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MEDIA MANAGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA MANAGEMENT A. What is media management? B. Two Approaches: Hardware versus Software C. Planning and Implementation 2. MEDIA MANAGEMENT PLAN A. Duties of PR Organization B. Spokes person C. Information to be relayed to Press and Electronic Media 3. SOCIAL MEDIA MANAGEMENT A. Introduction to Social Media Management B. The good news about social media managements C. Social Media Activity Metrics D. ROI Measurements 4. GUIDELINES FOR TAPE MEDIA MANAGEMENT A. Media Management and Economics Division B. Communication Technology and Policy Division C. Radio-Television Journalism Division D. The importance of media management for your brand LESSON1 INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA MANAGEMENT What is media management? Media are"stages" for interaction. Media management focuses on the management of interaction spaces i.e. stages, thus on the infrastructure of media.Media management relies on our notion of media as a channel system which transports of data across time and space, as a logic, i.e. a syntax or language with a common semantic, as well as an organization (roles, protocols) for the involved agents.Electronic media e.g. are media in which the channel system is realized by the digital ICT.With the new media [see: convergence], new infrastructures, e.g. for distributed virtual environments, are emerging. This asks for a new definition of media and of their management The media reference model (MRM), also called the layers-phases-model, is an adaption of the media concept after B. Schmidt into a basic frame which can be used to model specific communities and their communication services. It discerns four layers, or rows of a table, which represent each a particular‖ view" on the given world (interaction space; medium):The community view: Here, the community of interest is described and structured, by defining all stakeholders' roles and protocols, also the processes enabling understanding and interaction among them. The implementation view: Here, the roles, protocols and processes as well as the logic space is being realized on the basis of the below layer (the transaction view). This may evolve automatically, or involving human agents, centralized or not centralized.The transaction view: Here, the generic services become specified. Here, the characteristics of the given world become evident. What is being communicated, negotiated, how is the interaction? Infrastructure view: this layer contains the necessary infrastructures for communication, transaction and transport, respectively the interfaces for them. It is connected to the above layer (transaction view for generic services) to serve them.Besides the structuring in layers, the MRM also contains the phases, or columns of a table, which indicate the structures of interaction (transaction in the case of business media; communication in the case of knowledge media, etc.). The amount of information we consume today is staggering. Between print, radio, television, and the Internet, we're surrounded by messages in a variety of formats, all vying for our attention. As the amount of media that we produce and archive increases, we need new tools to deal with the massive amounts of data, as well as compressing/converting it into various formats for various uses; finally, we need some way of cataloging and retrieving relevant media elements for various uses. Corporate users have a variety of needs related to media management. Companies may want to distribute internal training and communications videos, as well as corresponding PowerPoint presentations or Excel documents. Imagine a presentation by the CEO, accessible to the entire corporation worldwide, viewable on PCs, Macs, or on DVD, and with the CEO's PowerPoint presentation playing side-by-side with his speech. That's not the future; it's available now. This technology is even more powerful in the education arena. Imagine being able to provide lectures and courses to remote areas, or sharing a guest speaker at regional campuses, or having an archive of a class that can be offered for continuing education courses to professionals, via the web. The possible applications are astonishing. Two Approaches: Hardware versus Software Of course, any solution for media management will be composed of both hardware and software; the two go hand in hand. However, two slightly different approaches are taken by the largest players in the media management market: In software-based systems, the bulk of the work—capturing, converting, and cataloging assets—are performed by specialized software running on industry-standard server hardware. The advantage of this method is that you can leverage some of your existing servers and upgrade features of the management system without additional investment in hardware. Some specialized components, such as video capture, still require specialized hardware; however, these systems emphasize choice and can usually accommodate a variety of off-the-shelf components for capture. Hardware-based systems consist of one-stop solutions that incorporate capturing hardware, encoding hardware, and software into one proprietary system. The advantage of these systems is ease of integration (and sometimes cost). Hardware-Based Systems Distribution of media assets over the Internet is network-intensive, so it makes sense that one company leading the way in media distribution is Cisco Systems. Cisco has developed the Application and Content Networking System (ACNS), which leverages software from Interactive Video Technologies along with Cisco ACNS hardware to streamline content delivery. The Cisco system can provide video-on-demand services as well as live broadcasts and presentation distribution. Because it utilizes Cisco networking hardware, this system can be an extremely cost-effective solution for distribution of media assets throughout an organization. However, because it's a hardware-based solution, it involves tweaking your network infrastructure and limits you to distribution via the Cisco hardware. This system also comes with a hefty price tag. Still, for large organizations with offices located around the world, the Cisco-based solutions offer a very powerful means for content distribution. For organizations that have Fortune 500 needs without Fortune 500 budgets, Digital Rapids' StreamZ server line offers content distribution that's primarily geared toward video distribution. The StreamZ line allows an organization to quickly and easily distribute media in a variety of formats over the web. The company's tagline is not far off the mark: "What if you could plug a VCR right into your network?" Your video goes into the server in one format, and comes out in any number of other formats—including Windows Media, QuickTime, DivX, and MPEG—in real time. StreamZ servers are extremely easy to use and integrate, and the servers scale to meet a variety of organizational needs. However, there are some drawbacks. Scaling the servers to larger enterprises means adding more and more StreamZ to your network, and the presentation-integration capabilities of the system are limited. If your media assets are principally on video, this might be the way to go, but for more complete media integration you might look at other solutions. Along the same lines as the servers from Digital Rapids are the Optibase MGW line of servers for video distribution. These servers provide video-on-demand as well as streaming video options, and are designed to be a one-stop solution for video distribution. Unlike some of the other products we'll take a peek at later, the MGW line is limited to video distribution. However, Optibase is one of the leading producers of encoding hardware, and many of their capture cards form the basis of the other software-based solutions we'll explore. For standalone, hardware-based video distribution, Optibase remains a solid solution. VBrick is another company offering hardware-based video distribution systems. One advantage to VBrick's architecture is that many of its products are designed to be highly scalable. In addition to encoding and decoding appliances, VBrick offers video-on-demand servers, streaming servers, and some very unique set-top box hardware. Like the other hardware-based solutions, VBrick can provide simultaneous format encoding and distribution over the network. However, the EtherneTV set-top box is a product that plugs into your network and into a TV, LCD, or plasma monitor, allowing you to play network-distributed video sources over a standard television interface. It's a great way to distribute traditional video content to various locations and show that content over traditional video equipment. One nice feature of the VBrick product line is affordability. Because each appliance is specialized, the cost per unit tends to be fairly low, making it a cost-effective means for building exactly the network that you need. Finally, Telestream offers a mix of software and hardware solutions in their FlipFactory and ClipView product lines. The FlipFactory line allows simultaneous encoding of video assets into a variety of formats, which can then be distributed over the web. The ClipView, ClipExpress, and ClipMail products offer a hardware-based distribution system that allows you to distribute encoded video over IP networks to a variety of locations and devices. Media: More than Just Video Most of the systems we've considered so far excel in terms of video content distribution. However, what about true media integration? That's where software-based systems really start to outpace their hardware-centric brethren. Video is a fantastic tool for communication. However, many organizations are just beginning to develop sophisticated video communications; the bulk of communications in many organizations still comes in the form of Microsoft Office applications that accompany presentations. Many organizations would be lost without their reports in Word, spreadsheets in Excel, and the ever-present PowerPoint slides that accompany that presentation to the board or client pitch. Software-Based Systems At the forefront of software-based content management systems are the offerings from Virage. Without a doubt, Virage is the Cadillac of content management—with Ferrari pricing. The two flagship products from Virage, VS Archive and VS Webcasting, offer an unprecedented level of content management and distribution. Just what can the Virage system do? Well, it can take your video sources and distribute them in a variety of formats via browser over the network. It can also help you to archive those video assets, keeping metadata about those assets to make searching useful. Oh, and it can also perform facial recognition on speakers in the video, and perform a real-time speech-to-text transcript. If that isn't enough, it has a system that allows you to provide users with access to video clips stored in the system, giving them the ability to edit together new clips, all within a browser interface. With the VS Webcasting component, you can broadcast PowerPoint and other documents in conjunction with the video, so that viewers can see both the presenter and the presentation in the same window. They can even perform real-time polling, and the entire presentation can be archived and stored for later viewing. If it sounds like an incredible system, it is. However, the management power provided doesn't come cheap. It does leverage off-the-shelf servers and hardware, allowing it to be integrated into enterprise data farms easily, and so on. However, the components from Virage are very much aimed at large-scale enterprise deployment. Running a close second to Virage in terms of functionality are the products from AnyStream. AnyStream started out principally in the area of real-time encoding. As the company name would imply, they have encoding down pat. With their Agility product, AnyStream can quickly and easily convert video content into nearly any form of video distribution imaginable. It's a powerful tool for streaming video distribution or video-on-demand. However, AnyStream hasn't stopped there. Their Apreso software component is designed for presentation integration; with Apreso, you can integrate video with PowerPoint presentations and other document formats for a single point of distribution for entire presentations. Tip One of the truly amazing things about most of these software solutions is that they can be used in conjunction with one another. For example, products from Virage and AnyStream store metadata related to their video archives in SQL databases; therefore, with a little bit of tweaking, organizations can roll out implementations of multiple-vendor solutions in order to tailor a complete system designed to fit the needs of all the departments that might utilize these content management and distribution systems. Another provider of video solutions is VideoBank, which offers a software solution built on off-the- shelf Windows servers. Like Virage and AnyStream, the VideoBank solution allows simultaneous encoding for video into multiple formats, and redistribution of video assets over the web. VideoBank also makes use of a centralized database with file metadata, which allows users to integrate other file types along with video assets, to provide a more robust media content management solution. And because it's built on common database technology, it can be incorporated with other software solutions such as Virage and AnyStream. Not to be left out of the content management arena, Pictron has recently announced the Media Gateway Presenter. In conjunction with the Pictron's Media Gateway system, the Presenter product allows the integration of presentation files in addition to video offerings. Planning and Implementation Deploying a content management solution involves a great deal of planning beyond the content management solution itself. In addition to selecting the content management/distribution system that makes the most sense for your organization, you need to be certain that key systems don't get overlooked: Content creation infrastructure. Does your organization currently have video production facilities? How is video content for your organization created: in-house? Outside contractors? You need to carefully evaluate how your organization creates the content you're going to manage and distribute. The ingestion portion of your content management system must be compatible with the types of video assets you're currently producing, and that may mean changing some of the ways in which you produce content. Network infrastructure. Email and FTP can be taxing on a network, but they pale in comparison to the demands of streaming or on-demand video. Before you design a grand system to deliver training videos directly to the desktop of everyone within your organization, take a good hard look at your network infrastructure to ensure that you have the bandwidth to handle projected usage and a clear plan for growth as demands increase. Media Management Wrap-Up The tools that are currently emerging for media content management and distribution are very exciting. We've gone from a time when a winning presentation was an executive with an LCD projector in a room, to one where it's possible to have three executives in different offices around the world present to board members who are also scattered around the globe, in real-time, with everyone in the comfort of their own offices. And that presentation can be archived for other employees to review or edit into yet another—completely different—presentation for the annual meeting. In fact, many organizations are intimidated at first by the flexibility and power that these modern systems afford users. However, those same organizations find that once they've implemented these systems, new methods of working and communication evolve that surpass even their wildest expectations. "Knowledge is power," but too much information can leave us feeling overwhelmed, unless we have content management solution that allows us to easily share, organize, and distribute that knowledge. Media Management: Tip Sheet Software-based solutions, which are actually a mix of proprietary software and off-the-shelf hardware, offer flexible solutions designed to grow with your needs. Here are some of the top software-based system vendors: Virage AnyStream Video Bank Pictron Telestream Interactive Video Technologies A number of hardware manufacturers also play in the media content and distribution game. These companies make hardware used for encoding and/or distribution. Some offer their own software and some bundle their hardware with software from other vendors. Here are some of the hardware system leaders: Cisco Digital Rapids Optibase VBrick Systems LESSON 2 MEDIA MANAGEMENT PLAN Objective To post the public with factual information pertaining to the accident. To convey certain information which is of use to passengers. To convey specific information which is of use to relatives of dead and injured passengers. To create a positive public opinion. To create a healthy relationship with the press and electronic media. Duties of PR Organization: CPRO and his team will collect whatsoever information is available from Divisional Control Office and first information would be released to the media within 60 minutes of intimation of the accident. The information shall include telephone numbers of Helpline Enquiry Booths. CPRO, PRO and the entire PR organization should proceed to the accident site in the 1 st Special train carrying GM and other Officers. Number of photographers with digital cameras and video photographers should also be taken along to the accident site. Both CPRO and PRO will be available in the UCC during the day. Responsible PR supervisors should be deputed during night shift for interacting with the media, if necessary. CPRO will organize Press Briefings at fixed timings as detailed in Section 6 below. PR organization shall monitor various important media channels to keep track of media reporting. Suitable corrections/clarifications may also be issued, if required. Spokes person: o Only GM, DRM, CPRO, Chief Emergency Officer in Hdqrts. Emergency Cell and Divisional Emergency Officer in Divisional Emergency Cell are competent to interact or give interview to press and electronic media. o Apart from the above, any other officer authorized by GM is competent to interact or give interview to press and electronic media. o Railway’s endeavor shall be to ensure that only factually correct and confirmed information is relayed to the media. o No inflated or exaggerated version of any fact should be relayed to the media. o Unconfirmed news having no authentic source shall not be relayed to media. o No railway men shall express or voice any criticism, or express his personal opinion or views about the accident, at any point of time. Information to be relayed to Press and Electronic Media: Information to be given to media can be broadly segregated into following categories: (a) Accident: Nature of the accident – date, time, place, exact location, train no., number of coaches involved etc. Details of how the accident most probably occurred. Prima-facie cause of the accident will be relayed to Media only with the approval of GM. Sabotage, even if suspected, will not be relayed to Media, without approval of Railway Board. Periodic reports regarding progress of rescue and relief work. Expected date and time of restoration. (b) Uninjured Passengers: Steps being taken to provide beverages, refreshments and first aid treatment for unaffected passengers. Steps being taken by railways for clearance of unaffected passengers. Expected time of departure of front portion of accident involved train. Its likely time of arrival at the destination. Expected time of departure of rear portion of accident involved train. Its diverted route and likely time of arrival at the destination. In case empty coaching rakes have been arranged, then details of the same. Road bridging being done, laborers provided for transhipment of luggage. (c) Dead and Injured passengers : Steps taken by Railways to render immediate medical attention. No. of injured passengers rescued. Breakup of their injuries : o Grievous, o Simple, o Trivial. Names of hospitals where injured are being treated. Approximately how many patients have been admitted in each of these hospitals? Names of injured passengers. Communication facilities like cell phones, STD phones provided at these hospitals. Payment of ex-gratia. Facilities offered to relatives of victims, including free pass for journeys. Special trains being run for bringing relatives of dead and injured. Number of dead bodies recovered and number of bodies identified. Identification of dead bodies takes much longer since either o They were traveling alone, or o Their companions are injured and are not in a position to identify them, or o Their companions have also perished. Under such circumstances it is possible to identify dead bodies only when relatives come from their home town. This aspect of identification of dead bodies and reasons for delay should be explained to the media. (d) Helpline Enquiry Booths: Setting up of Helpline Enquiry Booths. Details of Helpline Enquiry Booths as follows : o Stations where these have been opened. o Telephone Nos. o FAX Nos. o Internet address of NCR on the rail net website, (www.ncr.railnet.gov.in). (e) Train Services: Details of train operation with regard to : o Diversion, o Regulation, o Rescheduling, o Short termination, o Cancellation. Running of 2 passenger specials for carrying relatives to the site of accident. These trains will be started from the originating and destination stations of the accident involved train and will be given same stoppages as the accident involved train for picking up relative’s enroute. Expected departure time of relatives special from their originating stations. Refunds being granted in Helpline Enquiry Booths for passengers whose journey have been interrupted. Casualty figures: In all accidents, as long as rescue and relief work continues, there is always a difference between casualty figures given by railways and casualty figures quoted by the Media. The reason for this difference is that railways give casualty figures based on actual number of dead bodies recovered; whereas Media estimates casualty figures based on the damage visible and likely final tally. During Press Briefings, this point should be clarified that at that point of time so many bodies have been recovered. However, it should also be made clear that casualty figures are likely to go up since rescue work is still continuing. Assessment regarding likely number of deaths and injuries may also be made if considered necessary. Such an assessment should be based on : o Total number of coaches involved. o Number of coaches searched. o Number of coaches yet to be dealt with. Particular reference should also be made to coaches that are crushed or that have climbed on top, and have not yet been searched. For example, the media can be informed that as of 13/- hrs., 2 coaches have been dealt with and __ no. of bodies have been recovered. 8 more coaches are still to be searched and casualties are likely to go up. Press Briefings at accident site: CPRO on arrival at accident site shall collect factual information from the OC Site and relay the same to Media personnel at site and also to Divisional Emergency Officer in the Divisional Emergency Cell. Thus, an on line communication channel will be established to keep media informed of all important details. The first Press Briefing will be held within one hour of CPRO’s arrival at site. Subsequent briefings will be held according to the schedule given below. CPRO or PRO should be available in the UCC during Press Briefings. There should be fixed time Press Briefings so that there is no confusion regarding different versions given to separate channels at various points of time. Simultaneous Press Briefings should be held at accident site as also at Hdqrts. Emergency Cell and Divisional Emergency Cell as per fixed timings given below, so that the same version is given by all concerned. Information to be given to the media will be of -/30 hrs earlier. For example the media briefing held at 7/30 hrs will convey all information as at 7/- on that date. On the first two days, there should be 6 media briefings per day. These should be scheduled at the following timings : o 7/30 hrs. o 10/30 hrs. o 13/30 hrs. o 16/30 hrs. o 19/30 hrs. o 22/30 hrs. Thereafter, for the remaining days, there should be 3 media briefings per day. These should be scheduled at the following timings : o 7/30 hrs. o 13/30 hrs. o 19/30 hrs. All media releases will be up loaded on the North Central Railway website, and new page opened to give specific information with regard to the accident. The priority of information release to various media will be as under : o TV Channels. o Agencies – UNI, PTI, Varta, Bhasha. o Print Media. Convenience and conveyance of media shall be taken care of by PR personnel with assistance of Commercial representatives at site. Media persons should be conducted to hospitals where injured are being treated. Commercial department should ensure that list of passengers who traveled by the accident involved train along with list of dead and injured in the accident reach PR officials at the earliest. LESSON 3 SOCIAL MEDIA MANAGEMENT Social Media Management- An Introduction The Castro regime has launched what has been described as a ―blistering attack‖ on the Damas de slanco, the small but vocal group of wives and female relatives of imprisoned dissidents. As readers will recall, the group has staged a series of peaceful demonstrations around Havana over the past couple of years, calling on the regime to free the dissidents still behind bars. These demonstrations have been largely ignored by the regime and its all-pervasive official propaganda machine, which means that sadly, few Cubans would have any idea whom the Damas de Blanco are or what they are up to. But this week, the tactics appear to have changed. A peaceful sit-in staged by the women on Monday was violently broken up by female goons from State security, ably assisted by a group of about 100 Government-organised thugs posing as ordinary workers and housewives, who shouted insults at the demonstrators and then helped police officers drag them into a waiting bus. As you do. The whole shameful episode was captured by a handful of foreign media journalists in Havana and broadcast to the rest of the world, although in the scheme of things, the coverage was fairly limited. Now, two days later, the regime has used its media apparatus to attack the Damas de Blanco directly. Instead of doing what they normally do and ignore the demonstration, the regime has publicly accused the women of being subversive elements and mercenaries doing the bidding of, yes, those nasty Americans To prove its case, State television even showed photographs of the women meeting a US diplomat as well as a tape recording of a conversation between some of the Damas de Blanco and the Cuban-American congresswoman, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. In some ways, this is standard stuff for the Castro brothers. But you’ve got to wonder whether such high-profile coverage of a dissident group most Cubans would have never heard of will in the longer term, be counter-productive. Let’s hope so. As for the regime, well, it’s more of the usual crap we have come to expect for the past half century or so - it claims that police officers only ―intervened‖ to ―protect" the demonstrators from "a spontaneous outburst by angry patriots‖. What’s the ROI for being social? Think social media doesn’t convert? Let’s get the facts straight about measuring social media. You’re either on the bandwagon or you’re not. But as time goes on, the people who call social media a ―fad‖ are starting to look like those who didn’t believe the Internet would be a big deal. So it’s time to educate yourself, or miss out on one of the best ways to drive website traffic since online press releases. To start, we’re not saying every publishing company needs a MySpace or a Facebook. We’ve found that those social networks are either hit or miss, depending on who your target audience is. You’re more likely to have a hit with Facebook, but unless you already have a cult following, a lonely fan page is doing you more harm than good. Social networks that are driven by content delivery work best for publishers. They allow us to distribute our content on larger platforms than our own, and attract users that may not have noticed us otherwise. Some of these ―networks‖, we might not even consider as such, but if said ―network‖ allows you to create a profile, add content, and interact with other users, it’s a social network. Twitter, Digg, SlideShare, YouTube, Magnify, Ning, Confabb, etc. So let’s get down to it. What kind of difference will social media make at your publishing company? How much will it cost? How can you tell if it’s working? The myth: Social media users don’t convert. The fact: If you think that’s true then you must think that people who find your landing pages on Google don’t convert either? How about PPC? What makes a person who uses a social network less likely to convert? After all, they are coming to you based on your online personality and the content that you spread, rather than a blurb they find in search results. When they’re coming to your site from social media, they all ready like you, otherwise they wouldn’t stop by for a visit. There’s much less convincing to do on your end. Yes, using social networks may drive a good amount of traffic to your site, and only 10% of them may convert to email subscribers, and maybe only 2% of them will buy a product. But how does that differ from buying a pay-per-click ad with the same results? This is what I like to call user-error. Maybe the problem is that you’re not directing this new traffic to the right places, like landing pages; or structuring your site so that visitors are easily converted. The good news about social media management Traffic from social media is somewhat instantaneous. You won’t automatically get 10,000 subscribers overnight, but if you are delivering valuable, noteworthy content, it will catch on. What I like the most about social media is the ability to interact with our users. The bad news about social media management When it comes to social media, ROI isn’t an exact measurement. Any social media expert will attest to this, and will instead ask you: how much did you actually invest in it to begin with? After all, social media isn’t a direct expense except in the form of time spent. Here’s more good news though… Unless you are a huge publishing company, social media doesn’t usually mean making a new hire. The more cost effective (and smart) approach is to get your editorial and marketing team involved. The people, who are passionate about the brand and have pride in their work, will represent you the best in social media circles. Social Media Activity Metrics Page views Unique visitors Members Posts (ideas/threads) Number of groups (networks/forums) Comments & Track backs Tags/Ratings/Rankings Time spent on site Contributors Active contributors Word count Referrals Completed profiles Connections (between members) Ratios: Member to contributor; Posts to comments; Completed profiles to posts Periods: By day, week, month, year Frequency: of visits, posts, comments ROI Measurements Marketing/Sales o Cost per number of engaged prospects (community vs. other initiatives) o Number of leads/period o Number of qualified leads/period o Ratio of qualified to non-qualified leads o Cost of lead o Time to qualified lead o Lead conversion o Number of pre-sales reference calls (to other customers) o Average new revenue per customer o Lifetime value of customers Customer Support o Customer satisfaction o Number of initiated support tickets per customer per period o Support cost per customer in community Product Development o Number of new product ideas o % of ideas from customers/prospects/community o Idea to development initiation cycle time o Revenue/Adoption rate of new products from community vs. traditional sources LESSON 4 GUIDELINES FOR TAPE MEDIA MANAGEMENT Like any storage or networking technology, some degree of management is required to make sure that a tape library continues to provide reliable recovery of vital business records and information. And data-center veterans know that faulty tape media is a potential source of permanent data loss. Storage administrators who manage backups and archives spend significant time managing tape media and the information it holds, but still find it a challenge to ascertain much-needed information about tapes and to ensure the protection of the data on tapes. How many times has a tape been used? Where did it come from, and when? Has it experienced any errors? Is it nearing a time when you should retire it to protect your data? Nathan Thompson, CEO at Spectra Logic, points out that these questions relate directly to the lifecycle of the tape media as well as the data-protection imperative. Addressing what he calls ―media lifecycle management,‖ Thompson points to cassette-based memory features that can store relevant metadata about the cassette itself as well as the data it contains. The in-cassette feature tracks critical data points for each tape, including the number of loads, errors, and details on the drives and partitions the cartridges were used in. In the late 1990s, Sony introduced a semiconductor memory element called Memory-in-Cassette (MIC) in its AIT tape cartridges. The MIC is a memory chip built into the data cartridge that provides a direct connection to the drive’s on-board processors, which speeds access to files and cartridge data, and holds the system’s log and other user-definable information. LTO tape cartridges now offer similar technology, called Medium Auxiliary Memory (MAM). Information and file-search parameters are formatted within the MAM system, rather than using the on-tape index file or requiring the time-consuming media load and tape threading process historically used by other tape technologies. Data access time is effectively cut in half—regardless of tape drive speed and recording density. MAM is typically implemented as a non-volatile memory chip mounted inside the tape cartridge shell that can be accessed via an RF interface. Tape media duty cycle With tape media, you often don’t know that a tape is bad until it fails—at which point it’s too late. As a result, the most typical way that this issue is addressed is to pull tape media out of circulation after a certain amount of time and assume it is unreliable even if it has not had any errors. This would be considered its useful duty cycle. Some data centers that use linear tape daily pull tapes out of circulation after about a year. Most backup/recovery products have the ability to enforce a tape duty cycle by attributing an expiration date to the tape media using the backup software. A tape’s reliability is also dictated by how long it has been sitting: its archival or shelf life. This doesn’t come up as often with respect to tape reliability, mainly because of the long shelf life that most modern tapes can have. For example, depending on temperature and humidity, LTO-4 has an archival life of about 30 years. Tape handling The best way to prolong tape media’s duty cycle is to avoid having errors altogether. Errors are usually the result of damage to the physical media within the tape cartridges, rather than a result of defects on the media. This damage to the media typically occurs because of incorrect tape handling procedures. One common problem is edge damage. If a tape is dropped, the edges of the media could get crimped. With older linear tape products, the edges served as servo tracks (a track that allows the tape drive head to stay aligned with the tape) so it was possible that media errors could result because the head could no longer ―stay on track.‖ LTO eliminated this issue by means of a series of pre-recorded servo tracks, and is relatively impervious to handling damage. The best media management products—software or hardware—are useless if not regularly used. Establishing ―media lifecycle management‖ should become a key part of storage administrators’ management responsibility, especially those responsible for archival and backup services. Combining a backup-and-restore plan with the tips below can help ensure your data will be accessible in the future, even if disaster strikes. A tape-based backup and restore plan will depend on a number of factors: How often does your company need to refer to its data? If you need to refer to yesterday’s data, a daily tape rotation would work best. How valuable is your data? The more valuable the data, the more often you should back up and move tape media off-site. When you use tape cartridges to back up your files, be sure to follow a regular tape backup rotation. Make sure that all tapes are uniquely identified. Use specifically identified tapes for incremental backups, and use other tapes for each of the weekly backups. Use yet another set of tapes for monthly backups, rotating these each month. Then store the long-term archival tapes at a secure off-site location as part of a disaster recovery and business continuity program. Cartridge care The physical media in your tape library needs thoughtful care as well. You should pay attention to the operating environment recommended by the media manufacturer. Other issues for tape cartridge care include the following: Allow tapes to acclimate to the operating environment—one hour for each hour spent off-site, for a maximum of eight hours. Regular cleaning removes debris from drive heads. Most tape vendors offer dry cleaning cartridges that do not require chemicals or solvents. Store tapes in a dark, cool, dry place, away from equipment. Do not leave used cartridges in the drive; place them in their final storage box so the reel axes are horizontal. Tape cartridges must be kept free from contamination. Do not expose the cartridges to dirt, dust, or moisture. Do not open the cartridge access door and touch the tape. Do not use the cartridge beyond the recommended life. Always remove cartridges from the drive when not in use, and store cartridges in protective plastic cases. Never remove cartridges from the drive when the drive LED light is on or blinking, indicating that the tape is moving. Keep tape cartridges away from direct sunlight and other heat sources. Verify that cartridges are not exposed to temperature extremes during the time that they are transported to and from remote storage. Keep cartridges away from sources of electromagnetic fields, such as bulk erasers and magnetic tools. Do not bulk-erase preformatted cartridges, because the servo information cannot be reformatted by the tape drive and it will render the cartridge unusable. If a cartridge is dropped it can misalign or permanently damage the tape guiding components inside the cartridge and possibly render the cartridge unusable. If a cartridge has been dropped, it may be suitable for a single use. It is recommended that the data on a dropped cartridge be copied to another cartridge. First the cartridge might need to undergo a re-tensioning pass. Once the data has been copied to a new cartridge, the dropped cartridge should be discarded. Media Management and Economics Division Using Industry Trade Magazines as a Textbook for Media Management Courses • Edward E. Adams, Angelo State University • Weekly trade journals such as Editor & Publisher, Broadcasting Cable, and Advertising Age, can serve as texts for media management courses. Trade magazines provide a current context of management and economic issues for students, as well as exposure to industry publications. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of utilizing trade magazines as a course textbook. Network Affiliation Changes and Inheritance Effects • Marianne Barrett, Charles C. Brotherton, Arizona State University • The network affiliation changes and the challenges to viewing behavior that they present offer a unique opportunity to examine whether the traditional factors thought to impact audience duplication continue to do so. This study uses Nielsen ratings data for February 1994, 1995 and 1996 from sixty markets across the United States to assess the effect of the affiliation changes on audience duplication. The study finds that lead-in ratings continue to be the most important determinant of inheritance. Rosse’s Model Revisited: Moving from Linearity to Concentric Circles to Explain Newspaper Competition • Janet A. Bridges and Barry Litman, Lamar W. Bridges • Competition in the newspaper industry is no longer explained by the linear umbrella model of competition proposed by Rosse in the 1970s. Changes in the newspaper industry suggest a more fluid model of concentric circles is appropriate. The proposed model retains the four Rosse layers, incorporates a fifth, and illustrates changing conditions in the newspaper industry that make suburban and satellite dailies more competitive. Playing the Market: Diversification as a Management Strategy Among Publicly Traded Newspaper Companies Category: Media Management & Economics • John Carvalho, University of North Carolina • Many companies aggressively expand into new industries. Such strategies are promoted by management gurus, who claim that wise diversification enhances shareholder value. But what about newspaper companies? Are they following this strategy Ñ which often leads to larger debt and closing of unprofitable properties? Are they sticking to their core industries? This paper examines strategy at eleven publicly traded newspaper companies. The author found many companies are diversifying widely, while others continue to concentrate on newspapers. The Radio Remote: A Model of Audience Feedback • Todd Chambers, Steven McClung, University of Tennessee • This exploratory study examined the processes involved in the radio remote. In particular, this study used a field observation method of 30 different radio remotes in six markets. The researchers found that the radio remote process involves a level of interdependence among the client, station and audience. Overall, the researchers concluded that remotes could be judged according to the presence of a client giveaway or special offer, station giveaways, station interaction with the audience and an activity for the audience. Based on these criteria, the researchers found that few remotes contained all four elements. Mergers, Acquisitions, and Convergence: The Strategic Alliances of Broadcasting, Cable Television, and Telephone Services • Sylvia M.Chan-Olmsted, University of Florida • Convergence through mergers and acquisitions seems to provide the best opportunity for companies to accelerate the implementation of new technologies while at the same time, capture a developed customer base. This paper addressed the following research questions: 1) What is the trend of M&A in the broadcasting, cable TV, and telephone industries after the 1996 ownership deregulation? 2) What are the initial M&A strategies for broadcasting, cable TV, and telephone companies on the way to convergence? 3) Is the convergence being carried out by internal (within industry) M&A or cross- segment integrated strategic alliances? Revisiting Corporate Newspaper Structure and Profit-Making: Was I Wrong? • David Demers, Washington State University • In a survey of newspapers conducted in 1993, I found that the more a newspaper exhibits the characteristics of the corporate form of organization, the less emphasis it places on profits as an organizational goal and the more emphasis it places on product quality and other non-profit goals. However, some data in a survey I conducted in the fall of 1996 failed to support the profit findings. This paper reports on the findings from another, more comprehensive survey conducted in February 1997 in an attempt to resolve the discrepancy. A Profile of Potential High-Definition Television Adopters in the United States • Michel Dupagne, University of Miami • A telephone survey was conducted with 193 adults in a major U.S. metropolitan area to assess consumer predispositions toward high-definition television (HDTV) and profile potential adopters of this technology according to demographics, mass media use, ownership of home entertainment products, and importance of television attributes. Based on diffusion theory and communication technology adoption studies, this study hypothesized that male, younger, better educated, and higher-income respondents who are more frequently exposed to mass media channels and value television features more highly would be more aware of HDTV, express a greater interest in HDTV, and be more likely to purchase an HDTV set. Results indicated that HDTV awareness was positively related to education, income, gender (male), newspaper use, ownership of home entertainment products, and picture sharpness; HDTV interest was positively related to age (negative), income, gender (male), movie going, and picture sharpness; and HDTV purchase intent was positively related to screen size. How Family-Owned Hubbard Broadcasting Pioneered Direct Satellite Broadcasting • Hal Foster, University of North Carolina • In 1994 direct satellite broadcasting became the biggest consumer electronics hit since the VCR, thanks to the vision and persistence of Stanley S. Hubbard, patriarch of St. Paul, Minnesota-based Hubbard Broadcasting. This case study looks at how a family- owned operation could beat well-heeled corporate giants to become the first company to launch satellite-to-TV-set service. It offers lessons to media companies hoping to increase their wealth by exploiting new technology. Predicting the Future: How St. Louis Post-Dispatch Journalists Perceive a New Editor Will Affect Their Jobs • Peter Gade, Earnest L. Perry, James Coyle, University of Missouri-Columbia • Journalists at the St. Louis Post-Dispatch went through a turbulent year of change in 1996. Editor William Woo, Joseph Pulitzer’s hand-picked successor in 1986, was removed from the job in July. He was replaced by Cole Campbell, former editor of the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot. The week before Campbell began work at the Post-Dispatch, we conducted a survey of newsroom employees concerning their perceptions of how the change in editors may affect their jobs and the operation of the newsroom. The purpose of this study was to attempt to measure how employees perceived change before the change actually occurred. A review of literature of the newspaper industry indicates no other study of this nature has been done. The data in this study indicate the conditions under which Post-Dispatch journalists perceive they are most willing to accept change are similar to those for employees who have experienced change in other organizations. If the new editor uses effective communication, has adequate newsroom resources and strong news values, then the staff is more likely to accept him. The Superstar Labor Market in Television • Joseph Graf, Stanford University • Using literature from labor economics, this paper argues that the labor market in television is a «superstar» market in which a few collect large salaries and a large number of applicants vie for jobs. This is because of imperfect substitution among sellers in the market and the inability of applicants to accurately assess their chances of success. It suggests the effects of a labor market on individual behavior and continuing low salaries for new television journalists. The Case Method and Telecommunication Management Education: A Classroom Trial • Anne Hoag, Ron Rizzuto, Rex Martin, The Pennsylvania State University, University of Denver • The efficacy of the case method is well known but only sometimes used in media management education. Now, as the convergence of media technologies and industries accelerates, there is a growing need for media management courses that teach across a broader array of technologies and management functions. The case method is particularly tuned to this kind of integrative experience-based learning. This paper, intended as a practical resource for educators, reviews case method literature and relates the results of a recent classroom trial in which complex telecommunication management cases were used with encouraging results. The National Program Service: A New Beginning? • Matt Jackson, Indiana University • In 1992, PBS replaced the Station Program Cooperative (SPC) with the National Program Service (NPS). This paper compares programming and funding trends under both systems to determine if centralized decision-making has brought about the desired changes. The results suggest that NPS has had some impact, but that these changes are mostly due to cost-cutting measures. Corporate underwriting and station fees have not grown as hoped. Local autonomy and limited funding have prevented NPS from creating a network identity for the PBS program service. State Influence on Public Television: A Case Study of Indiana and Kentucky Matt Jackson, Indiana University . This study compares public television stations in Indiana and Kentucky to explore how different levels of state involvement affect public television. The results suggest that each station adjusts its mission according to its major source of funding. The Indiana stations, dependent on viewer donations, rely heavily on PBS programs. Kentucky Educational Television (KET), supported by the Kentucky legislature, focuses on classroom programming. Although state involvement affects their priorities, all stations rely on national programming because of the economics of program production. Cable Subscribers’ Service Expectations • Randy Jacobs, University of Hartford • This paper reports data collected on cable subscribers’ expectations and preferences for installation, repair, and service representative availability. The data were gathered in 607 telephone interviews and analyzed using a performance elasticity approach that incorporated three expectations standards. The results reveal the range of performance expectations consumers hold for cable service and compare these standards with actual system performance in light of service satisfaction evaluations. Implications for research and cable system management are discussed. Effect of VCR on Mass Media Markets in Korea, 1961-1993: The principle of Relative Constancy Reapplied • Sung Tae Kim, Indiana University • This study extends prior consumer mass media expenditure research by employing two different methods, regression analysis and market scale analysis. Research questions for this study are Does the PRC exist in mass media markets in Korea from 1961 to 1993 and How much impact does VCR have on previous mass media markets? The conclusion of this study indicated that mass media markets have been slightly positive trend and the PRC failed to be supported in regression analysis and in market scale analysis, VCR brought the rapid enlargement of the mass media markets in Korea during last three decades. Job Satisfaction Among Journalists at Daily Newspapers: Does Size of Organization Make a Difference? • Kris P. Kodrich and Randal A. Beam, Indiana University • This study examines the relationship between job satisfaction of journalists at daily newspapers and organizational size. Past studies have shown that the size of an organization may play a role in job satisfaction. A secondary analysis of data from a survey of 636 daily newspaper journalists shows that while journalists at newspapers of different sizes are satisfied with their jobs for mainly the same reasons, a few differences do surface. This multiple-regression analysis shows the strongest overall predictor of job satisfaction is whether journalists think their organization is doing a good job of informing the public. Use of the Industrial Organization Model in Examining TV Economics in the Asia Pacific Region • Tuen-yu Lau, Indosiar Visual Mandiri Indonesia, Penghwa Ang, Nanyang Technological University-Singapore • This paper seeks to employ the Industrial Organization Model (IOM) in examining TV economics in the Asia Pacific region. The IOM argues that the structure of the economic market affects the conduct and performance of participants. This structure-conduct- performance paradigm offers a conceptual framework to dissect the market components. This paper will discuss only the market structure, including these variables: concentration of sellers and buyers, product differentiation, barriers to entry and vertical integration. Three Asian markets, namely Hong Kong, Singapore and Indonesia, are used as case studies. By analyzing the interactive forces shaping the TV economics in these markets, the paper suggests that the application of the IOM in exploring TV developments in Asia can start with the definition of a market. This is an important conceptual and practical issue for TV managers, especially satellite TV planners. Newspaper Stocks And Stock Market Indicators: A Comparison and Analysis of Means of Tracking Performance • Regina Lewis, University of Alabama, Robert G. Picard, California State University, Fullerton • The paper explores the nature of newspaper stocks and market indicators and compares the performance of newspaper stocks and newspaper stock indicators against broader market indicators. It finds that the Newspaper Stocks Report indicators avoid some of the problems of mixing different industries in stock indicators and that newspapers stocks overall followed stocks overall as shown in broad indicators such as the Wilshire 5000. The study identified differences among newspaper stocks performance during the period that can not be explained by general stock performance and deserve further research. It’s a Small Publishing World After All: Media Monopolization of the Children’s Book Market • James L. McQuivey, Megan K. McQuivey, Syracuse University • This study considers how the current environment of media conglomeratization is affecting the little-studied industry that provides books to millions of children each year. Two hypotheses are proposed that test different aspects of competitive market theory. Hypothesis two is supported: children’s books that have ties with other media products sell more copies than books that have no such ties. The implications of the theoretical discussion and the supported hypothesis are discussed. Teaching Lessons About Team Work, Goal Setting, Problem Solving, and Leadership Using the Reservoir City Game • Robert G. Picard, California State University, Fullerton • The author introduces the use of a new game designed to help overcome passive approaches to teaching managerial issues involved in team work, goal setting, problem solving, and leadership. The paper discusses how and why games and simulations are important to learning. It explores how to use «Reservoir City,» when it is effective, and lessons that can be learned from the game Entrepreneurship and Economics: Essentials of the Media Management Course • Mary Alice Shaver, The University of North Carolina • Teaching students to understand the decision processes and constraints and to solve the problems inherent in the management role is essential. A series of three assignments including a start-up, a financial report and development of an original case involves students in realistic situations while teaching key concepts. Wage Stabilization and the Daily Newspaper Commission in World War II • Mary Alice Shaver and Anthony Hatcher, University of North Carolina • This paper examines the role of the Daily Newspaper Printing and Publishing Commission in industry wage stabilization during World War II. The Commission was created in recognition of the essential nature of the newspaper industry to the war effort. During its 32 month existence, the Commission handled nearly 7000 voluntary and 243 disputed cases. Although the work was praised for bringing wage inefficiencies to light, much of the compliance was an artifact of war. Mixed Wine in an Old Bottle? Media Market with Socialist Characteristics in Communist China • To Yiu-ming, Leonard L. Chu, Hong Kong Baptist University • No Abstract available. Do Employee Ethical Beliefs Affect Advertising Clearance Decisions at Commercial Television Stations? • Jan LeBlanc Wicks, University of Arkansas, Avery Abernethy, Auburn University • Advertising clearance (or deciding whether to reject ads) has become more important because of the FTC chairman’s call for improved clearance and the airing of liquor advertisements. A national mail survey was conducted, with responses from over 350 stations, to discover whether employees who consider ethical beliefs important exhibit different clearance behaviors than employees who consider beliefs to be of lesser importance. Findings suggest that certain beliefs are associated with more stringent ad clearance decisions. Communication Technology and Policy Division Organizations in Cyberspace: An Information Content Analysis of Academic, Government, and Commercial World Wide Web Pages on the Internet • Debashis Aikat, University of North Carolina • The power of the Internet, was unleashed in the 1990s by a special application, the World Wide Web, so called for its global reach of retrieving and accessing information on the Internet. The present study explores the information content in three main types of World Wide Web (WWW) pages Academic, Government, and Commercial. Based on a content analysis of a representative random sample of 1,140 WWW sites, the results of the study indicate: — Among Academic WWW pages, 51.57 percent comprised those of Public Institutions and 48.42 percent were of Private Institutions indicating that the WWW was used widely by both Public and Private educational institutions. • The largest part of Government WWW pages were Federal (55.30 percent), followed by Local (22.48 percent) and State (22.22 percent). — Among Commercial WWW pages, 68.9 percent comprised Manufacturing Firms and followed by Retail Sales (31.10 percent). Understanding Internet Adoption Dynamics • David J. Atkin, Leo W. Jeffres, Kimberly Neuendorf, Cleveland State University • Much has been written about the emerging information society, where labor-intensive smokestack industries gradually give way to a computer-literate workforce equipped with online communication channels. The present study profiles Internet adopters in terms of social locators, media use habits, and their orientation toward adopting new technologies. The relative success of communication needs in discriminating between Internet adopters and nonadopters implies a new set of attitudinal variables to supplement demographics and technology adoption measures. Implications of study findings are discussed. Television on the Web, 1996: Local Television Stations’ Use of the World Wide Web • Benjamin J. Bates, L. Todd Chambers, Margot Emery, Melanie Jones, Steven McClung, Jowon Park, University of Tennessee • This study examines the use of the World Wide Web by local television broadcast stations in the U.S. A census of television stations on the Web as of October 1996 was compiled, and the content of those sites downloaded. Based on a content analysis of the stations’ home pages, the study finds improvements in the use of the Web and Web features, although the use of audio and video features remains very low, and there is not much non-promotional content feature. What Gratifications Are Sought from Computers? An Expansive View of the Applicability of the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Personal Computers • Lisa A. Beinhoff, Emporia State University • In order to investigate how well the uses and gratifications theory can be applied to personal computers, this study will: historically trace some of the issues that define what a personal computer is, identify uses and gratifications, verify whether the categories of uses and gratification factors identified in this study support the findings of other recent uses and gratification studies which have involved personal computers, and test the strength of the uses and gratifications theory. Multimethod Aesthetic Approach to User-Derived Internet Interface Designs • Melissa Camacho, David Weinstock, Michigan State University • Technology alone will not facilitate an underserved community’s free entry into the global Internet discourse. The method detailed in this paper suggests a means to discern Internet interface metaphors within underserved communities that can bridge cultural barriers to joining the Internet discourse. It further suggests an application of Iser’s Aesthetic Response Theory as a means of creating community-derived Internet user interfaces for these communities. Does Liberalization Lead to Greater Competition? The Case of Indian Telecommunications • Kalyani Chadha, University of Maryland • Theorists have long asserted that liberalization or the removal of barriers to market entry engenders the growth of competition. This paper examines the tenability of this claim by tracing the impact of recent liberalizing policy initiatives on India’s telecom sector. Here it finds that despite such initiatives, a purely competitive policy regime has failed to emerge due to certain political and economic factors prevalent within the Indian context. And drawing on the empirical evidence uncovered it suggests the need to re-examine the asserted linkage between liberalization and competition. Funding Alternatives for Electronic Access to Government Information • David Danner and Paul W. Taylor, University of Washington • The allocation and recovery of costs related to electronic public access to government information represent important and controversial public policy issues. Policy makers must carefully balance the goal of widespread public access by electronic means with the need to sustain the infrastructure that makes such access possible. The paper argues that policies with the stated objective of promoting low- or no- cost electronic access, but which do not allow for adequate cost recovery, will retard the development of robust electronic public access systems. Based on a case study in Washington State, the paper discusses the need to distinguish between the content and delivery of government-held information, to allow agencies to charge user fees as a cost-recovery alternative, and to employ safeguards which ensure that such fees do not inhibit the goals of public access. Bystanders at the Revolution: A Profile of Non-Users of Computer-Mediated Communication in Hong Kong Universities • Charles Elliott, Hong Kong Baptist University • This research attempts to understand non-use of computer-mediated communication among faculty members in Hong Kong universities. Survey research was used to profile characteristics of 134 faculty members from three universities. A comparison of user and non-user characteristics indicated no significant differences on the basis of gender or user’s first language but age and faculty were important in distinguishing non- users. In explaining reasons for non-use, respondents noted they lacked equipment, know-how, or motivation to use CMC. Applying Research on the Uses and Effects of Hypermedia to the Study of the World Wide Web • William P. Eveland, Jr.and Sharon Dunwoody, University of Wisconsin-Madison • This paper identifies the origins of the World Wide Web to be in hypermedia systems that were conceptualized during the World War II era and first developed decades before the Web. The paper then reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the uses and effects of hypermedia published in cognitive psychology, computer and library information sciences, and educational technology. The implications of this theory and research for the future study of the Web are then considered and new questions identified. Duopoly Market Structure as Public Policy: Lessons from the Cellular Telephone Industry • Hugh S. Fullerton, American University in Bulgaria • No Abstract available. Online Newsgathering Trends, 1994-96 • Bruce Garrison, University of Miami • This paper focuses on online newsgathering at U. S. daily newspapers during 1994 to 1996. Findings of three national surveys of newspapers with daily circulations of at least 20,000 are reported. Overall use has increased over the three-year period. Significant growth during the period has been in use of the World Wide Web as a news reporting resource. Other resources gaining use included America Online, DataTimes, PACER, CompuServe, and Westlaw. While the number of newspapers using online services increased, their individual levels of use also grew. Conceptualizing Objectivity Online: Using the Web to Teach Media Literacy Skills • Dustin Harp, Amy Reynolds, Stephen D. Reese, Texas • Because of a slipping of public confidence in media institutions, the merger of media conglomerates and the blurring of boundaries between entertainment and news, it is more important than ever that the public posses media literacy skills. This paper outlines one component of a media literacy web site project designed for use in high school classrooms. The site bridges theoretical and practical discussions about journalistic objectivity in an effort to create a more media-savvy public. Flying Freely But in a Cage: An Empirical Study of Using Internet for the Democratic Development in China • Edgar Shaohua Huang, Indiana • This paper examined the impact of Internet technology on the grassroots-level democratic development in China with a combined method of web observation and qualitative content analysis. It concludes that the Internet does not carry an inherently democratizing force that is irresistible; the Internet, however, has created a virtual classroom that is otherwise unavailable for Chinese people to start to learn what democracy means to them through their daily exchanges of ideas and information. The Gratifications of Pager Use: Fashion, Sociability and Entertainment • Louis Leung, Ran Wei, The Chinese University of Hong Kong • The results from a proportionate stratified sample survey of 883 college students show that fashion and status was the strongest intrinsic motive for using the pager followed by sociability and instrumental factors such as entertainment, information-seeking and utility. Fashion & status was an unique motive because its function is linked to the process of social integration. The fewer messages respondents sent, the more likely they felt that the purpose in having a pager was to make a fashion or status statement. The Relations between Psychological Gratification Factors and Internet Use • Carolyn A. Lin, Cleveland State University • One of the most interesting recent social developments involves the potential impact of communication technology on our society via the Internet. At this initial stage of the Internet communication era, a crucial concern involves the question of what may prompt the general public to venture into the cybermedia world and who this public may be. The present study explores that question by examining the social locator, socio-environmental and psychological gratification factors that may predict Internet use. The Wayward Bureaucracy: Government Assessment of FCC Organization and Performance • Philip M. Napoli, Boston University • No Abstract available. Gathering of Strangers in Cyberspace: Public Opinion on the Internet • Alice Chan Plummer, Michigan State University • As a communication technology, bridging interpersonal and mass communication, the Internet holds considerable potential for the formation and dissemination of public opinion. Among other implications, the Internet offers a virtual space for the gathering of strangers to exchange opinion. Based on a review of existing literature on public opinion, as well as theories and research in traditional mass media and emerging information technologies, this paper provides a conceptual analysis of the Internet’s public opinion potential. Conflict and Resolution at the FCC: Computer Industry Opposition to the Proposed National HDTV Standard • Peter B. Seel, Colorado State University • This paper reviews the history of computer industry opposition to the FCC’s proposed standard for advanced television in the United States. At the eleventh hour in the decade-long standardization process, the Computer Industry Coalition for Advanced Television Service (CICATS) mounted a successful challenge to the FCC’s proposed plan. Using the Krasnow, Longley and Terry broadcast policy making model, this study examines the dynamics of the CICATS campaign to have the standard changed, and illustrates the need to revise the existing model to include unregulated industry elements that are influencing FCC broadcast policy making in an era of convergent media. Does Web Advertising Work? Memory for Print vs. Online Media • S. Shyam Sundar, Sunetra Narayan, Rafael Obregon, Charu Uppal, Pennsylvania State University • Is memory for an advertisement related to the medium in which the ad was viewed? A between-subjects experiment (N = 48) was designed to answer this question. One-half of the subjects was exposed to a print newspaper front-page with two news stories and one advertisement whereas the other half was exposed to the online version of the same content. Results showed that print subjects remembered significantly more ad material than online subjects. Internet Connectivity: Addiction and Dependency Study • Steve Thompson, Pennsylvania State University • If Internet addiction/dependency is the new substance abuse of the 90s, what are some of its measurable effects? An on-line website survey administered to 120 respondents who claimed Internet addiction resulted in subjects (N=32) being evaluated for personal disruptions. The study looked at factors involved in separating persons addicted from those persons dependent, and then evaluated what this might mean for a global society newly affected by unlimited access to this new communication medium The Internet: Is the Medium the Message? • Mark W. Tremayne, University of Texas at Austin • The unique features of each medium can change the nature of messages sent by journalists. Does the Internet have unique features and can those features now be measured. This study examines these questions, and provides a comparison of Internet news sites started by newspaper, magazine, television and radio companies. The study found that these sites are making use of interactivity and nonlinear story-telling. Further, newspaper and television sites are taking different approaches to this new medium. The Impact of Telecommunications on Rural Community Development: An Agenda for Research • Gwen H. Wolford, C. Ann Hollifield, The Ohio State University • Rural American communities are investing heavily in new telecommunications technologies in the expectation that these investments will lead to future social and economic growth and stability. That these expectations are well founded is not clear. This study uses a systematic propositional inventory to analyze the existing literature on telecommunications and U.S. rural development to determine what is known about the socioeconomic impact of telecommunications on rural American communities. The study found that while case studies and discussions of telecommunications and rural development abound, there has been little comparative empirical research that has measured the actual social or economic impact telecommunications implementation has had on rural communities. Radio-Television Journalism Division Getting the Story Home: Reporting World War II for the Local Audience • Chris W. Allen, University of Nebraska at Omaha • Three distinctive reporting styles can be found in examining the stories that WHO Radio correspondent Jack Shelley wrote from the European Theater during the Battle of Bulge of World War II. The first is the extensive use of names of soldiers from the Middle West, communicating messages to families at home and telling a little about the soldiers’ experiences. The second style takes a longer view of the war, especially as the Western Front is disrupted by the German Advance. The third reporting style is commentary. The paper also takes a look at the audience’s reaction to the reports, and, as far as possible, the military’s view of such reporting. Laws and Ethics behind the Hidden and Intrusive Camera • Geri Alumit, Michigan • Network news stations and newsmagazines use the hidden and intrusive camera to uncover mayhem not able to be uncovered without the use of these clandestine techniques. The courts have heard lawsuits against the media that claim these techniques intrude on or invade privacy. Two lawsuits brought against television newsmagazines, one involving the hidden camera, the other the intrusive, will explore the rights of the media and the rights of the individuals captured on tape. This paper will also examine and suggest guidelines for the use of these stealthy techniques to gather the news. Local Television and Radio News Congruence: Ownership Effects vs. Medium Effects • Douglas A. Barthlow, Suyong Choi, and Andrea Thomas, Georgia State • No Abstract available. The Priming of the People: Television’s Influence on Public Perceptions of Presidential Candidates • Kim Bissell, Syracuse University • Since the 1960s, campaigning for President has taken on a new identity. The way Presidential candidates are presented on television has a lot to do with how the public subsequently formulates perceptions and opinions about that candidate. A telephone survey was conducted to asses public opinion about the influence of television. The results from this survey indicate there is a strong relationship between watching television news and being more candidate-centered than issue-oriented. The Effect of Redundant Actualities on Recall of Radio News • Larry G. Burkum, University of Evansville • Research indicates broadcast news is quickly forgotten, suggesting presentation techniques might affect information recall. A mixed model 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design tested the effects of redundant auditory information, actualities, and a distracting secondary task on radio news recall and story appeal. The results indicate redundant auditory information improves recall but not news story appeal, actualities have no effect on recall or news story appeal, and a distracting secondary task decreases recall, and news story appeal. Still Knowing Their Place: African Americans in Southeast TV Newscasts • Kenneth Campbell, Sonya Forte Duhe, Ernest Wiggins, South Carolina • The 1968 Kerner Commission report chastised the news media for inaccurate and misleading portrayals of African Americans, saying the media reported on them as if they were not a part of the viewing audience. The present study examines the portrayal of African Americans in Southern TV newscasts to assess to what degree progress has been made. The study concludes that while the Southern newscasts no longer ignore African Americans, there is an over-representation of blacks as criminal and whites as law enforcement officers, which perpetuates one of the most negative images of African Americans Ñ as criminals. The Effects of Lead Story Positioning in Television Newscasts on Perception of Importance, Interest and Recall • Michael E. Cremedas, Dona Hayes, Syracuse University • This experiment focused on ways in which the placement of a story in the first (lead) position of a television newscast influenced three dependent variables: perception of story importance, level of interest in the story and ability to recall details of the story. Lead position accounted for significantly higher scores in all three of the dependent measures. The data demonstrate an agenda-setting effect for «spot» news stories. Furthermore, the findings suggest that TV news producers have primed viewers to readily accept the lead story as the most significant news of the day regardless of inherent news value. Seven Dirty Words: Did They Help Define Indecency? • Jeff Demas, Ohio • This study explores the salience of FCC v. Pacifica Foundation et. al., also known as the «seven dirty words» case. The study attempts to answer the questions (1) Why was this case reviewed by the Supreme Court and (2) Did the decision really help define indecency? Interviews with the chief legal counsels of both parties, and research into publications of the time lend new insight to the breadth of the decision. The study also looks at the agenda of parties involved in taking this case to the Supreme Court. Television Newsroom Training for the 21st Century • Sandra L. Ellis, Tennessee, Ann S. Jabro, Pennsylvania • This study attempts to clarify the status of continuing education in television newsrooms across the United States. A national survey of television news directors examined the ability of their employees to develop stories, the types of training available and areas of training in which news directors have interest The results suggest that television stations have relied too heavily on higher education to provide all the knowledge and skills TV journalists need to function in the profession. Television News and Memory Distortion: Confidence in False Memories for Television News Stories • Julia R. Fox, Northern Illinois University • While recognition memory judgments about information presented in television news stories were more accurate than inaccurate, there was substantial evidence of memory distortions, and confidence in those false memories was quite high. Results are discussed in terms of memories as reconstructive decisions, based in part on judgments about how likely a memory is, and how willing people are to say they recognize information. Possible influences of distorted television news memories on personal and social decisions are also considered. Hype Versus Substance in Campaign Coverage: Are the Television Networks Cleaning Up Their Act? • Julia R. Fox, Chris Goble, Northern Illinois University • A content analysis of the television networks’ weekday nightly newscasts during the final two weeks of the presidential election campaigns in 1988 and 1996 found a significant decrease in the amount of horse race coverage and a significant increase in the amount of issue coverage per campaign story from 1988 to 1996. However, there was less total campaign coverage during the final two weeks of the presidential election campaign in 1996 than in 1988. The News of Your Choice Experiment in the Twin Cities: What Kind of Choice Did Viewers Get? • Kathleen A. Hansen, University of Minnesota, Joan Conners, Regis University • News of Your Choice was a collaboration between CBS-owned WCCO-TV/4 and KLGT-TV/23, a then-independent UHF station. This paper examines the «News of Your Choice» experiment and asks what the Channel 23 newscast added to the local television news market, and how Channel 4 designed its newscasts to take advantage of the innovation of «choice» and «interactivity». The study uses a content analysis of news broadcasts and an interview with WCCO’s then-general manager, and reports on content, story treatment, source use and overall newscast characteristics. The study finds that the extra time provided by the Channel 23 newscast was primarily filled with material from network SNG sources and human interest stories from outside the local geographic area. Is it Really News? An Analysis of Video News Releases • Anthony Hunt, St. Cloud State University • Two pilot studies critically analyzed use of Video News Releases within television news in the Twin Cities market. While news bureaus denied using VNRs, the analysis of one week of news showed otherwise. It was very difficult to determine absolute use of VNRs, as open acknowledgment might affect station credibility. The author demonstrates the need for correct source recognition to encourage proper operation within the democratic process. The Effects of Audience’s gender-based Expectations about Newscasters On News Viewing Satisfaction in A Collective Culture: South Korea • U-Ryong Kim, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, In-Suk Chung, Chungnam Sanup University, Hongsung-Up, Hongsung-Gun, Chungnam, Korea, Cheong-Yi Park, Michigan State University • This study focused on the effects of audienceÕs gender-based expectations about newscasters on news viewing satisfaction. It was theoretically supported by the integrated framework of the gratification and expectancy-value model, and the literature of collective culture; empirically tested by a nationwide survey in South Korea. This study concluded that, in relation to news viewing satisfaction, audiences expected that female newscasters would be both journalists and entertainers whereas they believed that male newscaster would be journalists rather than entertainers. Political Candidate Sound Bites vs. Video Bites in Network TV News: Is How They Look More Important Than What They Say? • Dennis T. Lowry, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale • Stimulate materials for this study came from network TV newscasts of Campaign Ô92. Forty different bites from Bush, Quayle, Clinton, and Gore were presented in three different forms: audio only (no video), video only (no audio), and normal audio-video. The design was a totally randomized, totally counter-balanced, repeated measures design. After each bite, subjects filled out Ohanian’s 15-item celebrity endorser’s instrument to measure perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Results indicated that «the eyes had it» Ñ i.e., how candidates looked was indeed more important than what they said. Television Web Site Interactivity • Television Station Web Sites: Interactivity in News Stories • Ray Niekamp, Pennsylvania State University • A sample of 108 television stations were surveyed to learn the effect of interactive elements within news stories on television stations’ World Wide Web sites. Regression analysis was used to determine what interactive elements best predicted the amount of use of a site. Hot links within news stories which lead the news consumer to related information were the only interactive element having a significant effect on Web site use. How Objective Were the Broadcast Networks and CNN During the Persian Gulf Crisis? • Robert A. Pyle, Winthrop University • During the Persian Gulf War media critics questioned the objectivity of some television journalists. Objectivity is a canon of journalistic practice, a view that the journalist should be an impartial observer of news events. The crisis in the Persian Gulf provided an ideal opportunity to observe simultaneous news coverage by ABC, CBS, NBC and CNN in gauging how fair and impartial the networks were in their coverage of the War. For the first time all four networks competed directly in their coverage on a round-the-clock basis. A content analysis analyzing anchor, reporter and analyst language reveal, for the most part, that all four networks presented war news in a fair and objective fashion. Broadcasting World Wide Web Sites: Public Service or Self Service? • James W. Redmond, University of Memphis • Despite optimistic views of the promise of the Internet an overwhelming majority of broadcasters use the technology primarily for self-promotion. Nearly 1,500 radio and television World Wide Web sites were examined in this content analysis. A small percentage of stations were providing significant market area news or public information at the time of field data collection in June 1996. The results of this study indicate broadcasters consider the Internet, fundamentally, to be a promotional tool. New Managers and Local TV New: A Case Study • Jim Upshaw, University of Oregon • New leaders usually take over TV news operations to increase viewers hip, but with what near-term effects on newscasts? Do new managers quickly reach goals matching their personal news priorities? A case study of one leadership team’s first year found increased emphasis on what people are talking about, greater anchor prominence, more features, continuing substantive news, and audience growth. Further research into new-manager values and strategies, organizational inertia and content change is proposed. The importance of media management for your brand Think about all the news sources you have at your disposal today. Now think about what it was like 10-15 years ago. Back then you had your daily newspaper, the evening local and national news, weekly news magazines and that was about it. But now your weekly news publications like Time and Newsweek deliver information as soon as it comes out. Add to that all the new news sources that compete to get it first. Unfortunately, this need to be first is oftentimes more of a priority than being right. Having a solid PR strategy and professional in your corner to manage the information that comes out of your company is extremely important in protecting your brand. You say, "Oh, there's nothing bad or negative to report on my company. I have nothing to worry about..." Seth Godwin points out in his blog how this inaccurate information gets out there--from Elizabeth Edwards announcement that her cancer returned and her husband was going to bow out of the presidential race to the rats at your local KFC. By not reporting the right information the first time, think about how it can hurt your company's brand, your presidential campaign or your fast food business. Not good for you, but fine for media company that can simply cut and paste in the updated news story. At the end of the day the accountability falls on you rather than the media to make sure the information they report is accurate. You see it everyday. I'm certainly no media superstar, but the few occasions that my name or quotes have been included in a story, it's amazing how many times the reporter got it wrong. Wrong quotes, wrong context, wrong spelling of my name. Fortunately, it wasn't a big deal, but it could have been. It's amazing, but as a business owner you must be prepared to deal with the mistakes of the media. You'll love the media attention you get if they get it right. If it's wrong, what do you do now? Marketers need a simple, clear way to think about deploying a social media strategy that does not start with technology. Here’s my view of the four main components of social media management for marketers: Monitor Monitoring is finding and tracking the conversations that are occurring about your company in social media and online. Even companies that have no intention of pursuing a social media marketing strategy must monitor what’s being said about them. It’s important to know who is saying good things about your company but it’s even more important to know who is saying bad things. Negative comments-especially those that expose a legitimate flaw in a company’s products or services-can snowball and be picked up by the trade and business press. Monitoring is also the foundation of a social media marketing strategy. Before companies begin talking, they have to listen. They need to identify the most important influencers in their markets and track those conversations. Understanding the tone and subject matter of the most popular conversations in the market will help companies develop and fine tune their own social media voices. Engage Engaging occurs when companies decide to take an active role in social media by engaging with customers and influencers in the various forums where conversations are taking place. Examples include public blogs, social networks, and industry communities. The goal in social media engagement is to influence participants to have a positive impression of the company through factual, verifiable contributions from company employees and subject matter experts. Marketing should monitor social media carefully and assign subject matter experts to track particular blogs and influencers. There should be an escalation process for pushing issues around the company to the people most qualified to respond to them (all practitioners, not marketing or PR people).The key to engagement is that providers do not try to control the conversation, as in traditional marketing, but that they influence the conversation in the following ways: Find relevant online communities and blogs and build relationships with discussion leaders and members Become regular contributors to influential blogs and be willing to weigh in on issues not directly related to the company’s products and services Respond to customer complaints Link customers to more information and offer to follow up directly Manage Managing means that companies take an active role in creating conversations about the company. Examples include: Corporate blogs. If companies can break their traditional habits of trying to control the conversation and squashing criticism, corporate blogs can help improve perception and awareness. Corporate blogs can be managed by marketing, but shouldn’t be written by marketing. Customers want to hear from subject matter experts and influencers. Public and private online communities. Besides creating online communities in business- oriented third-party hosted social media venues like LinkedIn, companies can start their own communities, both public and private. For example, Indian outsourcing and consulting company Infosys developed points of view about four emerging trends in global business: the growing impact of emerging economies such as India and China, demographic shifts in age and working populations around the world, technology ubiquity, and increased regulations. It then created multiple hosted forums, both public and private (C-level executives often prefer private communities because they fear speaking up about their companies in uncontrolled public communities). These communities have both online and offline components, and Infosys’ marketing group works to build participation by publicizing the communities and inviting key customers and influencers to participate. Integrate Social media efforts need to be integrated into a company’s more traditional marketing channels such as conferences, events, reference programs, and websites. Social media is notoriously difficult to measure and ROI is unclear. Therefore, social media should be used as a platform to drive traffic to the channels that are easier to measure and have proven ROI. There should also be a way to get customers and prospects from social media into systems for tracking and managing interactions (e.g., CRM). The integration of social media with more measurable channels—downloads of the white paper that lead to a sale, or the conference presentation that result in a sales call, for example—is the most reliable way to demonstrate the value and ROI of social media.
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