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3_ Chapter 7 - Muscular Strength and Endurance - Handout

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3_ Chapter 7 - Muscular Strength and Endurance - Handout Powered By Docstoc
					CHAPTER
OUTLINE   Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
           Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
           Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




                Chapter 7
                      Muscular
                    Strength and
                     Endurance
                    Benefits of   Changes in      Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                     Strength       Body         Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                     Training     Composition     and Endurance       Training




Key Terms
 __________________:                            __________________:
 The ability of a muscle                        The ability of a muscle
 to exert maximum force                         to exert submaximal
 against resistance (for                        force repeatedly over
 example,                                       time
 1 repetition maximum
 [or 1 RM] of the bench
 press exercise)
Muscular Power
 = _________________
 2 people–300lb. bench press–the one who
 can press it in half the time has twice the
 power
 2 football players – 1 benches 400 – 1
 benches 350 – if the later can bench his at
 a much faster speed he may be able to
 gain control over the first
                           Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                            Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                            Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Benefits of Adequate
Strength Levels
 Crucial for daily activities
    Sitting, walking, running, lifting, recreational activities
 Improves confidence
    Posture, personal appearance, self-image
 Helps develop sports skills
 Promotes joint stability
 Helps people cope more effectively in emergency
 situations
                    Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                     Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                     Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Benefits of Adequate
Strength Levels
 Promotes psychological well-being
 Results in higher resting metabolic rate
 Promotes weight loss and maintenance
 Lessens the risk for injury
 Prevents osteoporosis
 Reduces chronic low back pain, arthritic pain
 Aids in childbearing
 Improves cholesterol levels, may help lower blood
 pressure and control blood sugar
                     Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                      Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                      Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Muscular Strength & Older Adults
 Muscular strength might be the
 ________________________ component of
 physical fitness for older adults
 Adequate strength enhances quality of life by
   Enhancing ability to perform activities of daily living
   Improving balance and restoring mobility
   Making lifting and reaching easier
   Decreasing the risk for falls and injuries
   Stresses the bones which helps to preserve bone
   mineral density (decreasing the risk for
   _________________________)
                 Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                  Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                  Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Strength and Metabolism
 Strength training increases muscle mass
 Muscle is metabolically active
 Each additional pound of muscle tissue may
 increase resting metabolism by up to
 ______________________________
Strength Training in Women
                                                            7.1
  ???Does not cause muscle hypertrophy as in men???
  Changes in body composition can lead to reduction in
  ______________ but not body _________________
  Improved body appearance can be achieved through
  strength training




                                   Post-strength training
Cardiovascular Adaptations vs.
Aerobic
 Inc. ventricular
 _____________________
   vs. inc. ventricular size from aerobic
 Possibly inc. _____ & dec _____ from
 inc. wall strength
 WHY??
   Is essentially weight lifting for our hearts
   Heart is pushing against a resistance
Physiology of Weight Training
 ____________ make up muscle fibers –
 bundles of muscle fibers (cells) make up
 ____________
 A ________________ is a motor nerve
 and all of the fibers it innervates
 (connects to)
   Initial gains in strength due to
   ____________________________
     Occurs in ____________________
Neuromuscular Adaptations
 First 6 – 8 weeks
  1.
  2.
       Muscle fibers work better together – fire at same
       time (more so than did before)
  3.
       _______________ – monitors muscle tension, won’t
       let muscle lift something heavy enough to tear it
       During this time the body overcomes this stimulus
       and allows itself to lift more weight
 After this you max out neuromuscular
 adaptations, strength gains are due to
 _______________________ and it is much
 harder to do
Major component of muscle is protein
  _________________________
Train with weights incorporates more protein
into cell causing __________________
(increase in size)
_____________________ = increase in
number of muscle cells (not size) – not totally
proven
________________ is a decrease in muscle
cell size- Sarcopenia- wasting with aging
                                        7.6
Major Muscles

1. Temporalis (closes jaw)
2. Masseter (flexes jaw)
3. Sterno-cleido-mastoid (rotates head)
4. Intercostals (breathing)
5. Pectoralis minor (abducts ribs)
6. Biceps brachii (flexes elbow)
7. Serratus (adducts shoulder)
8. Rectus abdominus
9. Deep flexors (flexes fingers)
10. Internal oblique (flattens abdomen)
11. Tendons from forearm flexors
     to fingers
12. Sartorius (rotates thigh)
13. Rectus femoris (extends knee)
14. Gastrocnemius (points toe, flexes knee)
15. Soleus (points toe)
16. Tendons of toes
                                           7.6
 Major Muscles


17. Frontalis (raises eyebrow)
18. Orbicularis oculi (closes eye)
19. Orbicularis oris (purses lips)
20. Throat muscles (aids swallowing)
21. Pectoralis major (adducts arm)
22. Deltoid (abducts arm)
23. Brachialis (flexes arm)
24. External oblique (flattens abdomen)
25. Superficial flexors (flexes fingers)
26. Vastus lateralis (extends knee)
27. Vastus medialis (extends knee)
28. Tibialis anterior (raises feet)
                              7.6
Major Muscles

29. Extensors of forearm
30. Deltoid
31. Triceps
32. Latissimus dorsi
33. Serratus posterior inferior
34. Splenius capitus
35. Sternomastoid
36. Trapezius
37. Gluteus maximus
38. Tendons from forearm extensors
     to fingers
39. Biceps femoris
40. Semitendonosus
41. Gastrocnemius
42. Tendon of Achilles
Slow Twitch and Fast Twitch
Muscle Fibers

 See handout
                    Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                     Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                     Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Critical Thinking
 What role should strength training have
 in a fitness program?
 Should people be motivated for the
 health fitness benefits or should they
 participate to enhance their body
 image?
 What are your feelings about individuals
 (male or female) with large body
 musculature?
Types of Weight Training Exercises
 ______________ (_______________) - application of
 force without movement, muscle fiber length doesn’t
 change
 ______________ (_______________) - application of
 force with movement, muscle shortens and lengthens
 ___________________ training: Strength-training method in which the
 speed of the muscle contraction is kept constant because the equipment
 (machine) provides resistance that matches the user’s force throughout
 the range of motion, i.e. cam pullies
 Two types of isotonic contractions:
    ___________________-a contraction where the muscle gets
    shorter – positive
    ___________________-a contraction where the muscle
    lengthens as it contracts – negative – said to tear down
    muscle fibers more
Isotonic vs. Isometric
 Isometric
 1.
 2.
 3.
 Isotonic
 1.
 2.
 3.
Assessing Muscular
Strength & Endurance
 ___________________________ (RM)-
 maximum load performed a specified
 number of times
   show chart
 ______ (commonly called “maxing out”)
 is maximum amount of weight lifted one
 time
                         Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                          Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                          Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training



Strength and Endurance Tests
 Hand grip test
   Dynamometer
 Muscular endurance test
   Bench-jump: 16 1/4” high
      Many times as possible in 1min.
      Can step if can’t jump the entire time
   Modified dip
      Metronome pace at 56 beats/min
   Push-up test
      Modified for women
      Perform as many as possible
          Metronome pace at 56 beats/min
   Bent-leg curl-up
      Chin on chest and hands across chest
      Metronome pace at 40 beats/min
Hand Grip Test
(isometric strength)   7.1
             Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
              Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
              Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Fitness Categories Based on
Percentile Ranks

 Percentile Rank Fitness Category
   90 & up          Excellent
   70-80            Good
   50-60            Average
   30-40            Fair
   20 & below       Poor
Muscular Endurance Scoring Table
                                                     7.2
  A percentile rank is given for each exercise
  according to the number of repetitions performed
                            Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                             Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                             Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Final Test Score

Individual Test Score                                    Strength Fitness Category

Percentile Rank         Points                           Total Points                        Category

90 & up Excellent       5                                13 & up                              Excellent
70–80 Good              4                                10–12                                Good
50–60 Average           3                                7–9                                  Average
30–40 Fair              2                                4–6                                  Fair
20 & below Poor         1                                3 & below                            Poor
Muscular Strength & Endurance:
Resistance Requirements          7.4
p. 205
Muscular Strength & Endurance Scoring Table
   A percentile rank is based on the number of
                                                 7.3
   repetitions performed
                            Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                             Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                             Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Final Test Score
Individual Test Score                                    Strength Fitness Category

Percentile Rank         Points                           Total Points                        Category

90 & up Excellent       5                                25 & up                              Excellent
70–80 Good              4                                19-24                                Good
50–60 Average           3                                13-18                                Average
30–40 Fair              2                                 7-12                                Fair
20 & below Poor         1                                6 & below                            Poor
                     Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                      Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                      Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Key Terms                                    ____________________:
                                             Strength training that
 ____________________:                       requires machines
 Barbells and dumbbells                      equipped with mechanical
 ____________________:                       devices that provide
 Type of exercise in which                   differing amounts of
 a constant resistance is                    resistance through the
 moved through a joint’s                     range of motion
 full range of motion                        ____________________:
                                             The sum of all the
                                             repetitions performed
                                             multiplied by the
                                             resistances used during a
                                             strength-training session
                    Benefits of   Changes in      Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                     Strength       Body         Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                     Training     Composition     and Endurance       Training




Key Terms
 __________________:                            __________________:
 Alternating exercises by                       An emotional,
                                                behavioral, and physical
 performing them in a                           condition marked by
 sequence of three to six                       increased fatigue,
 or more exercises                              decreased performance,
                                                persistent muscle
                                                soreness, mood
                                                disturbances, and
                                                feelings of staleness or
                                                burnout as a result of
                                                excessive physical
                                                training
                   Benefits of   Changes in      Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                    Strength       Body         Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                    Training     Composition     and Endurance       Training




Key Terms
 __________________:                           __________________:
 Explosive jump training                       A training program that
 incorporating speed and                       uses exercises
 strength training to                          designed to help
 enhance explosiveness                         strengthen the body’s
                                               core by developing
                                               pelvic stability and
                                               abdominal control
                                               coupled with focused
                                               breathing patterns
Free Weights vs. Machines
 Machines
 1.
 2.
 3.
 Free Weights
 1.
 2.
 3.
Selecting Exercises
 A complete program works all muscle
 groups
 Usually requires _________ exercises
 to work all muscle groups
   For normal pop.
 A balanced program includes exercises
 for both the ___________ and
 ______________
Resistance
 Amount of weight determines how the body
 adapts – not enough weight = no strength or
 end. response
   Stimulus = _________________ – no matter what
   type of training
 High resistance for __________ development
 (generally)
 Low resistance for ___________ development
 (generally) – more reps
   Lower but not necessarily low
   Don’t use low weight that you can do all day
Reps and Sets
 Reps
   Low number of reps builds maximum
   strength
     ___________, possibly lower
   High number of reps builds endurance
     ___________
 Sets-a group of sets
   1 set vs. multiple sets
Rest Periods
 Between sets
  Allow more rest for development of max
  strength – allows fibers you will be using for
  strength bout to recover
  Shorter rest for endurance & hypertrophy
 Between workouts???
Powerlifters vs. Bodybuilders
1.                                 1.
2. Lifts are sport specific            a. may start at high intensity
    a. trains only the fibers             but FT fibers fatigue
       needed for their lift              quicker thus forced to
3. _________ rest time                    lower intensity
    a. helps keep FT fibers from   2. _____________rest time
       fatiguing as quickly so         a. reason for fatiguing
       they can train them more           quicker
       intensely                       b. but that is there goal
   Exercise sessions are equal             1.
   amount of time                          2.
               Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




ACSM Strength Training
Guidelines
 See handout
Guidelines for Various Strength-   7.4
Training Programs
                  Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                   Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                   Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Core Strength Training
 The trunk (spine) and pelvis are the “core”
 of the body
 Core muscles include abdominal muscles,
 hip muscles, and spinal muscles
 These muscle groups are responsible for
 maintaining the stability of the spine and
 pelvis
 Many major muscle groups of legs,
 shoulders, and arms attach to the core
                                        7.6
Major Muscles

1. Temporalis (closes jaw)
2. Masseter (flexes jaw)
3. Sterno-cleido-mastoid (rotates head)
4. Intercostals (breathing)
5. Pectoralis minor (abducts ribs)
6. Biceps brachii (flexes elbow)
7. Serratus (adducts shoulder)
8. Rectus abdominus
9. Deep flexors (flexes fingers)
10. Internal oblique (flattens abdomen)
11. Tendons from forearm flexors
     to fingers
12. Sartorius (rotates thigh)
13. Rectus femoris (extends knee)
14. Gastrocnemius (points toe, flexes knee)
15. Soleus (points toe)
16. Tendons of toes
                                           7.6
Major Muscles


17. Frontalis (raises eyebrow)
18. Orbicularis oculi (closes eye)
19. Orbicularis oris (purses lips)
20. Throat muscles (aids swallowing)
21. Pectoralis major (adducts arm)
22. Deltoid (abducts arm)
23. Brachialis (flexes arm)
24. External oblique (flattens abdomen)
25. Superficial flexors (flexes fingers)
26. Vastus lateralis (extends knee)
27. Vastus medialis (extends knee)
28. Tibialis anterior (raises feet)
                   Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                    Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                    Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Core Strength Training
 A strong core allows a person to
   Perform activities of daily living with greater ease
   Improve sports performance through a more effective
   energy transfer from large to small body parts
   Decrease the incidence of low back pain
Warm-Up and Cool-Down
 Warm up
  Several minutes of ____________ warm-up
  _______________ warm-up
    Going to work legs don’t warm-up chest
 Cool down is the best time for
 __________________ training and may
 help aid recovery
  Muscles are warm and more ___________
    Rubber band
                     Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                      Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                      Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Strength Training:
Exercise Guidelines
 Select exercises that will involve all major muscle groups
 Select exercises that will strengthen the core
 Never lift weights alone???
 Warm up properly prior to lifting weights
 Use proper lifting technique for each exercise
 Lift in a controlled manner
 Use collars with free weights (exceptions – bench press)
 Use common sense with machines
 Use spotters with free weights
                         Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                          Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                          Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Strength Training:
Exercise Guidelines
 Maintain proper body balance while lifting
 Exercise larger muscle groups before exercising smaller
 muscle groups
 Exercise opposing muscle groups for a balanced
 workout
    Why or why not?
 Breathe naturally; inhale during the eccentric phase and
 exhale during the concentric phase
 Avoid holding your breath while straining to lift a weight
    Val salva maneuver
                   Benefits of   Changes in     Assessment of Principles Involved    Exercise
                    Strength       Body        Muscular Strength  in Strength       Guidelines
                    Training     Composition    and Endurance       Training




Strength Training:
Exercise Guidelines
 Allow adequate recovery time between sets
 of exercises
 Discontinue training if you experience unusual
 discomfort or pain???
 Use common sense on days when you feel fatigued or
 when performing sets to complete fatigue
 Stretch out for a few minutes at the end of each
 strength-training session
Things That the Spotter Should Be
Aware Of
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Misconceptions
 Weight training decreases flexibility
    Not stretching decreases flexibility
 Weight training decreases endurance
 Muscle turns into fat if not used
 “I don’t want to bulk up so I am not going to lift.”
    Typically what girls say so don’t use enough weight to matter
    – stimulus = response
    Testosterone
 Weight training makes you slower
    FT fibers are used for weight training and sprinting thus one
    will most likely help the other
 Women need to have special programs designed for
 them – you won’t look like a man just because you
 train like one unless you use steroids – then you will
 be an ugly man
Critical Thinking
 Your roommate started strength training last
 year and has seen good results. He is now
 strength training almost daily and taking
 performance-enhancing supplements in
 hopes of accelerating results. What are your
 feelings about his program?
 What would you say (and not say) to him?
Anabolic Steroids
 Androgenic – ________________
 Anabolic – ________________
 Were given to children with delayed
 growth patterns
Proposed Ergogenic Benefits
 Increase ___________ mass
 Increase ___________
 Early claims of improving aerobic
 capacity
 Facilitate _____________
   Thus train hard on subsequent days
Proven Effects

   Muscle mass & strength
     Significant increases in…
       Body mass
       Muscle size
       Performance & strength
   Bodybuilder – high dose for 140 days
   Weight lifter – high dose for 135 days
     Fat-free body mass increase average of
     ______lbs & fat mass decreased almost
     ______ lbs
   Hard to study
Risks

 Immature users
   Early closure of the epiphyses of the long bones –
   thus never reach ________________
 Suppresses gonadotropin hormone
   Controls the development and function of the
   testes and ovaries
   Testicular _____________
   Decreased natural _______________
     Enlargement of male breasts
   Reduced sperm count
   Women
     Breast regression, enlargement of the clitoris, deepening
     of voice, growth of facial hair
Risks (contd.)


    Prostate gland enlargement – possibly
    cancer
    Liver damage – tumors
    Cardiomyopathy – diseased heart
    Substantially lower HDL levels
    Personality changes – “roid rage”
    Study in rats – markedly decreased life
    span
Human Growth Hormone
 Used for treatment of hypopituitary
 dwarfism
 Originally extracted from cadavers
   Thus short supply
 Since 1980s genetically engineered
   Still expensive but abundant supply
 As it became popular athletes began to
 use it in replace of or with steroids
Proposed Ergogenic Benefits


   5 functions of interest to athletes
     Stimulation of _____________
     Stimulation of ________________ if bones
     are not yet fused
       Important to young athletes
       “I wanna be like Mike”
     Increase in lipolysis
       Increases ______________ thus decrease body fat
     Increase in blood _______________ levels
     Enhancement of ________________
       Enhanced ________________
Proven Effects


   Aiding healing
     Inconclusive
   Study involving 12 men 61 – 81 years
   Received GH 3 times/wk for 6 months
   Results
     Fat-free mass increased by ____%
     Fat mass decreased by ____%
     Lumbar vertebral bone density increased
     by ____%
Proven Effects (contd.)



    Another study
    Young men took GH while resistance
    training for 12 wks
    Results
      Increase – fat-free mass, total body water,
      whole-body protein synthesis rate, whole-
      body protein balance
      Muscle size and strength did not improve
Proven Effects (contd.)


    Another study involving experienced
    weight lifters
    Took GH for 14 days
    Results
      Did not alter rate of muscle protein
      synthesis
      Or rate of whole-body protein breakdown
        These 2 factors promote an increase in muscle
        mass
    Some studies have shown increase in
    muscle mass but not functional ability
Risks

 ______________ after the bones have fused
   Results in bone thickening
   Causes broadening of the hands, feet, and face –
   also skin thickening and soft tissue growth
     “Andre the Giant”
 Internal organs ______________
   Ultimately leading to muscle & joint weakness and
   often heart disease
 Glucose intolerance, diabetes
 Hypertension
Creatine
 Enhance PC stores – thus hopefully
 better maintain ATP levels
   Increase time to exhaustion in short term
   high intensity bouts
Creatine
 Shown to increase strength
 Not shown to increase endurance
   Obviously
 Can increase body mass due to
 possible increase work levels
   However – some size may be attributed to
   ______________________ (swelling of the
   muscle fiber) – muscles look fuller
Risks
 Not been out long enough to know a lot
 about it’s risks
 Few studies on this – retrospective
 Tough to research
   Tell subject “take this and let’s see what it
   does to you”
_________________________
 Phenomenon by which your
 expectations of a substance determine
 your body’s response to it
   Try harder just because you think you are
   pumped up on something
 Steroid experiment
 Studies must have a placebo group to
 prove the ergogenic effect of their
 substance
End of Chapter

				
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