FRUS 1961-1963_ Vol IV Vietnam August-December 1963 - Index by liwenting

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									Index


Agricultural      situation      in Vietnam,     616,    Ball, George W.-Continued
       622                                                   Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
Aiken, Conrad,         391                                          14n
Air Force, Vietnamese,              46                          ‘Diem as best leader”           issue, 8
   Coup against Diem and, 509-510                               Instructions     to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,
   Government          of Diem and Nhu, attitude                       475n, 484n, 500n
          toward,     159                                       Meetings     in Washington         (Oct. 29),
Algeria, 211,417                                                       459n
Alphand,       Herve, 100,388,389,601                           Pros and cons of supporting             coup, 2,
   Neutral solution          for Vietnam,     59-61                    3, 4
Alsop, Joseph, 217,281,294,295,296,                          Governmental         reform in Vietnam:
       692-693                                                  Kennedy’s      letter to Diem re, 287, 290
Amnesty       (Chieu Hoi) Program,           585,670-           Structure    and composition          of govem-
       671, 705                                                        ment, 308-310
An Truong Thanh, 567                                            Suspension       of aid to Diem regime,
Anschuetz,       Norbert       L., 628, 650, 665                       290-291
Armed Forces Radio, 300                                         U.S. package of sanctions and de-
Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN):                                mands, 3.56,437-439
   Corps commanders,               changing    of, 712      Johnson-Lodge           meeting, 635
   Coup against Diem and, 508-509                           McNamara-Taylor             mission, 281
   Reorganization,          government       plan for,      Minh, Harkins’         assessment of, 274~
          604-605                                           Neutral solution         for Vietnam,      389,
Asbjomson,        Mildred,       68n, 84n                          695n, 710
Asher, 143                                                  Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces,
Assassination        of Diem and Nhu. See under                    571n
       Coup against Diem.                                   Richardson’s       transfer from Vietnam,
                                                                   364-365
Ball, George W., 64n, 89n, 90t1, 92n, 124n,                 U.S. policy in Vietnam,           350
      194n, 217,266n,       269n, 334,335n,              Bamett, Robert W., 116, 290n
      354n, 456n, 457n, 549n, 564n, 663n                 Belair, Felix, 692-693
   Buddhist crisis, U.N. investigation          of,      Bell, David E., 161, 170, 217, 351,357,
         438                                                    359,54On,      541n
  Countercoup       operations,      36n, 39n               Counterinsurgency            operations,     621-622
  Counterinsurgency          operations,    438,            Governmental          reform in Vietnam,         368,
         607n                                                      369
  Coup against Diem, 507n, 522n, 552n                       Honolulu       meeting,     616, 620, 621-622
  Coup against Diem, Generals’            plan for,         Special Group for Counterinsurgency,
        40n, 431n, 433n, 449n, 450n, 453n,                         704
        456n, 457n, 477n, 488n, 503n                        U.S. policy in Vietnam,           684
                                                                                                             759
Bemau, Phyllis D., 12n, 61n, 176n, 240%                           Bundy, McGeorge-Continued
      264n, 520n                                                     Buddhist crisis:
Berry, Lt. Col. Sidney, Jr., 284                                       Communist           influences,       199
Blake, Lt. Gen. Gordon A., 505, 506,511,                               U.N. investigation             of, 415
      512,545                                                        Countercoup         operations,        36n, 39n
Bohlen, Charles E., 388, 389, 565, 568-569                           Counterinsurgency              operations,       500,
Bowles, Chester A., 114                                                    607n
Breckon, M. Lyall, 651-652                                           Coup against Diem, 507n, 518,519n,
Brent, Joseph L., 206,305,379n,                   540,541                  522n, 523n, 552n
   Economic         situation      in Vietnam,       613-616            Assassination           of Diem and Nhu, 537,
Broomfield,        William       S., 378n                                      556
Bruce, David K. E., 693-694                                             Popular response, 556
Buddhist       crisis:                                                  Propaganda           efforts by Generals,          521n
                                                                        Thai’s endorsement              of, 114
   Buu Hoi’s assessment of, 333, 348, 349
   CIA assessment of, 147                                            Coup against Diem, Generals’                    plan for,
                                                                           40n, 431n, 433n, 449n, 450n, 453n,
   Communist            influences,      194-195,      199
                                                                           456n, 457n, 477n, 488n, 503n
   Communist            insurgency       and, 320
                                                                     Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
   Concessions           by government,          412
                                                                            14n
   Counterinsurgency                operations,     impact
                                                                        Assurances        of support for Generals,
           on, 247-248
                                                                               28
   Diem’s assessment of, 1819, 112,319-
                                                                        Contacts with alternative                leaders, 379
           320
                                                                        Contacts with Generals,               429,430,437
    Government            propaganda        re, 142
                                                                        Deniability       concerns, 379, 429
   Military’s       attitude toward,          154-158
                                                                        Instructions        to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473-
    Minh’s assessment of, 327
                                                                               475,484n,          499n,500-502
    Negotiations          to resolve, 75, 77
                                                                        Meetings      in Washington             (Oct. 29),
    Nhu’s assessment of, 126-127,258
                                                                               465n, 468,471
    Pagodas, raids on, 19, 147                                          “Not thwart Generals’               plan” policy,
    Political aspects, 186-187,              294
                                                                               367n
    Popular attitude toward government                      re-         Pros and cons of supporting                  coup, 3,
           sponse, 293-294
                                                                               5
    Provisional         government         and, 615, 681                Suspension         of aid to encourage           a
    Reduction        of tensions, 58                                           coup, 29,176,556
    Religious      war, possible, 245                                   Suspension         of coup, option for, 35n,
    Sanctuary        for bonzes at U.S. Embassy,                               437
           125, 136-l37,519n,              548                          U.S. forces, possible use of, 249n
    Suicides, 400                                                       White House control of all communi-
    Thuc’s role in, 348                                                        cations, 467
    U.N. consideration              of. See Buddhist cri-            Government         of Diem and Nhu:
           sis under United Nations.                                    Military’s     attitude toward,            118
    U.S. demands for ending, 376                                        Popular attitude toward,                74
    U.S. involvement,             alleged, 416,516                   Governmental            reform in Vietnam:
 Buffum, William             B., 331n                                   Congressional            demands       for, 192
 Bui Diem, 453, 456-457,                463, 503                        Evacuation        of U.S. dependents             and,
 Bui Dinh Dam, Col., 509                                                        187,192,193
 Bui Van Luong, 124,140,507,598                                         Kennedy’s        letter to Diem re, 287n
 Bui Van Tinh, 238                                                      Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
 Bunce, William            K., 269n                                             187, 188, 189, 191, 199, 200, 201,
 Bundy, McGeorge,               12, 53, 64n, 68, 86n,                           235,252n
        89n, 90n, 92n, 124n, 149n, 194n,                                Structure      and composition             of govem-
        241n, 266n, 354n, 356,35En,                  368,                       ment, 308n
        398n, 456n, 457n, 549n, 550n, 557n,                             Suspension          of aid to Diem regime,
        579n                                                                    118,174,189,29On
                                                                                                            Index          761

Bundy, McGeorge-Continued                                           Bundy, McGeorge-Continued
   Governmental             reform in Vietnam-                         U.S. policy in Vietnam-Continued
          Continued                                                       World opinion re, 210
      U.S. disassociation                from Nhu, 189              Bundy, William          l?, 356, 358n
      U.S. negotiations              with Diem, 75-76,                 Counterinsurgency             operations,      607n
              95-96, 108n, llOn, 120, 128n                             Coup against Diem, 507n, 523n
      U.S. package of sanctions and de-                                Coup against Diem, Generals’                 plan for,
              mands, 371n, 437n, 496~1                                        449n, 450n, 453n, 456n, 457n,
   Harkins,      media attacks on, 593, 594                                   477n, 488n, 503n
   Honolulu        meeting, 608r1, 623, 624                            Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:
      Preparations           for, 593-594                                 Instructions       to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,
      Summary          of, 625-626                                               475n, 484n, 5OOn
   Kennedy’s        television          interview,       81-83            Meetings       in Washington         (Oct. 29),
   Krulak-Mendenhall                   mission, 146, 163                         468,472
   Lodge, assessment of, 625                                           Governmental           reform in Vietnam:
   Lodge-Harkins              relationship,          47971                Suspension         of aid to Diem regime,
   Lodge’s resignation,                692-693                                   275n
   Lodge’s U.S. visit at end of October,                                  U.S. package of sanctions and de-
          proposed,         397n                                                 mands, 360n
   Madame        Nhu, silencing of, 191, 192                           Honolulu       meeting,       615, 620
   McNamara-Taylor                  mission:                           McNamara-Taylor               mission, 265-266,
      Diem’s perception                 of mission as sign                    284,285,286,293n
              of U.S. support,              255n, 256                  Neutral solution          for Vietnam,      695n
      Meetings        re, 280                                          Provisional       government         of Vietnam,
      Military      appraisal as purpose of, 278n                             U.S. recognition         of, 525n
      State Department                representative,         266      U.S. policy in Vietnam:
   McNamara’s            visit to Vietnam (Dec.),                         All-agency       review, 684
           702n                                                           NSAM        273,637n
   Media coverage              of Vietnam,          216-217,           Vietnam,      Democratic         Republic of,
          593,594                                                             Lodge’s plan for neutralization              of,
   Minh, Harkins’             assessment of, 274n                             656n
   Neutral      solution        for Vietnam:                        Burchett,     Wilfred, 85n, 296
      French position,             61-62, 81, 83                    Burma, 210
      U.S.-French          discussions           re, 601            Buu Hoi, 18-19
   Nhu’s removal            from power, possible,                      Buddhist crisis, 333, 348,349
          28,30,31                                                     Governmental           reform in Vietnam,         333-
   Provisional        government             of Vietnam,                      334,348-349
          U.S. recognition              of, 525n, 536n,                Hilsman,      meeting with, 332-334
          555-556,565n                                                 Madame        Nhu’s U.S. visit, 335-336
   Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces,                                   Rusk, meeting with, 347-349
          571n
   Strategic hamlet program,                    623                 Cambodia,       91, 210
   U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission, selection                            Communist         sanctuaries,     U.S.-RVN      ac-
          of, 665-666,693-694                                               tions against. See Cambodian             sanc-
   U.S. information              programs         and policies              tuaries under Counterinsurgency
          in Vietnam,          175                                          operations.
   U.S. military        involvement             in Vietnam,           Neutrality      issue, 641n
          387                                                            Lodge’s position,         654-655,    661-663
   U.S. policy in Vietnam:                                               U.S. position,        641, 669, 695-696,      706-
      All-agency         review, 684                                             707n, 731
      NSAM        263,396                                                Vietnamese         concerns re, 697-698,
      NSAM        273, 637n                                                      713,718
      NSC-endorsed                policy, 350, 352, 353n              Thailand,      relations with, 539
      Reiteration        of, 581,592n                                 Truce proposal         for Vietnam and, 692
762        Index

Cambodia-Continued                                                Central Intelligence              Agency, U.S.-
  U.S. policy toward,              639, 669                           Continued
  Vietnam,         Republic of, relations with,                       Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:
           538-539,      588, 630, 641, 646, 674                         Assurances          of support for Generals,
Cameron,        Ronald Brooks, 378n                                              42
Can. See Ngo Dinh Can.                                                   Deniability         concerns, 393
Can Lao party, 223, 253, 264, 482-484                                    “Not thwart Generals’                 plan” policy,
Cao. See Huynh            Van Cao, Brig. Gen.                                    393
Cao Dai sect, 597, 612, 680, 717, 733, 736.                              Suspension           of aid to encourage          a
       737                                                                       coup, 206-207
Cao Van Vien, Col., 45, 506                                           Governmental             reform in Vietnam:
Cao Xuan Vy, 545                                                         Diem’s resistance to, 398-399
Carlson, Frank, 391                                                      Proposal for, 201-202
Carroll, Lt. Gen. Joseph E, 707                                       Harkins,       replacement          of, 602-603
Carter, Lt. Gen. Marshall              S., 1, 12, 26,55,              Lodge assassination              threats, 399
       70,84n,      95,100,449&            450n, 453n,                Media coverage of Vietnam,                    assessment
       456n, 457n, 477n, 484n, 488n, 500n,                                   of, 278
       503n, 507n                                                     Nhu interview,            report on, 124-127
Central Intelligence            Agency,      U.S. (CIA),              Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV, 89-90
       239                                                            Nhu’s meetings with Generals,                     90-92
   Buddhist crisis, 400                                               Provisional        government           of Vietnam,     as-
       Assessment         of, 147                                            sessment of, 648-649,680-681,
       Involvement          in, alleged, 4 16                                711-713
   Communist           insurgency:                                    Richardson’s          transfer from Vietnam,
       Assessment         of, 647-648,        681-682,                       205,364-365,384
               683-684                                                Station Chief in Vietnam,                 selection of,
       Quasi-governmental               activities,     642-                 651n
               645                                                    U.S. policy in Vietnam and, 390-391
   Countercoup           operations,       arrests of                 Vietnam,        Democratic         Republic of, U.S.
            Generals,     possible, 36-37, 39                                covert operations            against, 699
   Counterinsurgency               operations:                    Chase, Gordon,             555
       Assessment         of, 682-683                             Chiang Kai-shek,              186
       Border security and surveillance,                   607-   Chieu. See Pham Xuan Chieu.
               608                                                Chieu Hoi. See Amnesty                   (Chieu Hoi) Pro-
        Cambodian         sanctuaries,       actions                     gram.
               against, 701                                       China, People’s Republic of, 85, 186
        Laos, operations          in, 667-668,        724             Media reports on Vietnam,                   210
        Mekong       Delta situation,         401                     Neutral solution for Vietnam,                   184, 326
   Coup against Diem:                                                 Vietnam,        Democratic         Republic of, rela-
        Assassination         of Diem and Nhu, 545                           tions with, 388-390
        Comparative          forces lineup, 475-476,              Chuong.        See Tran Van Chuong.
               508-510                                            Church, Frank, 129, 141n, 166-169,258,
        Reports on, 506,512-513,514                                      391
   Coup against Diem, Generals’                     plan for:     CINCPAC           (see also Felt, Adm. Harry D.),
        Inertia of Generals,          400-401                            candidates         for, 633
        Interim planning,           291-292                       Civil Guard, Vietnamese,                   138-139, 621
        Loyalties     of units and commanders,                    Civilian      Irregular       Defense Group (CIDG)
               468                                                       program,         683
        Postponement           of (Aug. 31), 64, 86-88,           Cleveland,         Harlan, 333, 335-336
               92-93, 147-148                                     Clifton, Maj. Gen. Chester V., 1, 9n, 26,
        Strategy meetings of Generals,                  40-41            35n, 81n, 95n, 100,161,356,387
        Success, chances of, 475-476                              Cline, Ray S., 295n
        U.S. updated         on planning         progress,        Colby, William,             70, 100, 117, 169, 188,
               39,42,354-355,365-367                                      l89,199,217,516n
                                                                                                                Index           763

Colby, William-Continued                                           Communist            insurgency-Continued
   Cambodian            sanctuaries,        actions against,         Popular attitude toward,                   271, 322-323
           701                                                       Quasi-governmental                   activities,     642-645,
   Countercoup             operations,       55                               749-752
   Coup against Diem, 1,6-7,43ln,                         433n,      Successes of, 291,647-648,                      722, 733
           468,519                                                   Troop strength,              682, 741
   Honolulu        meeting, 624                                      Weaponry,             682,737,742
   Madame         Nhu, U.S. campaign                 against,      Communist            surrender        program.       See Am-
           591                                                            nesty (Chieu Hoi) Program.
   McNamara-Taylor                   mission, 284, 285,            Conein, Cal. Lucien, 42, 79, 87, 240,560
           286,339n                                                  Countercoup              operations,        507n
   McNamara’s              visit to Vietnam         (Dec.),          Coup against Diem, 506,509,511-512
           703                                                       Coup against Diem, Generals’                        plan for,
   Nhu and, 517                                                               423n, 427
   Nhu’s removal              from power, possible, 54                    U.S. updated on planning                    progress,
   U.S. policy in Vietnam,                 684                                    354-355,365-367,434,450-452
Commodity           Import Program:                                  Provisional           government           of Vietnam,
   Reserve funds, 307                                                         U.S. “braintrust”             for, 758
   Political abuses, elimination                  of, 482-484      Congress, U.S.:
   Resumption             of, 477-479,540-541                        Congressional             visit to Vietnam,           378n,
   Suspension           of, 271,340-341,360-361,                              446-447
           368-369,373,414,614-615                                    Coup against Diem, 520-521,573
   U.S. management                  of, 308                           Governmental              reform in Vietnam,             de-
Communist          insurgency:                                                mands for. See Congressional                    de-
   Anti-aircraft          capability,      648, 686, 709                      mands for under Governmental                        re-
   Buddhist crisis and, 320                                                   form in Vietnam.
   Cambodian             sanctuaries,       439-440                  U.S. policy in Vietnam,                   hearings on,
   Casualties,          708                                                    113,390-392
   CIA assessment of, 647-648,681-682,                                U.S. sanctions against Diem regime,
           683-684                                                            hearings on, 378,430,446
   Combat hamlets, 644-645                                         Conlon, Thomas E, 588n, 710n, 719n
   Coup against Diem and, 523,530,                          544,   Cooper, Chester L., 217, 555, 680-684
           554                                                     Cottrell,      Sterling J., 704
   Defections         from, lOO-101,316                            Countercoup            operations:
   Defections         of South Vietnamese               to, 245,     Arrests of Generals,                possible, 36-37, 39
           247,248                                                    Fake Communist                 uprising, Nhu’s plan
   Demoralization               within,    85                                 for, 507n
   Felt’s assessment of, 664                                          Generals’          concerns re, 552
   Food supplies,             709                                     Nhu’s capabilities,              139
   Improved          combat-effectiveness,               707-         North Vietnamese                assistance for Diem,
            710                                                                34,50,55,         68
   Increased        activity,       99,419, 635-636,                  U.S. responses to various scenarios, 5,
           648,653,659,681-682,683-684,                                        49-52,56-57
            712                                                    Counterinsurgency                operations        (see also
   Infiltration        into Vietnam,          246, 324                    Strategic hamlet program;                   U.S. mili-
       Evidence         of, 639-640,        669, 725, 741-                tary assistance to Vietnam;                  U.S. mili-
               743                                                        tary involvement              in Vietnam):
       Materiel,        653, 659-660,         664                     Border security and surveillance,                      606-
       U.S. exposure             of, 743                                       607,653,661,664-665,                   702, 729-
       Waterways            used for, 725, 730, 751-                           730
               752                                                    Buddhist crisis, impact of, 247-248
   Intelligence          system, 709                                  Cambodian             sanctuaries,        actions against,
   Larger units, use of, 314-315                                               439-440,674-675,               701
   Manpower,             sources of, 708, 741-742                     Chuong’s           assessment of, 268-269
764        Index

Counterinsurgency              operations-                         Counterinsurgency               operations-
  Continued                                                          Continued
  CIA assessment of, 682-683                                         Mekong         Delta situation-Continued
  “Clear and hold” operations,                     677                   Troop deployments,                 401, 717, 723,
  Command          systems, 535,549                                              728-729
  Coup against Diem and, 544, 554,566.                                   Year-end        report on, 749-752
          567,575,684                                                Minh’s assessment of, 272-273
  Covert operations             against DRV, 699,                    “Oil spot” type operations,                  646
          702, 724-725,          729, 734                            Operational           intensity     level, 653, 660
  Crop destruction             and defoliation,          314,        Sects, recruitment             of, 597, 606, 646,
          448-449                                                            680, 717, 733, 736-737
  Deterioration         of military        effort, 422, 737          Summary           reports, 98-99,629-630
      State Department              analysis of, 418-                Taylor’s assessment of, 328-330
             419,582.586                                             Training        for Vietnamese,           338
  Financial concerns, 621-622                                        Waterways           control, 725, 730, 734
  500-pound        bombs for, 3 16-3 17                            Coup against Diem (see also Countercoup
  Government           instability,       impact of, 117-                operations;          Coup against Diem,
          118                                                            Generals’        plan for; Coup against
  Government           of Diem and Nhu and, 145                          Diem, U.S. policy toward):
  Governmental            reform in Vietnam               and,       Assassination            of Diem and Nhu, 556
          179
                                                                         Clarification          of events, U.S. demand
  Harkins’      assessment of, 266-268,                  612-                    for, 537,550-551
          613
                                                                         Conflicting          reports on, 531-533,559
  Helicopter       attacks, 156
                                                                         Don’s version, 569
  Improvements             demanded           by U.S., 369-
                                                                         Generals’        position,      546, 560,574
          370,375-376,438
                                                                         Kennedy’s           reaction, 533
      Harkins’      assessment of, 496-498,500
                                                                         Photographs            of bodies, 545,652
  Improvements             in military       posture, U.S.
                                                                         Suicide story, 527
          plan for, 677-678
                                                                     Communist            insurgency         and, 523, 530,
  Intelligence       operations,         676
                                                                             544,554
  Intensification         in critical provinces,            702,
          703                                                        Comparative             forces lineup, 475-476,
  Kill ratios, 720                                                           508-510,522
  Krulak’s      assessment of, 154, 156, 158                         Congress informed                of, 520-521,573
                                                                     Counterinsurgency                 operations      and, 544,
  Laos, operations            in, 639, 667-668,           699-
          700, 702, 724-725,             729, 734                            554,566-567,575,                684
      Laotian position,            739-740                           Diem-Lodge              conversation,        513-514
   “Leadership        by military         leaders”      issue,       Diem’s surrender,              525n
          722-723                                                    Discussions          in Washington           re, 518,
   Lodge’s assessment of, 421-423                                            519n
   Long An Province              situation,       687-689,           Initiation       of, 505
          714-715,       723                                         Johnson’s         assessment of, 636
   “Losing military           war” issue, 162-163,                   Lodge’s assessment of, 561-562
          164-166,       248-249, 260-261                            McNamara-Taylor                  mission assessment
   Martial law and, 9                                                        of coup possibility,            343-344
   McCone’s       assessment of, 738                                 Media speculation               about, 25-26
   McNamara-Taylor                mission recommen-                  Middle-grade             officers’ plan, 282,367
          dations, 337-339                                           Military       commanders’            support of coup,
  Media coverage of, 216-217                                                 529-530
  Mekong        Delta situation,           138-139,       165,       Minh’s assessment of, 564
          245-246,422,431,667,683,                      722          Negotiations            between Diem and Gener-
      Strategic hamlet program                   and, 165,                   als, 506,507,511,              512-513
             596-599                                                 Oct. 26 attempt, cancellation                  of, 423-
      Taylor’s assessment               of, 329                              424n, 427
Coup against Diem-Continued                                    Coup against Diem, Generals’                    plan for-
  Palace, attacks on, 511, 514, 522, 523,                         Continued
         534                                                      Postponement             of coup (Aug. 31)-
  Performance        of military       personnel,      534-              Continued
         535                                                         U.S. discussions            re, 70-71
  Popular response, 526, 528-529,                   543,          Security concerns, 456
         552-553,556                                              Stalemate,       possible, 488
  Prisoners taken, 506,507                                        Strategy meetings of Generals,                    40-41
  Proclamation        by Generals,         512                    Success, chances of:
  Prof. “Smith’s”         predictions,      293-295                  CIA assessment of, 475-476
  Propaganda        efforts by Generals,            521              Lodge’s assessment of, 453-455
  Spontaneous         coup, possible, 343-344                     Thuan and, 138
  Telegram      for Lodge from unknown                  per-      Troops’ support for, 273
         son, 1, 7                                                Units participating            in coup, 2, 451-452
  Thai’s endorsement            of, 114-l 15                      U.S. involvement,             avoidance        of, 449,
  Thao’s attempt, possible, 428-429,451,                                 450
         453                                                      U.S. knowledge             of various aspects, 491-
  Times of Vietnam reports on, 123, 124                                 493
  U.S. foreign policy, implication                for, 577-       U.S. military,        Generals’       contacts with,
         578                                                            419-420,427,431-432,433
  U.S. guidance for Generals,               524                  U.S. policy toward.              See Coup against
  U.S. nationals,       threat to, 530,544,553-                         Diem, U.S. policy toward.
         554                                                     U.S. to be provided              with final plans
  U.S. role:                                                            before commencement                   of coup, 28,
      Lodge’s assessment of, 577                                         29,424n,        434,435,450-451,455
      Rumors about, 588                                          U.S. updated on planning                   progress, 39,
Coup against Diem, Generals’                plan for,                   42, 291-292,354-355,365-367,
      219                                                               420,450-452,456-459
  Civilian involvement,            453,457,458-                Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:
         459, 462-463,        488-489,492                        Active encouragement                 of coup, 56,261
  Dinh’s participation,           451,453                        Assistance        for Generals,         4-5, 8, 16, 22,
  Dissident     elements’       support for, 477,                       487
         503-504                                                 Assurances          of support for Generals,             21-
  Government,         plans for, 250-251,489-                           22,24,26,28,29,32,                  42,56, 65-66,
         490,493                                                         70-71, 79-80
  Harkins’     assessment of, 23, 481-482                        Contacts with alternative                leaders, 379
  Implementation          of. See Coup against                   Contacts with Generals,                 102-103,       106,
         Diem.                                                          429, 430-431,437
  Inertia of Generals,         38, 400-401                       Contingency           planning,       49-52, 55-56
  Interim planning,          273, 291-292                        Coordination           between Saigon and
  Leadership       group, 240,420,           460-461,                   Washington,            12-14, 17
         492                                                     Covert operations,              30,150-153
  Lodge-Don         meeting,      449                            Deniability        concerns, 379,393,              429,435
  Loyalties of units and commanders,                     43-     “Diem as best leader” issue, 6, 8-9
         48                                                      Evacuation         planning,        1-2, 7-8,29, 32,
      CIA assessment of, 468                                            464
  McNamara-Taylor              mission assessment                Harkins’        meetings with Generals,               64-67
         of, 343                                                 Harkins’        position,      3, 11-15, 17,22, 23-
  Oct. 26 attempt, cancellation               of, 423-                  25
         424n, 427                                               Inertia of Generals,             concerns re, 38, 53,
  Positioning      of military      units, 461-462                      55-56, 63
  Postponement          of coup (Aug. 31), 64-67,                Instructions         to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473-476
         86-88                                                       Clarification        of, 500-502
      CIA assessment of, 92-93, 147-148                              Harkins’       response, 499
766       Index

Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward-                     Defense Intelligence             Agency (DIA), 582
   Continued                                               Defoliant       operations:
   Instructions       to Lodge (Oct. 29)-                      Authority       over, 448-449
           Continued                                           Diem’s assessment of, 314
       Lodge’s response, 484-488                           Diem. See Ngo Dinh Diem.
   Lansdale’s       involvement,        205-206,    240-   Dillon, C. Douglas, 4, 13, 26, 53, 100, 191,
           241                                                     217,358n
   Lodge’s authority          over U.S. operations,        Dingeman,         Maj. James W., 705
           30,460                                          Dinh. See Ton That Dinh, Maj. Gen.
   Meetings       in Washington         (Oct. 29), 468-    Dinh Thanh Bich, Capt., 399
           473                                             Dinh Van Phat, Lt. Col., 315,544
       Briefing papers for, 463-466                        Dirksen,      Everett M., 167
       Talking points for, 459-463                         Do Cao Tri, Maj. Gen., 126,147,                     158,247,
   Military      movements,        460, 464, 475                   451,461,512,562,712
   “Not thwart Generals’             plan” policy,         Do Hai, Capt., 533
           393,427,464                                     Do Khac Mai, Lt. Col., 509-510,543
       Lodge’s position,         367-368,     435-436      Do Mau, Col., 558
   Propertied       class, common cause with,              Do Vang Ly, 18,55n, 731
           357-358                                         Don. See Tran Van Don, Maj. Gen.
   Pros and cons of supporting               coup,         D’Orlandi,       Giovanni,        125, 140, 261n, 590,
           meetings on, l-9,468-473                                656
   Public posture once coup is in progress,                Du Phuoc Long, 503-504
           465,475,502                                     Dungan,        Ralph, 175, 518,593
   Suspension         of aid to encourage        a coup,   Duong Ngoc Lam, Col., 512,529
           21, 28-30,32-33,         176, 282-283,556       Duong Van Hieu, 399
       CIA assessment of, 206-207                          Duong Van Minh, Maj. Gen., 11,91,532
   Suspension         of coup, option for, 15-16,              Army of the Republic of Vietnam,                    reor-
           22, 35-36, 437                                             ganization      of, 604-605
   U.S. forces, possible use of, 29, 62, 165-                  Arrest of, possible, 36, 37
           166,249-251                                         Buddhist crisis, 327
   U.S. military,       Generals’      contacts with,          Cambodian         neutrality      issue, 697, 718
           433n                                                Chief of State position,            attitude toward,
   White House control of all communica-                              717
           tions, 467                                          Counterinsurgency             operations,       272-273
Couve de Murville,           Maurice,     388-390                 Border security and surveillance,                  607
Cronkite,      Walter, 82, 93-95                                   “Losing military         war” issue, 260-261
Crop destruction          program:                                 “Oil spot” type operations,               646
   Authority       over, 448-449                                  Sects, recruitment          of, 597,606,        717
   Diem’s assessment of, 314                                   Coup against Diem, 420,451,460,492
Cuu, 258,263                                                      Assassination        of Diem and Nhu, 560
                                                                  Assessment        of, 564
Dam Sy Hien, 399                                                  Diem’s surrender,           525n
Dang Due Khoi, Lt. Col., 44                                       Interim planning,          273, 290
Dang Van Sung, 453,462-463,488-490,                               Leadership       group, 240
      503                                                         Negotiations       with Diem, 512-513
Dao, Maj., 606                                                    Palace, attacks on, 514
Davis, Richard H., 59                                             Postponement           of (Aug. X), 65,86-88
De Buzon, Gen., 601n                                              Strategy meetings of Generals,                  40
De Gaulle, Charles:                                               U.S. updated on planning                 progress,
  Neutral solution     for Vietnam,     55, 60,                          365-367
         83,85, 94, 184, 389                                  Don and, 65
  Provisional    government      of Vietnam,                  Government          post under Diem, U.S.
         565, 568-569                                                 proposal for, 309
De la Boissiere, 409                                          Harkins’      assessment of, 274-275
Duong Van Minh, Maj. Gen-Continued                              Felt, Adm. Harry D.-Continued
   Inaugural      address, 748                                         208,222n,        225,258,274,379n,             403,
   Johnson’s      letter to, 745-747                                  409,414,424,43ln,                 437n, 442,449n,
   Leadership        qualities,       606-607                         450n, 453n, 456% 457n, 473n, 475n,
   Lodge, meeting with, 645-647                                       477n, 479n, 481,484n,                 488n, 496,
   Martial law, 273                                                   500n, 503n, 507n, 514-515,535n,
   McNamara’s          visit to Vietnam          (Dec.),              549n, 564,689n
          716-719                                                  Communist          insurgency,          664
   Ngo Dinh family, disposition                  following         Counterinsurgency                operations:
          coup, 560                                                   Border security and surveillance,                  653,
   Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV, 239                                       664-665
   Popularity       of, 545                                           Harkins’      assessment of, 266
   Province      chiefs, reorientation           of, 605-          Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
          606                                                              2, 14n, 20, 23n
   Provisional       government           of Vietnam,              Honolulu        meeting, 608n, 616, 624
          543                                                      Nhu’s removal            from power, possible,
      Arrests, 558, 651                                                    10, lln
      Cabinet position,            567                             Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, re-
      Discord among the Generals,                    557-558               vamping       of, 571-572
      Press relations,          712                             Ferguson,       John, 693
      Public relations efforts, 590, 718                        Flott, Frederick        W., 3 11
      U.S. “braintrust”            for, 646                     Forrestal,     Michael V., 1, 12, 26, 53, 63n,
   Republic of Vietnam               Armed Forces:                    70, 76n, 161, 171, 185, 190, 199, 217,
      Command          organization,          612, 716-717            269n, 356,358n,              370,398n
      Communist          infiltration,      645                    Buddhist crisis, U.N. investigation                 of,
   Security for, 23                                                        415
   Self Defense Corps, 718-719                                     Counterinsurgency               operations:
   Strategic hamlet program,                overhaul      of,         Cambodian           sanctuaries,        actions
         597,598,604,645-646                                                  against, 701
   Student protest movement,                   273,327                Laos, operations            in, 699-700
   Taylor, meeting with, 326-327                                   Coup against Diem, 518,519n
Dutton,     Frederick       G., 167,390-392                           Assassination           of Diem and Nhu,
                                                                             527n, 533
Economic       situation      in Vietnam      (see also            Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:
       Commodity          Import Program):                            Contacts with Generals,                 106n
   Budget deficit, 541, 618-619,              620, 630                Meetings       in Washington            (Oct. 29),
   Foreign exchange             earnings, 619                                468,472
   Tax collections,         616                                       Suspension         of aid to encourage          a
   U.S. assessment           of, 613-616                                     coup, 282,556
   U.S. program         for economic improve-                         U.S. forces, possible use of, 249n
          ment, 618-622,628,630,667,678-                           Governmental           reform in Vietnam:
          679                                                         Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
       Negotiations        re, 667, 678, 720                                 235-236,251
Eisenhower,        Dwight D., 692-693                                 Reconciliation          policy of U.S., 181-183
Elections in Vietnam,            253,263,303-305                      Suspension         of aid to Diem regime,
   Diem’s assessment of, 314                                                 174,275n
Evacuation       of U.S. dependents.           See under              U.S. negotiations            with Diem, 95,
       Coup against Diem, U.S. policy to-                                    104n
       ward; Governmental              reform in Viet-                U.S. package of sanctions                 and de-
      nam.                                                                   mands, 430
                                                                   Harkins,      media attacks on, 593,594,
Felt, Adm. Harry D., 63n, 64n, 66, 76n,                                   600n
      78n, 80, 84, 104n, 107, 108n, 109,                           Honolulu       meeting, 593-594,              608n
      128n, l31,137,140,194n,     195n, 203,                      International        conference          issue, 595
768     Index

Forrestal, Michael V.-Continued               Gilpatric, Roswell L., 1, 12, 69, 86n, 89n,
  Johnson’s letter to Minh, 745n                   90n,92n,  lOO,117,124n,    161,169,
  Kennedy’s television interview, 81               199,217,22On, 354n, 356,358n,
  Lodge’s resignation, 693                        456n, 457n,    557n
  Madame Nhu:                                   Countercoup operations, 36n, 39n
     U.S. campaign against, 591                 Counterinsurgency operations, 607n
     U.S. visit by, 283, 387                    Coup against Diem, 507n
  McNamara-Taylor mission, 284, 285,            Coup against Diem, Generals’ plan for,
       286                                           40n, 449n, 450n, 453n, 456n, 457n,
                                                     477n, 488n, 503n
     Diem’s perception of as sign of U.S.
          support, 256                          Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
                                                     14n
  McNamara’s visit to Vietnam (Dec.),
       700                                        Instructions to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,
                                                       475n,    484n, 500n
  Media coverage of Vietnam, 216-217,             Contingency planning, 56
       593,594,60On
                                                Governmental reform in Vietnam:
  Neutral solution for Vietnam, 100, 601,         Evacuation of U.S. dependents and,
       695n
                                                       187
  Special Group for Counterinsurgency,            Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
       704, 705                                        188,191
  Strategic hamlet program, 698-699               Suspension of aid to Diem regime,
  U.S. economic assistance to Vietnam:                 186
    Joint U.S.-Vietnamese policies, man-        Nhu’s removal from power, possible, 27
         agement of, 54 1 n                     Special Group for Counterinsurgency,
    Resumption of aid following coup,                704
         540n                                 Goburdhun, 125,258
   U.S. information programs and policies     Gore, Albert, 391
        in Vietnam, 175                       Government of Diem and Nhu:
   U.S. policy in Vietnam:                      Bureaucracy’s attitude toward, 144-145
      Conflicting viewpoints within admin-      Counterinsurgency operations and, 145
           istration, 235                       Military’s attitude toward, 117, 118,
      Reiteration of, 581-582, 592n, 599n             119,130
   Vietnam, Democratic Republic of, U.S.          Krulak’s report, 146, 154-160
        covert operations against, 699            Lodge’s reports, 144,171-172
   Vietnam visit, 698n                            Mendenhall’s report, 247
Fraleigh, Albert S., 617, 622                   Popular attitude toward, 71-72, 73-74,
France (see also Neutral solution for Viet-           130
      nam):                                       Country Team report, 269-271
   Cambodian neutrality issue, 662, 696           Lodge’s reports, 144, 145, 172
   Economic assistance to Vietnam, 615-           Mendenhall’s reports, 162,243-249
        616                                     Prof. “Smith’s” comments on, 293-295
   Laos and, 81,83                              Thuan’s assessment of, 137-140
   Provisional government of Vietnam:           Totalitarian measures, 294, 301,302,
                                                    357-358,392,399-400,402,       412,
      Recognition of, 601
                                                    494
      Relations with, 630
                                                U.S. fact-finding mission re. See Kru-
      U.S. recognition of, 565-566, 568              lak-Mendenhall mission.
   Truce proposal for Vietnam, 692              World opinion on, 210-211
Frelinghuysen, Peter H. B., 379n              Governmental reform in Vietnam:
Friendly, Al, 283                               Bureaucrats’ support for, 301-303
Fulbright, J. William, 351, 391,520-521         Buu Hoi’s recommendations, 333-334,
                                                    348-349
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 176                    Chuong’s position, 268-269
Giang, 578-579                                  CIA proposal for, 201-202
Governmental          reform in Vietnam-                        Governmental          reform in Vietnam-
  Continued                                                       Continued
  Congressional            demands for, 113, 129n,                Reconciliation           policy of U.S., 181-183,
          141n, 258                                                      219-220,235-236
     Administration            concerns, 188                         Hilsman’s        proposal         for, 221-225
      Hearings       on, 192                                         Krulak’s      assessment of, 242-243
      Senate resolution,           development          of,          McNamara-Taylor                  mission assess-
             166-169                                                        ment of, 345
  Counterinsurgency              operations        and, 179       Structure     and composition                of govem-
  Diem’s acquiescence               to, 5 17                             ment, U.S. proposals                for, 308-310
  Diem’s resistance to, 317-321,                  398-399,        Suspension        of aid to Diem regime (see
          559-560                                                        also Congressional              demands for
  Evacuation        of U.S. dependents             and,                  above), 104, 116, 118, 141, 152,
          173, 187, 192-193,             194,200,     227                163,164,196,357
  Failure, consequences                of, 117                       Backup distribution               system, 189
  Generals       in cabinet positions,            64, 66,            Cash resources for direct aid to prov-
          127,239,291-292,355,400                                           inces, 276,307
  Generals’       support for, 92                                    Control      of suspensions            given to
  Kennedy’s        endorsement            of, 93-94                         Lodge, 215-216,252-253
  Kennedy’s        letter to Diem, 192, 200, 231.                    Diem’s concerns re, 414,515
          234,287-290                                                Diem’s response, U.S. speculation                       re,
  Lodge-Diem           meetings re, 140-143,437-                            356-357
          439,441-446                                                Hilsman’s        proposal,         228,229-230
  Lodge-Nhu           meeting re, 84-85                              Impacts of suspensions,                  306,307,
  McNamara-Taylor                mission meeting                            368-369,400,403
         with Diem re, 317-321                                       Lodge’s proposal,               108,171-174,176
  McNamara-Taylor                mission recommen-                   McNamara-Taylor                  mission recom-
          dations, 338-339,            340-343                              mendations,             338,340-341
  Mecklin’s       position,      149-150                             Negative       consequences,             possible,
  Political Consultative             Council, pro-                          186,363-364
         posed, 309,310                                              Programs        to be affected, 261-262,
  Political pressure weapons of U.S., 180-                                  271-272, 275-277,               290-291, 299,
          181                                                               306-308,340-341,360-363,373
  Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for (see                             Resumption            of aid, conditions          for,
         also U.S. package of sanctions and                                 477-479,482-484
         demands         below):                                     Supporting         analysis re, 360-364
      Discussions        in Washington          re, 185-             Time needed for effectiveness,                     305-
             193, 199-201                                                   306
      Hilsman’s       proposal        for, 221-222,      225-        U.S. public statements                on, 306,351
             230                                                  Suspension        of paramilitary            assistance,
      Instructions        for Lodge, 195-198,202,                        341-342
             251,252.254                                          Tho’s position,          321-322
     Krulak’s      assessment of, 242-243                         Thuan’s position,             301-303
      Lodge’s assessment of, 203, 260-264,                        U.S. disassociation             from Nhu, 189
             265                                                  U.S. negotiations            with Diem:
     McNamara-Taylor                 mission assess-                 Discussions         in Washington            re, 70, 71-
             ment of, 345-346                                               74
     Presidential         decision on, 235-236,                      Instructions         for Lodge, 75-79,95-98,
             252-254                                                        104-106, 108-109,               117, 119-120,
     Publicity      re, 254                                                 121, 128-129
  Prime Ministership,             creation of, 84                    Lodge-Diem             meeting, 140-143
  Propaganda          efforts by U.S., 300-301,                      Lodge’s position,              67, 80-81, 107-108,
         342,359                                                            109-110
  Psychological          efforts by U.S., 340                     U.S. objectives,          177-180
770        Index

Governmental          reform in Vietnam-                        Harkins,      Gen. Paul D.-Continued
   Continued                                                      Counterinsurgency                 operations-
   U.S. package of sanctions and demands                                  Continued
          (see also Suspension             of aid to Diem              Government             instability,       impact of,
          regime above):                                                      117-118
      Congressional           inquiries      re, 378,430,              Improvements              demanded           by U.S.,
              446                                                             496-498,500
      Development            of, 345-346,350-354,                      Mekong       Delta situation,              431
              356-357,358.359                                          Operational          intensity       level, 660
      Effects of, 576-578                                              Summary          reports, 99
      “Explosion”         resulting       from, Mc-               Country        Team role, 381-382
              Cone’s warning,            406-407                  Coup against Diem, 505
      Harkins’s      assessment of, 481                                Assassination            of Diem and Nhu, 569
      Instructions       for Lodge, 371-379                            Reports on, 522-523,528-531,534-
      Lodge’s assessment of, 383,385-386                                      535,542-545,552-554
      Lodge’s progress reports, 396-397,                          Coup against Diem, Generals’ plan for,
              401-403,       409-413,       423-424,     493-              24
              495,575-578                                              Assessment          of, 23,481-482
      Lodge’s reports, Harkins’                contribu-               Oct. 26 attempt, cancellation                    of, 424n,
              tions to, 496-498                                               427
      Military     actions. See Improvements                           Postponement              of coup (Aug. 31), 64-
              demanded          by U.S. under                                 66
              Counterinsurgency              operations.               U.S. military,          Generals’        contacts with,
      Political actions, 376-377,               385-386                       427,431-432,433
      Presentation         to Diem, 369-370, 374-                 Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:
              375, 437-439,         441-446                            Assurances         of support for Generals,
      Public statements            on, 370, 371,378,                          28, 29, 32,42
              384                                                      Deniability        concerns, 429
      Supporting        analysis re, 360-364                           Instructions        to Lodge (Oct. 29), 499
      U.S.-Vietnamese             relations, 377                       “Not thwart Generals’                  plan” policy,
Green, Marshall,          266                                                 427
Greene, Graham,             402                                       Position on, 3, 11,12,17,22,23-25
Gregory,       Ann, 123n, 124,548                                      Suspension          of aid to encourage              a
                                                                              coup, 32-33
Ha Van Vuong, 557                                                      Suspension          of coup, option for, 437n
Halberstam,         David, 102, 112, 216, 218,                    Diem-Harkins               contact on military            mat-
      237,277.278,364,444n,                   593,600n                    ters, 86
Hannah,         Norman        B., 538n, 704-705                   Generals’        attitude toward, 593,594,
Harbin, William            A., 749n                                       600,602
Harkins,       Betty, 523                                         Governmental               reform in Vietnam:
Harkins,       Gen. Paul D.:                                          Evacuation          of U.S. dependents               and,
  Buddhist         crisis, 194-195                                            194
  Communist            insurgency:                                    U.S. package of sanctions and de-
      Increased activity,            659                                      mands, 379,481
      Infiltration        of materiel,      659-660               Honolulu         meeting, 612-613,616-617,
  Congressional             attitude toward, 447                          618,624
  Counterinsurgency                 operations:                   Krulak-Mendenhall                   mission:
      Assessment           of, 266-268, 612-613                       Interview        with Krulak,           160
      Border security and surveillance,                661            Krulak’s meetings with military,                        146
      Cambodian            sanctuaries,       actions             Lodge, communication                     with, 455-456,
              against, 439-440                                            479-481,        732-733
      Command            systems, 535,549                         McNamara-Taylor                   mission, Diem’s
      Coup against Diem and, 566-567, 575                                 meeting with, 311,315,                    317
      XX-pound           bombs for, 3 17                          Media attacks on, 593,594,                       600
                                                                                                            Index          771

Harkins,       Gen. Paul D.-Continued                               Harriman,        W. Averell-Continued
   Minh,      assessment of, 274-275                                   Coup against Diem, U.S. policy
   Nhu’s      removal         from power, possible,                           toward-Continued
          10-11, 23-24, 25, 214                                            Pros and cons of supporting                  coup, 4,
   Provisional         government            of Vietnam,                          5,6
          531                                                          Governmental            reform in Vietnam:
       Province       chiefs and, 535, 550, 554,                           Kennedy’s        letter to Diem re, 287n
              564-565,612,            613                                 Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
   Public works program,                   Vietnamese,        315                 200,251,252n
   Replacement,             CIA assessment of, 602-                        Structure      and composition             of govem-
          603                                                                     ment, 308n
   Republic of Vietnam                Armed Forces:                       U.S. negotiations             with Diem, 97-98,
       Command             organization,          612                             108n, 128n
       Paramilitary          forces, training          for, 660           U.S. package of sanctions                 and de-
       Revamping            of, 570-571                                          mands, 371n, 430
   Strategic hamlet program:                                           International         conference         on Vietnam,
                                                                              proposed,        706n
       Identification           of Communists            in ham-
              lets, 617                                                Krulak-Mendenhall                  mission, 146
                                                                       Lodge, meetings with, 633, 634, 665n
       Medical services, 623
                                                                       Lodge assassination               threats, 394, 395n
       Overhaul         of, 618
                                                                       Madame         Nhu’s U.S. visit, 283
   U.S. military          involvement           in Vietnam,
                                                                       McNamara-Taylor                 mission, 251, 256
          652-653
                                                                       Minh, Harkins’            assessment of, 274n
Harriman,        W Averell,          26, 64n, 69, 89n,
                                                                       Neutral solution for Vietnam:
       90n, 92n, 124n, l61,190,194n,                       209,
                                                                          Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV,
       266n, 269n, 335n, 356,358n,                      368,
                                                                                 204,219
      456n, 457n, 549n, 564n, 663n
                                                                          U.S. position,          695n, 710n
   Cambodian           neutrality        issue, 661
                                                                       Provisional        government           of Vietnam:
   Communist            insurgency,          741
                                                                          U.S. recognition            of, 565n
   Countercoup             operations,        36n, 39n
                                                                          Year-end        assessment of, 753
   Counterinsurgency                operations,         607n
                                                                       Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces,
      Cambodian             sanctuaries,         actions                      571n
              against, 701
                                                                       Special Group for Counterinsurgency,
      Improvements               demanded          by U.S.,                   704
              500
                                                                       United Nations, political proposals                   re
      Mekong         Delta situation,            749                          Vietnam,        331,332n
   Coup against Diem, 507n, 519n, 522n,                                U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission, selection
          523n, 552n                                                          of, 665-666
      Assassination             of Diem and Nhu, 527n                  U.S. policy in Vietnam:
      Thai’s endorsement                 of, 114-115                      Conflicting        viewpoints         within admin-
   Coup against Diem, Generals’                       plan for,                  istration,       235
          40n, 431n, 433n, 449n, 450n, 453n,                              NSC-endorsed              policy, 350
          456n, 457n, 477n, 488n, 503n                                 Vietnam,       Democratic           Republic of,
  Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,                                      Lodge’s plan for neutralization                of,
          14n, 212n                                                           634,656
      Coordination             between Saigon and                   Helble, John J., 130, 562-563
              Washington,            13-14                          Helms, Richard,           1, 7, 12, 64t1, 70, 117,
      “Diem as best leader” issue, 6,9                                    266n, 449n, 450n, 453n, 456n, 457n,
      Harkins’       position,        13                                  477n, 484n, 488n, 500n, 503n, 507n,
      Instructions          to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,                     549n, 564n, 663n
              475n, 484n, 500n                                         Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
      Lansdale’s         involvement,            241                          14n, 30,468
      Meetings        in Washington              (Oct. 29),            Nhu’s removal            from power, possible, 54
              459n,463n,           471,472                          Henderson,        Greg, 236
772        Index

Hickenlooper,         Bourke B., 390-391,              586        Hilsman,        Roger, Jr.-Continued
Hien. See Nguyen            Huu Hien, Col.                           Government            of Diem and Nhu, popular
Higgins, Marguerite,             119, 168, 551, 560~                        attitude toward,            71-72,269-271
Hightower,       103-104                                              Governmental            reform in Vietnam:
Hilsman,      Roger, Jr., 2, 6-7, 12, 15n, 18,                           Congressional            demands for, 166-169
      26n, 32n, 33~ 63n, 64n, 78n, 85n,                                  Evacuation         of U.S. dependents            and,
      86n, 89n, 90n, 92n, ll7,124n,                    144,                      200
      194% 266n, 335,356,35Sn,                     406,                  Kennedy’s         letter to Diem, 231n, 287n
      456n, 549n, 550n, 564n, 663n, 666                                  Political pressure weapons                 of U.S.,
    Buu Hoi, meeting with, 332-334                                               180-181
    Cambodian         neutrality      issue, 641                         Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
    Congressional         hearings on Vietnam,                                   188-189,        l90,195n,       196n, 221-
          113                                                                    222,225-230,236,251,265
    Countercoup         operations,        36n, 39n, 49-                 Reconciliation           policy of U.S., 219-
          52                                                                     220,221-225
    Counterinsurgency              operations,       607n                Structure      and composition            of govem-
      Crop destruction            and defoliation,          448                  ment, 308n
      Kill ratios, 720                                                   Suspension          of aid to Diem regime,
                                                                                 116,118,27Sn,             290n
    Coup against Diem, 507n, 519n, 522n,
                                                                         U.S. disassociation             from Nhu, 189
          523n, 552n
                                                                         U.S. negotiations            with Diem, 71-72,
      Congressional           testimony        re, 573
                                                                                 75-76,95,97-98,             104n, lOEn,
      Media speculation              about, 25-26
                                                                                 1 lOn, 128n
      Propaganda          efforts by Generals,            521n
                                                                         U.S. package of sanctions and de-
    Coup against Diem, Generals’                   plan for,
                                                                                 mands, 371n
          40n, 419n, 431n, 433n, 449n, 450n,
                                                                     International         conference         on Vietnam,
          453n, 456n, 457n, 477n, 488n, 503n
                                                                            proposed,         706n
      U.S. knowledge             of various aspects,
                                                                     Johnson’s letter to Minh, 745n
             491
                                                                     Kennedy’s         television       interview,      81
    Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
                                                                     Krulak-Mendenhall                  mission:
          14n, 212n
                                                                         Krulak’s meetings with military,                   146
      Active encouragement                 of coup, 56
                                                                         Mendenhall’s            report, 243
      Assistance       for Generals,          4, 8
                                                                         Plan and objectives,              130n
      Assurances         of support for Generals,                    Lodge, meeting with, 632-634
             28,56, 71, 79
                                                                     Madame          Nhu’s U.S. visit, 387
      Contacts with Generals,                 103, 106n              McNamara’s            visit to Vietnam (Dec.),
      Coordination          between Saigon and                              702n
             Washington,           17n                               Minh, Harkins’             assessment of, 274n
      Covert operations,             30                              Neutral solution for Vietnam:
      “Diem as best leader” issue, 9                                    French position,             100
      Instructions       to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,                      Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV,
             475n, 484n, 500n                                                    111
      Meetings       in Washington            (Oct. 29),                Partition      issue, 264
             459,472                                                    U.S. position,           695n, 710n
      “Not thwart Generals’                plan” policy,             Ngo Dinh family, disposition                   following
             367n                                                           coup, 560n
      Propertied       class, common            cause with,          Nhu’s removal             from power, possible,
             357                                                            31,54,135,334
      Pros and cons of supporting                  coup, 4,          Provisional        government           of Vietnam:
             5, 6                                                       Council of Sages, 720
      Suspension         of aid to encourage            a               Foreign relations,             538n
             coup, 282-283                                              U.S. recognition             of, 519n, 525n, 536n,
      U.S. forces, possible use of, 29                                          565n
   Economic       situation       in Vietnam,         720               Year-end        assessment of, 753n
                                                                                                              Index          773

Hilsman,        Roger, Jr.-Continued                               Imhof, Johannes V., 59,388,565n
    Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces,                              India, 211
           571n                                                    International      conference    on Cambodia.
    Richardson’s         transfer from Vietnam,                           See Neutrality     issue under Cambodia.
           364n                                                    International      conference    on Vietnam,     pro-
    Strategic hamlet program,                   642                       posed, 592-593,595,599-600,706
    Tri Quang, exile for, 218                                      International      Control Commission        (ICC),
    United Nations,             political proposals           re          408-409,655
           Vietnam,         331-332
    U.S. economic assistance to Vietnam:                           Janow, Seymour            J., 116, 169,189,          190,
       Joint U.S.-Vietnamese                 policies, man-               217,275n,        290n, 356,358n,            540n,
              agement of, 541n                                            541n, 620
       Resumption            of aid following           coup,      Japan, 622
              540n                                                 John XXIII, Pope, 348
    U.S. information              programs       and policies      Johnson, Lyndon             B., 1, 13,53, 68,368,
           in Vietnam,           193                                      698
    U.S. military        involvement           in Vietnam,            CIA Station Chief, selection of, 651n
           407,640-641                                                Counterinsurgency              operations,       419
    U.S. policy in Vietnam:                                           Coup against Diem, assessment of, 636
       All-agency          review, 684, 685n                          Governmental            reform in Vietnam,              74,
       NSAM         273,637n                                                  95
       Objectives        (Sept. 1963), 177-180                        Lodge, letter of support to, 744
       Reiteration         of, 592, 599n                              Lodge, meeting with, 627-631,635-637
Ho Chi Minh, 60, 85, 296, 388, 642                                    Lodge’s resignation,             692
Ho Tan Quyen,              Capt., 46,506,522                          McNamara’s           visit to Vietnam (Dec.),
Ho Tieu, Maj., 507                                                            690
Hoa Hao sect, 597, 606, 612, 646, 680,                                    McCone’s        report, 735
        717, 733, 736-737                                                 McNamara’s           report, 732
Hoang Van Lac, Col., 138,163,214,246                                  Military     Assistance Command,                  Viet-
Hodges, 515                                                                   nam, officers assigned to, 651, 679
Honolulu         meeting:                                             Minh, letter to, 745-747
    Bundy’s summary                 of, 625-626                       Neutral solution           for Vietnam,         746
    Discussion        memorandum,               608-624               Presidency,        627
    Preparations          for, 593-594                                Provisional       government           of Vietnam,
Hughes, Thomas L., 456n                                                       U.S. “braintrust”          for, 650
    Counterinsurgency                 operations,        607n         Social reforms in Vietnam,                attitude to-
        Deterioration           of military      effort, 418-                 ward, 636-637
               419,582-584                                            Truce in Vietnam,            proposal for, 691
    Coup against Diem, 507n                                           U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission, selection
    Coup against Diem, Generals’                       plan for,              of, 650,693
            449n, 450n,453n,              456n, 457n,                 U.S. Mission in Vietnam,                military      man
            477n, 488n, 503n                                                  as Ambassador           and military        com-
    Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:                                    mander,      739
        Assurances          of support for Generals,               Johnson, U. Alexis, 269n
               79-80                                                  Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
        Instructions         to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,                        459n, 463n, 468,472
               475n, 484n, 500n                                       McNamara-Taylor                mission, 255n, 256
    Neutral solution             for Vietnam,         184             U.S. policy in Vietnam,               684
    Nhu, problems              caused by, 212-215                  Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) (see also Taylor,
    Nhu’s anti-American                 campaign,         122-            Gen. Maxwell           D.), 119, 379n
            123                                                       Counterinsurgency               operations,       566,
Huynh Van Cao, Brig. Gen., 48,91,138-                                         653,663
        139,155,550                                                       Deterioration         of military     effort, 582,
Huynh Van Lang, 40,428,558,713                                                   583,585
774       Index

Joint Chiefs of Staff-Continued                                  Kennedy,       John F.-Continued
   Coup against Diem, 14% 528,542,552                              Coup against Diem, U.S. policy
Joint Committee    on Economic      Policy, 667                           toward-Continued
Jones, Col. Raymond,       326, 327n, 419-420                          Pros and cons of supporting                coup, 2,
Jorden, William,   687, 741-743,     753-758                                   3, 4, 5
                                                                       Suspension         of aid to encourage         a
Karydakis,       Mabel, 116n                                                   coup, 28,30
Kattenburg,       Paul M., 18, 133~ 269n,                              Suspension         of coup, option for, 35-
       332n, 437~1                                                             36,437
   Coup against Diem, Generals’                     plan for,          U.S. forces, possible use of, 29, 62
          462-463                                                      White House control of all communi-
       Postponement            of coup (Aug. 31), 70-                          cations, 467
              71                                                    Diem, letter to, 192, 200, 231-234,287-
       U.S. knowledge            of various aspects,                       290
              491-493                                               Governmental           reform in Vietnam:
   Crop destruction            and defoliation,          448-          Congressional          demands        re, 166, 167,
          449                                                                  192
   Governmental            reform in Vietnam,             71,          Endorsement           of, 93-94
                                                                       Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
           73-74
   Madame         Chuong,        meeting with, 237-                            191,192,193,252,254,260,262
                                                                       Suspension         of aid to Diem regime,
           238
                                                                                104, 116, 271, 351,368-369
    U.S. military       involvement          in Vietnam,
                                                                       U.S. negotiations          with Diem, 78,95,
           407-409
                                                                               97,120,121,128n
    Vietnam visit, 698n
                                                                       U.S. package of sanctions and de-
Kaysen, Carl, 175, 720
                                                                               mands, 369,371,396,423,493,
Kennedy,        John F., 32n, 33n, 66% 398n
                                                                               575
    Assassination,         627, 648
                                                                    Krulak-Mendenhall               mission:
    Countercoup          operations,       39n
                                                                       Briefing on, 162
    Counterinsurgency              operations:
                                                                        Krulak’s meetings with military,                 146
       Improvements            demanded           by U.S.,          Lodge, congratulations              for, 579-580
               369
                                                                    Lodge’s appointment               as Ambassador,
       Lodge’s assessment of, 421                                           94-95
        “Losing military          war” issue, 165                   Lodge’s U.S. visit at end of October,
        Summary        reports, 98                                          proposed,       397n
    Coup against Diem, 519n                                          Madame         Nhu:
        Assassination         of Diem and Nhu, 533                      Silencing      of, 191, 192
        Media speculation            about, 25-26                       U.S. campaign           against, 591n
    Coup against Diem, Generals’                     plan for,          U.S. visit by, 167
           43                                                        McNamara-Taylor              mission, 254
    Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:                              Meetings       in Washington          re, 280-282
        Assistance       for Generals,        4, 8                      Diem’s perception            of mission as sign
        Assurances         of support for Generals,                             of U.S. support,        255n, 256-257
               28                                                       Military      appraisal as purpose of, 278-
        Contacts with alternative                leaders, 379                   279
        Contacts with Generals,                103                      Report of, 336
        Coordination          between       Saigon and               Media coverage of Vietnam:
               Washington,          12-14, 17                           Communications             with Diem re, 232,
        Covert operations,           30                                         233
        “Diem as best leader” issue, 8                                  Displeasure        with, ill-112,116,281
        Evacuation         planning,      8,29                       Minh, Harkins’          assessment of, 274n
        Harkins’     position,       13, 17                          Neutral solution          for Vietnam,       81,83,
        Meetings      in Washington             (Oct. 29),                  94,100,389
               468,469,470,471,472-473                               Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV, 111
                                                                                                            Index          775

Kennedy,        John E-Continued                                Krulak, Maj. Gen. Victor H.-Continued
   Nhu’s      removal         from power, possible,                 Counterinsurgency               operations-
           38n, 135                                                        Continued
        Administration            discussions      re, 28,30,          “Losing      military       war” issue, 164, 165
              31                                                    Coup against Diem, 507n, 519
        Media reports on, 103-104                                   Coup against Diem, Generals’                     plan for,
        U.S. campaign            against Nhu, 163, 164                     40% 449n, 450n, 453n, 456n, 457n,
    Richardson’s          transfer from Vietnam,                           477n, 488n, 503n
           364n                                                     Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:
    Strategic hamlet program,                  237, 277                Instructions        to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,
    Television       interview,         78, 93-95                             475n, 484n, 499n, 500n
        Preparation         for, 81-83                                 Meetings      in Washington             (Oct. 29),
        Vietnamese          response, 102                                     468,472
    U.S. military        involvement           in Vietnam,             “Not thwart Generals’                plan” policy,
           351                                                                367n
    U.S. policy in Vietnam:                                         Governmental            reform in Vietnam,              235-
        NSAM        263,396                                                236
        NSC-endorsed             policy, 350,351,         352          Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
        Reiteration        of, 581n, 599                                      242-243
Kennedy,         Robert E, 13, 100, 118, 119,                          Reconciliation           policy of U.S., 242-243
         161,190,199                                                   U.S. package of sanctions and de-
   Countercoup            operations,       5                                 mands, 357-358,496n
   Coup against Diem, 5,470,519                                    Lodge-Ha&ins               relationship,        479n
   Governmental              reform in Vietnam:                    McNamara-Taylor                  mission, 284, 285
        Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,                         McNamara’s           visit to Vietnam            (Dec.),
               188,252n                                                    703, 721-727
        U.S. package of sanctions and de-                          Media coverage of Vietnam,                    216
              mands, 359
                                                                   Nhu’s removal            from power, possible,
   Special Group for Counterinsurgency,                                   214
           704
                                                                   Special Group for Counterinsurgency,
Kent, Col. J.R., 758
                                                                          704
Khang. See Le Nguyen                  Khang, Lt. Col.
                                                                   U.S. policy in Vietnam,                684, 685n
Khanh. See Nguyen                 Khanh, Maj. Gen.
                                                                Krulak-Mendenhall                mission:
Khiem. See Tran Thien Khiem, Gen.
                                                                   Briefing for administration                 officials,
Khuong. See Nguyen                 Khuong,       Col.
                                                                           161-167
Kim. See Le Van Kim, Brig. Gen.
                                                                   Groups to be interviewed,                  133
Kleiman,       Bob, 594-595
                                                                   Krulak’s meetings with military,                     146
Komer, Robert W, 146
                                                                   Krulak’s report, 153-160
Korea, Republic of, 236
                                                                   Mendenhall’s           report, 144-145,243-249
Koren, Henry L. T., 130n, 358n, 523n,
       527n, 565n, 593,684,695n,                   719n            Plan and objectives,              130, 134-135
Krulak, Maj. Gen. Victor H. (see also Kru-                         Proposal for, 119
       lak-Mendenhall              mission),      1, 7-8,14n,   Ky. See Nguyen           Cao Ky, Lt. Col.
       26n, 53, 63% 64n, 69, 89n, 90n, 92n,
        lOO,124n,,         169, 185,190,201,220,                La. See Nguyen      Van La, Gen.
       269n, 356,456n,             457n, 583                    Lat. See Hoang Van Lac, Col.
   Buddhist crisis, 194                                         Lalouette,    Roger, 58-59,67,    89, 11 In, 240,
   Congressional            visit to Vietnam,         446-447         326
   Countercoup            operations,       36n, 39n            Lam. See Pham Dang Lam.
   Counterinsurgency                operations,       607n,     Lansdale, Maj. Gen. Edward G., 163, 205,
           653n                                                       241, 757
       Government            instability,     impact of,        Laos, 60
              117-118                                              Borders, cooperation      with Vietnam re,
       Harkins’       assessment of, 266                                 606-607
776       Index

Laos-Continued                                                -edge, Henry Cabot, Jr.-Continued
   Counterinsurgency              operations       in, 639,      Assassination         threats against, 394-395,
          667-668,699-700,              702, 724-725,                  399,443,517
          729, 734                                               Buddhist crisis:
      Laotian position,           739-740                          Concessions           by government,            412
   French presence in, 81, 83                                      Sanctuary         for bonzes at U.S. Em-
   Vietnam,       Republic of, relations with,                             bassy, 136-137,548
          539-540,630,675                                          United Nations investigation                    of, 442-
Lausche, Frank, 111,129,14ln,                    391                       443,495
Le Nguyen        Khang, Lt. Col., 45, 159,428,                     U.S. involvement,              alleged, 516
      506,508,512                                                Bundy’s assessment of, 625
Le Quang Trieu, Maj., 424-425                                    Cambodian         neutrality        issue, 654-655,
Le Quang Tung, Col., 7, 19, 41, 45, 164,                               661-663,697-698
      188,230,292,341,570                                        Commodity          Import Program:
   Capture of, 506,507,513                                         Political abuses, elimination                  of, 482-
   Special Forces, subordination                 to Joint                  484
          General      Staff, 424-426                              Resumption            of U.S. payment,           477-
Le Thanh Nhut, Maj., 315                                                   479
Le Van Dong, 55 7                                                Communist         insurgency,           323
Le Van Kim, Brig. Gen., 42,90,355                                Congressional           attitude toward, 447
   Arrest of, possible, 36-37                                    Congressional           hearings on Vietnam,
   Cambodia,        646                                                113
      Neutrality       issue, 697, 731                           Countercoup           operations,        68
   Counterinsurgency              operations,        607         Counterinsurgency               operations:
   Coup against Diem, 420, 451, 461,492,                           Cambodian            sanctuaries,        actions
          512                                                              against, 439
      Assassination           of Diem and Nhu, 546                 Improvements               demanded        by U.S.,
      Postponement             of (Aug. 31), 86-88                         438
      U.S. assurances of support,                80                Intensification           in critical provinces,
   Diem-Nhu         relationship,         213                              703
   Government          post under Diem, U.S.                       Long An Province situation,                    71471
          proposal       for, 309                                  “Losing       military       war” issue, 260-261
   McNamara’s           visit to Vietnam         (Dec.),           Minh’s assessment of, 272-273
          716                                                      Progress report, 421-423
   Provisional       government          of Vietnam,             Country     Team role, 382
          553                                                    Coup against Diem, 505
      Arrests, 547                                                 Assassination           of Diem and Nhu, 527,
      Civilian administrators,              457, 546-547                  531-533,537,546,559,560
      Press relations,          548                                Assessment           of, 561-562
      Purges of Diem personnel,                 548                Diem, conversation                with, 513-514
   Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces,                               Reports on, 506-507,511,513-514,
          unity of commanders,               547                          526
   Tri Quang, release from U.S. Embassy,                           Telegram        from unknown              person, 1, 7
          548                                                      U.S. foreign policy, implication                   for,
Le Van Nghiem,             Brig. Gen., 90, 144, 239,                      577-578
      247,420,544,553,570                                          U.S. role, assessment of, 577
Leatherman,        Mildred,       204n, 251n, 256n,              Coup against Diem, Generals’ plan for,
      430n                                                             273
LeMay,      Gen. Curtis, 194n, 535~1                               Bui Diem, meeting with, 456-457
Lippmann,        Walter, 100, 695, 731                             Civilian involvement,                488-489
Lockhart,      Frank I?, 706n                                      Dissident       elements’         support for, 477,
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr., 206,209                                          503-504
   Agricultural       situation       in Vietnam,       622        Don, meeting with, 449
   Ambassadorship,              desire for, 94-95                  Dung, meeting with, 457-459
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr.-Continued                               Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr.-Continued
  Coup against Diem, Generals’                      plan          Governmental             reform in Vietnam-
          for-Continued                                                   Continued
      Postponement             of coup (Aug. 31), 66-                 Diem’s acquiescence               to, 517
              67                                                      Evacuation         of U.S. dependents           and,
      Stalemate,        possible, 488                                        173
      Success, chances of, 453-455                                    Kennedy’s         letter to Diem re, 287n
      U.S. to be provided              with final plans               Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
              before commencement                   of coup,                 195, 198, 202, 203, 225, 252,
              435                                                            260-264,265
   Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,                             Propaganda           efforts by U.S., 300-301,
           14n, 212                                                          342
      Active encouragement                  of coup, 261              Reconciliation           policy of U.S., 222
      Assistance        for Generals,          16, 22,487             Structure       and composition           of govem-
      Assurances          of support for Generals,                           ment, 308
              32                                                      Suspension          of aid to Diem regime,
      Authority       over operations,             30,460                    108, 141, 171-174, 176, 196, 215-
      Contacts with alternative                  leaders, 379                216,252,261-262,271-272,275,
      Contacts with Generals,                  106, 429,                     290, 299,305-308,414,477-479,
              430-431,437                                                    482-484,515
      Coordination           between Saigon and                       U.S. negotiations             with Diem, 67,76,
              Washington,            17                                      78, 80-81,95,           104, 107-108,       109-
      Deniability         concerns, 379, 393, 429,                            110,128
              435                                                     U.S. package of sanctions and de-
      Evacuation          planning,        2                                 mands, 371,383,384,385-386,
      Inertia of Generals,              concerns re, 38,                     396-397,401-403,409-413,423-
               63                                                            224, 437,441-446,493-495,575-
      Instructions         to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473,                          578
               484-488,       500,502n                             Harkins,      Gen. Paul D.:
      Lansdale’s         involvement,           request for,          Communication               with, 455-456,479-
               205-206                                                       481, 732-733
       “Not thwart Generals’                 plan” policy,            Media attacks on, 600
               367-368,       393,427,435-436
                                                                      Replacement            of, 602-603
       Suspension          of aid to encourage            a
                                                                   Harriman,        meetings with, 633,634,
               coup, 21,32-33,282-283
                                                                          665n
       Suspension          of coup, option for, 15-
                                                                   Hilsman,       meeting with, 632-634
               16,22,35,36n,             437
                                                                   Honolulu       meeting,         608-611,617,622
   Diem, assessment of, 442
                                                                   Johnson, meeting with, 635-637
   Diem, meetings with, 18-20, 140-143,
                                                                   Johnson’s       letter of support,         744
           515-517
                                                                   Johnson’s       letter to Minh, 745-747
       U.S. package of sanctions and de-
               mands, discussion             of, 437-439,          Kennedy’s         congratulations         for, 579-580
               441-446                                             Krulak, interview            with, 160
   Elections in Vietnam,                263                        Lalouette,       meeting with, 58-59
   Government             of Diem and Nhu:                         Lam, meeting with, 586-588
       Bureaucracy’s           attitude toward,          144       Madame        Nhu:
       Military’s     attitude toward,             144, 171-           Silencing of, 208
               172                                                     U.S. visit by, 414
       Popular attitude toward,                  144, 145,         McNamara-Taylor                 mission:
               172                                                     Diem’s meeting with, 311,319,                   321
       Totalitarian        measures, 392,494                           Diem’s perception             of mission as sign
   Governmental             reform in Vietnam:                                of U.S. support, 255,256,257n
       Diem, meetings with, 140-143,437-                           McNamara’s            visit to Vietnam        (Dec.),
               439,441-446                                                 702,703,716
778        Index

Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr.-Continued                                 Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr.-Continued
   Media coverage of Vietnam:                                        U.S. policy in Vietnam:
      Assaults on reporters,                444                         All-agency       review, 689-690
      Country        Team relations with press,                         NSC-endorsed           policy, 353n
               384-385                                                  Phase-out       of programs,       dates for, 610
   Minh, meeting with, 645-647                                       U.S. visit at end of October,           proposed,
   Minh’s inaugural              address, 748                               397n
   Neutral       solution for Vietnam,               67, 111 n       Vietnam,      Democratic        Republic of, plan
   Ngo Dinh family, disposition                     following               for neutralization        of, 633-634,656-
           coup, 547,560                                                    659
   Nhu, assessment of, 259                                        Long, Russell B., 391
   Nhu’s resignation              offer, 84, 131-132              Los Angeles Times, 117n
   Nhu’s removal             from power, possible,                Lucet, Charles, 388,389
           16, 28, 33,38-39,             141, 258-259,386         Luong. See Bui Van Luong.
   Provisional         government           of Vietnam,           Luu Van Tinh, 558,567,578
           575-576,588-591
      Arrests, 547                                                Ma Viet Bang, Capt., 508
      Assessment            of, 436,609-610                       MacDonald,         Adm., 64n, 194n, 555n
      Civilian      administrators,            547, 578-579       Maechling,        Charles, Jr., 704
      Discord among Generals,                     557-558,        Mai Huu Xuan, Maj. Gen., 46, 91,532,
               611                                                       533,543,589,649
      Generals’         plan for, 489-490                         Malaysia,       574, 675
      Meetings         with Generals           re, 546-549,       Maneli, Mieczyslaw,             89, 125, 126, 239-
               560-561,587                                               240,264
       Military     personnel,          positions      for, 579   Manell, Abram E., 593
       Political reform, plans for, 609, 611                      Manning,        Robert J., l85,190,218,269n,
       Public relations efforts, 587,590                                 600n
       Purges of Diem personnel,                   548               Coup against Diem, 519
       U.S. recognition            of, 487-488,519n,                 Governmental           reform in Vietnam,            104
               526‘573-574                                           Nhu’s removal           from power, possible,
   Resignation,          692-693                                             103-104
   Richardson’s           transfer from Vietnam,                  Mansfield,       Mike, 167, 192, 391
           205,364                                                   Truce in Vietnam,           proposal for, 691-692
   Special Forces, Vietnamese,                    subordina-      Mao Tse-tung,          60,642
           tion to Joint General Staff, 403-405,                  Marines,      Vietnamese,        45,159,508
           411,424-426                                            Martial law, 273
   Strategic hamlet program,                   deterioration         Counterinsurgency             operations        and, 9
           of, 687-689                                               Nhu’s assessment of, 126-127
   Tho’s meeting with McNamara-Taylor                             Martin,     Edwin M., 514-515,518
           mission, 321-323                                       Mau. See Vu Van Mau.
   Thuan’s meetings               with U.S. officials,            McCloskey,         Robert J., 430n, 706n
           137-140                                                McCone,        John A., l66,194n,            356,35&r,
   Tri Quang, release from U.S. Embassy,                                 368,456n,        457n, 663n, 680
           136-137,548                                               Buddhist crisis, 199
   U.S. commitment               to Vietnam,         91              CIA Station Chief, selection of, 651n
   U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission,                     selection       Communist          insurgency:
           of, 633                                                       Defections,       100-101
  U.S. economic              assistance to Vietnam:                      Increased activity,         635-636
      Joint U.S.-Vietnamese                 policies, man-               Quasi-governmental              activities,    642-
               agement of, 541                                                  645
      Resumption             of aid following         coup,         Counterinsurgency              operations:
               540,546                                                   Border security and surveillance,                 729-
  U.S. Embassy building                   in Saigon, 632-                       730
           633                                                          Deterioration         of military      effort, 737
                                                                                                         Index          779

McCone,       John A.-Continued                               McNamara,        Robert S. (see also McNa-
  Counterinsurgency               operations-                     mara-Taylor            mission), 12, 86n, 89n,
         Continued                                                 90n,92n,98,114n,                l17,119,124n,
     Future developments,                 738                      l61,456n,         457n
     Laos, operations            in, 729                        Agricultural        situation       in Vietnam,        616,
     Sects, recruitment             of, 736-737                       622
  Coup against Diem, 507n, 519n, 552n                           Buddhist crisis, 199
     Assassination           of Diem and Nhu, 537n              Cambodian          neutrality        issue, 718
  Coup against Diem, Generals’                    plan for,     Communist          insurgency:
         431n, 433n, 449n, 450n, 453n,                            Improved          combat-effectiveness,               707
         456n, 457n, 477n, 488n, 503n                              Successes of, 733
  Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:                        Countercoup           operations,        36n, 39n
     Instructions        to Lodge (Oct. 29), 484n,                 U.S. responses to various scenarios,
            500n                                                          56-57
     Lansdale’s        involvement,          205, 240-241       Counterinsurgency               operations,         607n
     Meetings        in Washington           (Oct. 29),            Border security and surveillance,                     702,
            470                                                           729-730
     Suspension          of aid to encourage          a           Deterioration           of military       effort, 582n
            coup, 206-207                                          Financial concerns, 62 1
  Governmental            reform in Vietnam:                       Improvements              demanded          by U.S.,
     CIA proposal for, 201                                                500
                                                                   Intensification          in critical provinces,
     “Explosion”          in Vietnam,        warning    re,
            406-407                                                       702
                                                                   Laos, operations            in, 702, 729, 734,
     Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
                                                                          739
             l88,189,191,200,252n
                                                                   Long An Province               situation,       714n
     Suspension          of aid to Diem regime,
                                                                  Mekong         Delta situation,           717
            368
                                                                   Sects, recruitment             of, 733
  Johnson-Lodge              meeting,      635-637
                                                                Coup against Diem, 507n, 519n
  Lodge assassination              threats, 395n
                                                                  Assassination            of Diem and Nhu, 537n
  Lodge-Harkins             relationship,       733
                                                                Coup against Diem, Generals’                      plan for,
  Madame         Nhu:
                                                                      40n, 449n, 450n, 453n, 456n, 457n,
     U.S. campaign            against, 591n
                                                                      477n, 488n, 503n
     U.S. visit by, 101                                         Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
  McNamara’s           visit to Vietnam (Dec.),                        14n
         718735-738
                                                                  Assurances           of support for Generals,
  Media coverage             of Vietnam,       278                        56,71
  Neutral      solution for Vietnam:                              Contacts with Generals,                  103
     Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV,                             Contingency            planning,        55-56
            204                                                   Coup plan, advance notice of, 29
     Rapprochement              between North and                 Evacuation          of U.S. dependents,              8,29
            South Vietnam,             295-298                    Inertia of Generals,              concerns re, 55
  Nhu’s removal            from power, possible, 31               Instructions         to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,
  Provisional        government          of Vietnam:                       475n, 484n, 499n, 500n
     Civilian administrators,               636                     Lansdale’s      involvement,     241
     U.S. covert information                on, 736                 Meetings     in Washington       (Oct. 29),
  Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces,                                        469-470,471,472
         571n                                                       Pros and cons of supporting           coup, 2,
  Special Forces, Vietnamese,                 424                          4-5
  Special Group for Counterinsurgency,                              Suspension        of aid to encourage     a
         704,705                                                           coup, 29, 176
  Student protest movement,                   218                   Suspension        of coup, option for, 35n
  U.S. policy in Vietnam,               684                      Diem-Harkins          contact on military    mat-
McDowell,       Harris B., Jr., 378n                                   ters, 86
780        Index

McNamara,           Robert S.-Continued                               McNamara,          Robert S.-Continued
  Economic          situation         in Vietnam,        620,           Vietnam        visit (Dec.):
           628                                                              Agenda for, 702-703
  Government              of Diem and Nhu:                                  Generals,         meeting with, 716-719,
      Military’s        attitude toward,             117,119                       725-726,730-731
      Popular attitude toward,                     71, 72                   Instructions          for, 700
  Governmental                reform in Vietnam:                            Johnson’s decision re, 690
      Evacuation            of U.S. dependents              and,            Krulak’s report, 721-727
              192                                                           McCone’s           report, 735-738
      Kennedy’s           letter to Diem re, 287n                           McNamara’s              report, 732-735
      Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,                                    Sullivan’s         report, 728-731
              l91,199,200,201,252n                                    McNamara-Taylor                   mission, 251
      Propaganda              efforts by U.S., 359                      Diem, meeting with, 310-321
      Reconciliation              policy of U.S., 220                   Diem’s perception                 of mission as sign of
      Suspension             of aid to Diem regime,                             U.S. support,            255, 256-257
              369                                                       Instructions          for McNamara,             265-266,
       U.S. negotiations                with Diem, 70, 73,                      278-279
              95,104n                                                   Instructions          presented          to mission party,
       U.S. package of sanctions and de-                                        284-287
              mands, 356-357,359,37ln,                         496n     Kennedy’s           decision re, 254, 257
  Honolulu          meeting, 608n, 616, 617, 618,                       Kennedy’s          letter to Diem, 287-290
           620,621,622                                                  McNamara’s              interviews:
  Johnson-Lodge                  meeting,       636                         Prof. “Smith,”              293-295
  Krulak-Mendenhall                      mission, 119                       Religious        figure, 323-325
  Lodge-Harkins                 relationship,        479n, 732-             Richardson,            301-303
           733                                                          Meetings        in Washington               re, 280-282
   Lodge’s resignation,                  693                            Military      appraisal as purpose of, 257,
   Military       Assistance Command,                    Viet-                  278-279
           nam, officers assigned to, 735                               Report of, 336-346,350-354
   Neutral solution               for Vietnam,         734              State Department                 representative,       256,
   Nhu’s removal               from power, possible, 27                         266
   Provisional          government             of Vietnam,              Sullivan’s        interview          with third country
           732                                                                  representatives,             325-326
   Republic of Vietnam                   Armed Forces,                  Taylor’s interview                with Minh, 326-327
           command            organization,          716-717            Taylor’s letter to Diem, 328-330
   Special Forces, Vietnamese,                      424                 Tho, meeting with, 321-323
   Strategic hamlet program:                                          Meagher,       Ed, 117n
       Identification            of Communists            in ham-     Meany, George, 561
              lets, 617                                               Mecklin,     John, 130, 199,443
       Overhaul         of, 618                                         Closing of USIS field offices, possible,
       U.S.-Vietnamese                 disagreements          re,               405
               237,277                                                  Congressional              attitude toward, 447
   U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission,                        selection       Counterinsurgency                  operations,       165-166
           of, 628                                                      Coup against Diem, U.S. policy re, 150-
   U.S. military           involvement           in Vietnam,                    153
           351                                                          Governmental               reform in Vietnam,            149-
   U.S. policy in Vietnam:                                                      150
       All-agency           review,        684                              Propaganda             efforts by U.S., 300-301
       Conflicting          viewpoints          within admin-           Nhu’s removal               from power, possible,
               istration,        235                                            165-166
       Congressional               testimony,       390-391              U.S. military          involvement           in Vietnam,
       NSC-endorsed                 policy, 351,352                             150
   Vietnam,         Democratic             Republic of, U.S.          Media coverage of Vietnam:
           covert operations                against, 702, 734            Assaults on reporters,                 444
Media coverage of Vietnam-Continued                             Military      Assistance       Command,       Vietnam
    Censorship         by Diem government,                142           (MACV)       (see also Harkins,       Gen. Paul
    CIA assessment of, 278                                              D.):
   Congressional            assessment of, 446                      Laos operations,          control of, 667-668
   Counterinsurgency                operations,       216-217       Officers assigned to, 651, 679, 735
   Country       Team relations with press,                     Miller, Bob, 651
          384-385                                               Minh, “Big.” See Duong Van Minh, Maj.
   Coup against Diem, speculation                      about,           Gen.
          25-26                                                 Minh, “Little.”         See Tran Van Minh, Maj.
   Diem’s assessment of, 19,444-445                                     Gen.
   Discussion        in Washington             re, 175          Montagnards,           246,612,       673,683
   Harkins,      attacks on, 593, 594, 600                      Montgomery,           James M., 719n, 745
   International          conference        issue, 592-593,     Morse, Wayne, 391,392
          595                                                   Morton,       Col., 147
   Kennedy-Diem                 communications          re,     Murphy,        William T., 378n
          232,233                                               Murrow,        Edward R., 1, 13,53,119,             149,
   Kennedy’s         displeasure        with, 11 l-l 12,                161,199,405
          116,281                                                   Governmental          reform in Vietnam:
   Local press, 754                                                    Evacuation        of U.S. dependents         and,
   Madame        Nhu’s US. visit, 335-336                                      192-193
   Neutrality       issue, 296, 695, 731, 754                          Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
   Nhu’s attempts              to deal with DRV, 111                           188
   Nhu’s removal             from power, possible,                     Propaganda         efforts by U.S., 300
          103-104                                                      U.S. negotiations          with Diem, 73
   Provisional         government’s           press rela-          Nhu’s removal           from power, possible,
          tions, 548,649,           712-713,        718, 754               28,103-104
   Richardson’s          transfer from Vietnam,                    Special Group for Counterinsurgency,
          364-365                                                           704
   Strategic hamlet program,                  237,277-278          U.S. information           programs      and policies
   Suspension          of aid to Diem regime, 351                          in Vietnam,        193-194
Mekong       Delta. See under Counterin-                           U.S. policy in Vietnam,             world opinion
      surgency        operations.                                          re, 210-211
Mendenhall,         Joseph A. (see also Kru-
      lak-Mendenhall               mission),       199, 437n,   National      Revolutionary        Movement,       304
      550n, 640n                                                National      Security Action Memoranda:
  Countercoup            operations,         49n                   263 (Oct. II, 1963), 395-396
  Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,                           273 (Nov. 26, 1963), 637-640
         460n, 461n, 463n, 468n, 470n, 472                      National      Security Council meeting (Oct.
  Governmental             reform in Vietnam,                         2), 350-352
         290n,, 308n                                            National     Union of Students,           399
  Harkins,       media attacks on, 600n                         National     unity government           for Vietnam,
  International          conference        on Vietnam,                proposed,237-238
         proposed,          706n                                Navy, Vietnamese,            46,59
  Johnson’s       letter to Minh, 745n                          Nes, David G., 733
  Nhu’s removal             from power, possible,                 Deputy       Chief of Mission, selection as,
         248-249                                                         633,655-666‘693-694
  Provisional         government           of Vietnam,          Neubert,     Joseph W., 406-407,           719n
         U.S. “braintrust”            for, 758                  Neutral solution for Vietnam:
  Special Group for Counterinsurgency,                            French position,          60,67,388,389
         704                                                          De Gaulle’s statement            on, 55n
  United Nations, political                proposals re               Kennedy’s        statement     on, 94
         Vietnam,         331n                                        U.S. attitude toward,          61-62, 81, 83,
  U.S. policy in Vietnam,                reiteration     of,                 100,297-298
         592-593,599n                                                 U.S.-French        meeting re, 59-61
Neutral      solution        for Vietnam-Continued                 Ngo Dinh Diem-Continued
   Media coverage,               296, 695, 731, 754                  coup, 513-514,534
   Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV, 55,                                 Knowledge          of coup plotting,         2,92,
           72, 89-90, 125-126, 184, 204, 214,                                   515
           219,297,324,326,521                                           Surrender,       525n
      Generals’         attitude toward,            239-240          Elections in Vietnam,              314
      Media reports on, 111 n                                        Family, defense of, 18
      Military’s        attitude toward,            294              Governmental            reform in Vietnam:
      Third country             opinions       on, 325-326               Acquiescence          to, 5 17
   Nhu’s “official”             position,      85                        Generals in cabinet positions,                292
   Partition       issue, 264                                            Lodge, meetings with, 140-143,441-
   Rapprochement                between        North and                        446
           South Vietnam,              295-298                           Resistance to, 317-321,              398-399,559-
   United Nations and, 332                                                      560
   U.S. position,           695, 710, 734, 746                           Suspension        of U.S. aid and, 141,414,
   U.S.-French           discussions         re, 59-61, 601                     441-446,515
   Vietnam,         Democratic          Republic of, posi-            Ha&ins-Diem            contact on military          mat-
           tion, 297                                                        ters, 86
   Vietnamese           popular attitude toward,                      Hoa Hao sect and, 597
           270,298,          754                                      Kennedy’s       criticism of, 93-94
   Vietnamese           support,        U.S. contingency              Kennedy’s       letter to, 192, 200,231-234,
           planning         for, 51                                         287-290
   World opinion on, 183, 210-211                                     Lodge, meetings with, 18-20, 140-143,
Neutrality        for Cambodia.             See under Cam-                  441-446,515-517
       bodia.                                                         Lodge assassination             threats, 443
New York Times, 25, 75, 111-112,                       175n,          Lodge’s assessment of, 442
        216, 237, 277, 387,581,                 592, 593,             Madame        Nhu:
        594,637n,         652,695,697,731
                                                                         Defense of, 18, 319
 Newman,         Col. Ralph E., 36-37, 42
                                                                         Silencing of, 208
 Nghiem.        See Le Van Nghiem,                Brig. Gen.
                                                                      McNamara-Taylor                mission, meeting
 Nghiep,       19
                                                                             with, 310-321
 Ngo Dinh Can, 635
                                                                      Media coverage of Vietnam:
   Buddhist         crisis, 348
                                                                         Assaults on reporters,             444
   Disposition          following         coup, 561,562-
                                                                         Censorship         of press, 142
           563,569-570,587,646
                                                                         Complaints         re, 19,444-445
 Ngo Dinh Diem (see also Government                          of
                                                                         Kennedy’s        communications            re, 232,
        Diem and Nhu):
   Assassination,             527, 531-533,          545,559                     233
                                                                      Mekong       Delta region, attitude toward,
    Buddhist crisis, 18-19, 319-320, 348,
           349                                                               750
        Government             propaganda          re, 142            Mental state, 18, 298
        U Thant’s letter re, 112                                      Nhu:
        U.N. investigation              of, 442-443                      Defense of, 18,141,517
        U.S. involvement,               alleged, 516                     Relationship         with, 213, 293
    Cadres, political,            313                                 Provinces,      creation of, 313
    Communist            defectors,        316                        Public works program,                315
    Communist            insurgency,          314-315                 Strategic hamlet program,                311-313,597
    Countercoup             operations.        See                    Student protest movement,                  318
           Countercoup             operations.                        Taylor’s letter to, 328-330
    Counterinsurgency                 operations:                     U.S. Information             Service, criticism of,
        Crop destruction              and defoliation,       314              142-143
        500-pound          bombs for, 316-317                         U.S. withdrawal            from Vietnam,         support
        Taylor’s assessment of, 328-330                                      for, 386
                                                                                                                 Index           783

Ngo Dinh family, disposition                      following            Ngo Dinh Nhu-Continued
       coup (see also Ngo Dinh Can), 547,                                 Removal        from power, possible-
       551,560,570                                                                Continued
Ngo Dinh Luyen, 18                                                           Lalouette’s          position,      58
Ngo Dinh Nhu (see also Government                             of             Lodge’s position,              38-39, 386
       Diem and Nhu; Ngo Dinh family):                                       Media reports on, 103-104
  Anti-American               campaign,          122-123,      124,          Mendenhall’s              position,     248-249
          213-214                                                            Nhu’s rejection of, 258-259
  Assassination,             527,531-533,545,559                             Nolting’s        position,        120, 121
  Buddhist crisis:                                                           Popular support for, 214-215
       Assessment           of, 126-127,258                                  Rusk’s position,             33-34
       Sanctuary         for bonzes in U.S. Em-                              U.S. campaign              re, 163-164,165-166
              bassy, 125                                                     U.S. position,           16, 135, 177,254,            334
       U.N. investigation              of, 415,418                       Resignation           offer, 84, 101, 127, 131-132
       U.S. involvement,               alleged, 416                      Richardson           and, 65
  CIA, attitude toward,                  91                              Secret police force, 124, 213
  CIA interview,              124-127                                    Special Forces, control of, 2 13
  Communist             insurgency,          contacts with,              Thuan threatened                by, 140
          85,126                                                         U.S. civilians in Saigon, criticism of, 125
  Control       of government,               138                         U.S. economic assistance to Vietnam,
  Countercoup             operations.         See                                84-85,417
          Countercoup             operations.                            U.S. military          involvement           in Vietnam,
  Counterinsurgency                 operations,          139                     opposition          to, 385-386
  Coup, 512-513                                                          U.S. policy in Vietnam,                 criticism of, 91-
      Knowledge            of coup plotting,            2,86-88,                 92,416-418
              92,355                                                     Vietnam,        Democratic            Republic of, at-
      Surrender,          525n                                                   tempts to deal with, 55, 72, 89-90,
  Diem, relationship               with, 213, 293                                125-126,184,             204,214,        219,297,
  Diem’s defense of, 18,141,517                                                 324,326,521
  Dinh and, 207                                                              Evidence of, 65 l-652
  Generals,        meetings with, 90-92                                      Media reports on, 11 In
  Governmental               reform in Vietnam,edh:                          Military’s       attitude toward,            239-240,
      Diem’s resistance to, 560                                                      294
      Generals         in cabinet positions,              127         Ngo Dinh Nhu, Madame,                       58,131
      Prime Ministership,                 creation of, 84                Anti-American              campaign,         122-123,124
  Hoa Hao sect and, 597                                                  Assassination            of Diem and Nhu, reac-
  Lodge assassination                threats, 394                               tion to, 551
  Lodge’s assessment of, 259                                             Chuong’s         attitude toward, 238
  Martial      law, 126-127                                              Diem’s defense of, 18,319
  Mekong         Delta region, attitude toward,                          Kennedy,         comments            on, 191n
          750                                                            Lodge, criticism of, 283n
  Mental state, 214, 219, 298,394                                        Ngo Dinh family, disposition                      following
  Military’s       attitude toward,             156, 157,                       coup, 551,56On,               570
          158,161                                                        Secret police force, 122-123,                    124
  Neutral solution              for Vietnam         (see also            Silencing of, U.S. demand for, 191, 192,
          Vietnam,         Democratic          Republic of,                     208,319,335
          attempts to deal with below), 85                               U.S. campaign             against, 591
  Power grab, possible, 9                                                U.S. military,          criticism of, 281, 318-319
  Rapprochement                with U.S., 55                             U.S. visit, 84, 101, 104-105,                   140-141,
  Removal        from power, possible:                                          167, 175, 198,238,               283,335-336,
     Diem’s rejection              of, 141                                      387,414
     Discussions           in Washington             re, 27-28,       Ngo Dinh Thuc (Archbishop                       of Hue), 143,
             30-31,54-55,163-166                                            175,273,324,635
     Harkins’        position,        10-11, 23-24, 25                   Buddhist crisis, 348
784       Index

Ngo Dinh Thuc-Continued                                      Nguyen Ngoc Tho-Continued
   Diem’s defense of, 18                                       Governmental           reform in Vietnam,           309,
Ngo Trong Hieu, 366,386                                               321-322
Ngoc, Gen., 512                                                McNamara-Taylor               mission, meeting
Ngu Quang Truong, 428                                                 with, 321-323
Nguyen      Cao Ky, Lt. Col., 428,509                          McNamara’s          visit to Vietnam        (Dec.),
Nguyen      Dinh Thuan, 27,81,117,118,                                 718
      122,214,268,431,615                                      Popular attitude toward,             270, 681
   Assassination,         fear of, 138, 140                    Presidency       for, possible, 180, 458
   Countercoup          operations,       139                   Press relations,        712-713,     718
   Counterinsurgency             operations,      261           Provisional      government         of Vietnam,
   Coup against Diem, 138,507                                          524n, 589
      Assassination          of Diem and Nhu, 559                  Cabinet position,         558,567
   Diem-Nhu         relationship,        213                       Council of Sages, 648-649
   Government          of Diem and Nhu, assess-                    Promotions        of Generals,       557
         ment of, 137-140                                       Strategic hamlet program,              322,596-599
   Governmental            reform in Vietnam,          309      U.S. suspension          of aid to Diem regime,
      Diem’s resistance to, 559-560                                    495
      Support for, 301-303                                   Nguyen      Phuong Thiep, 547,551
      Suspension         of aid to Diem regime,              Nguyen      Than Cung, 558,567,578
             414                                             Nguyen      Ton Hoan, 237
      U.S. package of sanctions and de-                      Nguyen      Tran, 303
             mands, 441-442                                  Nguyen      Van Bich, Maj., 503
   Madame        Nhu’s U.S. visit, 414                       Nguyen      Van La, Maj. Gen., 91,512
   McNamara-Taylor               mission, Diem’s             Nguyen      Van Luc, 503
         meeting with, 310,321                               Nguyen      Van Mau, 567
   Nhu, opposition            to, 163                        Nguyen      Van Thien, Col., 44,529
   Resignation        rumors, 274                            Nguyen      Van Thieu, Col., 48,420,             428,
   Special Forces, Vietnamese,                403-405              509,534,544
 Nguyen      Duy Bach, 713                                   Nguyen      Van Tu, Lt. Col., 508
 Nguyen      Giac Ngo, Gen., 91                              Nguyen      Van Tu, Maj., 428,509
 Nguyen      Huu Co, Col., 534,544                           Nhieu, Maj., 36
 Nguyen      Huu Duong, 428,504                              Nhon, Col., 550,553
 Nguyen      Huu Hien, Col., 46, 506, 529                    Nhon, Gem, 155
 Nguyen      Khanh, Maj. Gen., 91,712                        Nhon, Maj., 42, 239
   Buddhist      crisis, 147                                 Nhu. See Ngo Dinh Nhu; Ngo Dinh Nhu,
   Counterinsurgency              operations,      157             Madame.
   Coup against Diem, 366, 451, 461, 492,                    Nhu, Madame.           See Ngo Dinh Nhu, Ma-
          512                                                       dame.
      Leadership         group, 240                          Nolting,     Frederick      E., Jr., 12, 26, 98, 117,
      Strategy      meetings of Generals,            40,41          168,199
      U.S. assurances of support,               79              Buddhist      crisis, 199
 Nguyen      Khuong,        Col., 419-420,424n,                 Communist         defections,      100
      432,433,454,512                                           Country      Team role, 382
 Nguyen      Ngoc Le, Maj. Gen., 512,529                        Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:
 Nguyen      Ngoc Linh, Lt., 532                                    Assurances       of support for Generals,
 Nguyen      Ngoc Tho, 27,117                                             56
    Cambodian         neutrality     issue, 697, 731                “Diem as best leader” issue, 6, 8
    Communist         insurgency,        322-323                    Evacuation       planning,      8
    Counterinsurgency             operations,      596-599          Pros and cons of supporting              coup, 3,
    Coup against Diem, Generals’                 plan re,                  6
          463                                                       U.S. support for coup, Diem’s knowl-
    Generals’     attitude toward,          40                            edge of, 2
Nolting,      Frederick      E., Jr.-Continued              Phillips,     Rufus C.-Continued
   Government           of Diem and Nhu, popular              Nhu’s       removal       from power, possible,
          attitude toward,          74                                 163-164
   Governmental           reform in Vietnam:                   Province       chiefs, reorientation             of, 605-
       Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,                              606
               188                                             Provisional        government           of Vietnam,
       U.S. negotiations          with Diem, 73, 102,                  U.S. “braintrust”           for, 758
               120,121                                         Strategic hamlet program,                  overhaul       of,
  Krulak-Mendenhall                mission, briefing                   596-599,       604
          on, I62                                              Thuan, meeting with, 137-139
  Nhu and, 5 17                                             Phoumi Nosovan,               69,540,607
  Nhu’s removal            from power, possible,            Phuoc, Col., 140, 291
          27, 28, 30, 54, 120, 121, 164                     Poats, R., 704
                                                            Province chiefs:
Oai. See Tran Tu Oai, Brig. Gen.                               Reorientation          of, 605-606
Operation   Hardnose, 728, 729, 734                            Replacement           by provisional          govem-
                                                                       ment, 535, 550,554,              564-565,       612,
Peace Corps, Vietnamese,                 672, 755                      613,699,711
Pelen, Pierre, 59,388                                       Provisional       government            of Vietnam:
Perruso, Dolores l?, 97n, 283n, 500n,                          Ambassador           in Washington,            589,590
        665n, 701n                                             Arrests, 547,551,552,558,                    651, 673,
Peyrefitte,     Alain, 55n                                             713
Pham Dang Lam, 506,578                                         Cabinet positions,           557-558,        567-568
    Cambodian          neutrality     issue, 697, 731          Chief of State, 717
    Coup against Diem, 588                                     Chinese racketeers,             policy on, 590-591
    Lodge, meeting with, 586-588                               CIA assessment of, 648-649,680-681,
    Provisional       government         of Vietnam,                   711-713
           558,567,589                                         Civilian     administrators,           457,512,       523-
Pham Huy Co, 237,504                                                  524n, 542,546-547,578-579,636
Pham Ngoc Thao, Col., 53,54n,                   65, 310,       Complaints         re, 579
       400-401                                                 Confusion        and paralysis in, 711-713,
   Coup against Diem, 503,504                                          732
       Assassination         of Diem and Nhu, 532              Council of Sages, 489-490,                  609, 648-
       Strategy meetings of Generals,               40-41             649,681,        720
   Coup led by, possible, 428, 451, 453                        De Gaulle’s assessment of, 568-569
   U.S. post, assignment             to, 713                   Decree on, 554
Pham Van Dong, 85,89,125,239,409,                              Discord among Generals,                  557-558,       611,
       601n, 658                                                      681,718,754-755
Pham Van Dong, Col., 420                                      Dissident       groups and, 615,681
Pham Van Tung, 304                                            Dung’s recommendations                     for, 458
Pham Xuan Chieu, 46, 90, 355, 461, 492,                       Economic         policies, 542, 613-614
       512                                                    Executive’s        role, 589
Phan Huy Quat, 453, 457,458,462-463,                          Foreign relations,           538-540,588,            630
       524n                                                   French recognition             of, 601
Philippines,      675                                         Generals’       plan for, 250-251,489-490,
Phillips, Rufus C., 26, 130, 169, 199, 206,                           493
       241,246                                                Harkins,       Generals’       attitude toward,           593,
  Counterinsurgency               operations,     165                 594,600,602
  Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,                      Inauguration          of Minh, 748
          249-251                                             Jorden’s assessment of, 753-758
  Departure        from Vietnam,          445                 Lodge’s assessment of, 436, 609-610
  Generals,      meetings with, 80, 86-88                     Military      personnel,        positions       for, 543-
  Minh, assessment of, 606-607                                        544,553,579
786        Index

Provisional        government           of Vietnam:-             Republic of Vietnam              Armed Forces
   Continued                                                         (RVNAF)-Continued
   Military-civilian          relationship       within,             Paramilitary       forces (see also Civil
          588                                                               Guard; Civilian          Irregular      Defense
   National        Assembly,        489-490                                 Group; Self Defense Corps):
   Police forces, 553, 587, 589, 613, 615                                Training for, 653, 660-661
   Policy implementation,                 lines of, 649              Ranger Companies,              425
   Political reform, plans for, 609, 611                             Reorganization           of, 570-572
   Popular support for, 575576,671-672                               Troop strength,          682
   Press relations,         548, 649, 712-713,            718,       Unity of commanders,                547
          754                                                        Weapons losses, 708
   Promotions          of Generals,         557
                                                                 Republican         Youth, 259,570
   Province        chiefs and, 535, 550, 554, 564-
                                                                 Reston, James, 175, 581,592
          565,612,         613,699,        711
                                                                 Reunification        issue, 332
   Public relations efforts, 587,590,                   718,
                                                                 Rice, Edward E., 437n, 462,600n
          755
                                                                 Rice production,           616, 622
   Purges of Diem personnel,                   548
   Tri Quang, position              offered to, 5 14,            Richardson,        John H., 65,228,230,276n
          519-520                                                    McNamara’s          interview        with, 301-303
   US. assessment of, 629                                            Transfer from Vietnam,                20.5,364-365,
   U.S. “braintrust”           for, 646, 650, 669-670,                      384
          687,690,         747, 757-758                          Riley, Vice Adm. Herbert D., 62
   U.S. covert information                 on, 736               Rostow, Walt W., 266,269n
   U.S. recognition           of, 519,526                        Rusk, Dean, 12, 26, 30, 64n, 68, 69, 86n,
      Decision re, 573-574                                              89n, 90n, 92n, ll8,124n,                131,194n,
      French informed             of U.S. intentions,                   218,266n,       269n, 335n, 456n, 457n,
              565-566,568                                               549n, 564n, 663n, 666,719
      Lodge’s position,            487-488                           Buddhist crisis:
      Rationale        for, 525-526,536,555-556                         Communist          influences,        199
   Year-end        assessment of, 753-758                               Negotiations         to resolve, 77
                                                                        Political aspects, 186-187
Quyen.      See Ho Tan Quyen,             Capt.                         U.N. investigation            of, 349n
                                                                    Buu Hoi, meeting with, 347-349
Ranger Companies,               Vietnamese,      425
                                                                     Cambodian         neutrality       issue, 695-696
Rau, 640-641
                                                                     Congressional          hearings on Vietnam,
Rawlings,      Francis H., 690n
                                                                            113
Raymond,       Jack, 594n
                                                                    Countercoup           operations,        36n, 39n
Republic of Vietnam              Armed Forces
                                                                        DRV assistance for Diem, 34,55
      (RVNAF)       (see also Special Forces,
      Vietnamese):                                                      U.S. responses to various scenarios,
   Air Force, 46, 159, 509-510                                                 49,56
   Army, 604-605,            712                                    Counterinsurgency              operations,        607n
   Budget, 621                                                          Deterioration         of military      effort, 418,
   Command         organization,          612, 716-717                         582
   Communist         infiltration,      645                             Improvements            demanded          by U.S.,
   Coup against Diem and, 475-476,508-                                         370
          510,522,530-531                                               “Losing military          war” issue, 165
   Government          of Diem and Nhu, atti-                       Coup against Diem, 507n, 5I9n, 522n,
          tudes toward,          154-160,     171-172,                     552n
          247                                                           Assassination         of Diem and Nhu, 527,
   Loyalties of units and commanders,                  43-                     537n, 550-551
         48                                                             Congress informed              of, 520-521,573
   Marines,     45,159,508                                              Propaganda         efforts by Generals,           521
  Navy, 46,159                                                          U.S. guidance for Generals,                 524
Rusk, Dean-Continued                                            Rusk, Dean-Continued
   Coup against Diem, Generals’                     plan for,     Honolulu         meeting,        608n, 611, 613, 615,
          40% 431n, 433n, 449n, 450n, 453n,                                619,621
          456n, 457n, 477n, 488n, 503n                            International           conference        issue, 599-600,
   Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,                                  706
          212                                                     Johnson-Lodge               meeting,       635
       Assistance for Generals,              16                   Johnson’s         letter to Minh, 745-747
       Assurances        of support for Generals,                 Krulak-Mendenhall                   mission, 130, 133-
              26, 32, 71                                                   135
       Contacts with Generals,               103, 106             Lodge, congratulations                 for, 579-580
       Contingency          planning,       55, 56                Lodge assassination                threats, 394
       Coordination         between        Saigon and             Lodge’s U.S. visit at end of October,
              Washington,          17                                      proposed,        397n
       Coup plan, advance notice of, 28,29                        Madame          Nhu:
      Evacuation        planning,        32                           Silencing         of, 208
      Inertia of Generals,            concerns re, 55-                U.S. visit by, 198
              56,63                                               McNamara-Taylor                  mission:
      Instructions       to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,                    Diem’s perception               of mission as sign
              475n, 484n, 500n                                                of U.S. support, 255n, 256-257
       Lansdale’s      involvement,           205, 240-241            Military       appraisal as purpose of, 278n
       Meetings     in Washington             (Oct. 29),              State Department              representative,         266
              463% 469,470,471,472                                McNamara’s             visit to Vietnam         (Dec.),
       Suspension        of aid to encourage             a                690
              coup, 32-33, 176,206n                               Minh, Harkins’              assessment of, 274n
      Suspension         of coup, option for, 15-                 Neutral       solution for Vietnam:
              16,35                                                   French position,            59-62‘388
   Diem-Harkins            contact on military           mat-         Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV,
          ters, 86                                                             184,219
   Government          of Diem and Nhu:                               Partition       issue, 264
      Military’s     attitude toward,           130                   U.S. position,           695, 710n
      Popular attitude toward,                130, 269            Ngo Dinh Nhu family, disposition                        fol-
   Governmental           reform in Vietnam:                              lowing coup, 551,560n
      Congressional           demands re, 188,192                 Nhu, problems              caused by, 212
      Evacuation        of U.S. dependents              and,      Nhu’s anti-American                  campaign,      122
              187,200                                             Nhu’s removal             from power, possible,
      Failure, consequences               of, 117                          16, 27,28, 30,31,33-34,                38,54,
      Kennedy’s        letter to Diem re, 287n                             135
      Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,                          Provisional          government          of Vietnam:
              183-188,       189, 190, 191, 195-198,                 Arrests, 551
              199-200, 202, 203, 221, 236,                           Economic           policies, 542
             252n, 265                                               Foreign relations,             538-540
      Reconciliation          policy of U.S., 220, 221               Tri Quang, position offered to, 519-
      Suspension         of aid to Diem regime,                               520
              118, 186, 196, 215, 275-277,                           U.S. recognition             of, 519,525-526,
             299n, 305n                                                       536,565-566
      U.S. negotiations           with Diem, 70, 72-              Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces,
             73, 74, 76-79, 80, 97, 101-102,                              571n
              104-106, 107, 108-109,               llOn,          Special Forces, Vietnamese,                   424
              117, 119-120,         121, 128-129, 140             Strategic hamlet program,                   623
      U.S. package of sanctions and de-                           Student protest movement,                     218
             mands, 370,371,379,396-397,                          Tri Quang, exile for, 218
             409,441,442                                          U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission, selection
  Harkins,       media attacks on, 600                                   of, 650
788      Index

Rusk, Dean-Continued                                        Special Group for Counterinsurgency,
   U.S. economic        assistance to Vietnam:                     704-705
      Joint U.S.-Vietnamese          policies, man-         Staley, Eugene, 678
             agement of, 541-542                            Starkey, John, 444n
      Resumption        of aid following      coup,         Stames, Richard, 390n
             540-541,551                                    Stevenson,         Adlai, 335, 336, 348
   U.S. policy in Vietnam:                                  Stilwell,      Maj. Gen. Richard G.:
      All-agency      review,    684, 685-687                   Coup against Diem, 505,522
      NSAM 273, 637n                                            Special Forces, Vietnamese,                403-405,
      Reiteration     of, 599-600                                       424-426
                                                            Stoneman,         Walter G., 540n, 541n
Saigon-Cholon          Waterworks,         341, 370,        Strategic hamlet program,                 5, 91,322
       373                                                      British operational            plan, 311-312
Saigon Electric Power Project, 341, 370,                        CIA assessment of, 683
       373                                                      Communist           attacks on, 165
Salinger, Pierre, 81n, 96, 351                                  “Completed           hamlets”       issue, 698, 714
Sarit Thanarat,       696n                                      Consolidation           of, 376,586,       590
Sarris, Leo G., 122n, 133n                                      Deterioration          of, 246, 687-689,        698-699,
Schlesinger,      Arthur,     Jr., 175,533,555                          712
                                                                    First-hand       reports re, 714-715
Self Defense Corps:
                                                                Diem’s assessment of, 311-313
   Budget, 621
                                                                Elections and, 314
    Morale problems,          718-719,      723-724
                                                                Identification         of Communists         in ham-
    Strategic hamlet program             and, 714, 175
                                                                        lets, 617
    Weapons for, 138-139
                                                                Lodge’s assessment of, 422
Sheehan,       Neil, 218, 384
                                                                Media coverage of, 237,277-278
Sheldon,      206,218-219
                                                                Medical services, 623
Shoup, Gen. David M., 64n, 194~ 535n
                                                                Overextension            of, 312, 751
Sihanouk,       Prince Norodom,           538,539,              Overhaul         of, 642
       588,641,654,655,674,696n,                   731
                                                                    Government            plan for, 596-599, 604,
Silver, Solomon,          541, 618-620
                                                                            645-646
Smith, Bromley,         6, 13n, 31, 53n, 69n,74n,
                                                                    U.S. position,         618,622-624,670
        103, 120, 161, 171, 175, 190, 193,
                                                                Political aspects, 376
        195n, 357,358n,         368n, 471,473,68Sn
                                                                Popular discontent              with, 596-597
Smith, David O., 218-219
                                                                Progress of, 99
“Smith,”      Prof., 293-295                                    U.S.-Vietnamese              disagreements       re, 237,
Smith, Maj. William            Y., 174n, 216n, 518%                      277-278
       555n, 593n, 625n                                      Strickler,      Col., 42
Solbert, 704                                                 Student protest movement,                   172, 174,271,
Son, Col., 47                                                        273
Sorensen,       Theodore       C., 169                          Communist           influences,       194-195,218
Souvanna        Phouma,       540,607,675                        Coup against Diem and, 543
    Counterinsurgency            operations      in Laos,        Coup by students, possible, 343
           739-740                                              Diem’s assessment of, 318
 Soviet Union, 60, 184                                           Government           efforts to neutralize,        399-
 Special Forces, Vietnamese:                                             400
    Loyalty     to Diem, 45,509                                  Minh’s assessment of, 327
    Nhu’s control of, 213                                        Provisional        government         and, 615
    Revamping        of, 570,572                             Sullivan,       William      H., 628,650
    Subordination         to Joint General Staff,                Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward,
           403-405,411                                                   459n
        Tung’s reaction, 424-426                                 Government           of Diem and Nhu, 357-358
    U.S. assistance, suspension              of, 341-342,        McNamara-Taylor                 mission, 284,285,
           362-363,369,373-374                                           286,325-326,344n
                                                                                                        Index          789

Sullivan,      William H.-Continued                            Taylor, Gen. Maxwell                 D.-Continued
   McNamara’s           visit to Vietnam        (Dec.), re-        Governmental            reform in Vietnam:
           port on, 728-731                                            Evacuation        of U.S. dependents            and,
   Provisional        government       of Vietnam,                             193
           U.S. recognition       of, 519n                             Pressure on Diem, U.S. policy for,
   U.S. Mission in Vietnam,             differing      atti-                   188,189,242
           tudes within, 380-383                                       Reconciliation          policy of U.S., 220, 242
   Year-end        observations,      749-752                          U.S. negotiations            with Diem, 104n
Sylvester,      Arthur,      286                                   Honolulu        meeting,        611, 618, 624
Szulc, Tad, 25-26, 111, 175                                        Krulak-Mendenhall                 mission, 119
                                                                   Lodge-Harkins             relationship,       455-456,
                                                                           479
Tam Chau, bonze, 333
                                                                   Military      Assistance        Command,         Viet-
Taylor, Gen. Maxwell              D. (see also McNa-
                                                                           nam, officers assigned to, 651, 679
      mara-Taylor           mission), 53, 69, 86n,
                                                                   Minh, Harkins’            assessment of, 274n
       89% 90n, 92n, 119, 124n, 161,218,
                                                                   Nhu’s removal            from power, possible,
      368,456n,        457n
                                                                           lo,28
   Buddhist crisis, 186, 18 7
                                                                   Provisional        government          of Vietnam,
   Chuong,       meeting with, 268-269
                                                                          province       chiefs and, 535,564
   Communist         insurgency:                                  Richardson’s          transfer from Vietnam,
      Improved        combat-effectiveness,             707               364n
      Increased activity,          99                             Special Group for Counterinsurgency,
      Popular attitude toward,                322-323                      704
  Countercoup           operations,        36n, 39n               Strategic hamlet program,                  99,618
  Counterinsurgency              operations,        607n,         U.S. Mission in Vietnam,                 military    man
          659                                                             as Ambassador             and military      com-
      Assessment          for Diem, 328-330                               mander,       739
      Command          systems, 535,549                           U.S. policy in Vietnam,                684
      Harkins’     assessment of, 266                          Tenant Farmers Union, 672
      Improvements            demanded          by U.S.,       Thacher, Peter S., 347
             496                                               Thailand,        210,574
      Summary         report, 98-99                               Cambodia,          relations with, 539
  Coup against Diem, 507n, 519n, 522,                             Internal security, 704-705
          534                                                     Vietnam,        Republic of, relations with,
      Assassination          of Diem and Nhu, 533,                        539,675
                                                               Thanh, 507
             569
                                                               Thao. See Pham Ngoc Thao, Col.
  Coup against Diem, Generals’                    plan for,
                                                               Thien. See Nguyen              Van Thien, Col.
          40n, 449n, 450n, 453n, 456n, 457n,
                                                               Thieu. See Nguyen              Van Thieu, Cal.
          477n, 488n, 503n
                                                               Tho. See Nguyen             Ngoc Tho.
      Loyalties     of units and commanders,
                                                               Thompson,          Robert G. K., ll9,204n,               294,
             43
                                                                      575
      Postponement            of coup (Aug. 31), 64
                                                               Thomson,         Vernon W., 379n
      Units participating           in coup, 2
                                                               Thuan. See Nguyen               Dinh Thuan.
      U.S. military,        Generals’       contacts with,     Thuc. See Ngo Dinh Thuc.
             431,433
                                                               Tien Khiet, bonze, 333
  Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward:                       Times of Vietnam, 123, 124, 398, 405,410,
      Coup plan, advance notice of, 28,29                            415,445
      Evacuation        planning,       l-2, 7-8, 29              Nhu’s interview             with, 415,416-418
      Harkins’s     position,        13, 14-15, 23             Timmes, Maj. Gen. Charles J., 206, 564,
      Instructions       to Lodge (Oct. 29), 473n,                   621
             475n, 484n, 499n, 500n                            Ton That Dinh, Maj. Gen., 2, 48, 148, 240,
      Meetings     in Washington             (Oct. 29),              366,571
             469,470                                              Cambodian           neutrality       issue, 697
790       Index

Ton That Dinh, Maj. Gen-Continued                                Tran Van Don, Maj. Gen.-Continued
   Countercoup           operations,        507n                    Coup against Diem, 366,461,492,509
   Coup against Diem, 355,451,453,461,                                  Assassination          of Diem and Nhu,
          534                                                                   531n, 546,559,560
   Krulak’s interview             with, 156                             Conein, meeting with, 450-452
   Multiple      military      responsibilities,        716,            Contacts with U.S. military,               433
          718                                                           Initiation      of, 505
   Neutral      solution      for Vietnam,        710                   Lodge, meeting with, 449
   Neutralization          of, U.S. plan for, 673-                      Oct. 26 attempt, cancellation               of, 423-
          674                                                                   424n, 427
   Nhu and, 207                                                         U.S. to be provided            with final plans
   Provisional        government           of Vietnam,                          before commencement                of coup,
          524n, 544,553,557-558,567,587,                                        424n,, 434
          653,661,        755                                           U.S. updated on planning                progress,
Tran Chanh Thanh, 640-642                                                        354,450-452
Tran Cuu Thien, Maj., 147                                            Governmental            reform in Vietnam,           66,
Tran Kim Tuyen, 40,292,503,507,509,                                          309
      558,561                                                        McNamara’s           visit to Vietnam        (Dec.),
Tran Le Quang, 524n, 558,578                                                 717,718-719
Tran Ngoc Oanh, 558                                                  Minh and, 65
Tran Ngoc Tam, Gen., 91,512                                          Nhu family, disposition              following      coup,
Tran Quoc Buu, 214,399,477,551,561,                                          547,560,570
      590                                                            Popularity        of, 545
Tran Sanh Buu, 304
                                                                     Provisional        government         of Vietnam,
Tran Thien Khiem, Gen., 7, 32n, 48,90                                        524n, 543,553
    Counterinsurgency              operations,       607
                                                                         Arrests, 65 1
    Coup against Diem, 366,400-401,452,
                                                                         Cabinet positions,           545,567
           461,492,508,512
                                                                         Chinese racketeers,           policy on, 590-
       Double agent role, 366-367
                                                                                 591
       Interim planning,             290-291
                                                                         Police forces, 553
       Leadership         group, 240
                                                                         Promotions         of Generals,       557
       Postponement             of coup (Aug. 31), 64-
                                                                         Public relations efforts, 590
              66
                                                                         Purges of Diem personnel,                548
       U.S. assurances of support,                 42, 79
                                                                     Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces:
    Generals’      suspicions         of, 87, 88
                                                                         Revamping          of, 570-572
    Governmental           reform in Vietnam,             239,
                                                                         Unity of commanders,               547
           291-292
    Nhu’s attempts to deal with DRV, 239-                            Self Defense Corps, 718-719
                                                                      Special Forces, Vietnamese,               426
           240
    Provisional        government           of Vietnam,               Strategic hamlet program:
           553,557                                                       Consolidation           of, 590
    Thuan’s assessment of, 139                                           Deterioration         of, 689
 Tran Trung Dung, 453,457-459,463,503                                 Tri Quang, release from U.S. Embassy,
 Tran Tu Oai, Brig. Gen., 91,512,524n,                                        548
        553,558,567,574&                  649                         U.S. suspension           of aid to Diem regime,
 Tran Van Chuong,               122, 237-238, 268-269,                        495
        318,386,524n                                              Tran Van Huu, 298
 Tran Van Chuong,              Madame,         237-238            Tran Van Khiem, 122-123,124,140,303
 Tran Van Don, Maj. Gen., 91,404                                  Tran Van Ly, 524n, 589
    Buddhist crisis, 147                                          Tran Van Minh, Maj. Gen., 90,512,524n,
    Cambodian           neutrality       issue, 697, 718                 532,557
    Counterinsurgency               operations,       554         Tran Van Nhan, 142
        Border security and surveillance,                  607    Tran Van Nhut, 508
        Mekong        Delta situation,         717                Tri. See Do Cao Tri, Maj. Gen.
                                                                                                       Index           791

Tri Quang, bonze, 142,180,400                               U.S. economic assistance to Vietnam-
   Buddhist crisis:                                            Continued
      Role in, 147, 194                                        Suspension            of. See under Coup against
      U.N. investigation        of, 415                               Diem, U.S. policy re; Govemmen-
   Exile, proposed,        218                                         tal reform in Vietnam.
   Popular attitude toward,           270                      U.S. policy toward,              638-639
   Provisional      government        position of-             Vietnamese            requirements,         614
          fered to, 514, 519-520                            U.S. Embassy building                 in Saigon, 632-633
   Release from US. Embassy,                136-137,        U.S. information              programs       and policies in
          519n, 548                                                Vietnam,          175, 193-194,300-301
Truce in Vietnam,         Mansfield’s       proposal        U.S. Information              Service (USIS):
      for, 691-692                                             Closing of field offices, possible, 405
Trueheart,     William C., 42, 90, 162n, 206,                  Diem’s criticism of, 142-143
      354,666                                               U.S. military         assistance to Vietnam:
   Congressional        attitude toward,        447            Suspension            of. See under Coup against
   Departure     from Vietnam,         628                             Diem, U.S. policy toward; Govem-
   Honolulu      meeting, 616, 618, 623-624                            mental reform in Vietnam.
   Strategic hamlet program,            623-624                U.S. policy toward, 638-639
   Thuan, meeting with, 139-140                             U.S. military         involvement          in Vietnam:
Tu, 506                                                        Advisers,        Krulak’s interviews              with, 153.
Tung. See Le Quang Tung, Col.                                           160
Tunisia, 211                                                   Disengagement                by 1965, proposed,           338,
Tuyen. See Tran Kim Tuyen.                                             387
Tyler, William       R., 388, 389                              Force reductions:
                                                                   Announcement               of reductions,          652-
U Thant, ll2,333n,            34971                                         653
Unger, Leonard,          700,728,739-740                           Defense Department                 plan for, 407-
United Front Party, 503                                                     409
United Kingdom,           696                                      McNamara-Taylor                  mission recom-
United Nations:                                                             mendations,         338,351
   Buddhist crisis:                                                Vietnamese            concerns re, 640-641
      General Assembly            debate re, 132n,             Nhu’s opposition,               385-386
              227,228-229,331n                                 Unlimited         commitment,            justification
      Investigation        of, 320,333n,      349n,                    for, 150
              415, 418, 423, 438, 442-443,           494,      Violations        of Geneva accords, 408-409
              495,516                                          Withdrawal            of forces, U.N. proposal for,
      U Thant’s letter to Diem, 112                                     331-332
   Political proposals         on Vietnam,      331-332     U.S. Mission in Vietnam:
Unna, Warren, 24 1 n                                           Differing        attitudes within, 380-383
U.S. Deputy Chief of Mission, selection of,                    Military       man as Ambassador                 and mili-
       628,633,650,665-666                                              tary commander,             proposed,         739
   Nes’ selection,        693-694                              Press relations,            384-385
U.S. economic assistance to Vietnam                 (see    US. policy in Vietnam (see nlso Coup
       also Commodity          Import Program):                    against Diem, U.S. policy toward;
   Fertilizer    credits, 616, 622                                 Honolulu          meeting):
   Joint U.S.-Vietnamese            policies, manage-          All-agency          review (Dec. 6), 684-685
           ment of, 541-542                                        Lodge’s response, 689-690
   Lend-lease       program,      proposed,     4 17               Recommendations                 of, 685-687
   Loans, 84-85                                                Conflicting          viewpoints        within adminis-
   P.L. 480program,           340,361-362,370,                          tration, 235,390.391
           373,540-541,614                                     Congressional              hearings on, 113,390-
   Reductions,       possible impact of, 417                            392
   Resumption         of aid following       coup, 540-        McNamara-Taylor                  mission recommen-
           541,546,551                                                  dations, 339
792    Index

U.S. policy in Vietnam-Continued            Vietnam, Democratic Republic of (DRV)
  Nhu’s criticism of, 91-92,416-418              (see also Neutral solution for Viet-
  NSAM 263,395.396                               nam):
  NSAM 273, 637-640                            Assistance for Diem in response to
  NSC-endorsed policy, 350-354                      coup, possible, 34, 50, 55, 68
  Objectives (Sept. 1963), 177-180             Chinese People’s Republic, relations
  Phase-out of programs, dates for, 610             with, 388-390
  Reiteration of, 581-582, 592-593,599-        Media reports from Hanoi, 210
       600                                     Neutralization of, Lodge’s plan for, 633-
  Vietnamese popular attitude toward,               634,656-659
       270                                     Reunification issue, 332
  World opinion on, 2 1O-2 11                  U.S. covert operations against, 699, 702,
                                                     724-725,729, 734
Van Thanh Cao, Gen., 91                     Vietnam, Republic of (see also Coup
Vann, Col. John Paul, 516                        against Diem headings; Government
Vien. See Cao Van Vien, Col.                     of Diem and Nhu; Governmental re-
Viet Cong. See Communist insurgency.             form in Vietnam; Neutral solution for
Vietnam. See:                                    Vietnam; Provisional government of
   Agricultural situation in Vietnam             Vietnam):
   Amnesty (Chieu Hoi) Program                 Agricultural situation, 616,622
   Buddhist crisis                             Cadres, political, 313
   Commodity Import Program                    Cambodia, relations with, 538-539,588,
   Communist insurgency                              630,641,646,674
                                               Can Lao Party, 223,253,264,482-484
   Countercoup operations
   Counterinsurgency operations                Cao Dai sect, 597, 612, 680, 717, 733,
                                                     736-737
   Coup against Diem
                                               Censorship of press, 142
   Coup against Diem, Generals’ plan for
                                               Chinese racketeers, 590-591
   Coup against Diem, U.S. policy toward       Council on Religious Affairs, 264
   Crop destruction program
                                               Economic situation. See Economic situa-
   Defoliant operations                              tion in Vietnam.
   Economic situation in Vietnam               Elections, 253,263,303-305,314
   Government of Diem and Nhu                  Emergency Planning Ministry, pro-
   Governmental reform in Vietnam                    posed, 484
   Martial law                                 Foreign relations, 675-676
   Media coverage of Vietnam                   French economic assistance, 615-616
   Montagnards                                 Hoa Hao sect, 597,606, 612,646, 680,
   Neutral solution for Vietnam                      717,733,736-737
   Province chiefs                             Land reforms, 376, 671, 748
   Provisional government of Vietnam           Laos, relations with, 539-540,630, 675
   Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces            Martial law, 9, 126-127,273
   Self Defense Corps                          National Revolutionary Movement, 304
   Strategic hamlet program                    National unity government, proposed,
   Student protest movement                          237-238
   Truce in Vietnam                            Political action campaign, 672-673
   U.S. economic assistance to Vietnam         Province-level situation, 616-617
   U.S. information programs and policies      Provinces, creation of, 313
        in Vietnam                             Public works program, 315
   U.S. military assistance to Vietnam         Reunification issue, 332
   U.S. military involvement in Vietnam        Secret police force, 122-123, 124,213
   U.S. Mission in Vietnam                     United Front Party, 503
   U.S. policy in Vietnam                      Women’s Solidarity Movement, 304
   Vietnam, Democratic Republic of           Vo Van Hai, 213,214
   Vietnam, Republic of                      Voice of America (VOA), 300-301
Vu Quoc Thuc, 144,244,245                    Whiting,  Albert L., 269~1
Vu Van Mau, 114,181,213,317-318,322,         Whiting,  Allen S., 49n, 122n
    524n, 558, 710n                          Wilson, Donald M., 356,35Bn,           684, 704
Vu Van Thai, 114-115                         Wolfhill, Grant, 444n
                                             Women’s    Solidarity Movement,         304
Wallner,   Woodruff,     331n
Walther,   Herbert    K., 495                Xuan.   See Mai Huu    Xuan,   Maj. Gen
Warner, Denis, 122
Washington     Daily News, 352, 390-391      Yost, Charles W., 347,665
Washington     Post, 217, 241n, 295          Young, Earl J., 687-689
Whalley,   J. Irving, 379n
                                             Zablocki,   Clement J., 378,430
Wheeler,   Gen. Earle G., 64n, 194n, 535n,
      583                                       Congressional   visit to Vietnam,      446-447
White, W. Y., 387~1

								
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