the stools, Patients are reluctant to complain to the doctor and similar local conditions are not difficult to con- when they have these complaints. Often they suffer trol once the cause is determined. in silence until the condition forces them to seek There is another form found most frequently in help. At one time the reluctance of doctors to con- older people for which there seems to be no cause sider seriously minor anal complaints sent many peo- or cure. The itching is intense and the desire to scratch ple to quacks or to poorly trained physicians who almost beyond control, at times so bad that the per- advertised in newspapers and magazines and prom- son actually tears the skin around the anus in his ised relief or cure. efforts to gain relief. The effort of the patient to The intestines are made up of the small bowel control this irresistible urge to scratch in public can and the large bowel, or colon. The colon includes cause him much mental anguLh. 22 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 Contrary to experience in most forms of itch- ing, scratching does not bring relief. The various ointments, lotions, and applications do not help. Cut- HEED THOSE ting the nerves that supply the skin around the anus fails to give relief. In fact, cutting out the skin itself does not help. The mechanism behind this distressing condition is not clear. Apparently it has nothing to do with the skin or the nerves locally. Probably there is a psycho- by Lucile Joy Small, R.N. logical component, and the treatment revolves around the patient as a whole. Time and understanding on the part of both patient and doctor are necessary Toothache before any degree of relief is achieved. These patients go from doctor to doctor, seeking "Oo-oo-o!" relief. Somewhere along the line they usually have Isn't that just the way a toothache feels? Re their haemorrhoids operated on. Many local treat- cently I had a tooth that hurt from my ear to my ments and applications have been devised, with little forehead, and when it was not hurting it felt as or no long-lasting results. My advice is to trust your though it would begin to hurt any minute. Two doctor and do not expect miracles. trips to the dentist, one for diagnosis and one for 2. In the mucous membrane at the lower end the extraction, were necessary. The diagnosis was of the rectum arc eight or nine permanent longitudinal that an abscess had formed alongside the large rilling folds, which are formed by the squeezing together that had been placed in a tooth about eight years of the rectal wall by the muscles of the anus. These ago. Aside from the agony of the toothache, I had folds may be likened to wrinkles made by compress- not felt really ill. But I had not felt well either. ing one end of a paper tube. The lower ends are I did not feel like getting out of bed in the morning, joined by litttle pouches called crypts of Morgagni, nor had I felt like doing anything else for so long The crypts extend into the sensitive squamous epithe- that I had simply decided it must be age creeping lium of the anal canal. up on me. But about two weeks after that tooth These pouches are not deep, but infected matter was extracted, I began to feel like doing things. It can lodge in them and cause inflammation. As a was wonderful to awaken in the morning feeling rule, when this happens the offending material drains refreshed, to begin the day with some zest. out and the inflammation subsides. The symptoms The sad thing about all this is that the loss of are mild and transient, and usually the patient does the tooth was so unnecessary, to say nothing of not consult a doctor. However, occasionally drainage the expense, the inconvenience, the pain, the time is poor and an abscess forms. It may burst into the lost from productive endeavour, that resulted from lumen of the rectum, and the symptoms will subside, trying to keep that tooth useful. leaving only the scar of the abscess. Our home in California is about a three-minute Occasionally the abscess may develop in the walk from the School of Dentistry of Lorna Linda other direction, and burrow down between or out- University. Some interesting things are being learned side the two sphincter muscles and appear beside the in that school. Dr. Ralph Steinman, D.D.S., M.S., anus. It is then called a perianal abscess. This is a who is one of the professors in the School of Den painful condition—a red-hot boil next to the anus, tistry, has done extensive experimentation on the making every bowel movement agony asnd sitting diet given to white rats and in checking their tooth torture. If the person tries to follow his usual routine decay. In summing up his findings' he says that he is in constant pain, yet is hesitant to explain why. "only a little carbohydrate (in the form of sucrose, This abscess either opens and drains spontane- syrup) in excess was added to an otherwise perfect ously or it must be opened by the surgeon, before diet, and it produced dental decay increase." relief is obtained. He continues, "Animals in nature eating nat Inflammation of the crypts can recur in varying ural foods have almost perfect teeth." "Rats and degrees. Each time it appears some scar tissue forms. human beings cannot live and eat just alike, but Inasmuch as scar tissue does not stretch as normal there may be some principles that apply to both." tissue does, eventually the anus becomes relatively When I was a child, our family diet had in it inelastic. If a particularly hard and large stool is a very high proportion of sugar. By the time I was passed, there is tearing instead of stretching. This sixteen years of age, I had fillings in several of my injury produces an acute fissure, To page 33 molars and had already had one of them extracted. HERALD OP HEALTH, MAY 1967 23 After my children were born I vegetables, drinks that are not mally and ideally they will gradu. studied ways to keep them in heavy with sweetening, grains ally place more emphasis on the good health, and one of the things that are served in their wholesome pleasure of personal companion- I learned was that I Was feeding natural state. Why not cultivate ship than on the erotic pleasures my family too much sugar. When the habit of eating these more of young adulthood. With toler- I corrected this imbalance in our nutritious foods at mealtime only, ance and understanding for each family fare, I found rewards. My skipping the snacking on sweets other, they can continue to find dental problems came to a stand and refined starches, and thus be the physical pleasures of their still. The teeth that had fillings able to enjoy good teeth all companionship perfectly satisfying kept them and new cavities through life? I wish I had I even though at a modified tempo. ceased to appear. Also, our colds 1. Life and Health, May, 1964. Mature love can be more tender were much less frequent. Our and even more gratifying than the children did not develop dental MENOPAUSE exhilarations of the honeymoon. problems. From page 9 The important thing is for a hus- Dr. Steinman offers two very In a third group, menstruation band and wife to maintain a per- important suggestions for avoid becomes intermittent before it stops. sonal and intimate understanding ing tooth decay: 1. "It is generally In these women there will be a of each other as life slows down, recognized that excess sugar in the month or more with no menstrua- sometimes irregularly, to a walking diet contributes to dental decay." tion, then a month or more with pace. Part of the reason he gives for quite normal menstruation. There The cessation of menstruation is this is that vitamins and minerals are even cases in which menstrua- not usually a troublesome experi- are necessary in aiding the body tion ceases for as long as a year ence. What annoys many women to utilize sugar. If refined sugar and recurs for one or two months. at the change of life is the appear- is used in quantity, the need for In the usual case it requires a ance of hot flashes. foods that supply vitamins and year or two for a woman to pass A hot flash may last about five minerals may not be felt until the through the transition of the meno- minutes. The woman feels a sensa- harm is done. A diet rich in vita pause. Sometimes it extends three tion of warmth that starts in the mins and minerals is especially or four years. trunk and progresses toward the important during the years when The average age at which the face. She becomes uncomfortably the teeth are forming. Fresh menopause occurs is forty-seven warm, and her skin becomes flushed fruits and vegetables are impor years. There is possibly variation and damp. She feels compelled to tant sources of supply of the re all the way from forty to fifty-five. loosen her clothing and perhaps quirements for good nutrition. 2. Because the menopause repre- move to an open window. "Whole grain products are nutri sents the end of the child-bearing Hot flashes occur unannounced, tionally superior to even enriched period women often ask, "At what perhaps several times a day. They cereal products, such as enriched phase of the menopause does the may be accompanied by mild white bread." In India, where rice possibility of motherhood cease?" dizziness, palpitation, and exhaus- is one of the two most popular The answer is that pregnancy is tion. In severe cases, they interfere staple foods, it is important that possible as long as menstruation with sleep. Hot flashes are normal unpolished rice be used. Why take occurs, even though the cycle of and harmless. out the vitamin B to give as menstruation is irregular or inter- Headache is more common dur- medicine to people who refuse mittent. ing the menopause than at other to eat it in its natural form? A Another common question deals times of life. Pain in the joints, wise and loving Creator has sup with sex interest: Does a woman in the muscles, down the back of plied complete foods for His lose interest in the intimacies the thighs, between the ribs, and children. Why should they destroy of marriage when menstruation the feeling of numb fingers belong the value of their food by so much ceases? Sex interest does not change to the change. Digestive symptoms milling and refining? abruptly. It may have diminished and itching are sometimes present. Since an excess of sugar and gradually for several years before Tremor occurs in some cases, only refined carbohydrates appears to the menopause. It may continue to disappear along with the other be the greatest cause of tooth to diminish after the menopause. symptoms as the menopause is decay, it is important that we But the husband and wife who completed. teach our children to enjoy the have attained a satisfying, whole- A woman who is passing through kind of food that will keep their some adjustment in this relation- the change may have periods of teeth and bodies in health. Teach ship need have no fear of disap- mild depression. Problems she them to enjoy fresh fruits and pointment at the menopause. Nor- could ordinarily take in stride cause 14 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 her to feel frustrated and inade- quate. She tends to worry more than usual. She may be excessively The ancient ones concerned about her health, even though her doctor assures her that sought for light he finds no disease. She may become and truth unduly concerned over the welfare of her family. Some women pass through the menopause easily, and do not have and modern man to contend with troubled thoughts, continues anxiety, and melancholy. Others have a difficult time for many the quest months. Some women are naturally more robust than others, but the individual's background of experi- Are you also searching? ence is often the important factor influencing adjustment. If so, why not investigate the teachings of the Bible The menopause is characterized by exaggeration of the problems and before you go further? tendencies the Woman has carried Write for our FREE BIBLE CORRESPONDENCE COURSE with her through life. It is encour- aging to know that personal prob- Dept. E, Box 35, Poona 1 lems will return to their normal proportions as soon as the meno- Name ....——..—.............—.................................................... pause is complete. A woman Address .............................................................................. usually develops a greater degree of equanimity after the meno- pause than she had before. Some women become too con- cerned over the menopause. They life worth while. Many women make a woman more susceptible are the ones who dread to think enjoy better health after the meno- to cancer. Hormones stimulate the they are no longer young women. pause than they ever had before. reproductive organs to carry on They resent middle age, and the When they finally know they are their functions yet a little longer. menopause especially, because it relieved of the possibility of preg- Hormones cause the menstrual provides a tangible reminder that nancy, the inconvenience of men- periods to be more nearly normal youth is passing. Perhaps they have struation, and the competitive during a time when they would some unfulfilled ambition. Perhaps pressure of early adulthood, they otherwise be scanty and irregular. they were so much preoccupied can spend their time more nearly They may therefore cause the with selfish interests that they neg- as they choose. They can find per- patient to overlook symptoms she lected husband and children. They sonal satisfaction in following the would ordinarily call to the doc- may have the vain hope that the activities they were formerly too tor's attention. Thus it is necessary future will allow them to redeem busy to pursue. for the woman who is receiving the past. For them the menopause Modern medical science enables hormones to co-operate carefully is unwelcome and its symptoms be- the family doctor to use hormone with the doctor in charge. come almost unbearable because therapy in easing menopause symp- In choosing a life career for your they spell out the fact that middle toms. Hormones do not restore self, make it a tough one, then life has arrived. youth, but they do cushion the you won't have so much competi How good is the attitude of the shock of the readjustment the tion. woman who realizes that the meno- menopause requires. When used Education should be used, not pause not only marks the end of properly, they prevent many of the to get rich, but to enrich others. distressing symptoms and trouble- Strong feelings do not neces the child-bearing period but also some thoughts that sometimes sarily make a strong character. the beginning of the period of full The strength of a man is to be maturity when a woman can intrude at this time of life. measured by the power of the devote herself to the cultural and Carefully supervised hormone feelings he subdues, not by the humanitarian activities that make therapy does not cause cancer or power of those that subdue him. HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 25 THE GARDEN 'ROUND YOUR HOUSE By R. L. Rowe ragrant GARDEN CAN combine A an appeal to the eye with a delightful appeal to the sense of smell. There are thousands of fragrant plants, many of which are grown solely for their pleasant odours. Fortunately, many of the most beautiful plants are also fragrant. In bedding plants, the flowers of American marigold, with scentless foliage, are often very sweet. Four-o-clocks (mirabilis), carna- tions, many of the pinks, antir- rhinum, or snapdragons, stocks, petunias, verbenas, candytuft, sweet alyssum, lupines, and sweet peas are all good examples. Most of these succeed best in the cool season. Verbenas, petunias, mari- gold and mirabilis can stand warmer weather. Dwarf sweet peas are available in the U.S.A. These need no supports. The varieties are Bijou, Knee Hi, and Little Sweetheart. Some useful vining, or climb- ing, plants that have a fragrance are Rangoon Creeper (Quisqualis indica), honeysuckle (lonicera Japonica), moonflower (Calonyc- tion), jasmine sambac, augustifo. Hum, Wisteria and stephanotis. Most of these are more fragrant at night. Among the shrubs the gardenias (Hindi Ghundraj], and jasmines such as bud mogra, are very de- lightful. Most popular are the double gardenias Florida or jas- moinides, and the larger-flowered B, Ranganathan 26 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 veitchi. A new variety in the most popular. Mint and sweet basil thick scales, there is usually an U.S.A., Mystery, had medium-sized will grow easily from cuttings, inflammation of the surrounding flowers. The gardenias are very even in water. Several of these plant skin. The disease may be confined popular for corsages and their shin- leaves are used in cooking. Most to the scalp area or it may spread ing foliage is attractive even when of them are fairly low growing to other parts of the body. It there are no blooms. and may be used as border plants. usually begins on the scalp, and Oleander (nerium indicum) is The curry leaf tree has shining may persist there for a long time an animal-proof shrub with either leaves and is a good specimen tree; before spreading. single or double flowers in white, however if the leaves are used People do not necessarily be- salmon, pink, or red. The fragrance heavily it should not be planted in come bald because of dandruff. is quite pleasing. The foliage is dark a prominent position. Dandruff is simply a warning signal green. The plant blooms best when Many people enjoy a moon- that a disease or infection may be left to grow naturally. It thrives light garden with a border of present that could cause permanent in poor and sandy soils, and will fragrant trees such as citrus, an loss of hair. Hair is lost perma- bloom almost continually if left un- arbour or trellis of a fragrant vine nently only when its source of pruned. Queen of the night such as jasmine, and perhaps a nourishment—that is, the papilla— (Cestrum nocturum), is very reflecting pool. has been destroyed. Paradoxically, strong. Because of this it should Many roses are fragrant. Espe- this source of sustenance can also not be planted too close to a bed- cially recommended are Tiffany, be the source of destruction, for room window because its over- which is pink, Crimson Glory, the blood, which carries food to poweringly sweet scent is best ap- Papa Meilland, Etoile de Holland, the hair, also carries poisons and preciated at a distance. In cooler Mirande and Red American infections. climates syringa, or lilac, is much Beauty among the reds, Summer In perfect health the hairs of appreciated. Warmer areas can Sunshine and Arlene Frances in the head fall out at a rate of more grow buddleia, often called sum- the yellows, and Message in white. than one hundred a day, and are mer lilac. It is somewhat similar With a little care you can com- constantly being replaced by new in colour to lilac, in shades of bine colour and symmetry with hairs. Some bodily disturbances lavender, blue, red, orange and fragrance by day and night, and will cause the hair to fall out com- white. China box (Murraya thus add to the enjoyment you pletely for a temporary period, as exotica), with white flowers, is an receive from your garden. in scarlet fever and certain al- attractive shrub often used for lergies. Because the papilla and hedging. Yesterday-Today-and- DANDRUFF hair follicles themselves have not Tomorrow (Brunsjelsia Ameri- been destroyed, the hair will grow From page 21 cana), is another fragrant shrub back completely when the body enjoyed by many. an early visit to the doctor can help has recovered. When a permanent Among flowering fragrant trees, to ward off a great deal of trouble, loss occurs, with destruction of the the most well-known is white embarrassment, and expense. papilla, no treatment can ever frangipani, or plumieria. Others Permanent baldness can be one cause the hair to regrow. include magnolias, champa, acacia of the results of oily scalp. There Protection from baldness lies in farnesiana, and the citrus family. are several types of germs found not allowing the infection or dis- Orange, pumelo, Kumquat, in this disease, which physicians ease to destroy the papilla, and in tangelo, malta, mandarin, tange- call seborrhceic dermatitis, but so seeking medical advice and treat- rine and grape-fruit, all have at- far there has been no universal ment before the hair begins to thin. tractive perfumes especially notice- agreement on just which of the If the treatment is obtained early, able in the cool night air. organisms is responsible for the in most cases, falling hair can be Many people enjoy the fragrant damage. In addition to oiliness and stopped. leaves of plants. For this purpose lemon grass (Andropogon citratus) Parents, be alert for these signs of illness in your child: is used. Chines lavender, crosso- Flushed face, watery or glassy appearance of eyes, stepphium artemisoides, scented unexpected profuse sweating, pallor, blueness of lips or geranium, marjoram, mint finger-nails, rash or bumps or other skin manifestations, (mentha viridis), or peppermint swollen glands of neck and throat, sore throat, body tem perature above 99° F., severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and (mentha peperita), sage (salvia diarrhoea. officinalis), curry leaftree (mur- If any of these symptoms are evident in your child, ray koenegi), and sweet basil consult your doctor. (ocimum basilican), are among the HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 27 Tommy and began walking slowly toward home. Just as he came to a bend in the path, he stopped in surprise. Right in front of him was C-- Tommy's lost ball! A PAGE "How did that ball ever roll this far!" he exclaimed and looked LITTLE PEOPtf1 at it. He didn't want to walk all the way back to Tommy's house. Besides Tommy was starting his nap. "I'll take the ball home with me," Andy decided. "I'll give it to Tommy tomorrow." When Andy reached home, he took his nap without mother hav- THE LOST BALL ing to tell him. And when he awoke, mother had a nice surprise for him. "I have to go to town for sewing by Rosemary Brown thread," she said. "Would you like to go too?" "Oh, yes!" Andy exclaimed A NDY HURRIED ALONG the path that led to his friend Tommy's house. "Mummy missed. The ball rolled across the pasture and disappeared under the fence. gleefully. Andy had a wonderful trip. He waved to all the neighbours along said I could play ball a whole hour Andy crawled under the fence the way to town. Mother bought with you," he told Tommy. and looked for the ball. "Tommy, him a new comb in the variety "Whoopee!" shouted Tommy. I can't find it," he called. store where she bought her thread. "I'm glad you can play an hour Then just as he and mother were Tommy ran across the pasture with me. Let's go to the calf pas- leaving the store, they met their and crawled under the fence too. ture. We'll have more room to friend, Mrs. Ross. "We'll find it—it's got to be here throw the ball there." somewhere." Andy couldn't help noticing the The calf pasture was a short But the boys couldn't find the big blue-and-white striped bag distance from Tommy's backyard. ball. They looked under bushes. Mrs. Ross was carrying. "What do It didn't take the boys long to They looked behind rocks. They you have in the bag, Mrs. Ross?" reach it and crawl under the wire even went down to the creek. The he asked. fence. Tommy ran to the middle water was clear and sparkling. The of the pasture. boys saw the pebbles on the bottom "New draperies for the living- "Catch!" he shouted and threw of the creek bed, but they didn't room windows," Mrs. Ross an- the ball at Andy as hard as he see the ball. swered. "You must come and see could. them." Soon, they heard Tommy's Andy tried hard to catch the mother calling for Tommy to come "Thank you, I will," Andy an- ball. And he did! Then he threw and take his nap. swered. it back to Tommy. "Never mind looking anymore Andy and mother and Mrs. The boys tried to throw the ball for the ball," Tommy told Andy. Ross talked for quite a while. After farther and farther. Sometimes "I still have my old one." stopping at the grocery, mother they caught it, and sometimes they Andy nodded. Suddenly, he said it was time to start home. didn't. didn't want to look for the ball Mother drove slowly. In fact, After they had played awhile, anymore anyway. He was tired. she was driving so slowly that Andy Tommy threw the ball all the way He wanted to go home and take saw the blue-and-white striped across the pasture. Andy ran after a nap too. bag lying in the road long before it and tried to catch it, but he Andy waved good.byc to they reached it. 28 Or HSALTH, MAY 1987 "Look at the bag, Mummy," taken it back to Tommy," she natural vitamins and minerals are said Andy. "It looks like the one agreed. Then she smiled. "But not lost in the cooking. Such a Mrs. Ross had." don't worry about it. As soon as meal should look tasty and ap- "It certainly does." Mother we're home, I'll go with you, and petizing. It should be a meal that stopped the car. She got out and we'll return Tommy's ball." father will love to eat. Such foods picked up the bag. "It is Mrs. Ross's "Oh, thank you, Mummy!" will keep his blood cholesterol bag! It has her draperies inside. Andy exclaimed happily. Now he down to a safe level. She must have dropped it out of could enjoy the rest of the ride, At the same time father must her car. We'll have to take it to for he knew there was one thing learn to live his life without un- her." that he had learned to do. And due stress and strain, and mother "Right now?" Andy asked as that was always to return found must stop nagging him and urg- mother got back into the car. Mrs. things promptly. ing him on to do things that are Ross lived quite a long way from really not necessary after all. Then Andy's house, and it was nearly again father must learn to take sundown now. It would be late KEEPING FATHER HEALTHY less risks. By careful planning and by the time they got home. better living he can avoid all those But mother nodded her head. From page 8 ' unnecessary accidents and illnesses "Yes, I think we should. She will to which he can become a prey. be worried about having lost it. that may be deficient in the very If he will do this, then mother and I know that if I lost something things they need to keep them in all the rest of the family will be and someone found it, I would ap- health. And what is worse, many far happier, for then they will have preciate their returning it right of them eat foods that are rich in dear old dad around to enjoy his away." fats. This kind of diet often leads companionship through all the Andy sat quietly, thinking about to the development of hardening years of a long and happy life. what mother had said. He was of the arteries and other diseases remembering Tommy's ball. Tom- that will often shorten a man's life. my would be worrying about it Recent experimental work on ani- DISEASES OF MOUTH just as Mrs. Ross was about her mals reveals the fact that if an draperies. animal is given a low calorie diet From page 15 "I should have returned that contains all the vitamins, minerals, and proteins that are mouth" because of its prevalence Tommy's ball," Andy said sud- among the trench-embattled sol- denly out loud. necessary, that animal will live longer than one that is given a diers at the War front. Specifically "What did you say, dear?" due to certain germs in the mouth richer diet containing a lot of mother asked. (the Vincent's spirochaete and the animal fats. For the same reason Quickly, Andy told her all about a man may expect to live longer Fusiform bacillus), its active pres- finding Tommy's lost ball and how by choosing a diet that is low in ence there may usually be ascribed he wished now that he had re- fats. The kind of diet that will keep to one or both of two contributing turned it instead of bringing it a man healthy all his life must in- factors, namely, lowered systemic home. clude plenty of fresh fruits and resistance and faulty mouth hy- Mother nodded when he had green vegetables. It should be pre- giene. finished. "Yes, you should have pared with great care so that the Most, if not all, people have the germs of this disease in their mouths. Ordinary resistance of the body prevents their increasing to a point of successful invasion of and BLATTABANE • (REGD.) breaking down of soft tissues. In unclean mouths, or in time of lowered resistance, this increase in numbers of germs does follow, and KILLS the active disease is established. ^COCKROACHES The symptoms of Vincent's in- Safely fection are: sore, inflammed, swol- famous for nearly 40 'yean ( Frugtneit's Proces* ) len, and bleeding gums; a pecu- Sole Atems: MARTIN & HARRIS (P.) LTD. liarly disagreeable odour; and throughout India plainly diseased areas on the gums, HERALD or HEAUH, MAY 29 cheeks, and tongue. Once past the heralded by a pinhead-size ulcer on has a habit of giving us these sig- mild stage, the disease is very the cheek, tongue, or gum. The nals, and health depends many painful. It is contagious, and may ulcer may be considered a red flag times upon our recognizing, and be contracted by kissing, by the signal warning of danger. Nature acting upon, the warning given us. use of common drinking cups, or by incomplete sterilization of dishes. Prevention of the condition de- pends in a large part upon main- tenance of body resistance and TREATMENT FOR BURNS proper mouth hygiene. Treatment By Archie M. Smith of this disease should be looked upon as a professional problem. It consists of two simultaneous courses I WAS eating in a restaurant when a piece of chicken slipped of treatment. The first is dental off a serving spoon and fell toward my blue suit. When I impulsively office attention which includes, first caught it, the gravy, hot off the stove, seared the palm of my hand. palliative treatment; second, I left the table clutching my wrist with my other hand, desperate for skilled cleaning of the teeth, partic- something to kill the pain. ularly between the teeth and under the gum margins; third, applica- A pharmacist next door looked at me sympathetically. "Why tion of medicaments known to don't you use the treatment I learned from a foreign doctor?" he combat the germs. This last step offered. is particularly a dentist's task, In no mood for exotic remedies, I squinted and tried to hide my since areas not easily reached must impatience. He produced a can of bicarbonate of soda. be medicated if the lurking germs are to be successfully combated. Soon after, the soda in my pocket, I was at home, still in pain, Along with this dental care there still sceptical. "He's crazy!" I mumbled, putting butter on the burn must be proper home care, which instead of soda. should be under the instructions of When I couldn't stand any more, I wiped the butter off and a dentist. This consists of the use followed the pharmacist's instructions. of prescribed mouth-washes, the careful cleansing of the teeth, I dumped half the soda into a glass bowl, added enough water and such measures as may be to make a thin paste, and spread it over the burn. The pain subsided seen necessary to build up resist- at once. Soon the soda dried, and the pain was back. Again and again ance. Any one having the disease I added wet soda to offset the pain. My arm lay on the kitchen table should realize the possibility of in- fecting others, and should carefully twenty-five, thirty, thirty-five minutes. The pharmacist had said, "Don't avoid contacts, direct or indirect, expect it to work right away. Just keep adding more wet soda." which are likely to spread the dis- Even if I hadn't been convinced, it would have hurt too much ease. to quit. Forty minutes after I began treatment, the soda dried for the Among the annoyances often fiftieth time and—no pain. Cautiously I washed my hand with cold affecting the lips or mouth are water. Pain knifed quicked into a tiny spot between my fingers. But "fever blisters" and "mouth" ulcers. In themselves, limited to the my palm showed only a healthy pink. Between my fingers, where area of the lips and mouth, these butter must have kept the wet soda away from my skin, an ugly blister conditions are more annoying than swelled. they are serious. But the fact that "My whole hand would be blistered," I exclaimed, "if it weren't they are merely symptomatic of for that wet-soda treatment." some systemic upset, adds to their importance. Even though one may I went looking for my friend the pharmacist early the next morn ignore them as uncomfortable but ing. He whistled when he saw my hand and the small blister. "This inconsequential, the deeper-seated is for posterity," he said. "You've got to spread the good news." cause should be investigated and Someday you may appreciate this way to hold burn injuries curative treatment administered. A digestive disturbance of possible down and—not only that—stop pain in a few seconds. If you're a important consequences may be parent, cut out this article and paste it inside your medicine cabinet. 30 HBRALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 THE COMMON COLD beautiful, care for them sensibly. are relatively harmless, but some Keep your nails trimmed. Long may sensitize your skin and injure From page 17 nails are easily broken. In typing your nails. Dermatologists fre- If the cold is complicated with and piano playing shock may be quently find eczema of the face secondary infection, these antibio- transmitted to the root, where it and hands caused by nail polish. tics may have their place, but other- may interfere with normal growth. Brittle nails may exist from birth, wise they are useless. Dirt accumulates beneath long but the most common causes are Concerning the role of antibiotics nails and it may contaminate the alkaline soaps and certain nail in connection with the cold, a food you prepare. Nurses do not polishes and polish removers con- panel of highly authoritative physi- allow their nails to grow long. taining acetone. Acetone removes cians stated, "There is no accept- When manicuring your nails, do the oils and wax. But brittle nails able evidence that any antimi- not cut the cuticle at the base, but are also found in the strange skin crobial (antibiotic) agent is of any gently push it back. Too vigorous malady called Darier's disease and value in the treatment of the com- manicuring can injure the matrix in vitamin A deficiency. mon cold or any other respiratory and cause white spots, ridges, or Hard, firm nails protect the viral infection." even infection. Remove hang-nails finger ends from injury through In summary, we might say that with sterile scissors. A splinter un- shocks or blows. But they must treatment of the simple, uncom- der your nail should be removed not be too brittle. Ordinarily the plicated common cold requires aseptically by your physician. skin oils keep them flexible to the preferably bed rest, plenty of sound Most nail lacquers and polishes proper degree. sleep, light food, abundance of The best treatment for brittle fluids, keeping comfortably warm, nails is to avoid strong soaps and and in case of considerable dis- acetone. Apply cold cream, lanolin, comfort or excessive serous drainage or other fat, or vaseline. A little The Publishers of this Magazine applied to the backs of your hands (runny nose), hot packs to the Insure Their Motor Cars and face alternated with very cold, and and spread by rubbing them to- Property with gether protects the palms from possibly a medication to assist in getting greasy. Soaking the nails control of headache and congestion. NATIONAL in warm oil is also recommended. Diseased nails are best treated by your doctor. Indeed, if you FINGER-NAIL FACTS From page 4 EMPLOYERS' want to beautify your hands, you will regularly consult your skin Sometimes the nails may have white spots or perhaps the whole MUTUAL specialist. Beautiful hands and nails are a sign of good health, main- nail may become white like milk. tained by hygienic living. This happens because the layers of GENERAL INSURANCE the nail are not properly cemented. ASSOCIATION LIMITED Yesterday I passed a building under- The condition occurs in various (INCORPORATED IN ENGLAND) going repairs. On one side workmen nervous, systemic, and circulatory were removing large quantities of bricks disorders. Head Office for India: which had crumbled away. Why, I mused, had some bricks disintegrated Loosened nails and complete 32, Nicol Road, and not others? shedding of the nails may be symp- "Fifty years ago, when the building Ballard Estate, Bombay 1. was erected," said the foreman, "there toms of systemic disease when not Telephone 26-2823/24 came a day when the labourers at the caused by injury or inflammation. brickyard had trouble with one another. Telegrams: "EMPLOMUTUA." And now, long years after the failure The root of the nail may become of those men to work together for a inflamed. When the infection runs single day. a moral has been written Also branches at New Delhi, in crumbling brick." around the base, as it generally does, Calcutta and Madras, and rep How like the untold story of human the trouble is popularly called run- life that is! For life is not built as resentatives and agents at all a solid mass; it is built of individual around. A chronic form of run- days cemented by motives, hates, and other important towns in India. loves. How important it is that we live around is frequently seen in dish- They transact all kinds of fire, nobly, creatively, cheerfully, forgivingly washers and others whose hands each day, lest the time come when we are immersed in water for long motor and miscellaneous discover that the house of our habita- periods. It is caused by a form of insurances. tion has begun to crumble because we imagined, "O, this day doesn't count." fungus. Evermore write in the heart: "Today is the best day of the year!" To keep your hands and nails —Selected HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 31 The Doctor Advises A SERVICE FOR OUR SUBSCRIBERS READERS REQUIRING PERSONAL ANSWERS MUST SEND STAMPED, SELF-ADDRESSED ENVELOPES WITH THEIR QUESTIONS. POOR SCHOOLWORK wonder about the possibility of malaria or some parasite in the bowels, such as hookworm or perhaps Can anything be done to help a child who is a tapeworm. It would therefore be wise for you to not doing well in school? have a blood smear made for malaria and several stool examinations to rule out the presence of para- Yes. A good medical examination should be sites. If all these tests prove to be negative, the blood the first consideration. Many a child who is not doing count itself might show the presence of some form well has been found to need glasses. Others may be of anaemia or other blood disorder. All of which suffering from some serious condition that should means that before worrying about your proteins be corrected. For instance, recent studies on twenty- and vitamins, important as they are, it is essential two such patients at Johns Hopkins University that you have a complete physical examination and (U.S.A.) showed all of them to be suffering from all the necessary tests to find the cause of your con- various stages of thyroid disease. Two were forced dition. Only then can intelligent treatment be carried to repeat a grade, six had difficulty in concentrating out long enough to get you well. in class, four were considered unstable students, and nine were abnormally nervous when in school. Some of these youngsters had too much thyroid activity; LIVER CANCER others had too little, resulting in a slowing of mental functioning. All of these children apparently did Is there any proof that cancer is a virus disease? well after they were given the right treatment. Seventeen of these patients were girls; five were Yes, in some cases there seems to be no doubt. boys. This is about the same ratio of thyroid dis- Recent experiments at Duke University (U.S.A.) ease that occurs in the population as a whole. Al- would certainly point in that direction. Experimental though your child may not have any actual thyroid chickens were inoculated with a certain virus from deficiency, he should be carefully checked for other which they apparently developed liver cancer. This abnormalities. Every youngster deserves a fair is perhaps the first time virus transmission of cancer chance in life. He should not be left to fail through has been reasonably established. Whether there is neglect of proper medical care. any direct relationship between these experiments in chickens and the development of other forms of NO ENERGY cancer in humans is still to be proved. Some sci- entists believe the cancer virus enters certain cells, I am a thirteen-year old girl and very skinny. producing an unfavourable reaction, after which I eat very little and have no energy, and I suffer the body is able to eliminate the virus from the from cramping feeling in my head and neck. Do human system. But once the cancer process has you think I need vitamins and proteins? begun, it continues, invading other near-by tis- sues. If it is not eliminated, either by the body itself Yes, possibly you do. But it is far more impor- or by some surgical or other means, the cancer may tant for you to find the cause of your trouble. This continue to grow, finally leading to death of the could be due to diabetes or some other serious patient. However, much more research needs to be metabolic condition. You should have a urinalysis, done before we can assume that it actually happens. a fasting blood sugar test, and another blood sugar Meanwhile it is important for all of us to have test taken one and a half hours after a regular meal. regular medical examinations to rule out the pres- Living as you do in the tropics, one would also ence of cancer and all other serious diseases. 32 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 THE UNMENTIONABLE when relieved of their discomfort. They seldom bleed to any ex- 3. Because of its proximity to tent, but they may ooze blood a From page 23 the anal area the pilonidal sinus, little when one of them becomes which later may become chronic. or cyst, should be mentioned, al- clotted. When such a clot or Such injuries should be reported though it has no actual connection thrombosis happens, a firm, tender to the doctor. with the anus or rectum. In many lump appears. Sitting and defeca- A fissure is similar to a cracked people there is a little dimple in tion are painful. If ignored, this lip. However, if you have a cracked the skin about an inch or so behind clot begins to subside, and in a day lip you can control lip movement; the anus that is the result of a or so the pain leaves and the lump whereas with a fissure the longer slight error in foetal development. becomes smaller, until it finally you try to hold back the stool the In reality this is a tiny tube, or disappears. larger and harder it becomes. passage, going down to the bone. Sitz baths relieve pain and im- When it finally does move it really Under certain conditions a cyst prove circulation. Ointments and hurts. may form and perhaps become in- suppositories do little because the Fissures are not always the result fected, so that an abscess results. pain is not on the surface. They of chronic cryptitis. Any scratching Even though infected cysts are grease the anal canal, and this or stretching of the anus may pro- opened and drained, they tend to lubrication helps. If the thrombosed duce a split or a tear. If it does recur unless the entire passage is haemorrhoid is large and painful, not become infected it heals rapidly removed. The end of this passage complete relief can be obtained by and the patient has only transient involves the covering of the under- having the clot removed with a minor pain. If it becomes infected, lying bone, and necessitates an ex- simple operation that can be done an ulcer forms, which is always tensive operation if permanent in a doctor's office. in the sensitive part of the anal cure is to be achieved. Convales- The best alternative is to keep canal. Under proper treatment, cence is long because healing is off your feet as much as possible, this ulcer may heal quickly, or it slow. take some mineral oil preparation may become a chronic ulcer that 4. Haemorrhoids may be likened to keep the bowels loose or soft, may be deep and stubborn to any to varicose veins. They lie under apply cold compresses, and take hot therapy short of surgery. About five the lining of the anal canal. The sitz baths. per cent of such fissures are in- normal fairly straight veins in this Internal haemorrhoids present a fected by the tubercle bacillus. area become dilated and twisted different problem. Bleeding may be A fistula in ano is a passage from until at times they look like a small quite profuse if one of them rup- the region of the crypts to the bunch of purple grapes. The flow tures. Because they are covered with skin around the anus. It may form of blood through them is sluggish. mucous membrane they do not slowly and insidiously without an There are internal and external hurt quite so much as external abscess. This passage may be com- haemorrhoids. haemorrhoids do when thrombosed. plete or incomplete, beginning, at Internal ones are in the lower However, when thrombosed they the crypt area and ending in a inch of the rectum, are covered may become strangulated if there blind passage. If a complete pas- with mucous membrane, and drain is spasm of the anal sphincter. sage is formed, it may be chroni- their blood into the portal circula- Some physicians treat them by in- cally infected and drain continu- tion, which goes to the liver. jection. This painless procedure ously, also occasionally it may block External haemorrhoids are can be done in the doctor's office, off and form an abscess, which covered with skin at the anal orifice but it is time consuming, and the must be cut and drained. (opening) and drain into the large thrombosis tends to recur. The Surgery may be difficult, for to veins that go to the heart. There other method is complete removal be successful the entire passage is a certain amount of communi- under anaesthesia. must be removed. At times the cation between them so that a per- Why one person should have passage is hard to identify, for it son may have a combination of the haemorrhoids and another not have may wander. Chronic fissures and two kinds. External haemorrhoids them is a much-debated problem. fistulas can be uncomfortable and when quiescent are evident as one Heredity, body build, and occupa- cause a person great emotional or more tabs of skin around the tion apparently play a part. Jobs strain, but because of modesty he anus. When fairly numerous, they requiring standing without moving puts off seeking relief until he can may give it the look of a rosette. over a long period promote stagna- stand it no longer. Many people with In this state they produce no symp- tion and pressure in these veins. bad dispositions who seem to hate toms. Many people attribute anal Constipation and straining are the world are such sufferers, and itching to them, but they are not often blamed. Some physicians are transformed into happy beings the cause. think that chronic anal infection HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 33 is the culprit. Repeated bouts of the impression that there is no such in system of illumination. A pre- cryptitis tend to weaken and dis- problem. examination enema must be given tort these veins so that constipation Fortunately, such an impaction to the patient to free the rectum and stasis (stoppage of blood flow) is easy to diagnose with the gloved of faecal material. This can be done can take their toll. finger, and it may be broken up in before the patient comes to the During pregnancy women are the same manner. After this break- office or immediately before the likely to develop haemorrhoids be- up has been accomplished, an examination. The examination is cause of pressure by the enlarging enema usually takes care of the uncomfortable, but it should not uterus on the large veins in the situation. Occasionally it is neces- be painful, and it is not considered pelvis. This condition promotes sary to instil some warm oil and dangerous. stasis, particularly in the external leave it there for a number of hours The main drawback to all these haemorrhoid area. After delivery in order to soften the mass. examinations is modesty of the pa- the haemorrhoids improve, but with An impaction can result from tient and of the doctor. The doctor repeated pregnancies they may drinking the barium mixture used is afraid he will embarrass the become chronic. in X-rays of the stomach. It is well patient. The doctor who feels this Cirrhosis of the liver causes to take a laxative after such a study. way about the anus may do a increase in pressure in the portal Too much bran can do the same pelvic examination and think circulation because of back pres- thing. Bran usually is mixed with nothing of it. It is a matter of what sure. Internal haemorrhoids may cereals, and a person does not get a person is accustomed to. In this develop, because these veins drain enough to do much harm. People day and age the patient expects all into the portal circulation. Heart used to eat one hundred per cent kinds of inroads on his modesty, failure, which causes back pressure bran to treat constipation. A tight and rarely objects. The doctor is in the systemic veins, transmits the anal sphincter set up by irritation the one who needs illumination. pressure to the veins in the external of the anal canal may cause an There is no area of the body haemorrhoidal area, with a like impaction when the person finds that is easier to examine properly result. passing a stool too painful and than the anus and rectum. Where In this discussion we are dealing therefore suppresses the desire. can the routine use of such simple with a unique part of the human Megacolon (large dilated colon) instruments be more rewarding in body. The anal canal is lined with often is the result of narrowing, bringing to light forms of disease a delicate membrane that day in or stricture, of the anus. It may be at an early stage when they can and day out is subject to irritation, the cause of chronic constipation, be treated and cured? The sig- injury, and infection by the faecal particularly in elderly people. An- moidoscope should be used in every material that passes through it. other kind is more complicated and thorough health examination even When you consider the variations is due to a defect in the nerve though there are no symptoms in the physical make-up of the plexus (network) of a segment of pointing to this area. Benign rectal stools you wonder that there are the rectal wall. This condition oc- polyps that give no indication of not more problems. The mechan- curs in younger people. It can be their presence are easily seen and ism is almost perfect. No other part cured by surgery to remove this readily removed. If left indefinitely, of the body takes such a beating. part of the rectum. these little growths can become Occasionally, under certain cir- Cancer of the anus and rectum malignant. cumstances faecal material can is a distinct danger. The diagnosis I repeat that I have mentioned become impacted in the rectum. of such a condition is simple, and it only the more common ailments to A hard mass accumulates and can be done in any doctor's office. which the anus and rectum are becomes too large to pass through The instruments of diagnosis are subject. There are many more. the anus. This condition perhaps relatively inexpensive, and most If you see blood from this area, happens most often with elderly doctors have them. Most impor- see your doctor—this is important bedridden people. They have little tant is the forefinger of the right advice. In most cases its source desire to defecate, and do not try. hand covered with a rubber glove. will be found to be harmless, but A small amount is passed, but the Much information can be obtained if not, the lesion will probably be major portion remains behind. This by this simple procedure. in an early stage, and prompt difficulty often escapes the atten- One instrument is the anuscope, treatment can effect a cure. Do tion of family or nurses. Because which is a short tube that can be not wait to see whether you can of the structure of the rectal area, inserted through the sphincter to bleed again. This is one instance even though a large mass is pres- view the haemorrhoidal area. An- in which procrastination may not be ent, soft or liquid faecal material other instrument is the sigmoido- the thief of time but might well can pass around it, thereby giving scope, a longer tube with a built- be the thief of life. 34 HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 LEG "STRETCHER" ODA EVALUATION OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES Persons with one leg shorter than the other The Council of Drugs of the American Medical have had their short leg "stretched" as much as Association has issued a report on adverse reactions three inches by means of a new method used at caused by oral contraceptives, which are used by the Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, U.S.A. some seven million women in the world, it is esti- Lengthening the shorter leg is done by breaking mated. Most of the effects are not of a serious either the thigh or shinbone without damaging the nature, although they may be annoying to the pa- sac, called the bone sleeve, that surrounds it. The tient, the report pointed out. bone sleeve's function is to supply blood to the bone Headache is one of the reported reactions. and also to deposit calcium to heal broken bone. Nervousness, irritability, lethargy, and depression After the bone is broken, a special stretching device have also been attributed to the contraceptives. is used to pull the ends apart. The space between Central nervous system and eye complications them is then gradually filled by calcium deposited have been attributed to them although evidence is by the bone sleeve. not strong enough to establish a relationship. S of S (Africa) Abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed, but such changes usually are not clinically HEADACHE, HEADACHE, HEADACHE significant. Nausea has been a frequent complaint during Different types of treatment for three kinds of the first cycles of therapy, but usually diminshed headache were outlined in a report from the Ameri- as therapy continued. can Association for the Study of Headache. Decreased glucose tolerance has been reported The migraine or "vascular" headache usually in women using certain types and worsening of dia- results from swollen blood-vessels which may be betic conditions also has been reported. caused by fever, alcohol or some kinds of drugs or Excessive weight gains have been observed in may "run in the family." Use of ergot in some form some women, mostly in association with older con- was recommended in treatment to reduce swelling of traceptive preparations that contain large doses of the blood-vessels. estrogen. The lower dose preparations are less likely The commonest form of headache comes from to produce significant weight changes. muscular spasm around the head or neck. The spasm produces a dull, persistent pain—like a tight band There is no proof that oral contraceptives cause around the head—which may last for days. Best circulatory complications; however, physicians procedure, the report said, is to find the muscle or should use care in prescribing them for women with muscles involved and massage them or inject them vascular disease until more information is available. with an anaesthetic or corticosteroid. Aspirin can "The effects of long-term administration of help, perhaps taken along with a sedative. oral contraceptives on various organs and systems A third form of headache may result from a are largely unknown and are the subject of con- deep-seated infection or injury. A thorough exami- tinuing investigations," the report said. "No serious nation is required to discover the roots of such a adverse effects attributable solely to the prolonged headache. Treatment may range from surgery to use of these preparations have thus far been re- anticonvulsant drugs. ported." USN & WR AMA HERALD OF HEALTH, MAY 1967 35 BICYCLING FOR HEALTH There are many health reasons why cycling is 2. A bicycle requires no petrol. to be highly recommended if it can be done safely. 3. It can traverse all types of roads. If a road It helps build good muscle tone, much needed by is blocked, the rider can walk and remount at the many today. It aids: first clearing. 1. The circulation, and thereby the heart and its 4. Almost everyone, aged four to ninety, can ride work, by keeping the blood actively moving in the legs a bike or can be taught to ride in a few hours. (muscular contraction squeezes the veins, which with 5. When accidents between bicycles occur, there their valves direct the blood back toward the heart). is much less danger of serious injury to passenger or 2. The lungs, which through good tone of the machine than in the case of the automobile. diaphragm make it easier to bring oxygen into the Bicycling can be useful as well as enjoyable. It body and pump out carbon dioxide. can become and should become a routine of daily 3. The brain, by keeping down the cobwebs life, to take us to work, to visit our friends, to go to therein. concerts or sports events. Thus we can be more than 4. The nerves, through improving sleep and passive participants in all these entertainments. maintaining equanimity and sanity. In travel it is the common experience that we get 5. Our digestion, whereby it may even protect to places fastest by airplane but we see the least en against peptic ulcers if we don't try to establish new route. The train, bus, and automobile come next, speed records every day. and we are so engrossed by our method of transporta- 6. Our weight, in its control, if we at the same tion that we can hardly enjoy the country through time keep the caloric and fat content of our diet which we pass. Walking is the best way of all, but where it belongs. often it is impractical if one wants to go any distance. 7. Our longevity, since it may quite possibly Of all methods of transportation, bicycling gives help in the long run (like other healthy exercise) in us the opportunity to see the country through which reducing the amount of high blood pressure, coronary we ride, to become acquainted with the beauties of thrombosis, and diabetes that have engulfed us. This, the scenery, and to learn about the people themselves. of course, we must determine by further detailed This is perhaps one of the most potent of all argu- research, but there is a strong likelihood that it is true. ments in favour of bicycle touring on vacation. This Certainly from the standpoint of economy both kind of vacation is much appreciated abroad. for private individuals and for the community and Let us bequeath to our children, who will be the country at large, the use of cycles can be recom- citizens here tomorrow, more than the gadgets that mended. To substantiate this these arguments can surround us. The bicycle will not alone do this, but readily be advanced: it can become a symbol of the red-blooded vigour, 1. The initial cost of the bicycle is much less than personal independence, economy, and restoration of that of an automobile. A bicycle requires little atten- a sound mind in a sound body so much needed in tion, is able to stand hard use, and can be repaired our beloved country today. easily. ^ —Adapted from Paul Dudley White, M.D. Reg. No. MH—40.