Document Sample
NEWSLETTER Powered By Docstoc

                                         NEWSLETTER                                                 DECEMBER, 1991

    Hong Kong Dental Association                                                  * it-

                                                                      company. It is now over 18 months since the initial
          MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT                                  launch and I am most delighted to report to you that
                                                                      according to the follow-up study by Frank Small &
                                                                      Associates, we were able to significantly alter the
                                                                      public's attitude towards our profession and our ser-
    It was almost 5 years ago, when the idea of launching             vices. The details will be elaborated at a latter article in
    a mass-media public relations campaign was con-                   this issue. We have been advised that efforts in this
    ceived by the Council and the Committee on Market-                direction should be continued and you can be assured
    ing of Dentistry. We have borrowed experiences from               that the Council and the Committee on Marketing of
    other developed countries at varies FDI congresses.               Dentistry will be working very hard to obtain further
    Development of the television campaign was made                   sponsorship towards this most worthwhile project.
    possible through a generous sponsorship from the
    Johnson & Johnson (Hong Kong) Limited. There were                 At this festive time of the year, I am bringing you
    a number of parameters that interested us. Therefore,             another piece of good nows. Dentistry will be formally
    the produced film incorporated some of the following              incorporated into the Academy of Medicine. The Acad-
    themes: they are now listed in decreasing order of                emy of Medicine legislation will be sent to the legisla-
    priority.                                                         tive Council definitely before the Chinese New Year. I
                                                                      have been informed that in this particular ordinance,
    1. To heighten public awareness on the importance                 the word "Medicine" incorporates both the Medical
       of good oral health;                                           and Dental professions. The exact mechanism of
                                                                      Dentistry's entry into the Academy have not been
    2. Recognition on the importance of regular profes-               totally finalised. However, we will probably be organised
       sional dental care;                                            as a Faculty and will subsequently develop into an
                                                                      independent College within two years. You will all be
    3. Recognition of the concept "Your teeth are meant               receiving an appeal from the Academy of Medicine
       to last for a life time.";                                     Foundation Fund to bring this monumental establish-
                                                                      ment into reality. It is envisaged that a total sum of
    4. Prevention is better than treatment;                           HK$100 million will have to be raised. We have spent
                                                                      many hours of deliberation and preparation towards
    5. Public recognition of the Hong Kong Dental                     Dentistry's inclusion into the Academy of Medicine. It
       Association.                                                   is now the individual's opportunity to show our sup-
                                                                      port. Three members of the dental profession have
    With these ideas, two different segments were                     been enlisted into the Academy of Medicine Founda-
    developed of 30 seconds each. Prior to the launching              tion Fund, they are Dr Jeffrey Tsang, Prof Stephen Wei
    of these film segments on local television stations,              and myself. There will be a series of events related to
    both English & Chinese, an attitudinal survey about               the fund raising activities. I am seeking support from all
    oral health on the Hong Kong public was conducted.                of you, not only in monetary terms but more impor-
    The survey was conducted by the marketing research                tantly, towards participation when such opportunity
    firm—Frank Small & Associates. The entire project                 arises.
    was monitored very closely by the Council and the
    Committee on Marketing of Dentistry, we worked
                                                                      Wishing you all a Happy and Prosperous 1992.
    closely with the media stations as well as the production

President: Dr Homer W.K. TSO A#H • Vice President: Dr Philip S.L. Tang SF<? A • Honorary Secretary: Dr Joseph C.Y. Chan
                    • Honorary Treasurer: Dr John Y.K.Ling #.*.# • Council Members: Dr George C.K. Lau #]:*,•&
                          Dr Eli Schwarz if.S- Dr David Y.W. Sun #.&$ Dr Johnny Wong
             Dr WONG Tin Chun # JR.* Dr Keith K. W. Yuen * H f • immediate Past President: Dr Thomas H.L. Ip * It pi
                                           • Executive Secretary: Miss Elsie Ho
                                                                -1-                                                December, 1991
                                                                   wooden stick helps to diagnose fracture tooth. Pain
     ONE-DAY CONTINUING EDUCATION                                  when the bite is relieved off the stick may suggest a
               COURSE                                              fracture. The crack may be shown up by the fibre-Optic
                                                                   light shone occlusally and bucco-lingually. His comment
                                                                   on the test cavity was 'it is a joke1.

This year's course was held on December 8, at the                  All the information collected above should be able to
Prince Philip Dental Hospital, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.               show whether the pain is of dental origin? Is the pulp
199 members and guests attended the course with Dr                 vital? Is the pulpitis reversible? The baselines for re-
Christopher J.R. Stock from U.K. spoke on the topic                versible pulpitis are: 1. Pain of short duration on cold or
'Update on Endodontics'.                                           hot. 2. Pain difficult to locate. 3. Radiating pain. 4.
                                                                   Tooth not tender to percussion. 5. Normal radiograph.
Dr Stock started by laying down the aims of modern                 For irreversible pulpitis, the pain is elicit by hot lasting
endodontics,. Endodontic lesions are caused by micro-              for minutes to hours. The pain may be spontaneous
organisms. The root canal system cannot be sterilised.             and often at night. The tooth is TTP. And there is
We can only reduce the number of microbes to the point             radiographic change. Dr Stock stressed that there
the body can tolerate and heal by itself. So the aims are          should be at least two independent signs/symptoms
to clean the canal system properly, shape it, and fill it          before a tooth is root treated, e.g. tender tooth with
three-dimensionally. Cleaning is most important. He                positive radiographic change.
said 'what's removed is more important than put in'.
                                                                   A number of contraindications for endodontic treat-
The diagnosis of endodontic lesions is difficult. Infor-
                                                                   ment should be noted at the treating planning stage.
mation has to be compiled from the health history,
                                                                   These include Infective Endocarditis, non-functional
case history, clinical examination, and diagnostic tests,
                                                                   tooth, unrestorable tooth, insufficient periodontal sup-
before a diagnosis can be reached.
                                                                   port, poor oral hygiene, and poor prognosis.
There are a number of health conditions that may
affect treatment. Examples are Infective Endocarditis,             Apicetomy should not be carried out unnecessarily. It
Congenital Heart Diseases, Rheumatic Fever, artificial             should be done only when root filling by non-surgical
heart valves, joint replacement, Cardiovascular dis-               technique has not succeeded or is unlikely to succeed.
eases, Hypertension, Haemophilia, Diabetes, Hepati-                Or biopsy is necessary at or near the apex of the tooth.
tis, Chronic Renal Failure, immune suppressed states,              Amalgam is no longer used for retrograde filling. Glass
radiotherapy, venereal diseases, and other debilitating            ionomer is not recommended as it is practically impos-
diseases.                                                          sible to isolate and dry that area. Dr Stock suggested
                                                                   the use of IRM instead.
Clinical examination should start extra-orally. Any
swelling should be noted. Dr Stock suggested to look               Elective devitalization can be considered when the
for swelling by looking from above down, rather than               vitality of the pulp is questionable or will be endan-
straight on. Intra-oral examination should reveal infor-           gered by the treatment. Post-core fabrication, over-
mation on the patient's oral hygiene, caries preva-                denture, internal resorption, root resection, and
lence, quality of restorations, missing and un-opposed             crowning of a malaligned tooth are indications for
teeth, swelling, sinus tract, discoloured teeth, and               elective devitalization.
tooth wear/facet.
                                                                   The preparation of root canal requires an understand-
Dr Stock then commented on the various diagnostic                  ing of the canal morphology and the using of proper
tests including palpation, radiograph, percussion, mo-             instrument. Dr Stock stressed that there is no round
bility, pulp testing, local anaesthetics, wooden stick,            canal. Lateral canals occur on 50% of the cases, and it
fibre-optic light, and test cavity. Palpation is a very            is not possible to sterilize root canal systems. He also
reliable test to locate the origin of the pain. Percussion         stressed the racial differences of the canal systems. In
should be done by fingers. Radiographs should be                   Chinese, 15% of the 1 st mandibular molar has 3 roots
taken with the paralelling technique. It is better to              and 45 % has 2 canals in the distal root, 55 % of
standardise all radiographs by pointing the cone from              mandibular second molar has complete root fusion
mesial towards distal so that the buccal root is always            and there is a high percentage of C-shape canals. 82 %
on the distal side of the film. He cautioned us that the           of mandibular 1 st premolar has two canals and Leong 's
radiographs can be misleading. Sometimes more than                 premolars are common.
one radiographs taken at different angle is necessary.
Pulp testing with heat or cold (by using GP, rubber                Dr Stock then introduced a number of instruments for
wheel, hot water, ice, carbon dioxide, or ethyl chloride)          root canal preparation. Reamer cuts only when turned
is very crude. The EPT is a better test. The local                 which produces round hole. It is obsoleted now since
anaesthetics is not very precise because the                       no canal is round and we cannot round canals. K-file is
 'intraligamental injection' is infact intra-osseous. The          quite good and it is a standard instrument; K-flex file is

                                                             -2-                                                December, 1991
recommended because it is more flexible and cuts                     cause this will not shuffle anything apically. First use a
better than K-files: Flex-0-file has more flutes, but it is          small instrument to derive the working length. Sec-
too flexible and buckles easily when forced; Heli-file is            ondly, use Hedstrom files to clean the straight part of
not useful; Hedstrom-file is nice, cuts well but it cannot           the canal a few millimetre from the working length and
be twisted otherwise it breaks; Unifile or S-file is                 flare and clean this part of the canal. Then use Gates
similar to Hedstrom-f ile with double helix, so it has two           Glidden sizes 2 then 3 to complete shaping this part.
cutting blades at any one point, it is more flexible at the          Thirdly, clean the remaining apical portion of the canal
tips and very expensive; Gates-glidden burs are indis-               with the 'Step-back' technique, working from working
pensable for endodontic work.                                        length back. Dr Stock also suggested to use anti-
                                                                     curvature filing in curve canals by filing predominantly
A number of agents can be employed for canal irriga-                 away from the curve in ratio 2 or 3 to 1 to minimize the
tion with Sodium Hypochlorite (0.5 - 1%) highly                      chance of perforation. Concerning the use of canal
favoured. It can be made by diluting household bleach                medication, Dr Stock only suggested to use Calcium
to the recommended concentration. Sodium Hypo-                       Hydroxide when bacteria is still present. If vital tissue
chlorite is bactericidal, not particularly harmful to tis-           is left behind, Ledermix helps. IRM is the best material
sue even through apex, and it dissolve organic debris.               for temporary filling.
The irrigation needle should be placed as far as pos-
sible, then withdrawn a little bit to let the needle 'free',         Dr Stock then devoted considerable time on the use of
a needle with gauge 27 can be used for canal size 30.                Calcium Hydroxide. It is bactericidal and radiolucent. It
The design of the needle does not matter, it is the                  dissolves organic materials and stimulates the for-
depth of penetration more important. Before going                    mation of calcified tissue. It can be used:
 into the technique of the preparation, Dr Stock stressed
the use of rubber dam for endodontic treatment. The                  1. in vital pulp therapy as direct or indirect pulp cap-
dam keeps saliva out and stops instrument falling into                   ping agent. Application of Calcium Hydroxide after
the throat. Ivory Clamps 1, W8A, and 14 are useful for                   pulpotomy may enable the roots to form completely.
 nearly all cases.                                                      The agent may also cause sclerosis of canals which
                                                                         will complicate future endodontic treatment.
The guidelines for canal preparations are :                          2. as root canal dressing. The agent is particularly
                                                                       . useful in controlling presistent exudation. It is su-
1. to prepare the canal in conical shape, narrowest at                   perior to CMCP in disinfecting canals. Calcium
   the apical end.                                                       Hydroxide can also dissolve necrotic tissues and
2. to create an apical stop 1 mm short of the apex.                      enhance the tissue dissolving effect of Sodium
3. to maintain the canal in the original position.                       Hypochlorite.
4. to prepare the canal wet.                                         3. in root fracture. For vertical fracture not involving
5. to use instrument sequentially.                                       the pulp chamber floor, it can help cleanse the
6. to avoid extruding debris.                                            fracture line and decreased the chance of peri-
7. to widen the canal sufficiently for spreader.                         odontal pocket formation along the fracture line.
                                                                         After a few months of Calcium Hydroxide treat-
The access cavity should be made to completely                           ment, the tooth can then be root treated and
remove the roof of the pulp chamber, create straight                     restored with the help of dentine bonding agent.
line access into the canals, be as conservative as                       For horizontal fractures, Calcuim Hydroxide can be
possible, allow retention of the temporary dressing,                     used in the coronal portion and helps to form a
and leave the cingulum intact as much as possible in                     calcified barrier. The apical portion can be surgically
anterior teeth. The intact cingulum is very important                    removed if it becomes necrotic.
for the subsequent fabrication of crown. Working                     4. in resorption. Internal resorption entails prompt
lengths derived from diagnostic radiograph and elec-                     endodontics treatment. Warm filling technique is
tronic apex locator are acceptable while those derived                   required to obliterate the complicated canal mor-
by guessing from preoperative radiograph, imposing                       phology. External resorption of inflammatory na-
grid on radiograph, and the 'Ouch' length are unac-                      ture can be dealt with by Calcium Hydroxide and
ceptable. Dr Stock's comment on the electronic apex                      root canal therapy. Calcium Hydroxide cannot help
locators (for example, Neosono, Evident) was 'they                       other forms of external resorption.
are extremely useful no matter which brand you buy.                  5. in root end closure. Calcium Hydroxide may either
So buy a cheap one and get used to it1.                                  induce an anatomical closure (apexification) or a
                                                                         calcified barrier formation. Calcium Hydroxide can
The preparation of canal by hand can be done with                        be introduced, after proper cleaning and irrigation
various methods. The 'Step-back' technique cleans                        with Sodium Hypochlorite, up to the apex with
the apical third first with files passing the most con-                  spiral filler or hand plugger and messing gun if the
taminated coronal part of the canal each time. So                        canal is large enough. The dressing should be
bacteria will be transported to the apical area. The                     replaced once in three to four weeks' time and the
'Step-down' technique is the method of choice be-                        tooth should be reviewed in six months. Paper

                                                               -3-                                               December, 1991
   point can be employed to check whether the calci-              is sealed properly, the body can handle the small
   fied barrier has formed, which then can be root-               number of bacteria in the lateral canals. The silver point
   filled. If no barrier is present, replace the dressing         is not used any more. It is not compressible, fits poorly
   if necessary. Dr Stock did not recommend the use               at the apical area, and the corrosion product is toxic. Dr
   of Calcium Hydroxide (e.g. Sealapex) as canal sealer.          Stock cautioned us that when a silver point is removed
   The agent is too soluble.                                      and the canal reinstrumented, do not go to the working
                                                                  length right away, otherwise a very painful blow-up will
The rest of the presentation was on modern tech-                  occur. It is better to clean the coronal 3/4 of the canal
niques and devices used to prepare root canals. To                in the 1st visit, and then instrument the full length in
locate the canals, preoperative radiograph and good               the 2nd visit. There are other root filling materials, e.g.
access are required. At each corner of the pulp cham-             Titanium points, plastic points, and pastes, with Gutta
ber is a canal. Hard, sharp DT 16 is a suitable hand              Percha points most favoured.
instrument. Long shank round bur and Gates Glidden
burs are also indispensable. To negotiate canal, fine             Single cone Gutta Percha does not obliterate the canal
files (06) and lubricant are required. A fine file with a         system. Of the many sealers on the market, Dr Stock
small curve at the tip using reciprocal quarter turn              recommended AH26, Tubliseal, and Roths Sealapex.
technique together with suitable lubricant, without               There are many techniques using Gutta Percha as the
using too much force is the way to negotiate fine                 filling material. For cold lateral condensation, Dr Stock
canals. Hibiscrub and RC Prep can be used as the                  suggested finger spreader over handled spreader which
lubricant.                                                        tend to exert too much force. The master G.P. should
                                                                  be placed up to the working length (not 1mm short).
Dr Stock then listed the difficult problems of prepara-           The 'tug-back' feeling is not used any more. For curve
tion. Ledge is easily produced by rotating instruments.           canals, the full length of the canal can be reached by
A fine file with a small curve at the tip can sometimes           the master G.P. point if it is inserted with lubricant -
make its way pass the ledge which is then smoothed                such as water, or sealer. The minimum amount of
off. Turning stiff instruments can cause apical widenly.          sealer should be used. The spreader should be in-
Anticurvature filing can minimize the risk of perfora-            serted along the outer curve of a curve canal otherwise
tion. It is very difficult to get through dentine packing
                                                                  the G.P. point will be pull out when the spreader is
 near the apex. Broken instrument that cannot be
 removed can be by-passed because no canal is round.
 Lastly he warned us not to over-or under-prepare the
                                                                  With Chloroform-dip technique. A G.P. point 1 size
 canals. To avoid the above problems, Step-down tech-
 nique is encouraged. For hand instrumentation, the               larger than the prepared canal is chosen with the tip
 push-pull (push in gently and pull to remove dentine)            softened in Chloroform for 3 seconds. It is then in-
 filing is recommended over other methods such as                 serted into a wet canal to take an impression of the
 Rotation (Crown Down Pressureless Technique), Bal-               apical part of the canal. The rest of the canal is laterally
anced Force Technique, Master File (SW file) Tech-                condensed with accessory G.P. points. Rectified tur-
 nique and Flexigate Technique. Anticurvature filing              pentine oil is an substitute for Chloroform as it is too
should be used for curve canals. There are instruments            toxic.
with modified tips which have less danger of transpos-
 ing canal.                                                       For warm G.P. technique, the master G.P. is inserted
                                                                  into the canal with several accessory points. Machine
 For automated techniques, the Reciprocal Quarter                 is inserted to warm and melt the G.P. (e.g. Endo Tec)
Turn (Giromatic) causes apical widening in curve ca-              in round circles. But the tips of the machine break
nals. The Vibratory Wave Form (Sonic Air) with cutting            easily. The Thermocompacter employs mechanical
effective through a 100 micro-metre vertical move-                energy to heat and melt the G.P. The Thermoplasticised
ment can create excellent result. The vertical move-              G.P. (Obtura II) injects small amount of molten G.P.
ment (Path Finder) causes considerable vibration. The             and then hand condensed to the working length, the
Random Movement is too bulky to use on molars. The                rest of the root canal system is then filled up. The
ultrasonic machines create microstreaming of the                  Thermofile is a G.P. point with a flexible central carrier
irrigants that will clean the canal wall. In summary, to          sized and tapered to match files. The G.P. is soften by
do endodontics on curve canals, fine, curve, flexible             flame, and is inserted into the canal with a small
instrument is a must. The initial preparation should be           amount of sealer. The carrier is then broken off. The
done by hand using lubricant and copious irrigation,              problem with all heated technique is that the G.P.
employing the Step-down technique. Automated de-                  shrinks on cooling, and lateral condensation is still
vices can only clean, not shape, canals.                          needed.

The aim of root filling is to provide a 3-dimensional seal        Thanks to Dr Christopher J.R. Stock for his informative
to the root canal system. It is not possible or necessary         and practical presentation.
to fill lateral canals. If the pulpal side of the lateral canal

                                                                                                              December, 1991
                                                          A total of 1067 door-to -door interviews with adults
                                                          aged 1 5+ were conducted in the tracking study (983 in
                                                          the benchmark study). The data was projected to
                                                          represent 4,480,000 individuals aged 15+ in ail adult

                                                          Although the majority of adults aged 15+ in Hong Kong
                                                          are stiil holding rather passive attitudes towards dental
                                                          health, the proportion of people who show concern
                                                          about dental health is found to be increasing. This can
                                                          be illustrated by the following findings:

                                                              i)   incidence of regular dental check up has signifi-
                                                                   cantly increased from 39% to 50%.
                                                              ii) More people express a need for regular dental
                                                                   check up (24% up to 28%).
                                                              iii) Fewer people determine not to have dental
                                                                   check up in the next 12 months (70% down to

                                                          Despite more people expressing a concern about
                                                          dental health, further effort in educating the public on
                                                          the importance of dental health is still necessary as the
                                                          entrenched belief of visiting dentist for solving teeth
                                                          problem still prevails in people's minds-40% consider
                                                          regular dental check up unnecessary unless having
     YIU ON                                               problematic teeth.

                                                          In other words, it is essential to convince the target
                                                          audience that problematic teeth is due to improper
The project jointly organized by the Hong Kong Dental     care of teeth and regular dental check up is essential
Association and the Housing Authority will be held on     to prevent teeth problems.
Sunday, 19 January 1992 at Yiu On Estate, Ma On
Shan from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Besides the usual dental      Recognition of any HKDA ads is reasonably high;
health educational panels, four game stalls will be set   around half claimed to have seen any of the ads. The
up by Boy Scouts and students from Shaukeiwan             woman' version has registered a much a high
Public School to convey dental health messages to the     awareness level than the 'children1 version. (43% vs
public. At the same time, a radio pop song show           17%)
featuring several pop stars will be broadcast live on
RTHK Radio 5 from 3:00 - 4:30 p.m. The carnival is        The key message communication of the two ads are:
sponsored by Oral B. Please snow your support by
joining us on the 19th of January 1992.                            One should take good care of teeth.
                                                                   Problems would arise if one doesn 't take good
                                                                   care of teeth.
                                                                   One should have regular dental check up,
               COMMERCIALS                                Besides, a significant minority of those who recognised
                                                          the 'woman' version also grasp the idea that healthy
                                                          teeth makes one look good.

Two series of HKDA TV commercials were launched in        The majority of those who recognised the ad admit
the past year with the sponsorship of Johnson &           that the ads remind them of the importance of dental
Johnson (HK) Ltd. A benchmark study carried out by a      health and they also find the message relevant to their
marketing and research consultancy firm was held in       needs. Although they are not found to be enjoyable to
February 1990 prior to the TV campaign and the tracking   watch, the way in which the message is conveyed is
study was just completed to measure the effective-        well liked for being easy to understand and appropriate
ness of the advertising campaign.                         for communicatina the idea of dental health.

                                                                                                     December, 1991
Moreover, those who claimed to have seen the HKDA               association. As some of your association members
ads show more positive attitudes towards dental health          will come to New Zealand for the next year's Asia
as well as express a stronger need for regular dental           Pacific Dental Congress in Auckland I love to invite
check up. This suggests that the campaign has fulfilled         those who consider visiting Wellington to visit my
its role in influencing people's attitudes.                     home and if the weather is good coming out fishing in
                                                                my boat. Fishing in Wellington is not bad. All gears will
Interested members may contact the Secretariat for              be provided.
reading the two reports.
                                                                My address is 30 Kilsyth Street, Karori, Wellington,
                                                                New Zealand . Phone no. is 04-4767-131. My business
         FDSRCSEd BASIC MEDICAL                                 address is 33 Broderick Road, Johnsonville, Wellington,
     SCIENCES COURSE AND REVISION                               New Zealand. Phone no. is 04-4787-628.
                                                                For those who are serious please contact me early so
                                                                that I have time to plan ahead.

7-25 April 1992 (8:30 am to 5:00 pm)                            Thank you once again.

For the Joint Primary MDS/Part1 FDSRCSEd Examina-               Yours sincerely,
tion, August 1992.
                                                                Raymond Choi
Venue :            Faculty Lecture Theatre, Level 3
                   Faculty of Dentistry                         From : W.M. Choi & Associates
                   National University Hospital                        Dental Surgeons
                   Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore                    33 Broderick Road
                   0511                                                Johnsonville, Wellington.
                                                                       G.S.T. No. 32-458-742
Fees :             S$700 for the whole course
                   Please make cheque in Singapore
                   dollars payable to the "National                        RENEWAL OF PRACTISING
                   University of Singapore"                                     CERTIFICATE

Closing date       31 January 1992

Accommodation      Student hostels available at KE VII          Members are reminded that Practising Certificates
                   Hall on a first-come-first-serve             issued by the Dental Council of Hong Kong are due for
                   basis at S$330 per month (single             renewal annually and should be applied for during the
                   room)                                        first six months of each year.

Application :      Available from the Secretary,                Cheques should be made payable to HONG KONG
                   School of Postgraduate Dental                GOVERNMENT and sent to the SECRETARY OF
                   Studies, NUS, National University            DENTAL COUNCIL OF HONG KONG.
                   Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road,
                   Singapore 0511                               Fee: $250 for private practitioners, $75 for those in
                   Fax : (65) 7796520                           Government/University (full-time) service and $150
                                                                for overseas residents.

               NEW ZEALAND                                                OVERSEAS MEETINGS AND

Dear Honorary Secretary,
                                                                 INTERNATIONAL DENTAL STUDIES (IDS) PROGRAM
Greetings. As the year is coming to its final two               University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry
months it is time for me to ask you to kindly give me           Division of IDS, University of Pacific
a copy of your desk calenders for next year.                    School of Dentistry
                                                                2155 Webster Street
However this time other than the usual goodwill ges-            San Francisco CA 94115-2399 USA
tures I really have a chance to say thank you to your           Tel : (415)929-6688

                                                          -6-                                             December, 1991
B.C. DENTAL MEETING                                                TAILOR-MADE X-RAY BOX (dark-room) for sale
March 26-28 1992                                                   @$1,200
Vancouver Trade & Convention Centre                                NEW RITTER DENTAL LIGHT BULB for sale @$350
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada                                Contact Dr Hung 360-0292
Information :
B.C. Dental Meeting                                                CLINIC FOR SALE. Established ground floor clinic in
500-1765 West 8th Avenue                                           Shamshuipo. Low rent. Low overhead. Equipment
Vancouver, BC V6J 5C6, Canada                                      good condition. Call Miss Chan for details: 725-4535

SPRING SCIENTIFIC SESSION                                          DENTISTS INVITED TO JOIN as an associate or share
CALIFORNIA DENTAL ASSOCIATION                                      an established polyclinic in Tuen Mun. Interested,
23-26 April 1992                                                   please contact Mrs Lau 908-11074 or 458-3213
Anaheim Convention Centre
Anaheim, California                                                ESTABLISHED MODERN PRACTICE in Central for
Information :                                                      sale. Upper and middle class patients. Advanced KaVo
CDA Scientific Sessions                                            unit. Low overhead. Dentist emigrating. Price reason-
Post Office Box 13749                                              able. Dr Chan 546 0507 evening
Sacramento, California 95853
                                                                   EXPERIENCED DENTAL SURGEONS preferably orth-
FOURTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON                                  odontist urgently required be established Dental prac-
OSTEOPOROSIS                                                       tice in Singapore. Assistance in getting PR. Fax re-
27 March - 2 April 1993 Hong Kong                                  sume with contact number and address to Dr H C Voo
Information :                                                      at 001 65 444 0996
Ms Tian Gunther
Congress-Coordinator                                               LOCUM. Fixed salary. 10-12:30 am, 2-7 pm. Holidays
FISO                                                               off. For detail, contact 1128638 call 2051
Congress Office :
Glerupvej 2                                                        DENTAL PRACTICE W/LAB FOR SALE, located in
DK-2610 R0dovre, Denmark                                           Tsuen Wan downtown busy street including Premises,
                                                                   Equipments, Instruments and 7,000 patient records.
27TH AUSTRALIAN DENTAL CONGRESS                                    Reasonable price. Please call Dr Cheung for details at
20-24 March 1993, Melbourne                                        490-1621 or 493-2495
Full details available later
                                                                   PART/FULL TIME DENTIST is required. Candidate
                                                                   should have at least two years experience. If inter-
               ADVERTISEMENTS                                      ested, please send your resume and photo to Rm 804,
                                                                   Cameron Commercial Centre, 458-468 Hennessy Road,
                                                                   Hong Kong
Mongkok. Fixed remuneration plus commission. In-                   DENTAL PRACTICE FOR SALE. Good location in Tsuen
terested please contact Ms Ma 1163383 - 3080 for                   Wan Town Centre, fully equipped, well established
details                                                            with goodwill. Please call Dr Cheng at 413-7022 for
time (please indicate availability). Must be hard work-            DENTAL PRACTICE FOR RENT. Fully equipped clinic
                                                                   in Tsuen Wan, low overhead. Interested please call Dr
ing and strive for good quality. Please apply with
                                                                   Cheng 499-2026 for details
details to Advertiser, c/o HKDA Ref No : 5/91
                                                                   ASSOCIATE URGENTLY REQUIRED on two well es-
                                                                   tablished clinic with goodwill, full/part time, guarantee
GROUND FLOOR Medical Practitioner's Clinic in Hong                 basic + commission, contact Dr Cheng 814-0129/459-
Kong Island East. Please ring 811-4360 (Tel recording)             1878

4 years standing versatile in crown and bridge works               lished 3 years for sale. Low rent; low overhead. If
and endodontics, capable of working independently                  interested, call 459-9688
with minimum supervision, wanted in first class prac-
tice in Central, Hong Kong. Requirement: independent               DENTAL SURGEON is invited to be associate or part-
with managerial skill, own initiative, will pay top salary         ner in established dental clinic in Yuen Long, NT.
for the right person. Please reply c/o HKDA Ref No 13/             Please reply to 401 B, New WorldTower, 16-18Queen's
91                                                                 Road Central, Hong Kong

                                                             -7-                                             December, 1991

Shared By: