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					Ergonomics




    ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
      What is Ergonomics?
• “Ergonomics is an applied science concerned
  with the design of workplaces, tools, and tasks
  that match the physiological, anatomical, and
  psychological characteristics and capabilities of
  the worker.” Vern Putz-Anderson

• “The Goal of ergonomics is to „fit the job to the
  person,‟ rather than making the person fit the
  job.” Ergotech

• “If it hurts when you are doing something, don‟t
  do it.” Bill Black
                      ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
  Evolution of Ergonomics
• Dates back to Ramazzini 1700‟s

• Gained significance during WWII for airplane
  cockpit layout

• Progressed slowly until the 80‟s and 90‟s with
  the advent of the computer and more efficient
  workplace design

• Now, guidelines are in place and greater use
  of technology

                   ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Why do we care about
   Ergonomics?




        ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Musculoskelatal Disorders (MSDs)
Represent 1 in 3 Lost Time Injuries
                                                  MSDs




    Contact with Objects

                                                         Workplace Violence


                                                     All Other
       Transportation Related

                                    Falls


                                Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Annual Survey, 1996



                                   ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
MSDs Cost Twice the Average
Workers‟ Compensation Claim
                     0     2000     4000     6000      8000      10000



  MSDs of the Back




   Upper Extremity
       MSDs




    Average Claim



                         Average Costs per Claim ($)
                Source: Workers’ Compensation data from Insurance Companies 1993



                                  ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
          Types of Injuries
• Muscle pain                • Repetitive motion
                               injury
• Joint pain
                             • Cumulative trauma
• Swelling                     disorder

• Numbness                   • Musculoskeletal
                               disorder
• Restricted motion

• Repetitive stress injury

                      ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Target Regions


              • Back

              • Upper extremities

              • Lower extremities




     ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
  Multidisciplinary
Nature of Ergonomics
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Engineering Psychology
  • Engineering
  • Medicine
  • Anthropology
  • Biomechanics

               ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Types of Problems or Mismatches

                  • Physical Size
                  • Endurance
                  • Strength
                  • Manipulative
                  • Environmental
                  • Cognitive

                        From David Alexander, 1986

              ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Physical Size

             • Clearance

             • Reach

             • Equipment Size

             • Personal Protective
               Equipment (PPE)




     ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Endurance (Capacity for Work)




             ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Environmental

             • Noise

             • Lighting

             • Thermal

             • Chemical



     ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Cognitive

           • Machine Pacing

           • Shift Work

           • Morale

           • Psychosocial



   ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Strength

  • Force Requirements

  • Male/Female

  • Manual Materials Handling




  ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Benefits of Ergonomics
 • Decreased injury risk

 • Increased productivity

 • Decreased mistakes/rework

 • Increased efficiency

 • Decreased lost work days

 • Decreased turnover

 • Improved morale

              ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Goals of Intervention

     • Tolerable

     • Acceptable

     • Optimal




         ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Ergonomic Controls

   • Engineering

   • Administrative

   • Work Practices




         ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Other Issues

        • Aging workforce

        • Universal design




    ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
Sanitation Tools and Process Exercise

• Describe tools
• Awkward Postures During Sanitation
  – Accessibility
  – Maintainability
• What are some of the most difficult tasks
• Job Safety Analysis



                      ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM
What does the worker need to
know from this presentation?




            ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM

				
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