BNW UBD AW2tR_0

Document Sample
BNW UBD AW2tR_0 Powered By Docstoc
					                                 STAGE ONE—DESIRED RESULTS
Unit Title: Brave New World Grade Levels: 12th Honors                         Time Frame: 5-6 weeks

Subject/Topic Areas: Utopia/dystopia, political satire, societal/economic systems,
conditioning, propaganda techniques
Established Goals: NJCCS

LA.9-12.3.1 - All students will understand and apply the knowledge of sounds, letters, and words in
written English to become independent and fluent readers and will read a variety of materials and texts
with fluency and comprehension.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.A.1 - Interpret and use common textual features (e.g., paragraphs, topic sentence,
index, glossary, table of contents) and graphic features, (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams) to comprehend
information.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.A.2 - Identify interrelationships between and among ideas and concepts within a text,
such as cause-and-effect relationships.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.C.1 - Decode new words using structural and context analysis.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.D.1 - Read developmentally appropriate materials (at an independent level) with
accuracy and speed..
LA.9-12.3.1.12.D.3 - Read a variety of genres and types of text with fluency and comprehension.LA.9-
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.E.1 - Assess, and apply reading strategies that are effective for a variety of texts (e.g.,
previewing, generating questions, visualizing, monitoring, summarizing, evaluating).
LA.9-12.3.1.12.E.3 - Analyze the ways in which a text's organizational structure supports or confounds
its meaning or purpose.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.F.4 - Clarify pronunciation, meanings, alternate word choice, parts of speech, and
etymology of words using the dictionary, thesaurus, glossary, and technology resources.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.F.5 - Define words, including nuances in meanings, using context such as definition,
example, restatement, or contrast.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.1 - Apply a theory of literary criticism to a particular literary work.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.4 - Analyze how works of a given period reflect historical and social events and
conditions.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.5 - Recognize literary concepts, such as rhetorical device, logical fallacy, and jargon,
and their effect on meaning.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.9 - Analyze how an author's use of words creates tone and mood, and how choice of
words advances the theme or purpose of the work.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.10 - Identify and understand the author's use of idioms, analogies, metaphors, and
similes, as well as metrics, rhyme scheme, rhythm, and alliteration in prose and poetry.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.11 - Identify the structures in drama, identifying how the elements of dramatic
literature (e.g., dramatic irony, soliloquy, stage direction, and dialogue) articulate a playwright's vision.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.12 - Analyze the elements of setting and characterization to construct meaning of
how characters influence the progression of the plot and resolution of the conflict.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.13 - Analyze moral dilemmas in works of literature, as revealed by characters'
motivation and behavior.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.18 - Differentiate between fact and opinion by using complete and accurate
information, coherent arguments, and points of view.


                                                                                  Page 1 of 66
LA.9-12.3.1.12.G.24 - Identify false premises in an argument.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.H.1 - Select appropriate electronic media for research and evaluate the quality of the
information received.
LA.9-12.3.1.12.H.4 - Read and critically analyze a variety of works, including books and other print
materials (e.g., periodicals, journals, manuals), about one issue or topic, or books by a single author or
in one genre, and produce evidence of reading.
 LA.9-12.3.1.12.H.7 - Produce written and oral work that demonstrates synthesis of multiple
informational and technical sources.
 LA.9-12.3.2.12.A.3 - Use strategies such as graphic organizers and outlines to plan and write drafts
according to the intended message, audience, and purpose for writing.
LA.9-12.3.2.12.A.6 - Review and edit work for spelling, usage, clarity, and fluency.
 LA.9-12.3.2.12.A.9 - Reflect on own writing and establish goals for growth and improvement.
LA.9-12.3.2.12.B.3 - Draft a thesis statement and support/defend it through highly developed ideas and
content, organization, and paragraph development.
LA.9-12.3.2.12.B.5 - Write a range of essays and expository pieces across the curriculum, such as
persuasive, analytic, critique, or position paper, etc.
 LA.9-12.3.2.12.B.9 - Provide compelling openings and strong closure to written pieces.
LA.9-12.3.2.12.C.1 - Use Standard English conventions in all writing (sentence structure, grammar and
usage, punctuation, capitalization, spelling).
 LA.9-12.3.2.12.C.2 - Demonstrate a well-developed knowledge of English syntax to express ideas in a
lively and effective personal style.
 LA.9-12.3.2.12.C.3 - Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices effectively to
indicate relationships between ideas.
LA.9-12.3.2.D - Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes (exploring a variety of forms)
LA.9-12.3.2.12.D.2 - Write a variety of essays (for example, a summary, an explanation, a description,
a literary analysis essay)
LA.9-12.3.2.12.D.3 - Evaluate the impact of an author's decisions regarding tone, word choice, style,
content, point of view, literary elements, and literary merit, and produce an interpretation of overall
effectiveness.
LA.9-12.3.2.12.D.8 - Analyze deductive arguments (if the premises are all true and the argument's form
is valid, the conclusion is true) and inductive arguments (the conclusion provides the best or most
probable explanation of the truth of the premises, but is not necessarily true.)
 LA.9-12.3.3.12.B.2 - Extend peer contributions by elaboration and illustration.
 LA.9-12.3.3.12.B.3 - Analyze, evaluate, and modify group processes.
LA.9-12.3.3.12.B.5 - Question critically the position or viewpoint of an author.
 LA.9-12.3.3.12.B.8 - Paraphrase comments presented orally by others to clarify viewpoints.
LA.9-12.3.3.12.D.1 - Speak for a variety of purposes (e.g., persuasion, information, entertainment,
literary interpretation, dramatization, and personal expression).
LA.9-12.3.3.12.D.3 - Demonstrate effective delivery strategies (e.g., eye contact, body language,
volume, intonation, and articulation) when speaking.
LA.9-12.3.4.12.A.1 - Discuss, analyze and extend ideas heard orally.
 LA.9-12.3.4.12.A.2 - Distinguish emotive from persuasive oral rhetoric.
LA.9-12.3.4.12.B.1 - Summarize, make judgments, and evaluate the content and delivery of oral
presentations.
LA.9-12.3.4.12.B.3 - Determine when propaganda and argument are used in oral forms.
LA.9-12.3.4.12.B.5 - Follow oral directions to perform specific tasks to answer questions or solve



                                                                               Page 2 of 66
problems.
 LA.9-12.3.5.12.A.2 - Identify and evaluate how a media product expresses the values of the culture
that produced it.

LA.9-12.3.5.12.B.3 - Analyze the effects of media presentations and the techniques to create them.
 LA.9-12.3.5.12.C.2 - Identify and discuss the political, economic, and social influences on news
media.
 LA.9-12.3.5.12.C.3 - Identify and critique the forms, techniques (e.g., propaganda) and technologies
used in various media messages and performances.
 LA.9-12.3.5.12.C.4 - Create media presentations and written reports using multi-media resources
using effective images, text, graphics, music and/or sound effects that present a distinctive point of
view on a topic.

Understandings

      Students will know that Brave New World satirizes the vices and follies of humanity observed
       in early twentieth century America and England.

      Students will approach Brave New World as a look at the future, analyzing the difference
       between prophecy and prediction.

      Dystopian literature is often a commentary on our society and a speculation about what our
       society might look like if its members are not alert.

      As we have developed technologies as a society we have come to rely upon them, changing our
       lives to the extent that many consider them necessities rather than luxuries (e.g. electricity,
       television and radio, the Internet, even running water). If taken to the extreme, this dependence
       can strip us of some of the things we enjoy, that make us human.


      Sometimes people are happier if they are ignorant about the truth, but as individuals, we seek
       the truth. How we negotiate this challenge is likely a question that will concern us throughout
       our lives.

      Striking a balance between what is good for individuals and what is good for society is a
       concern in democratic nations.

      Many people in our society consider the family to be the cornerstone of our society. We depend
       on the family in many ways to enable society to function.




                                                                              Page 3 of 66
Misunderstanding

      Students will struggle grasping the magnitude of the changes to daily living brought by the
       technological advancements of the 1930’s.

      Students will have very little understanding of economic systems and governments beyond
       democracy and capitalism.

Essential Questions

      What role does technology play in sustaining human life and happiness? To what extent is society
       controlled by technology and science? How is this control both good and bad?

Brave New World warns of the dangers of giving the state control over new and powerful technologies.
This essential questions conforms to (McTighe, 2005), in the sense that it positions the EQ as the vessel
for working towards the identified standards and objectives. This question specifically advances
learning towards four desired understandings identified under Stage One: Knowledge.



      What ethical issues are involved in creating, lengthening, and improving life?

This question asks students to consider both explicit and implicit moral dilemmas, while examining
societal microcosms. (Wiggins & McTighe, 2005), maintain that the truly essential questions establish
priorities and help uncover all key ideas. I see these questions as both framing a successful analysis of
Brave New World and providing entry points for subordinate skills and concepts. Wiggins & McTighe,
2005), caution against stating questions that will not be explored thoroughly in the course of the unit. I
have been cautious to follow this advice and have selected questions intentionally designed to pave the
way for targeted understandings and learning objectives.

      Are truth and happiness incompatible?

Similarly, this question maintains both real-life and textual significance and advances students towards
understandings identified under Stage One: Knowledge.

      How is consumerism both beneficial and harmful in society?

(Wiggins & McTighe, 2005), explain related sets of overarching and topical questions are most
effective. While this questions is overarching, a logical topical counterpart is easily imagined i.e. How
is consumerism presented as both beneficial and harmful to society in Brave New World.




                                                                                 Page 4 of 66
                                              Knowledge
Students will know…                                   Students will be able to…
Key Concepts/Terms                                    Novel Specific Skills

Societal/Economic Systems                                    Compare, contrast techniques of social
    Utopia versus Dystopia                                   control utilized in Brave New World
    Totalitarianism                                          with 1984.
    Egalitarianism
    Oligarchy                                               List aspects of society, technology,
    Plutocracy                                               government, etc. in Brave New World
    Socialism                                                that have come into being. Consider
    Communism                                                those that have not.
    Free Market Capitalism
                                                             Discuss aspects of eugenics in novel as
Conditioning                                                  they relate to recent advances in human
    Classical Conditioning                                   cloning and genetic manipulation.
    Operant Conditioning                                     Debate pro’s and con’s of issue.
    Four possible consequences of a behavior
    Positive Reinforcement                                  Work cooperatively and compose a
    Schedules of Reinforcement and Extinction                proposal for a utopian society
    Negative Punishment                                      (persuasive writing, propaganda
    Positive Punishment                                      techniques).
    Negative Reinforcement
                                                             Analyze and evaluate our own society in
Propaganda Techniques                                         terms of Huxley's warnings.
    Name Calling
    Glittering Generalities                                 Compare and discriminate between
    Transfer                                                 ideas to determine their feelings about
    Testimonial                                              consumerism, science, technology, truth,
    Plain Folks                                              happiness, the role of the individual, and
    Card Stacking                                            the role of the family.
    Band Wagon

      Historical figures and facts associated with   General Skills
       novel (Henry Ford, Pavlov, Freud, the Model
       T) and how those influence the society.               Identify elements of fiction.

      Technological advances imagined by Aldous             Distinguish novel from other literary
       Huxley compared with technological                     forms.
       advances realized by societal progress.
                                                             Explain motivation in literary
      Key terms: viscose, acetate, pneumatic,                characters.
       soma, Malthusian (belt), ectogenesis, caste,
       hypnopaedia, viviparous, savage.                      Respond to theme(s) of novel.

                                                             Recognize and appreciate connections
                                                              among cultures.


                                                                              Page 5 of 66
                            STAGE TWO—ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
Performance Task(s)

      Create media presentations and written report using multi-media resources using effective
       images, text, graphics, music and/or sound effects that present a distinctive point of view on a
       theme from the novel.

      Student debate: Debate modern equivalents of controversial issues presented in the text.

      Satire Abstract: Using Brave New World as a template, draft a satirical abstract of a futuristic
       society based on observations of current behaviors.

      Students will complete a webquest where they will be tasked to assume employment in
       Department of Propaganda.

      Weekly literary blog responses: Respond to weekly blog prompt and respond to a minimum of
       two peer postings.




                                                                               Page 6 of 66
Key Criteria
   See Analytic/Holistic Rubrics
Other Evidence
    Reading verification quizzes
    Notebook check
    Teacher/Student writing conference
    Informal observation of discussion participation.
    Vocabulary quizzes
    Confusion/Questions log: Generate and maintain  a log of confusing, contradictory, or
       ambiguous concepts and passages.
      Writing on demand: Regularly demonstrate understanding through unannounced writing on
       demand prompts.




                                                                        Page 7 of 66
                             STAGE THREE—LEARNING PLAN
                     Lesson                                              WHERETO
12th Grade Honors Lesson on Genetic                    12th Grade Honors Lesson on Genetic
Engineering:                                           Engineering:

      Prior to the unit, students will be asked to
       electronically customize the car of their             Hook, Tailor
       choice and bring the final product to class.
       Students will be asked, “If they had the
       same liberties in customizing a child what
       types of characteristics would they
       choose?”

      Next students will be informed they might             Explore
       soon be faced with this same moral
       dilemma. Students will read a series of
       articles describing “designer babies” and
       genetic engineering?

      Students will debate related moral/ethical
       issues in choosing characteristics like               Rethink, Reflect
       gender, eye color, skin color…

      Students will read and discuss scholarly              Where and Why
       analysis of the technology theme in Brave
       New World.

      Students will revisit the essential question,
       “What ethical issues are involved in                  Evaluate
       creating, lengthening, and improving life?”

      Students will be reminded to annotate                 Where and Why
       examples of technology being used a
       vehicle for societal control throughout the
       novel.




                                                                                 Page 8 of 66
                   Lesson                                               WHERETO
  th                                                       th
12 Grade Honors Lesson on The Class System in            12 Grade Honors Lesson on The Class System
Brave New World:                                         in Brave New World:

      Society in the brave new world is divided
       into five distinct classes. The highest caste
       being Alphas and the lowest class is the                Hook
       Epsilons. Citizens are genetically engineered
       with only enough intelligence to perform the
       tasks required for their given class. In this
       segment of the unit, students will be divided
       in the same manner, with the same color                 Tailor
       indicators, and will complete corresponding
       duties by class. The Alpha’s will engage in a
       leadership discussion, while the Epsilons
       clean the classroom. Similar exercises will
       continue throughout the first four chapters of
       the novel.

      Inevitably students will complain about the
       unfair system. When complaining reaches a               Organize, Tailor
       fever pitch, students will be introduced to the
       concepts of Soma and Hynopedia. Soma is a
       drug much like LSD, and Hynopedia is
       essentially conditioning; both function to
       maintain passivity in Brave New World.

      Students will recall prior knowledge of
       classic conditioning. As honors students                Where and Why
       many will have a working knowledge of
       Pavlov and his related concepts.

      Eventually, students will be asked to
       compare the use of propaganda,                          Where and Why
       conditioning, media, and drugs/alcohol in our
       society versus the brave new world. These               Evaluate, Organize
       lessons should ideally be delivered upon
       completing chapter six of the novel.

      Again, students will revisit their themes list
       and will be reminded to annotate examples of            Rethink, Reflect
       propaganda, conditioning, media, and
       drugs/alcohol being used as vehicles for
       societal control throughout the novel.




                                                                              Page 9 of 66
                   Lesson                                                 WHERETO
  th                                                          th
12 Grade Honors: Brave New World                            12 Grade Honors: Brave New World

       Lesson 1 ch. 1, Virtual tour Central London                Hook
            Hatchery and Conditioning Centre

       Lesson 2 ch. 2, Conditioning experiment                    Explore

       Lesson 3 ch. 3, The French braid contest/analogy,
            structure=French braid                                Organize, Tailored

       Lesson 4 ch. 4, Caste system exercise                      Where and Why

       Lesson 5 ch. 5, Mock Solidarity Service                    Evaluate, Rethink, Reflect

       Lesson 6 ch. 6, Discussion: Soma-drugs and culture         Explore, Where, and Why

       Lesson 7 ch. 7, Scene enactment at the savage              Tailored
            reservation

       Lesson 8 ch. 8, Literary Allusion handout                  Where and Why

       Lesson 9 ch. 9, Study of subtext and character             Evaluate, Organize
            motivation
                                                                  Evaluate, Organize
       Lesson 10 ch. 10, Contrast and foils
                                                                  Evaluate, Organize
       Lesson 11 ch. 11, Structure and Conflict in Brave
            New World

       Lesson 12 ch. 12, Community Sing-socialism today           Tailored

       Lesson 13 ch. 13, The Feelies and surrogates               Tailored
            exercise

       Lesson 14 ch. 14, Writing about death and loss             Explore Rethink, Reflect

       Lesson 15 ch. 15, Discussion: dissatisfaction with         Tailored
            the status quo

       Lesson 16 ch. 16, The cost of happiness exercise           Evaluate, Rethink, Reflect

       Lesson 17 ch. 17, Dramatic Oral reading of closing         Evaluate, Rethink, Reflect
            chapters




                                                                                Page 10 of 66
                                        ~ September 2010 ~
     Sun         Mon                 Tue       Wed       Thu                               Fri                Sat
Reading                                     1        2                         3                         4
Quiz
Test
Project
Due Date
5          6                   7               8               9               10                        11
                                                                               Introduce Work
                                                                               Review essential
                                                                               Questions/Unit
                                                                               Goals

                                                                               Homework
                                                                               Background notes
                                                                               and Ch 1.
12         13 BNW              14 BNW          15 BNW          16 BNW          17 BNW                    18
               Ch. 2               Ch. 3           Ch. 4           Ch. 5           Ch. 6
                               Totalitarianism Plutocracy                      Vocabulary/systems
                                                                               Quiz 1
           Utopia versus       Egalitarianism Socialism        Character
           Dystopia            Oligarchy       Communism       Plot
                                               Free Market                     Symbols exercise
                                                               Theme
                                               Capitalism
           Aldous Huxley       Satire                                          Cover Art
           Historical          plot/themes
           context

19         20 BNW              21 BNW          22 BNW          23 BNW          24 BNW                    25
               Ch. 7               Ch. 8          Ch. 9            Ch. 10          Ch. 11
           Conditioning        Negative        viscose,                        Vocabulary/conditioning
                                                                               Quiz 2
           Classical           Punishment      acetate,
                                                               Tone
           Conditioning        Positive        pneumatic,
                                               soma,           Mood
           Operant             Punishment                                      Community Sing
                                               Malthusian      Humor
           Conditioning        Negative        (belt),         Soma
           Four possible       Reinforcement   ectogenesis,
           consequences of a
                               Essay           caste,          Assign
           behavior
           Positive            Due Date
                                               hypnopaedia,
                                               viviparous,
                                                               Project
           Reinforcement                       savage


26         27                  28 BNW          29 BNW          30 BNW          Notes:
                                   Ch. 12          Ch. 13          Ch. 14
           Test                Name Calling    Transfer
           Propaganda Glittering               Testimonial     Presentations
           Techniques Generalities             Plain Folks
                               Transfer        Card Stacking
                                               Band Wagon




                                                                                                 Page 11 of 66
                                                                Appendix A
                                                            Blog Response Rubric

CATEGORY                  Strong -4 points                   Proficient -3 points             Developing -2 points                Beginning-1 point
Preparation of Blog entry shows evidence of             Blog entry shows evidence of Blog entry shows little                 Blog entry shows
  blog entry   thorough preparation through             preparation through reading or evidence of preparation               no evidence of
               reading or reflection. Author speaks     reflection. Author speaks as   through reading or reflection.        preparation
               as one who has knowledge to share.       one who has knowledge to                                             through reading or
                                                        share.                                                               reflection.
  Quality of    Blog entry contains substantial         Blog entry contains substantial   Blog entry contains minimal        Blog entry contains
   content      information for reader. The entry       information for reader. The       information for reader. The        minimal information
                addresses the focus question(s)         entry addresses the focus         entry addresses the focus          for reader. The entry
                completely.                             question(s).                      question(s).                       does not address the
                                                                                                                             focus question(s).
  Personal      Blog entry conveys extensive            Blog entry conveys evidence       Blog entry conveys little          Blog entry shows no
  reflection    evidence of a personal response to      of a personal response to the     evidence of a personal             personal response to
                the focus question(s); demonstrates     focus question(s);                response to the focus              the focus
                the author's growth through             demonstrates the author is        question(s).                       question(s).
                reflection on learning.                 capable of reflecting on
                                                        learning.
Comments on Comments to two classmates' blog            Comments to two classmates'       Comments to two classmates'        Comments to
others' entries entries. Reply shows careful thought    blog entries. Reply shows         blog entries. Reply shows little   classmates' blog
                given to other students' comments       some thought has been given       thought has been given to          entries are not
                and they reply in a manner that         to other students' comments       students' comments and new         submitted.
                promotes conversation. New reply        and new reply promotes some       reply promotes little
                challenges peers to think critically.   conversation                      conversation.
 Conventions    Blog entry shows few, if any errors     Blog entry may have some          Blog entry has several kinds of    Blog entry has
                in standard written English that do     errors in standard written        errors in standard written         frequent and severe
                not interfered with understanding.      English that rarely interfere     English that interfere with        errors in standard
                                                        with understanding.               understanding.                     written English that
                                                                                                                             interfere with
                                                                                                                             understanding.
Requirements All written requirements outlined on All written requirements were           All written requirements were      Requirements were
             the assignment sheet were met on     met on time with clear                  met.                               not met on time
             time with clear expression. Answers expression.
             were comprehensive.




           Score: _________/ 24                     _______________%




                                                                                                                      Page 12 of 66
                                                   Appendix B
                                         Literary Analysis Writing Rubric


Skill Area        6                 5                 4                  3                 2                  1
                  Responses at      Responses at      Responses at       Responses at      Responses at       Responses at
                  this level:       this level:       this level:        this level:       this level:        this level:
Meaning           Offer             Offer             Convey an          Convey a          Convey a           Provide no
Sound             insightful        accurate          accurate           partly            confused or        evidence of
understanding,    interpretations   interpretations   although           accurate          largely            understanding
interpretation,   of the text       of the text       somewhat           understanding     inaccurate         and make no
and analysis      with analysis     with analysis     basic              of the text and   understanding      interpretations.
                  that goes well    that goes         understanding      offer few or      of the text and
                  beyond a          beyond a          of the text and    superficial       offer unclear
                  literal level.    literal level.    offer partially    interpretations   interpretations.
                                                      explained          with a
                                                      and/or             tendency to
                                                      somewhat           retell.
                                                      literal
                                                      interpretations.
Development       Develop ideas     Develop ideas     Develop some       Develop ideas     Contain textual    Do not include
Specific and      clearly,          clearly,          ideas more         briefly or        evidence that is   textual
relevant          elaborate on      explain key       fully than         partially,        vague,             evidence and
details that      specific          textual           others, using      using some        irrelevant,        reveal no
support the       textual           evidence, and     relevant textual   textual           repetitive         understanding
thesis            evidence, and     reveal an         evidence and       evidence but      and/or             of the author’s
                  reveal an         understanding     reveal some        w/o much          unjustified        use of literary
                  insightful        of the            understanding      elaboration       and reveal a       elements and
                  understanding     author’s use      of the author’s    and reveal a      confused           techniques.
                  of the            of literary       use of literary    vague             understanding
                  author’s use      elements and      elements and       understanding     of the author’s
                  of literary       techniques.       techniques.        of the author’s   use of literary
                  elements and                                           use of literary   elements and
                  techniques.                                            elements and      techniques.
                                                                         techniques.
Organization      Contain a         Contain a         Contain a clear    Fail to           Establish a        Fail to include
Thesis            compelling        clear thesis      thesis             maintain          confused or        a thesis.
statement and     thesis            statement, use    statement but      focus on the      irrelevant         Exhibit a
organization      statement, use    topic and         ideas within       thesis            thesis. Exhibit    complete lack
of key            insightful        concluding        paragraphs         statement.        some attempt       of
elements of       analytical        sentences, and    may be             Exhibit a basic   to provide a       organization.
support and       topic and         make use of       inconsistently     structure but     beginning,         Make no
paragraphing      concluding        transition        organized.         lack              middle, and an     attempt to use
                  sentences, and    words and         Make some          coherence.        end. Make          transitions.
                  make skillful     phrases.          attempt to use     Make an           little attempt
                  use of                              basic              inconsistent      to use
                  transition                          transitions.       attempt to use    transitions.
                  words and                                              transitions.
                  phrases.
Language          Use language      Use language      Use                Rely on basic     Use language       Use language
Word choice       that is           that is           appropriate        vocabulary and    that is            that is
and sentence      precise,          original and      language and       rely on a         imprecise or       incoherent or
variety           engaging, and     incorporate       make some          limited range     unsuitable and     inappropriate
                  sophisticated     some varied       attempt to use     of syntactic      reveal a           and include a
                  and               sentence          sentence           structures.       confused           preponderance
                  incorporate a     patterns.         variety but                          understanding      of sentence
                  wide range of                       with uneven                          of how to write    fragments and
                  varied                              success.                             in complete        run-ons.




                                                                                                        Page 13 of 66
                  sentence                                                               sentences.
                  patterns.
Conventions       Demonstrate      Demonstrate      Demonstrate        Exhibit           Exhibit           Exhibit
Spelling,         control of the   control of the   partial control,   frequent errors   frequent errors   numerous errors
punctuation,      conventions      conventions,     exhibiting         that somewhat     that make         of several
capitalization,   with             exhibiting       occasional         hinder            comprehension     kinds.
usage             essentially no   occasional       errors that do     comprehension     difficult (e.g.
                  errors.          errors only      not hinder         (e.g.             subject-verb
                                   when using       comprehension      agreement of      agreement).
                                   sophisticated    (e.g. incorrect    pronouns and
                                   language         use of             antecedents,
                                   (e.g.            homonyms).         spelling of
                                   punctuation of                      basic words,
                                   complex                             errors in verb
                                   sentences).                         tenses).




                                                  Appendix C
                                         Power Point Presentation Rubric


Power Point Presentation Title _____________________________Date: ______________



Group members: ______________________________________________________________


CATEGORY                           RESPONSIBILITIES


Content                                  The information we gave was interesting or important to others.

                                         We were well informed about our topic.

                                         We included reliable, factual information.

                                         We added supportive detail to the main point(s).

                                         We utilized my prior projects for support.




Organization                             We organized ideas in a logical way.

                                         The information and arguments/details were easy to understand.

                                         We stayed focused and did not get off the topic.

                                         The introduction included a clear statement of the main point(s).

                                        The body of the presentation contained supportive details about the main
                                   point(s).




                                                                                                      Page 14 of 66
                               We included a strong conclusion was present.




Visual Aids
                               Pictures and graphics improved the presentation or reinforced main points.
And Technology Use

                               Pictures, graphics and their placement were creative.

                               Presentation was attractive.

                               Letters and fonts were easily viewed and read by the entire audience.

                               Slides contained no spelling or grammatical errors.


Delivery                       We maintained eye-contact most of the time.

                                We spoke to the entire audience, not just one or two people and everyone
                           could hear us.

                               We didn't speak too fast or too slow.

                               We used standard grammar.

                               We used my notes but I did not read directly from them.




Resources                      We used resources that addressed the topic.

                               We used authentic print resources.

                               We used interviews with others as a resource.

                               We used our own words in the speech; we didn't copy all the words.




Group Name: ____________________________________________________________

Title of Presentation: _____________________________________________________




                                                                                       Page 15 of 66
CATEGORY         Excellent-4               Good-3                    Satisfactory-2            Needs Improvement-
                                                                                               1
Content -        All content throughout    Most of the content is    The content is          Content confusing or
Accuracy         the presentation is       accurate but there is     generally accurate, but contains more than
                 accurate. There are no    one piece of              one piece of            one factual error.
                 factual errors.           information that          information is clearly
                                           seems inaccurate.         inaccurate.
Sequencing of    Information is            Most information is       Some information is    There is no clear plan
Information      organized in a clear,     organized in a clear,     logically sequenced.   for the organization of
                 logical way. It is easy   logical way. One slide    An occasional slide or information.
                 to anticipate the next    or piece of               piece of information
                 slide.                    information seems out     seems out of place.
                                           of place.
Effectiveness    Project includes all      Project is lacking one    Project is missing        Project is lacking
                 material needed to        or two key elements.      more than two key         several key elements
                 give a good               Project is consistent     elements. It is rarely    and has inaccuracies.
                 understanding of the      with driving question     consistent with the       .Project is completely
                 topic. The project is     most of the time.         driving question.         inconsistent with
                 consistent with the                                                           driving question.
                 driving question.
Use of Graphics All graphics are           A few graphics are not    All graphics are          Several graphics are
                attractive (size and       attractive but all        attractive but a few do   unattractive AND
                colors) and support        support the topic of      not support the topic     detract from the
                the topic of the           the presentation.         of the presentation.      content of the
                presentation.                                                                  presentation.
Text - Font      Font formats (color,    Font formats have           Font formatting has    Font formatting makes
Choice &         bold, italic) have been been carefully planned      been carefully planned it very difficult to read
Formatting       carefully planned to    to enhance readability.     to complement the      the material.
                 enhance readability                                 content. It may be a
                 and content.                                        little hard to read.
Spelling and     Presentation has no       Presentation has 1-2      Presentation has 1-2   Presentation has more
Grammar          misspellings or           misspellings, but no      grammatical errors but than 2 grammatical
                 grammatical errors.       grammatical errors.       no misspellings.       and/or spelling errors.
Cooperation      Group shares tasks        Group shares tasks        Group shares tasks        Group often is not
                 and all performed         and performed             and performs              effective in sharing
                 responsibly all of the    responsibly most of       responsibly some of       tasks and/or sharing
                 time.                     the time.                 the time.                 responsibility.
Delivery         Members spoke at a        Members spoke a little    Members spoke at a        Members
                 good rate, volume and     faster or slower than     good rate and volume,     demonstrated having
                 with good grammar.        necessary, or too         but used poor             paid little attention to
                 They maintained eye-      quietly or loudly.        grammar. They relied      rate, volume or
                 contact while using,      They used acceptable      heavily on their notes.   grammar. They read
                 but not reading their     grammar. They                                       nearly word for word
                 notes.                    maintained eye-                                     from notes.
                                           contact, but relied too
                                           much on their notes.




                                                                                               Page 16 of 66
Brave New World
Cooperative Review Assignment

    The class will be divided into six groups of no more than five

    Each group will become experts on a three chapter section of the novel
     and will then instruct and delight the class with their presentation.

    Student presentations will commence Thursday and conclude Friday
     (3 groups each day approximately 12 minute presentation time per
     group)


Presentation Requirements

    3 page typed summary/analysis of section

    Selection of eight significant quotes/passages/scenes with detailed
     explanations and interpretations presented to the class

    Identification of eight literary devices employed in given passage
     (symbols, motifs, characterization, imagery) ***see terms handout

    Visual element (PowerPoint preferred)

    Creative element of any kind (poster, art, character diary, creative
     writing, enactment, puppet show, poetry, music video)

    1 Outside source worth examining

Presentations should be informative, insightful, creative, and entertaining!
Group 1                                   Group 4
Ch. 1-3                                   Ch. 10-12

Group 2                                   Group 5
Ch. 4-6                                   Ch 13-15

Group 3                                   Group 6
Ch. 7-9                                   Ch 16-19


                                                                 Page 17 of 66
Rubric for Presenting an Oral Response
to Literature
Use the following rubric to evaluate oral responses to literature.
Rating System
+ = Excellent                 X = Average                    - = Weak

Content____

Advances a judgment that demonstrates a grasp of the work’s significant ideas____

Supports ideas and viewpoints through references to the text or to other works____

Demonstrates awareness of the author’s use of stylistic devices____

Assesses the ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text____

Presents a strong introduction and conclusion____

Delivery_____

Uses appropriate verbal techniques _____

Uses appropriate nonverbal techniques _____

Chooses and maintains a logical organization _____

Concisely summarizes the main ideas of the text _____

Uses evocative language that is clear and unambiguous____

Engages listeners_____

Presentation Summary_____

Attitude toward the piece of literature is apparent and appropriate_____

Attitude toward the audience is apparent and appropriate_____

Preparation is evident and thorough_____

Organization is discernible and effective____

Meets all established requirements______

The preceding alternative assessment was design for my honors level seniors who begin the
school year reading Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. In contrast to the following traditional


                                                                           Page 18 of 66
summative assessment, this assessment functions as a formative assessment designed to reinforce
and promote deeper understanding of the text, which at the honors level is read entirely
independently.

Brave New World                                    Name______________

Honors English IV                                  Period______________
1.    In what year does the novel begin?
          a. A.D. 632
          b. A.F. 634
          c. A.F. 632
          d. A.D. 634

2.    For what do the letters D.H.C. stand?
          a. Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning
          b. Director of Hatcheries and Cloning
          c. Director of Halcyon and Complaint
          d. Director of Hazardous Materials and Cloning

3.    What is Bokanovsky’s Process?
         a. checking the abnormal growth of an egg in order to study it
         b. checking the normal growth of an egg so that it buds
         c. checking the normal growth of an egg to create Omegas
         d. checking the abnormal growth of an egg to avoid reproducing undesirable people

4.    Of what is Bokanovsky’s Process a major instrument?
          a. various undisclosed processes
          b. the Arch-Community Songster’s repetoire
          c. social stability
          d. the success of the Nine Years War

5.    What is the motto of the World State?
         a. Community, Identity and Rigidity
         b. Community, Identity and Stability
         c. Community, Identity and Atonement
         d. Community, Identity and Virility


…We don’t need human intelligence.

6.    Who says the above quotation?
         a. Hoover
         b. the Director


                                                                           Page 19 of 66
           c. Fanny
           d. Foster

7.    What caste is the speaker discussing in the above quotation?
         a. Alphas
         b. Betas
         c. Deltas
         d. Epsilons

8.    What problem is the speaker discussing in the above quotation?
         a. the philosophies of certain Controllers who supported Simple Lifers
         b. the contrast between mental and physical maturity
         c. extending the number of revolutions per minute of blood surrogate for Alphas
         d. the trauma of decanting



9.    Pavlov is famous for having conditioned:
          a. rats
          b. birds
          c. children
          d. dogs

10.   What are Delta children conditioned against?
         a. books and televisions
         b. books and soma
         c. flowers and soma
         d. flowers and books

11.   What colors do Deltas wear?
         a. khaki
         b. green
         c. red
         d. blue

“Honestly,” put in the anxious-looking girl, “I didn’t mean to hurt him or anything. Honestly.”

12.   What has just happened?
         a. Lenina has just been thrown down by John.
         b. A boy has demonstrated his reluctance to join in ordinary erotic play.
         c. Bernard has been kicked in the shins by a seven year old Delta Minus.
         d. A student has been tricked by a seven year old Alpha Plus

13.   Who was Lenina seeing almost exclusively at the beginning of the novel?
         a. Henry Foster
         b. Bernard Marx



                                                                            Page 20 of 66
           c. Helmholtz Watson
           d. Mustapha Mond

14.   What is hypnopaedia?
         a. the scientific study of hypnotic remedies
         b. the process by which ovaries are surgically removed and utilized
         c. sleep teaching
         d. the method by which Gammas reproduce

15.   What rumor circulates about Bernard Marx?
         a. that he finds monogamy repulsive
         b. that he drinks while performing his duties at the Center
         c. that alcohol was in his blood surrogate
         d. that he will become the next World Controller in charge of Western Europe

16.   Who is Ruben Rabinovitch?
         a. the polish-speaking child who woke up speaking English
         b. the polish-speaking child who saved the World State from annihilation in the Nine
             Years’ War
         c. the polish-speaking child who escaped the World State and lived on a reservation
         d. the polish-speaking child who invented Podsnap’s technique

The Controller’s evocation was so vivid that one of the boys, more sensitive than the rest, turned
pale at the mere description and was on the point of being sick.


17.   What is the Controller’s name?
         a. Duns Scotus
         b. George Edzel
         c. Benito Hoover
         d. Mustapha Mond

18.   What did he just describe?
         a. the decanting process
         b. pre-modern homes
         c. the method by which the World State came to power
         d. the Violent Passion Surrogate

No wonder these poor pre-moderns were mad and wicked and miserable.

19.   For what reason were pre-modern people mad and wicked and miserable?
          a. They were forced to condemn monogamy.
          b. They were never faced with a difficult obstacle.
          c. Their world didn’t allow them to take things easily.
          d. Their world was focused on consumption.




                                                                              Page 21 of 66
20.   For what reason does Fanny admonish Lenina?
          a. allowing herself to become upset regarding the Savage
          b. not being promiscuous enough
          c. discussing the rumors about Bernard
          d. disliking the feelies


21.   For what was Helmholtz Watson well-known?
          a. being monogamous
          b. having silenced the Naturists
          c. being the first World Controller
          d. being the Escalator-Squash champion

22.   How does Helmholtz feel about the phrases he writes?
         a. They aren’t properly understood by those for whom he writes them.
         b. He’s exceptionally proud of their brevity.
         c. He’s unconcerned with their historical significance.
         d. They aren’t important enough.

23.   What is served in the form of strawberry ice cream during Solidarity Services?
         a. a pregnancy substitute
         b. peyotl
         c. mescal
         d. soma

24.   How does Bernard feel after the Solidarity Service?
         a. replenished and peaceful
         b. violent
         c. isolated and empty
         d. thoughtful and pleasant


25.   What disquieting mania does Lenina feel that Bernard has?
         a. He enjoys writing.
         b. He frequents the feelies more often than is normal.
         c. He likes to do things in private.
         d. He only wants to play Centrifugal Bumblepuppy.

26.   What real problem does Bernard wonder about when he and Lenina are hovering in his
      helicopter?
           a. What would it be like if he were free to see anyone he liked?
           b. What would it be like if he were free from his conditioning?
           c. What would it be like if he were able to write what he thought about?
           d. What would it be like if her were free to go to Cyprus?




                                                                           Page 22 of 66
27.    What happened to the Director on the New Mexico Reservation years ago?
          a. He learned the native languages as part of a research project.
          b. He was trapped there for two years.
          c. He left a young woman there.
          d. He participated in an actual religious ceremony.

28.    To where does the Director threaten to send Bernard?
           a. Iceland
           b. Finland
           c. Greenland
           d. Nova Scotia

29.    Why does the Indian climbing down a ladder arouse horror and amazement in Lenina?
          a. because he’s old
          b. because he’s carrying the head of a chicken
          c. because he’s married
          d. because he’s angry

30.    What two images are raised from the ground during the Indian religious ceremony?
          a. a coyote and an eagle
          b. an eagle and Jesus
          c. Jesus and a coyote
          d. an eagle and Buddha

31.    What does Linda do to get herself into trouble on the Reservation?
          a. She steals mescal from other women there.
          b. She tries to kill her child.
          c. She isn’t monogamous.
          d. She takes too much soma.

32.    What did lines from Hamlet cause John to do years ago on the Reservation?
          a. attack Linda
          b. go into the mountains and starve himself for five days
          c. attack Pope
          d. lay on a rock with arms outstretched in the hot sun

Yes, I do find it of sufficient scientific interest.

33.    What does the Controller find of sufficient scientific interest?
          a. John and Linda
          b. the Director’s story regarding the New Mexico Reservation
          c. Biran de Maine’s comments on old age
          d. Pavlov’s research into metronomes

34.    What does John do when he sees the Director?



                                                                            Page 23 of 66
          a.   calls him father
          b.   tackles him and tries to kill him with a microscope
          c.   returns a talisman to him
          d.   yells at him in Zuni

35.   How do the other people present react?
         a. They call use soma vapor to subdue him.
         b. They begin to cry uncontrollably.
         c. They laugh.
         d. They all begin the rituals normally found in a Solidarity Service.

36.   What does John say to Lenina regarding the film they watch?
         a. Why don’t they let us have things like that on the Reservation?
         b. Mitsima told me about those films.
         c. I don’t think you ought to see things like that.
         d. How might I star in a film such as that one?

37.   About what does Helmholtz write a rhyme that gets him into trouble?
         a. reading the works of Shakespeare
         b. being alone
         c. taking soma
         d. coming to Solidarity Services

38.   At what Shakespeare play does Helmholtz laugh?
          a. The Tempest
          b. Romeo and Juliet
          c. Coriolanus
          d. Julius Caesar

39.   How does John react to Lenina’s advances?
         a. He runs away from her and tells Bernard what happened.
         b. He takes a gramme of soma and acquiesces.
         c. He accepts them and “has” her.
         d. He calls her a whore.

40.   What else does he do as a result of her advances?
         a. He reports her to the authorities.
         b. He gives up his soma habit.
         c. He slaps her.
         d. He begins to “have” other women.

41.   Why does John leave Lenina locked in a bathroom?
         a. because Bernard calls him and tells him that the Arch-Songster wants to see him
         b. because Linda calls him and asks for his help in getting back to the Reservation
         c. because Linda calls him and asks for his help in finding work
         d. because he gets a phone call regarding his mother



                                                                            Page 24 of 66
42.   When John kisses Linda, what name does she call him?
         a. Pope
         b. John
         c. Savage
         d. Helmholtz

“Oo-oh!” said all the hundred and sixty-two simultaneously, as though they were looking at
fireworks.

43.   Who are the hundred and sixty-two?
         a. the menial staff of the Park Lane Hospital for the Dying
         b. the Indians at the snake ceremony
         c. the babies viewing the wildflowers on a gigantic screen
         d. members of Bernard’s Bokanovsky group

44.   What has caused this reaction?
         a. A vigorous game of electromagnetic golf is being played before them.
         b. The lid covering their daily reading ration has been opened.
         c. The lid covering their paychecks has been opened.
         d. The lid covering their soma ration has been opened.

“I come to bring you freedom…”

45.   Who says the above quotation?
         a. Mustapha Mond
         b. Fanny
         c. Lenina
         d. John

46.   What does this person throw out the window?
         a. soma
         b. food
         c. literature
         d. clothing

47.   How does Helmholtz react when he sees what’s going on?
         a. He runs away to get the authorities.
         b. He runs in to help the Savage.
         c. He runs in to help Fanny.
         d. He runs to get John since Lenina’s in trouble.

48.   How does Bernard react when he sees what’s going on?
         a. He runs in to help John.
         b. He attempts to protect Lenina from the Deltas.
         c. He calls for the authorities.



                                                                           Page 25 of 66
           d. He is too indecisive to do anything.


49.   What caste was involved in the Cyprus experiment?
         a. Deltas
         b. Gammas
         c. Omegas
         d. Alphas

50.   What do those involved in the Cyprus experiment eventually do?
         a. They reject the scrutiny of the World Controllers and develop their own military.
         b. The maintain a peaceful though difficult existence on the island until the
             experiment is ended.
         c. They return to the mainland to become the deciding factor in the Nine Years’
             War.
         d. They petition the World Controllers to resume the government of the island.

Essays
Select 3 of 5
1. When John first starts reading Shakespeare, he discovers that the words make his emotions
"more real" - they even make other people more real. Talk about the power of language in the
book, the power of the word to influence thought and behavior. Why did Huxley choose
Shakespeare as the medium of John's intellectual awakening?

2. One of the most striking - and comic - aspects of Huxley's Utopia is the way our sexual mores
and assumptions have been turned on their head: monogamy is bad, passion is deviation, casual,
meaningless sex is the socially approved norm. What is Huxley getting at here? Is there any
expression of human sexuality that he finds acceptable? Is sex at the heart of the "problem" in his
view of human nature?

3. Talk about the morality of the book. Is it a Christian morality? Socialist? Anarchist?

4. When Brave New World was first published in 1932, the world was plunged in depression,
fascism was on the rise in Western Europe, and Marxism appealed to increasing numbers of
intellectuals in Europe and America. Place the book in the context of its historical moment.
Which parts transcend its time and place?

5. As dehumanizing and oppressive as the brave new world Utopia is, the alternative in the
"savage reserve" is in many ways worse - dirty, violent, unhealthy, cruel, uncomfortable. What
point is Huxley making about human nature and the nature of human communities? Is his vision
totally negative - or does the book hold out some shred of hope, some alternative mode that
fosters both freedom and community?




                                                                               Page 26 of 66
Utopian/Dystopian Society Novel Projects:
   A. Individual Project: Quote Journals: List any citations/quotations that strike an
       emotional chord in you, or are points that you will remember from the novel. Each entry,
       composed of the following information is worth ten points. You may complete up to 10
       entries or 100 points. These must be typed, double-spaced (single-spaced for long
       quotations) and follow MLA guidelines.
       1. Copy the exact citation and page number (MLA)                        1 points
       2. State who made the comment (character or author)                     2 points
       3. Explain the situation when the statement/quote is made.              5 points
       4. Explain what this statement/quote means to you (2-3                  2 points
       sentences).
    B. Group Project: Overnight (maybe everyone slept for twenty years like Rip Van
      Winkle), the World has transformed. Maybe, the earth has actually moved, or
       land masses have shifted. Everyone wakes up one morning, no, not as dung beetles, but
       as residents of a Utopian Society. You will randomly be placed on a team with 3-4 peers.
       Each team has the honor of presenting an analytic summary of all aspects of this society
       at a New World Conference. Create a presentation for the conference that includes: a
       poster, a PowerPoint presentation, a travel brochure, and a packet containing specific yet
       succinct written explanations for every aspect of the country your group represents. Each
       group’s job is to sell its country’s concept to the rest of the class. After all of the
       presentations have been studied, the class will vote on one of the countries as the Best
       Place to Live
NOTE: if this society was known as another country in the 2009 world, state which one it
was. In your Preface, give a 5-10 sentence summary of who, what when, why and how this
new civilization evolved. Be sure to name your country.
Points to Include:
   A. PREFACE
   1. Topography Map
   2. City/Town plat
   3. Climate/Weather
   4. Society’s Philosophic tenets
   5. Government
   6. Economic Structure (agriculture, business, industry, manufacturing, jobs, financial
       policies. Etc).
   7. Legal Systems (Crimes and Punishments)
   8. Social Infrastructure (housing, health/medical/mental care, care of children/ elderly/those
       not able to function on their own, family compositions/expectations,
       public maintenance: Residential/Commercial).
   9. Educational System
   10. Religion(s)
   11. Ethnicity(-ies)
   12. Social/Moral/Ethical Expectations
   13. Transportation Systems
   14. Media (Press, radio, television, etc)
   15. Anything else that you want to add.
   B. Bibliography: Follow MLA Guidelines for the Works Cited page.



                                                                            Page 27 of 66
Utopian Society Grading Rubric Group Members: ___________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
                               Grade ________________
Requirements Superior 10 Excellent 9    Satisfactory Needs Work Completed
                                        8            7           Something 6
Analytic
Summaries:
Well-
developed;
creative;
logical;
succinct;
detailed;
proofread and
revised for
grammar,
usage, spelling
and
punctuation.
Visual
Presentations:
Creative;
logical;
illustrates the
summaries
clearly; shows
effort and time
to complete.

Presentation Evaluation Rubric Group Members: __________________________
______________________________Grade___________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______
                 90-100          80-89            70-79              60-69
Depth of
Information
Preparation
Engaging the
class
Speaking
Clarity
Poise
NOTE: The grades for the written and oral aspects of this project are both averages of
each individual’s grade.



                                                                   Page 28 of 66
Brave New World
College-Level Analysis Paper

EXPECTATIONS:

      include author’s full name and book title in the first paragraph
      within your first paragraph, explain your analysis topic and the specific literary
       techniques you will be analyzing as they relate to that topic
      focus is to be on analysis of the literature, not on plot summary
      you should assume your reader is familiar with the work, but provide background
       information (minor plot summary, character information) to assist your points
      ALL quotations must be introduced before the quote is inserted in the paper (who said it?
       to whom? why? what does it prove?)
      this is not a “book report” and shouldn’t read as one
       all of the analysis will be your own work/ideas
      all of the writing will be your own writing
      no outside sources are to be used, not even for reference
      all general statements will be supported by textual evidence
      the level of analysis and writing are to be college-level in sophistication, complexity, and
       treatment of the subject matter
      organization of ideas will be coherent, logical, sophisticated, with smooth transitions
       between ideas

PROMPT:

The following excerpt is from an essay written for an online teacher’s guide (enotes.com):
“Written in 1931 and published the following year, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is a
dystopian—or anti-utopian—novel. In it, the author questions the values of 1931 London, using
satire and irony to portray a futuristic world in which many of the contemporary trends in British
and American society have been taken to extremes. Though he was already a best-selling author,
Huxley achieved international acclaim with this now-classic novel. Because Brave New World is
a novel of ideas, the characters and plot are secondary, even simplistic. The novel is best
appreciated as an ironic commentary on contemporary values.”

In a thoughtful analysis of the work, explain why the last sentence is true. Include at least three
different literary techniques employed by Huxley to achieve that “ironic commentary.”
You may wish to consider: structure, syntax, point-of-view, narrative technique/framing,
symbolism, paradox, diction, allusion, characterization, imagery, use of figurative language,
situational irony, dramatic irony, verbal irony, hyperbole, motif.
[Note: Do not include plain irony as one of your three, as that is the tone, and is a “given” in this
assignment. The question is…How does Huxley achieve that irony?].
Be careful not to focus only on the ironic tone; explain how the work is a “commentary on
contemporary values” and tell which values, exactly, are being commented upon in this ironic
way (with text support).




                                                                                Page 29 of 66
TURN IN:

You will turn in the following items stapled behind your final paper:
    handwritten book notes and/or brainstorming notes
    handwritten outline (with page numbers indicating where you will get support from the
      text)
    first draft
    Be sure to label each (“outline,” “notes,” “first draft”) at the top.

FINAL PAPER SPECIFICS:

      Times New Roman, 12 pt. font
       double-spaced
      1” margins
      heading: name, due date, period
      title (centered, no special font treatment of any kind)
      pages numbered at the bottom
      there is no length limit; it will be as long as you need to concisely make your points and
       support them
       all quotations AND paraphrasing must have a page number reference. See examples
       below:

quotation example:

Mustafa Mond tends to speak in more poetic prose, employing fragmented sentences, vivid
imagery, alliteration, allusion, and figurative language that belies his professed disdain for
literature. One example occurs as he explains the concept of passé parenthood to a group of
curious students: “Mother, monogamy, romance. High spurts the fountain; fierce and foamy the
wild jet. The urge has but a single outlet. My love, my baby. No wonder those poor pre-moderns
were mad and wicked and miserable” (62).

paraphrase example:

Fanny criticizes Bernard’s idiosyncrasies to Lenina in the women’s changing room, citing his
short stature and odd habits as proof that someone made a mistake with his embryo while it was
on the assembly line (41).




                                                                              Page 30 of 66
Name______________                    Brave New World: Chapter 1

1. Why is the first sentence strange? What does it set up?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

2. What is the meaning of the World State’s motto “COMMUNITY, IDENTITY,
STABILITY?”
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Why does the fertilizing room look so cold, when it is actually hot inside?
What goes on there?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

4. Why do particulars “make for virtue and happiness,” while generalities “are
intellectually necessary evils?”
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

5. How do people know who they are in this society?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                                 Page 31 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. Why use the Bokanovsky process at all? How is it an instrument “of social
stability?”
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Why don’t the Epsilons “need human intelligence?”
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                              Page 32 of 66
Name______________                  Brave New World: Chapter 2

1. What work does the conditioning do? Who gets conditioned? How does
hypnopaedia work?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Why condition the Deltas to hate nature but love outdoor sports?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. How does time work in this book? History? Why does Ford say “History is
Bunk?”
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What are the various castes like, and why?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. How do the students demonstrate their own conditioning?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                              Page 33 of 66
Name______________                  Brave New World: Chapter 3

1. How do the children play together? What is childhood like?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How is our world depicted? How do we get from here to there?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Why must games be so complex in this society?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. Why are strong emotions dangerous? Family relationships? Romance?
Religion? Art? Culture?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. How is sexuality used in this novel? Do you see any problems with it?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. What does Mustapha Mond do? What is his relationship to history?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Is there anything unusual about Lenina Crowne? Bernard Marx? What?
Why?
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                                Page 34 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8. How does Huxley use the cinematic technique toward the end of this
chapter?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. What is soma? What are its uses?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
10. How do people age in this society?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                             Page 35 of 66
Name______________                    Brave New World: Chapter 4

1. What is life like for the Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron who runs the elevator?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How do the other Alphas relate to Bernard?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What does Lenina do on her date?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What does she think of the lower castes?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. Why is Bernard the way he is? What does he really want?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                              Page 36 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. Why is Helmholtz the way he is? What does he want? How is he different
from Bernard?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                             Page 37 of 66
Name______________                  Brave New World: Chapter 5

1. What do Lenina and Henry talk about on their way home? What happens at
the crematorium?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Why are stars depressing?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What are the solidarity services like? What role do they play? How does
Bernard fit?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                               Page 38 of 66
Name______________                   Brave New World: Chapter 6

1. Why is being alone a bad thing?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What do Lenina and Bernard do on their first date? Why is the ocean
important? The moon?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What does Bernard say about freedom? What does he mean?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. How does the date end?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What does it mean to be infantile in this society?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. How does the director feel about Bernard? Why is he warning him?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. What does his story mean? What does it show us about him?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                             Page 39 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
8. How does Helmholtz feel about Bernard after he hears the story of the
meeting with the director?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. What do we learn from the Warden? What are the reservations like?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
10. What does the word Malpais mean?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                              Page 40 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 7

1. How is the mesa like a ship?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Why doesn’t Lenina like their Indian guide?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What is the city itself like? What are the people like? How does Lenina
respond? Bernard?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What ceremony do the witness? What does it mean? What does it seem like
to Lenina?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What idols emerge from the ground?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. How is John Savage different? What does he want? How does he respond to



                                                                Page 41 of 66
Lenina?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. What is Linda’s story? What has her life been like here? How does Linda
react to her?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                              Page 42 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 8

1. What was John’s upbringing like? His relationship with Linda? His
education?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Why doesn’t linda want to be called a mother?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What social positions do Linda and John hold in Malpais?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What does John want in his life?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What does Linda tell him about the Other Place?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. What does he learn from Shakespeare? How does he relate to Hamlet? The
Tempest?
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                              Page 43 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. What does it mean to discover “Time and Death and God?”
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8. What do John and Bernard have in common?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. Why does Bernard want to take John to London?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                             Page 44 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 9

1, Why does Mustapha Mond agree to the plan?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What happens when John watches Lenina sleep? What does he think or
feel?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                             Page 45 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 10

1. How and why was the DHC planning to make an example out of Bernard?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Why is unorthodoxy worse than murder?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. How does Linda act in the hatchery? How does the DHC react? The
spectators?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                             Page 46 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 11

1. Why does John become popular, but not Linda?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How does Bernard’s life change? How does he react? What does Helmholtz
think?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. How does Linda spend her time?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. How does Bernard talk in public?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What does Mustapha Mond think of Bernard’s reports?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. What does John think of the caste system? Of the clones? How does he use
The Tempest now?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. What do we learn about the reservations at Eton? What does John think?
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                             Page 47 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8. How do the children respond to dying? Why?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. How does Lenina feel about John?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
10. What does John think about the feelies? Why?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                             Page 48 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 12

1. Why does John decide not to come to Bernard’s party? What does this mean
for Bernard?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How does Lenina feel at the party? Why does she feel this way?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. How does John feel? Why is he reading Romeo and Juliet?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What does it mean that Lenina likes looking at the moon now?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What role does Mustapha Mond play as a censor? Why does he do it? What
does he censor? What does he really want?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. How does Bernard’s position change? How do John and Helmholtz respond
to Bernard now?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Why is Helmholtz in trouble with the authorities? What has he done that is



                                                              Page 49 of 66
dangerous, and why is it dangerous? Why did he do it? What does he want?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8. What does Helmholtz think of Shakespeare? Romeo and Juliet?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. What does Helmholtz think is necessary for good writing?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                              Page 50 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 13

1. What are the consequences of Lenina’s emotion? What is happening?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How does she feel for John? What does she do to get what she wants?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. How does John feel for Lenina? What does he want to do to prove it?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. How does John react to Lenina’s actions? Why does he respond this way?
What did he want from her?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                              Page 51 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 14

1. What is the hospital for the dying like? What are the dying like?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Note the television. Recall TV did not exist as we know it in 1932.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Why is Linda dying?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What memories flood over John as he stands before his mother? Why these
particular memories? What are his memories of the “other place”? What role
does memory play in civilization?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. Why are the Delta children at the hospital? What does John think of this?
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                                Page 52 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. Why isn’t death terrible for those in the civilized world? What does this mean
for the individual?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                                Page 53 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 15

1. The title phrase recurs here. How is it used differently than before? What
does it mean now?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Why does John decide to interfere with the soma distribution? Why does he
say it is poison?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What is John’s conception of slavery and freedom? Manhood? Liberty?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What does he think of the Deltas to whom he delivers his speech?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What roles do Bernard and Helmholtz play here? What does this tell us
about their characters?



                                                                Page 54 of 66
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. How does the soma riot end? What does it mean to be happy and good?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




                                                             Page 55 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 16

1. How would you describe Bernard’s behavior in this chapter? Why does he
act this way?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Why doesn’t John like civilization?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Why does Mond say old and beautiful things are forbidden?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. Why can’t tragedies be written now? What is necessary for tragedy?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What does art mean in the new world? What can’t it mean? What is
Helmholtz’s role?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. What does Mond say is the role of liberty? Happiness? Stability? Truth and



                                                               Page 56 of 66
Beauty?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. How does Mond explain the caste system? Do you agree?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8. What would happen with an entire society of Alphas?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. Why must science be constrained? Progress? Do you agree?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
10. What choice did Mond make as a young physicist? Why? What is his real
position?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
11. Why does Helmholtz make the choice he makes?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________


                                                              Page 57 of 66
Name______________ Brave New World: Chapter 17

1. Why does Mond want to talk with John alone? What do they talk about?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What is the significance of their discussion of religion? What does John
argue religion can give to civilization? Why does Mond argue that it is
unnecessary and potentially dangerous?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What does Mond believe is the role of God? How is it related to the self?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What role does solitude play in spirituality?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. How does John argue that the civilized man has been degraded? From what
and to what?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                                Page 58 of 66
6. What are your conceptions of the roles of self-denial, chastity, nobility,
heroism? What would John or Mond say?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. What role does Mond say soma plays in this? What is an “opiate of the
masses”?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________



8. What does it mean “to suffer the sling and arrows of outrageous fortune” or
oppose them?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. What does John mean by saying that nothing in civilization costs enough?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
10. In saying no to civilization, what does John say yes to? Would you make
the same decision?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________


                                                                  Page 59 of 66
Name______________               Brave New World: Chapter 18

1. How does John purify himself?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Where does he go, and what does he plan to do there?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Does this represent a healthy alternative from society?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. Why the self-flagellation?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What are his thoughts of Lenina?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. What makes the film so popular back in London?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. What does Lenina want? What does John think she wants?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________



                                                             Page 60 of 66
8. How does the crowd respond? What happens that evening? What becomes of
Lenina?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. What is John’s decision? Why does he make it? Were there alternatives?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________




Source:
http://wiki.english.ucsb.edu/index.php/English_192_Brave_New_World_Discussion_Questions




                                                                     Page 61 of 66
Aldous Huxley: The Author and his Times - somaweb.org

***Essential Question: What events or experiences in the author's life might have contributed to
Huxley’s writings?
                       Aldous Leonard Huxley was born on July 26, 1894, into a family that
                       included some of the most distinguished members of that part of the
                       English ruling class made up of the intellectual elite. Aldous' father was
                       the son of Thomas Henry Huxley, a great biologist who helped develop
                       the theory of evolution. His mother was the sister of Mrs. Humphrey
                       Ward, the novelist; the niece of Matthew Arnold, the poet;
                       and the granddaughter of Thomas Arnold, a famous
                       educator and the real-life headmaster of Rugby School who
                       became a character in the novel Tom Brown's Schooldays.

                       Undoubtedly, Huxley's heritage and upbringing had an
                       effect on his work. Gerald Heard, a longtime friend, said
                       that Huxley's ancestry "brought down on him a weight of
                       intellectual authority and a momentum of moral
obligations." Throughout Brave New World you can see evidence of an ambivalent attitude
toward such authority assumed by a ruling class.

Like the England of his day, Huxley's Utopia possesses a rigid class structure, one even stronger
than England's because it is biologically and chemically engineered and psychologically
conditioned. And the members of Brave New World's ruling class certainly believe they possess
the right to make everyone happy by denying them love and freedom.

Huxley's own experiences made him stand apart from the class into which he was born. Even as
a small child he was considered different, showing an alertness, an intelligence, what his brother
called a superiority. He was respected and loved--not hated--for these abilities, but he drew on
that feeling of separateness in writing Brave New World. Bernard Marx and Helmholtz Watson,
both members of the elite class, have problems because they're different from their peers. Huxley
felt that heredity made each individual unique, and the uniqueness of the individual was essential
to freedom. Like his family, and like the Alphas of Brave New World, Huxley felt a moral
obligation--but it was the obligation to fight the idea that happiness could
be achieved through class-instituted slavery of even the most benevolent
kind.

Another event that marked Huxley was his mother's death from cancer
when he was 14. This, he said later, gave him a sense of the transience of
human happiness. Perhaps you can also see the influence of his loss in
Brave New World. The Utopians go to great lengths to deny the
unpleasantness of death, and to find perpetual happiness. But the cost is
very great. By denying themselves unpleasant emotions they deny
themselves deeply joyous ones as well. Their happiness can be continued
endlessly by taking the drug soma by making love, or by playing Obstacle



                                                                             Page 62 of 66
Golf, but this happiness is essentially shallow. Standing in contrast to the Utopians are the
Savages on the Reservation in New Mexico: poor, dirty, subject to the ills of old age and painful
death, but, Huxley seems to believe, blessed with a happiness that while still transient is deeper
and more real than that enjoyed by the inhabitants of London and the rest of the World State.

When Huxley was 16 and a student at the prestigious school Eton, an eye illness made him
nearly blind. He recovered enough vision to go on to Oxford University and graduate with
honors, but not enough to fight in World War I, an important experience for many of his friends,
or to do the scientific work he had dreamed of. Scientific ideas remained with him, however, and
he used them in many of his books, particularly Brave New World. The idea of vision also
remained important to him; his early novels contain scenes that seem ideal for motion pictures,
and he later became a screenwriter.

He entered the literary world while he was at Oxford, meeting writers like Lytton Strachey and
Bertrand Russell and becoming close friends with D. H. Lawrence, with whom you might think
he had almost nothing in common.

Huxley published his first book, a collection of poems, in 1916. He married Maria Nys, a
Belgian, in 1919. Their only child, Matthew Huxley, was born in 1920. The family divided their
time between London and Europe, mostly Italy, in the 1920s, and traveled around the world in
1925 and 1926, seeing India and making a first visit to the United States.

Huxley liked the confidence, vitality, and "generous extravagance" he found in American life.
But he wasn't so sure he liked the way vitality was expressed "in places of public amusement, in
dancing and motoring... Nowhere, perhaps, is there so little conversation... It is all movement
and noise, like the water gurgling out of a bath--down the waste. Yes, down the waste." Those
thoughts of the actual world, from the book Jesting Pilate, were to color
his picture of the perpetual happiness attempted in Brave New World.

His experiences in fascist Italy, where Benito Mussolini led an
authoritarian government that fought against birth control in order to
produce enough manpower for the next war, also provided materials for
Huxley's dystopia, as did his reading of books critical of the Soviet
Union.

Huxley wrote Brave New World in four months in 1931. It appeared
three years after the publication of his best-seller, the novel Point
Counter Point. During those three years, he had produced six books of stories, essays, poems,
and plays, but nothing major. His biographer, Sybille Bedford, says, "It was time to produce
some full-length fiction--he still felt like holding back from another straight novel--juggling in
fiction form with the scientific possibilities of the future might be a new line."

Because Brave New World describes a dystopia, it is often compared with George Orwell's
1984, another novel you may want to read, which also describes a possible horrible world of the
future. The world of 1984 is one of tyranny, terror, and perpetual warfare. Orwell wrote it in


                                                                                Page 63 of 66
1948, shortly after the Allies had defeated Nazi Germany in World War II and just as the West
was discovering the full dimensions of the evils of Soviet totalitarianism.

It's important to remember that Huxley wrote Brave New World in 1931, before Adolf Hitler
came to power in Germany and before Joseph Stalin started the purges that killed millions of
people in the Soviet Union. He therefore had no immediate real-life reason to make tyranny and
terror major elements of his story. In 1958 Huxley himself said, "The future dictatorship of my
imaginary world was a good deal less brutal than the future dictatorship so brilliantly portrayed
by Orwell."

In 1937, the Huxleys came to the United States; in 1938 they went to Hollywood, where he
became a screenwriter (among his films was an adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and
Prejudice, which starred the young Laurence Olivier). He remained for most of his life in
California, and one of his novels caricatures what he saw as the strange life there: After Many a
Summer Dies the Swan. In it the tycoon Jo Stoyte tries to achieve immortality through scientific
experimentation, even if it means giving up humanity and returning to the completely animal
state--an echo of Brave New World.

In 1946 Huxley wrote a Foreword to Brave New World in which he said he no
longer wanted to make social sanity an impossibility, as he had in the novel.
Though World War II had caused the deaths of some 20 million inhabitants of
the Soviet Union, six million Jews, and millions of others, and the newly
developed atomic bomb held the threat of even more extensive destruction,
Huxley had become convinced that while still "rather rare," sanity could be achieved and said
that he would like to see more of it. In the same year, he published The Perennial Philosophy, an
anthology of texts with his own commentaries on mystical and religious approaches to a sane life
in a sane society.

He also worried about the dangers that threatened sanity. In 1958, he published Brave New
World Revisited, a set of essays on real-life problems and ideas you'll find in the novel--
overpopulation, overorganization, and psychological techniques from salesmanship to
hypnopaedia, or sleep-teaching. They're all tools that a government can abuse to deprive people
of freedom, an abuse that Huxley wanted people to fight. If you want to further relate his bad
new world to the real world, read Brave New World Revisited.

In the 1950s Huxley became famous for his interest in psychedelic or mind-expanding drugs like
mescaline and LSD, which he apparently took a dozen times over ten years. Sybille Bedford says
he was looking for a drug that would allow an escape from the self and that if taken with caution
would be physically and socially harmless.

He put his beliefs in such a drug and in sanity into several books. Two, based on his experiences
taking mescaline under supervision, were nonfiction: Doors of Perception (1954) and Heaven
and Hell (1956). Some readers have read those books as encouragements to experiment freely
with drugs, but Huxley warned of the dangers of such experiments in an appendix he wrote to
The Devils of Loudun (1952), a psychological study of an episode in French history.



                                                                             Page 64 of 66
Another work centering on drugs and sanity was Island (1962), a novel that required 20 years of
thought and five years of writing. Among other things, Island was an antidote to Brave New
World, a good Utopia. Huxley deplored the drug he called soma in Brave New World--half
tranquilizer, half intoxicant--which produces an artificial happiness that makes people content
with their lack of freedom. He approved of the perfected version of LSD that the people of Island
use in a religious way.

Huxley produced 47 books in his long career as a writer. The English critic Anthony Burgess
has said that he equipped the novel with a brain. Other critics objected that he was a better
essayist than novelist precisely because he cared more about his ideas than about plot or
characters, and his novels' ideas often get in the way of the story.

But Huxley's emphasis on ideas and his skin as an essayist cannot hide one
important fact: The books he wrote that are most read and best remembered today
are all novels--Crome Yellow, Antic Hay, and Point Counter Point from the 1920s,
Brave New World and After Many a Summer Dies the Swan from the 1930s. In
1959 the American Academy of Arts and Letters gave him the Award of Merit for
the Novel, a prize given every five years; earlier recipients had been Ernest
Hemingway, Thomas Mann, and Theodore Dreiser.

The range of Huxley's interests can be seen from his note that his "preliminary research" for
Island included "Greek history, Polynesian anthropology, translations from Sanskrit and
Chinese of Buddhist texts, scientific papers on pharmacology, neurophysiology, psychology and
education, together with novels, poems, critical essays, travel books, political commentaries and
conversations with all kinds of people, from philosophers to actresses, from patients in mental
hospitals to tycoons in Rolls-Royces...." He used similar, though probably fewer, sources for
Brave New World.

This list gives you some perspective on the wide range of ideas that Huxley studied. He also
wrote an early essay on ecology that helped inspire today's environmental movement. And he
was a pacifist. This belief prevented him from becoming an American citizen because he would
not say his pacifism was a matter of his religion, which might have made him an acceptable
conscientious objector.

Huxley remained nearly blind all his life. Maria Huxley died in 1955, and Huxley married Laura
Archera a year later. He died November 22, 1963, the same day that President John F. Kennedy
was assassinated. He was cremated, and his ashes were buried in his parents' grave in England.




                                                                              Page 65 of 66
Utopias and Dystopias

Brave New World belongs to the genre of utopian literature. A utopia is an imaginary society
organized to create ideal conditions for human beings, eliminating hatred, pain, neglect, and all
of the other evils of the world.

The word utopia comes from Sir Thomas More's novel Utopia (1516), and it is derived from
Greek roots that could be translated to mean either “good place” or “no place.” Books that
include descriptions of utopian societies were written long before More's novel, however. Plato's
Republic is a prime example. Sometimes the societies described are meant to represent the
perfect society, but sometimes utopias are created to satirize existing societies, or simply to
speculate about what life might be like under different conditions. In the 1920s, just before Brave
New World was written, a number of bitterly satirical novels were written to describe the horrors
of a planned or totalitarian society. The societies they describe are called dystopias, places where
things are badly awry. Either term, utopia or dystopia, could correctly be used to describe Brave
New World.

Satire In satire, human or individual vices, follies, abuses, or shortcomings are held up to
censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony, or other methods, ideally with the intent
to bring about improvement.

*Although satire is usually meant to be funny, the purpose of satire is not primarily humour in
itself so much as an attack on something of which the author strongly disapproves, using the
weapon of wit.

Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe political systems where a state
regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life.

Egalitarianism is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals, and
have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights


Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or
collective ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods

Free Market Capitalism A free market is a market in which property rights are voluntarily
exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers.

*By definition, in a free market environment buyers and sellers do not coerce each other, in the
sense that they obtain each other's property without the use of physical force, threat of physical
force, or fraud, nor is the transfer coerced by a third party




                                                                               Page 66 of 66

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:106
posted:8/21/2011
language:English
pages:66