QUOTE by hedongchenchen

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 49

									   HOW TO EFFECTIVELY USE:
SUMMARY   (CAPTURING THE IDEA)




    QUOTE (USING NUGGETS OF TEXT)



               PARAPHRASE           (BORROWING LANGUAGE)
 HOW TO USE THIS WORKSHOP
This workshop is an introduction to how writers use
  summary/quotes/paraphrases.

Read each slide carefully. Some ask you to do specific tasks
  that you will need later on—so read purposefully.

Complete all 10 activities. Hand in all materials to your
  teacher by the date before school gets out for the holidays.

Please apply these skills to your ongoing work. The workshop
   targets the overuse or misuse of quotes and paraphrasing.

Please ask your teacher if you have any questions.
WE USE THESE TECHNIQUES IN
   OUR EVERY DAY LIVES
 Let's   consider music--

 In   many songs, writers will:
       Reduce/nutshell what story/event is about: Summary

       Restate exactly a cool group of words: Quote


       Rearrange/borrow language: Paraphrase


                    Look at next slide for example:
                                                EXAMPLE:
                              RUDOLPH THE RED NOSED REINDEER
  http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:jLrm112vDLYJ:41051.com/xmaslyrics/rudolph.html+rudolph+the+red+nosed+reindeer+lyrics&hl=en



You know Dasher, and Dancer, and
 Prancer, and Vixen, Comet, and Cupid, and
Donner and Blitzen
But do you recall/ The most famous reindeer of all

Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer
Had a very shiny nose
and if you ever saw it
you would even say it glows

All of the other reindeer
used to laugh and call him names                           Summary (nutshell 5 year event)
they never let poor Rudolph
join in any reindeer games.

Then one foggy Christmas eve
 Santa came to say:
 ―Rudolph with your nose so bright,                        quote (directly from Santa)
won‘t you guide my sleigh tonight?‖

Then all the reindeer loved him
as they shouted out with glee,

Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer,
you‘ll go down in history!                                 Paraphrase (some words are original and
                                                                       some are borrowed from ‗fellas‘)
  Let's Practice Summary




What are the Main ideas here?
SUMMARY HELPS US SEE THE
      BIG PICTURE
  Many writers include a summary of their
sources before adding a quote or parphrase.
   The author ―nutshells ‖ the information:
    – He has done his homework; he understands the ‗thing‘ he has
      read, heard, or watched, and he has taken careful notes.
      Instead of jumping into his topic, he thinks about his reader,
      and he explains what the ‗thing‘ is in a nutshell. He
      summarizes the ―thing‖-- in the previous song example, he
      summarizes story:
    – (Summary of 5 year event)

    Rudolph, the red nosed reindeer
    Had a very shiny nose
    and if you ever saw it
    you would even say it glows

    All of the other reindeer
    used to laugh and call him names of
    they never let poor Rudolph
    join in any reindeer games.
    Summary helps reader understand how this
         source fits into your research



Readers better understand the text.

Readers better understand how the source fits into the topic.

Readers better trust you as a researcher.



A writer picks only the main points for a summary.
He uses his own words to explain what the „thing‟
  is about before he jumps into the meat of his
                     writing.

 When summarizing, the writer explains
 the main points of a text in his/her own
 words. Typically, these are short and
 sweet. We use these so the reader never
 asks the question:



―Does this writer know what
 he/she is talking about?‖
                       EXAMPLE
Below is a summary of a fifteen page article published in the CLA
Journal. The student writer wants to summarize the fifteen pages
  in a nutshell, so she reads, rereads, and takes careful notes
  about main ideas the article explores. The summary has only
  the main points of the article, and it is written in the student’s
  own words:

  Dianne Ruxton’s text, “Antigone’s demise” examines the use of
  the position of women in Greek society. She explains how
  passages in the play portray women in a lower position in
  society and how the manner in which they are treated
  contributes to their downfall. She argues this mindset is still
  active today (Ruxton).


Notice the writer introduces the source and cites
 it at the end. All summaries are cited.
 Here is a before and after look:
Example #1: Writing without summary of source:
In a Nature Today journal article, the author states ―ten out of every
11 reindeer in Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year‖(57).

   Without a summary, this quote seems stuck into the text. The reader is
   concerned about several things: writer’s confidence, source’s content, and
   how the quote relates to the topic.


Example#2: Same piece with a summary:
In a Nature Today journal article, the author explores research
concerning tick fever. Her article explains the types of ticks that
transmit this disease and how humans are increasingly infected. She
talks about a case study in which a village in Anchorage has a high
infestation rate. The author states, ―Ten out of every 11 reindeer in
Anchorage, Alaska will have tick fever this year‖(57).

   Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better
   develop; and, equally importantly, it sets up the quote.
             Summary description
Writers also use summary to describe a
 person or an event for the reader before
 they continue on with their narrative.
 Summary description helps develop the
 story, and it helps the reader better
 connect to the characters.
With summary description,

        We move from barely seeing the character


                           to
                            a better understanding of who they are.
 Here is a before and after look:
Example #1: Writing without summary description:

   My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. After we left, I felt
   ashamed that my friends did not understand the how hard it is to suffer
   from anorexia.
   Without a summary description, the character seems stuck into the text. We must help the reader
   see the important characters so they better understand the main points the text is driving toward.

Example#2: Same piece with a summary description:
   My sister came into the room and all eyes were on her. Leisa was 21 years
   old, the youngest in the family. She had suffered from bulimia and
   anorexia since she started high school gymnastics. The pressure of
   competition, along with her need for attention, encouraged her condition.
   She did not look like herself; in place of the vivacious sister I once knew
   stood a pale face housing two bulging eyeballs darting back and forth as
   they scanned the room. After we left, I felt ashamed that my friends did
   not understand the how hard it is to suffer from anorexia.

   Summary allows the reader to trust the writer; it allows the text to better
   develop; and, equally importantly, it helps us see the character.
Some writers leave summary out of their text
         for a variety of reasons:

1. They did not read the entire source.
2. They do not understand the entire source.
3. They have learned to string along quotes—so
   they only look for quotes they might use when reading.

When we first learn how to write, we might think we have to
   use many quotes, or we might believe research is when
   we change a word here and there.

Summarizing helps prepare the audience.
If you don’t summarize, your audience may not be focused.

Summary is something we use in everyday life.
When we don‟t understand our sources, we
  don‟t have confidence in our writing:
Confident Writer:
 I   understand my source—I‘ll talk it to you.
 I   understand how my source fits into my paper.
 I   have read and re-read my source; I know it.
 I   can tell my reader what my source is about in my own words
 I   can write down what source is about (4 sentences) without looking.




Non-Confident Writer:
 I   have only read my source once.
 I   do not clearly understand how my source helps drive my paper.
 I   think my source is good—but I don‘t understand it.
 I   will string along parts of the source so they fill up my page.
 I   can only write one or two sentences about my source without looking at
           Let's Practice Summary
                 Activity # 1

Summarize the following in two-three sentences each:

  Summarize your favorite song.
  “Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer” is a song about
  the struggles of a tormented youth. He eventually
  turned his disability into an asset, and his peers
  learned how to appreciate diversity (“Rudolph”)

  Summarize your favorite movie in 2-3 sentences.
  Gladiator examines the shifting of Roman ideology as it moved
  from belief in the State to belief in individual leaders. We see this
  change through the eyes of a Roman general, who challenges the
  Empire‘s faults and becomes a martyr (Gladiator)
                 Activity #2
          Let's look at your paper:
Take the sheet of notes you printed off
 that is about your research topic and
 write up a summary.
If you are working on a research paper and are using sources,
   be sure to summarize what the entire text or article is
   about before you use your targeted information. Hold the
   reader‘s hand and show that you are an expert with that
   one source.
         On your own paper, introduce your source, summarize
   it in 2-4 sentences, then add your targeted information.
   Make sure to cite it at the end.
Let's Practice Quoting
(CAPTURING EXACT WORDING)
          Let's Revisit Rudolph
Santa came to say:
―Rudolph with your nose so bright,
won‘t you guide my sleigh tonight?‖




In the song, Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer, the writer
   quotes Santa by using his exact words. Why?
    DETERMINE WHEN WE QUOTE
   When we take notes from movies, films, books,
    or the internet, we gather quotes that seem
    important to us at that time.

   Sift through your own notes that you printed off.


   You are looking for only those nuggets that will
    drive home your main point.
             The next few activities will help us
         better understand when and when not to quote
Let's look at the some information
regarding quotes from St. Martins
               Guide:
According to the handbook, quote only in these situations:

(1) when the wording of the source is particularly memorable or vivid or expresses
   a point so well that you cannot improve it without destroying the meaning,

(2) when the words of reliable and respected authorities would
  lend support to your position,

(3) when you wish to highlight the author‘s opinions,

(4) when you wish to cite an author whose opinions challenge or
 vary greatly from those of other experts, or

(5) when you are going to discuss the source‘s choice of words (Axelrod and Cooper
   747).

                         ACTIVITY #3:
                    PRINT THIS SLIDE (#21)
    Go back to the Rudolph example. Which of the above rules
   apply to Santa‘s quote. Write the answer on your own paper.
                                             ACTIVITY # 4
                    Copy the three examples below.
                            Use quotation marks (“ ”)when using the
                                exact wording from another text:


Interview: Joe said, ―JCC is a great college.‖

Literature analysis: When talking to the priest, Serafina calls the
                       neighborhood women ―hens‖ who ―like water
                       thrown on them!‖ (Agy 84).

Definition: The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics defines Carnival as a,
            ―recognized occasion for exuberance, mirth, and unrestricted
             freedom‖ (Rademacher 229).




USING YOUR PRINTED QUOTE LIST FROM SLIDE #21, DETERMINE
  WHICH OF THE RULES APPLY TO THE THREE EXAMPLES ABOVE.
            Why are we using Joe‘s quote? Which rule?
            Why are only specific words used for the literature analysis? Which rule?
            Why is the entire definition used in the final example? Which rule?
      Why write all that down?
   PRACTICE
   PRACTICE
   PRACTICE

        • As writers,
          we must get into the habit of organizing
          and sorting information as we gather it.
          You are practicing how to use quotes, as
          well as how to introduce them into texts.
          STRINGING ALONG QUOTES
            CREATES PROBLEMS:
                         For example:
   The New World Encyclopedia says ―Rudolph is a
    reindeer‖(67). Dr. Schmoe agrees with ―the animal is in
    the reindeer classification‖(78). Some researchers believe
    that his nose ―was a result of extra neurons that grew out
    of control (Smith 12). Others say that the malformation is
    a result of ―drinking too much‖(Agy 78).


WHERE IS THE WRITER‘S VOICE?
 ARE ALL OF THESE QUOTES
       NECESSARY?
          NO
STRINGING ALONG QUOTES
 WEAKENS OUR WRITING
How do we choose which to keep
    and which to „cut out‟?
GENERAL RULE OF THUMB

USE


 QUOTES
    SPARINGLY
            Consider this example:
                         Yellow are the places quoted:

     Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For
example, ―in a recent study conducted by the University of Idaho,
researchers believe that girls who try to practice some form of
expression, whether it is in art or with experimentation with hair
styles, tend to be more self confident and more apt to challenge
their culture‘s notions of the ideal woman (Jones 14). I think that this study
is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are so self
conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is
allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have
such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with
a student at Boise State University, I found this to be true. Sara states:
―High school was a pain, and I did what I could to fit in. I did not like the styles I
wore, and I was not comfortable with my weight. I was a shadow‖ (Smith) I
remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the
article and the interview…
            YIKES!!!!!
THE WRITING HAS WAY TOO MANY
 QUOTES.

IT WEAKENS THE TEXT
    IT MAKES US TIRED AS WE READ
         WE WALK AWAY UNCLEAR

WHERE IS THE WRITER AND ANALYSIS?
  Here is the previous slide fixed
Individuality helps young girls appreciate their body image. For
example, in a recent study conducted by the University of Idaho,
researchers link self expression with confidence. They believe that these girls
will later ―challenge their culture‘s notions of the ideal‖ (Jones 14). I think
this study is interesting because it explains a way to help young girls who are
so self-conscious. The study seems to say that if a young girl is
allowed to express her own interests, without restraints, she might not have
such a hard time if someone makes fun of her later on. In an interview with
a student at Boise State University, I found this to be true. Sara calls
herself ―a shadow‖ and saw her high school experience as ―a pain‖ (Smith) I
remember my own experience in high school, and I can relate to both the
article and the interview…


Look on the quote sheet you printed off. Write down which of the quote rules
   apply to the changes made to the first quote, and which of the quote rules
   apply to the second quote changes.
            ACTIVITY # 5
 Take the paper you are working on now,
  and highlight all of the places where you
  quote.
 Highlight from the beginning of the quote
  to the end of the quote.
 Do this for every quote in your paper.

(you may not be able to do this until after
  our time in the library and you have
  started working on your outline)
           Activity # 5 continued :

1. Next to every quote, write the quote rule that you think
   applies.


REMEMBER!!!
There are specific reasons why we quote—we should quote
  sparingly—less is best with quotes.

2.Revise one paragraph that houses unneeded quotes. Copy
  the paragraph on a clear page. Under it, revise with an eye
  toward weeding out unnecessary quotations. Highlight
  areas that you change so your instructor can see the
  difference.

3. Write on the bottom of the page what you edited down and
   why. Carefully explain your decision.
  Let's Practice Paraphrase




Talking to Reader / Sharing the information
              Let's Revisit Rudolph:
Then all the reindeer loved him
as they shouted out with glee,
Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer,
you’ll go down in history!




How this this a paraphrase? Why no quotation marks?
 Why introduce it? Good questions—Let's look at
 paraphrase.
       WHAT IS PARAPHRASE?
• According to the St. Martin’ s Guide to Writing, paraphrase is when we take
  important information and talk about those things in the writers voice. The
  textbook goes on to point out that paraphrase helps us ―avoid quoting too
  much‖ (753).

        Let's Review:
                 1. Use only important information
                 2. Paraphrasing is better than quoting too much
                 3. We must use our own voice and words
             Things to consider about
                  Paraphrasing:
1. We are allowed to use key terms, such as author’s name or topic.
    No quotation marks are necessary when we use these.

2.    If we borrow any necessary language, we must put it in quotations.

3.    We must box in the source by introducing it first and then
      citing the source at the end of the paraphrase.

     (PRINT THIS PAGE to use as a guide to paraphrasing)
    Let's look at my sample paraphrase and answer some
    questions from our paraphrase cheat-sheet (slide #36)

•   According to the St. Martin’ s Guide to Writing, paraphrase is when we
    take important information and talk about those things in the writers voice.
    The textbook goes on to point out that paraphrase helps us ―avoid quoting
    too much‖ (753).

      1. Does the above paraphrase of the Handbook allow common terms?
            Yes: Paraphrase
            Notice it is not in quotation marks because it is a common, key term
       2. Did the writer borrow necessary language from the original writer?
            Yes: ―avoid quoting too much‖
            Notice how we put this phrase in quotation marks because we borrow the
            original writer’s language. We think this is an important phrase because the
            Handbook suggests quoting too much is a common problem.

       3. Did we introduce the source and cite it at the end?
            Yes: According to St. Martin’ s Guide to Writing & (753)
            Notice how this allows the reader to know when a source begins and when
            it ends.
    Let's consider the sample on page 753 in the St. Martin’s Guide to
                                 Writing:
                          PRINT THIS SLIDE

Activity #6—Read this paragraph. Write a paraphrase in 3-4 sentences

Using your cheat sheet (slide #36) does your paraphrase of this paragraph follow
   the three guidelines? Answer each one separately.




   Bruner and the discovery theorists have also illuminated conditions that
   apparently pave the way for learning. It is significant that these conditions are
   unique to each learner, so unique, in fact, that in many cases classrooms can’t
   provide them. Bruner also contends that the more one discovers information
   in a great variety of circumstances, the more likely one is to develop the inner
   categories required to organize that information. Yet life at school, which is
   for the most part generic and predictable, daily keeps many children from the
   great variety of circumstances they need to learn well (Guterson)
     Consider the following incorrect
     paraphrase of the previous slide:
Apparently, some conditions, which have been illuminated by Bruner and other
     discovery theorists, pave the way for people to learn.

1.   Did they use key terms?
     Yes: Bruner, people, learn.

2.   Did they borrow necessary language and use quotations correctly?
     No: they borrowed unnecessary language
     No: they did not use quotations with borrowed language
       such as: ―Illuminated‖, ―discovery theorists‖, and ―pave the way‖

3.   Did they introduce the source and cite it at then end?
     No. We don’t know where the writer begins and ends and where the
     source begins and ends.
             Consider another incorrect paraphrase:

       Bruner has helped learning in the classroom by creating conditions unique to the
       learner. He believes these different environments help develop inner categories
       required when considering how we learn. Our everyday predictability in school
       keeps many children from the great variety they need to learn well.


1. Does it use key terms?
       Yes: Bruner, learning, environments

2. Does it borrow necessary language and use quotation marks correctly?
       NO: It borrow too heavily from original and does not use quotes.
       ―unique to the learner‖
       - ―develop inner categories required‖
       - ‖predictability‖
       - ―great variety‖
       - ―they need to learn well‖

3. Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?
       NO: It introduces the sources (Bruner) but it does not give an end citation.
     Let's fix the previous example:
Incorrect parphrasing:
    Bruner has helped learning in the classroom by creating conditions unique to the learner. He
    believes these different environments help develop inner categories required when considering
    how we learn. Our everyday predictability in school keeps many children from the great variety
    they need to learn well.


Correct paraphrasing:
    In the text, Family Matters, the authors believes that targeting how each student learns might help
    them become better students. Bruner believes when variety and experimentation in teaching
    techniques helps build what he calls ―inner categories‖ within each child. These categories help
    learners sort and retain information ( Axelrod and Cooper 753).


1.   Does it use key terms:
     Yes: Bruner, teaching,

2.   Does it borrow important language and cite it with quotations?
     Yes: ―inner categories‖

3.   Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?
     Yes: In the text, and (Axelrod and Cooper 753).
   MOST COMMON PROBLEM
The main problem is using the original source as a mirror. We might use the
   author’s sentence patterns and voice. Some writers have learned that as long
   as they replace the original text with their own language, then all is well. But,
   they are mistaken!

• When we paraphrase we are putting someone else’s information in our own
  sentence patterns. Not only must the wording be different, but the rhythm and pattern must
  also be our own.


We think that we are paraphrasing when we are rearranging our source’s
  sentences while we keep their original sentence patterns, BUT WE ARE
  NOT.

Be very careful here. This is the most common form of plagiarism.
               Consider this example:
                               Incorrect paraphrase--plagiarism

Original:
Ask not what your country can do for you. But ask what you can
  do for your country.

Incorrect Paraphrase:
Don’t ask what your nation can give you, but instead, consider what you are willing to do
   for your country.
     –   Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the sound are exactly the same.
          Notice also, although there are some word changes, the second example only
          mimics the first—it does NOT paraphrase the first.

Correct Paraphrase:
John Kennedy’s introduction stresses the importance of citizens
   becoming civically engaged in their country’s affairs.
               Copying sentence patterns
    ACTIVITY #7:    READ BOTH SIDES OUTLOUD AND LISTEN FOR THE SENTENCE
                                   PATTERNS



      ORIGINAL TEXT                       INCORRECT PARAPHRASE
Many children are brought up in oral      According to Ruxton, many young people
traditions, rich in metaphor, imagery,    are raised with storytelling
and voice. These students bring rich      backgrounds, complete with
description and comparison                comparisons, icons, and sound. These
techniques to the academia. Some          writers know how to help us see their
literacy experts say these children are   characters. Some people say these
behind in structure, analysis, and        students don’t know how to form
understanding. But a careful              paragraphs, make connections, or
consideration of the ways these           comprehend. But these writers know
students approach writing show their      about people, society, and the
deep understanding of culture, social     government —all come from their
ideology, and politics — each             Oral tradition (Ruxton)
stemming from rich storytelling
Foundations (Ruxton)
                ACTIVITY #8
LOOK AT YOUR OWN PAPER

HIGHLIGHT PLACES ON YOUR OUTLINE WHERE YOU
  PARAPHRASE YOUR SOURCE.

HIGHLIGHT THE PLACE ON YOUR SOURCE WHERE THIS
  INFORMATION COMES FROM.

ARE THERE ANY WORDS, ANY PHRASES, OR ANY SENTENCE
  PATTERNS BORROWED? IF SO, REVISE THE PARAGRAPH.

YES, THIS IS A LITTLE MORE WORK, BUT IT WILL SAVE YOU FROM
  ACCIDENTLY PLAGIARISING
                     ACTIVITY #9
PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1.   List four reasons why we would quote
2.   Why should we quote sparingly?
3.   What does summary do for our text?
4.   What are three general rules to remember when paraphrasing?
5.   What is ―sentencing pattern‖ and why is it important to understand when
     paraphrasing?
        ACTIVITY #10
WRITE A ONE PAGE REFLECTION OF
 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED IN THIS
 WORKSHOP. INCLUDE DISCUSSION
 ABOUT WHAT REVISIONS YOU HAVE
 MADE TO YOUR PAPER. EXPLAIN TWO
 IDEAS YOU WILL USE WHEN
 CONSIDERING QUOTE/PARAPHRSE/OR
 SUMMARY IN FUTURE WRITING.
   YEAH!!! YOU’RE DONE!
HAND IN ALL SLIDES THE WORKSHOP
 ASKED YOU TO PRINT.

HAND IN ALL PAGES OF NOTES ETC…
 YOU DID AS WORKSHOP MATERIALS.

HAND IN ROUGH DRAFTS AND REVISED
 AREAS FROM THE PAPERS YOU ARE
 WORKING ON NOW.
IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESITONS
   OR COMMENTS, PLEASE
         CONTACT

Dianne Ruxton (dianne.ruxton@boiseschools.org)

								
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