11 by rdsolomonphd

VIEWS: 46 PAGES: 212

More Info
									Learning and thinking skills for the 21st century include thinking and problem-solving
skills, communication skills, creativity and innovation skills, and collaboration skills....
These learning and innovation skills increasingly are being recognized as the skills
that separate students who are prepared for increasingly complex life and work
environments in the 21st century, and those who are not. A focus on creativity, critical
thinking, communication and collaboration is essential to prepare students for the future.

Paraphrased from the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2006); see this website:
http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/documents/RTM2006.pdf.
Retrieved February 28, 2009.




                                                                                           1
      Encouraging Skillful, Critical, and Creative Thinking: Participant's Guide

        Welcome to the course, Encouraging Skillful, Critical, and Creative Thinking.
This is an interactive experiential course that invites a high degree of participation by the
learner. Throughout the course there will be numerous individual, small group, and whole
class activities that will encourage you to apply different thinking skills, processes and
methods for reflection. Embedded within the course are five key conceptual themes for
teaching students to:1:

        1.       Think skillfully
        2.       Think to learn
        3.       Think together
        4.       Think about their own thinking and
        5.       Think big (understand the larger picture) through creative and critical
                 thinking

       Before we elaborate upon these five conceptual themes, kindly reflect upon the
following three questions and record your thoughts in the space provided.

1. Have you ever had a teacher, mentor or colleague who inspired you to think creatively
and critically?



2. If so, what did he or she say or do that activated your thinking?




3. What do you do as a teacher that stimulates the creative and critical thinking of your
students?




1
 The conceptual framework for this course is based on an article written by of Arthur L. Costa. (February
2008). The Thought-filled Curriculum. Educational Leadership, 65 (5), 20-24.




                                                                                                            2
 The Prerequisite: Creating a Community of Thoughtful and Respectful Learners

         Before we elaborate upon these five conceptual themes for teaching thinking, let
us first discuss the prerequisite conditions for creating the thought-filled classroom: i.e.
how we can transform the traditional classroom into a community of thoughtful and
respectful learners.

        As early as 1991, Marzano and his colleagues (Marzano et al., 1991) at the McRel
Institute in Aurora, Colorado had established that in order for higher levels of thinking to
take place, the classroom must be transformed into a community of thoughtful and
respectful learners.

        What are the Characteristics of a Classroom Which is A Community
                     of Thoughtful and Respectful Learners?

       It is a community of learners
            • Where all members are both students and teachers.
            • Which seeks to understand first, and then asks questions for clarification
                and elaboration before offering criticism.
            • That welcomes divergent points of view and offers alternative
                perspectives in a respectful manner.
            • That seeks to acquire knowledge while respecting and appreciating the
                different experiences, assumptions, values, ideas and feelings of its
                members.
            • Where members are encouraged to share creative ideas, offer alternative
                points of view, raise simple, complex and inventive questions, and make
                mistakes all in the pursuit of knowledge.

                                 Reflection Questions:
Directions: Reflect on the questions below and record your thinking in the space
provided.

1.     As a teacher, what to you do or say to give your students the sense that members
       of your class are both learners and teachers.




                                                                                               3
2.   As a teacher, what do you do or say to enable your students to understand first,
     and then asks questions for clarification and elaboration before offering criticism.




3.   As a teacher, what do you do or say to enable your students to welcome divergent
     points of view and to present alternative perspectives respectfully.




4.   As a teacher, what do you do or say to enable your students to seek to acquire
     knowledge while respecting and appreciating the different experiences,
     assumptions, values, ideas and feelings of their classmates.




5.   As a teacher, what do you do or say to encourage your students to share creative
     ideas, offer alternative points of view, raise simple, complex and inventive
     questions, and make mistakes all in the pursuit of knowledge.




                                                                                        4
    What is a Community of Thoughtful and Respectful Learners and How is It
                  Different From a Traditional Classroom?

  Comparison of Traditional Classroom and Community of Thoughtful and
                                   Respectful Learners
 Attributes of a Traditional Classroom          Attributes of a Community of Thoughtful
                                                          and Respectful Learners
1. Little instructional time is devoted to      1. Instructional time is devoted to class or
class or community building.                    community building.
2. Little time is devoted to teaching the       2. Specific time is devoted to teaching and
social/relationship skills. It is assumed       refining the social/ relationship skills for
that individuals have the social skills for     interpersonal, group and organizational
effective interpersonal, group and              communication.
organizational communication.
3. Common values, shared goals and              3. The class/community develops common
expectations are not jointly developed.         values, shared goals and expectations.
4. Individuals are responsible for              4. There is shared responsibility for each
themselves only.                                member of the class or community.
5. The teacher/trainer or leader                5. The class or community (which
determines the learning task or project.        includes the teacher/trainer or leader)
                                                determines the learning task or project.
6. There is little, if any, positive            6. There is positive interdependence.
interdependence. At times members may           Positive interdependence refers to
actually be pleased if others do not do         learning activities that are designed so
well or do not get their needs met.             that students must work together in
                                                order to accomplish a common task or
                                                learning objective. This is achieved by
                                                sharing materials, having access to
                                                disparate information or through
                                                structured role assignments (i.e. student
                                                A speaks while student B listens and asks
                                                probing and clarifying questions.)
7. There is minimal sense of class or           7. There is a strong sense of class or
community loyalty.                              community loyalty.
8. Little time is devoted to reflecting on      8. Specific time is set aside to reflect on
how well the class or community is              how well the class or community is
functioning to meet its academic                addressing its academic objectives and
objectives and relational needs.                relational needs.

Note: The high-lighted second column of the chart above identifies eight attributes that
describe a community of thoughtful and respectful learners. We begin with the first
attribute on the next page, devote instructional time to class and community building.




                                                                                          5
Sample Activities Designed to Transform the Traditonal Classroom
Into A Community of Thoughtful and Respectful Learners

Attribute #1. Devote instructional time to class and community building.

    •   Give each student a name tent on the first day of class so that students begin to
        learn each other's name. See name tent handout on page 7.
    •   Implement a community building activity such as "Searching For Multiple
        Intelligences" (page 8), or the "Multple Intellegence Circles of ____ (page 10)
    •   Other community building activities are presented on pages 35-44, and page 145
        in this Participant's Guide.




                                                                                        6
                                     SECTION #1




YOUR NAME




 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                     SECTION #3

       Instructions:
       1. Print your name in large letters in sections provided.
       2. Fold the right and left vertical lines under.
       3. Fold the bottom horizontal line of section #1 under.
       4. Fold the top horizontal line of section #3 under.
       5. Fold the top horizontal line of section #4 under.
       6. Place section #1 fold inside the fold of section # 4.



                                       SECTION #4




                                    YOUR NAME


                                                                                                                7
                          Searching for Multiple Intelligences*

Directions: Mill around the room and find someone who fits one of the characteristics
            described below. Then ask that person to print his/her name on the line that is
            provided. Try to get as many different names as you can. No person may
            record his/her name more than twice.

1.    Plays a musical instrument_________________________________
2.    Likes to make/use graphic organizers________________________________
3.    Likes to draw or photograph things in nature______________________________
4.    Kept a diary or journal for a year________________________________________
5.    Loves to
      socialize______________________________________________________
6.    Has made a slide show, videotape or photo
      album______________________________
7.    Is knowledgeable in a martial art_________________________________________
8.    Has written a poem, short story, or play_________________________________
9.    Can draw, paint, sketch or sculpt________________________________________
10.   Likes to set personal goals___________________________________________
11.   Sang on stage or professionally_______________________________________
12.   Likes to tell stories or jokes__________________________________________
13.   Enjoys watching and identifying
      birds_______________________________________
14.   Likes to draw analogies or solve brain
      teasers________________________________
15    enjoys facilitating a group meeting_______________________________________
16.   Likes to build things with his/her hands___________________________________
17.   Meditates regularly________________________________________________
18.   Uses binoculars, a telescope, a microscope or a magnifying glass outside of the
      classroom
      _______________________________________________________________
19.   Can replicate rhythmical patterns__________________________________
20.   Does aerobics, or plays tennis, racquetball, basketball, handball or
      golf________________________________________________________________
21.   Likes to write letters_________________________________________
22.   Designed and conducted an experiment____________________________
23.   Easily shares his/her thoughts and feelings with others_____________________
24.   Can identify the different colors in a spectrum___________________________




*
  At the present time Dr. Howard Gardner has identified eight multiple intelligences; they
are body/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, mathematical/logical,
musical/rhythmic, verbal/linguistic, visual/spatial and naturalist.




                                                                                         8
       Searching for Multiple Intelligences- the KEY
1.   Plays a musical instrument- MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC and BODY/KINESTHETIC

2.   Likes to make/use graphic organizers- LOGICAL/MATHEMATICAL and
     VISUAL/SPATIAL

3.   Likes to draw or photograph things in nature- NATURALIST and VISUAL/SPATIAL

4.   Kept a diary or journal for a year- INTRAPERSONAL

5.   Loves to socialize- INTERPERSONAL

6.   Has made a slide show, videotape or photo album- VISUAL/SPATIAL

7.   Is knowledgeable in a martial art- BODY-KINESTHETIC and INTRAPERSONAL

8.   Has written a poem, short story, or play- VERBAL/LINGUISTIC

9.   Can draw, paint, sketch or sculpt- VISUAL/SPATIAL and BODY/KINESTHETIC

10. Likes to set personal goals- INTRAPERSONAL

11. Sang on stage or professionally- MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC

12. Likes to tell stories or jokes- VERBAL/LINGUISTIC

13. Enjoys watching and identifying birds- NATURALIST and VISUAL/SPATIAL

14. Likes to draw analogies or solve brain teasers- LOGICAL/MATHEMATICAL

15 enjoys facilitating a group meeting- INTERPERSONAL

16. Likes to build things with his/her hands- BODY/KINESTHETIC

17. Meditates regularly- INTRAPERSONAL

18. Uses binoculars, a telescope, a microscope or a magnifying glass outside of the
    classroom- NATURALIST and VISUAL/SPATIAL

19. Can replicate rhythmical patterns- MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC

20. Does aerobics, or plays tennis, racquetball, basketball, handball or golf- BODY/
    KINESTHETIC and VISUAL/SPATIAL

21. Likes to write letters-VERBAL/LINGUISTIC

22. Designed and conducted an experiment- LOGICAL/MATHEMATICAL

23. Easily shares his/her thoughts and feelings with others- INTERPERSONAL

24. Can identify the different colors in a spectrum- VISUAL/SPATIAL and NATURALIST




                                                                                       9
                The Multiple Intelligences Circles of




                              MUSICAL/          VERBAL/
                              RHYTHMIC          LINGUISTIC




                                                                 MATHEMATICAL/
                VISUAL/                                          LOGICAL
                SPATIAL




                                                                    BODY/
                                                                    KINESTHETIC

           INTRAPERSONAL




                                                             NATURALIST

                    INTERPERSONAL




INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Write your name on the line at the top of the page, and your first name in the large
   circle in the middle.
2. In the smaller circles write something about yourself that relates to the category
   within each circle; see the example on the next page.
NOTE: You have the right to pass or not record information in a category. You are
   encouraged to create your own category or record some information about yourself in
   the empty circle.
3. Mill around and find a partner whose circles are quite different from yours.
4. Mill around and find a pair whose circles are different from both of yours.




                                                                                    10
   MUTIPLE INTELLIGENCES INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING
                    GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

    VERBAL/LINGUISTIC                MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL




                        SUBJECT/TOPIC/
                            CONTENT          BODY/KINESTHETIC
MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC
                                             INTERPERSONAL
INTRAPERSONAL




     VISUAL/SPATIAL                      NATURALIST




                                                                11
    MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING
                   GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

       VERBAL/LINGUISTIC                   MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL



              -READ
              -DEBATE                -NUMBERS INVOLVED IN WAR
              -TELL STORY            -COST OF THE WAR
                                     -STRATEGY




MUSIC
DURING
THE VIETNAM                                                  -VISIT VIETNAM
PERIOD                                                           MEMORIAL
                                                             -MARCHING



                            SUBJECT/TOPIC/
                                CONTENT            BODY/KINESTHETIC
  MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC

   INTRAPERSONAL
                                WAR IN              INTERPERSONAL
                              VIETNAM


                                                          INTERVIEW PEOPLE
   -DIARY                                                 WHO EXPERIENCED
   -LETTERS                                               THE VIETNAM ERA
   -FEELINGS




                 -MAPS                   SURVIVING IN
                 -GEOGRAPHY              VIETNAM JUNGLE
                 -POSTERS




        VISUAL/SPATIAL                          NATURALIST




                                                                              12
                              Reflection Question
What community or classroom building activities do you implement in your classroom?
Alternative question: What community building activities have you experienced as a
teacher or student? Record your answer in the space provided.




   Sample Activities Designed to Transform the Traditonal Classroom
      Into A Community of Thoughtful and Respectful Learners

Attribute #2. Teach your students the requisite social or relationship skills
     that support a community of thoughtful and respectful learners.




                                                                                  13
  Relationship Skills that Foster the Thoughtful and Respectful Classroom


                                WHAT IS THE FOURTH R,
                                                       ?
                                THE RELATIONSHIP SKILLS?
                                  SEVEN DEFINITIONS

Definition #1:         The intrapersonal, interpersonal, group and organizational
                       skills that facilitate communication and foster the development
                       of thoughtful and respectful learning communities.

Definition #2:         The cognitive, emotional and behavioral skills and strategies
                       that facilitate creative and critical thinking.

Definition #3::        The core social skills essential for cooperative and collegial
                       learning, and multicultural education.

Definition #4:         The part of the school curriculum which teaches students how to
                       effectively communicate their thoughts and feelings.

Definition #5:         The part of the school curriculum charged with the responsibility
                       of teaching students to appreciate self and get along with others.

Definition #6:         The medium that communicates the three Rs of reading, writing
                       and arithmetic.

Definition #7:         The essential intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and
                       organizational skills for facilitating school-based change and
                       creating schools of quality.

       A graphic organizer depicting the four levels (intrapersonal interpersonal, group
                      and organizational) of the Fourth R appears on the next page.




                                                                                           14
           THE FOUR LEVELS OF THE FOURTH R


      ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIP SKILLS (LEVEL IV)                                     TO
TO REACH AGREEMENT ON A VISION, MISSION, THE                                          CATEGORIZE,
                                                           TO CONDUCT A
GOAL(S),AND/OR OUTCOME(S) OF AN ORGANIZATION                                          PRIORITIZE,
                                                           NEEDS ASSESSMENT
                                                                                      AND SHARE
                                                                                      DATA FROM
                                                                                      THE NEEDS
                                                                                      ASSESSMENT
              GROUP RELATIONSHIP SKILLS (LEVEL III)
      IDENTIFY,
                                      EVALUATE                     GROUP
      DIAGNOSE,                                                                        TO REACH
                                      GROUP                        PROBLEM
      THE ROLES                                                                        AGREEMENT
                                      PERMORMANCE                  SOLVING
      THAT PEOPLE                                                                      ON AN
      PLAY IN                                                                          ANALYSIS
      GROUPS              INTERPERSONAL SKILLS (LEVEL II)                              OF THE
                    SHARE ONE'S                         ASK                            PRIMARY
                    DATA,             APPLY FREE        OPEN                           PROBLEMS
                    LISTEN TO THE     INFORMATION       QUESTIONS                      OF THE
                    DATA OF OTHERS                                       GROUP         ORGANIZA-
                                                       PARAPHRASE
     FISHBOWL                                                            BRAIN-        TION
                    ACHIEVE                                              STORMING
     FOR GROUP                                             PROBE
                    CONSENSUS
     CONSENSUS                    INTRAPERSONAL
                                                          CHECK FOR
                                  SKILLS (LEVEL I)        UNDER-
                    RESOLVE                                                          TO CREATE AN
                                  IDENTIFY ONE'S          STANDING
                    CONFLICT                                                         ACTION PLAN
                                  FACTS,
                                                                                     TO (A)
                                  CONCEPTS,                RESPECT-
                    VALIDATE                                                         ADDRESS THE
                                  PREFERENCES,             FULLY
                                                                        MAKE         PRIMARY
      SURFACE                     INFORMED OPINIONS        LISTEN
                                                                        GROUP        PROBLEM(S),
      HIDDEN        HANDLE        EXPERIENCES
                                                                        DECISIONS    AND (B)
      AGENDA        CRITICISM     & FEELINGS,              SHOW
                                                                                     ACHIEVE THE
      ITEMS OF      VIA THE       FIND FREE                ACCEP-
                                                                                     VISION,
      GROUP         BROKEN        INFORMATION              TANCE
                                                                                     MISSION,
                    RECORD,
                                      GIVE & RECEIVE                                 GOAL(S)
                    NEGATIVE
                                  TECHNICAL, POSITIVE,     JOIN & END                AND/OR
                    INQUIRY, &
                                  NEGATIVE & CORRECTIVE    A CONVER-                 OUTCOME(S)
                    NEGATIVE
                                  FEEDBACK                 SATION                    OF THE
                    ASSERTION
                                                                                     ORGANIZA-
                                                                                     TION
       SHARE
                                                                      RESOLVE
       GROUP
                                     ENVISION GROUP                   INTRA-
       INFORMA-
                                     MISSION, GOALS,                  GROUP          TO IMPLEMENT,
       TION
                                     STANDARDS AND                    CONFLICT       MONITOR, AND
       IN AN
                                     NORMS                            VIA THE        EVALUATE THE
       ORDERLY
                                                                      EIAG & TEAM    ACTION PLAN
       WAY
                                                                      MEETING




TO USE THE EVALUATION DATA FROM THE ACTION PLAN AS A NEW NEEDS ASSESSMENT TO EITHER
(A) REVISE THE ACTION PLAN OR (B) RETHINK THE VISION, MISSION, GOAL(S), AND/OR OUTCOME(S)




                                                                                                     15
      A SEVEN STEP MODEL FOR TEACHING
            A RELATIONSHIP SKILL

    1. STATE THE RATIONALE FOR THE RELATIONSHIP
       SKILL.

    2. DESCRIBE OR DEFINE THE RELATIONSHIP SKILL.

    3. MODEL OR DEMONSTRATE THE RELATIONSHIP SKILL.

    4. INVITE LEARNERS TO IDENTIFY THE INDICATORS
        OF THE RELATIONSHIP SKILL.

    5. GUIDED PRACTICE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    6. REFLECTION ON PRACTICE AND APPLICATION OF THE
        RELATIONSHIP SKILL

    7. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE




        We will now share a set of relationship skills that students need to acquire and
master as prerequisite social competencies for the creation of a community of thoughtful
and respectful learners. These relationship skills include: verbally sharing six types of
data (factual, conceptual, preferential, informed opinions, experiential, and emotional)
listening for ideas (paraphrasing), listening for emotions (active or emotional listening),
respectful listening, finding free information, probing, validating, giving and receiving
constructive positive, negative and corrective feedback, the conflict resolution methhod
and achieving consensus through the APCA process.




                                                                                        16
        The graphic below describes six types of conversational data2 that we can
verballly share with others.


                                   SIX TYPES OF CONVERSATIONAL DATA



                                                                 FACT
             The name for some generally accepted bit of data: e.g. chair, table, lamp or chalkboard.




                                                                 CONCEPT
              The name for some abstract data: e.g. furniture, beauty, value, or usefulness.




                                                             PREFERENCE
              A decision to choose one bit of data over another: e.g. “I’d rather sit in a recliner than in a straight back
             chair.”




                                                         INFORMED OPINION
            A decision and the rationale for choosing one bit of data over another: e.g. “I’d rather sit in a recliner than a
             straight back chair because it is more comfortable.” “I’d rather sit in a straight back chair than a recliner
            when I am typing because it provides more support.”



                                                            EXPERIENCE
             An event that one has encountered: e.g. “I remember that when I visited my grandmother, she would let me
            rock back and forth on her rocking chair.”




                                                                  FEELING
             A positive, negative or ambivalent emotion: e.g. “I felt so loved by my grandmother when she gave up her
             special rocking chair just for me.” “One time my teacher caught me cheating on a test and she made me sit in
            the back of the room. (Experience) Boy was I embarrassed!” (Feeling)




2
    This construct is also called Solomon’s six types of intrapersonal data.




                                                                                                                                17
FOUR BASIC CONVERSATIONAL
    RELATIONSHIP SKILLS


1. IDENTIFY THE FREE INFORMATION.

2. ASK OPEN QUESTIONS.

3. PARAPHRASE THE SPEAKER.

4.!PROBE THE SPEAKER.




                                    18
                  WHAT IS FREE INFORMATION?

       DEFINITION: Free information is the given or available conversational data
that we can use in order to start a conversation with another person. That conversational
data might be factual, conceptual, experiential, emotional, preferenial or an informed
opinon that a person has expressed. Free information may include the weather, the
clothing a person is wearing, a shared experience or the data that someone is giving you
from his/her body language.

        APPLICATION: It is the beginning of the school year and two students are
seated next to each other in class. The teacher has not begun her lesson, and an
uncomfortable silence fills the air. These students have never previously exchanged
ideas. However, one student skilled in identifying and applying free information
breaks the silence and says:

       "I'm so nervous when school begins. I wonder about my teachers, and whether I'm
going to like my classes. What have you heard about this teacher and the subject?"




                                                                                        19
                                    PROBING

Definition: To probe is to request additional information.


1.     We can probe on the six intrapersonal and interpersonal levels:

           Intrapersonal/                            Example
        Interpersonal Level
       Facts                       Can you give me an example of...?
       Concepts                    Please explain what you mean by...
       Preferences                 Which of these (facts, concepts, values,
                                   experiences, or feelings) do you prefer?
       Informed Opinions           Why do you prefer ...?
       Experiences                 Can you tell me more about your experience
                                   with...?
       Feelings                    What were you feeling during the experience?

2.     We can probe for clarity:

   Example: What do you mean by ...?
…………………………………………………………………………………


       Probing, and Asking Open and Closed Questions

3.     We can probe by asking open or closed questions.

Definition: An open question is an inquiry which invites the speaker to
self-disclose or elaborate upon his/her intrapersonal data.

       Example:        "How does the weather affect you?"

Definition: A closed question is an inquiry which inhibits the speaker
from self-disclosing. It is a question which elilcits a short response from
the speaker.

       Example:        "Do you like today's weather?"




                                                                              20
                       PARAPHRASING
            (Simple Listening or Listening for Ideas)
Definition: Paraphrasing is sending a verbal message which accurately rephrases a
    message previously sent. Paraphrasing is a verifying method to determine
    whether the message sent by the sender is accurately understood by the receiver.
Application:
    To paraphrase means to accurately rephrase the message of a sender. Let us
    assume that a teacher shared this original statement:

"It really bothers me to see any of my students making fun of their classmates who
      are blind or deaf."

    An accurate paraphrase of the above teacher statement would be:
"You get upset when your students put down others who have disabilities."

    There are three types of inaccurate paraphrases: augmented, diminished and
    editorialized paraphrases. See the examples below:

Applications:
   To augment means to inaccurately paraphrase a sender's message by adding
   extraneous information. Using the above teacher statement as the original
   sender's message an augmented paraphrase would be:

"So not only do you get upset when your students put down children who are
    disabled, but you must also be opposed to their racist and sexist remarks."

    To diminish means to inaccurately paraphrase a sender's message by eliminating
    essential information. Using the original teacher statement as the sender's
    message a diminished paraphrase would be:

"You get upset when your students put down other students."

    To editorialize means to inaccurately paraphrase a sender's message by adding
    your opinion. Using the above teacher statement as the sender's message an
    editorialized paraphrase would be:

"You get upset when your students put down children who are disabled, and you
    believe that their parents have never taught them common decency. Don't you?"




                                                                                     21
                SIMPLE LISTENING EXERCISE


1.   My topic is…




2.   My story is…



3.   My question is…




             THE PARAPHRASE RESPONSE


1.   Your topic is…




2.   Your story is…



3.   Your question was…



4.   My answer is…




                                            22
            Paraphrasing as Checking for Understanding

Paraphrasing can be used as a method to check for understanding in two ways:

      1.      The receiver can paraphrase to make certain that he/she
              understands the message of the sender:

              Example: “ So what you are saying is…:

       2.    Paraphrasing can also be used to determine whether the message
             was clearly stated; thus the sender of the message can ask the
             receiver to paraphrase:

             Example: “I’m not certain that I have been very clear to you.
             Please tell me what you understand my point to be on this issue”




                                                                                23
                         RESPECTFUL LISTENING

       Definition: Respectful listening is combining the two verbal sending skills of
paraphrasing and asking probing non-judgmental questions.


Application

       Situation: Let us assume that a man sent this verbal message:

       "This business of equal rights for women bothers me. Life was so much easier
when everybody knew his place. Today women are more aggressive than men. They
want a career and they want a family. They want men to fight their wars, open their
doors and remember the flowers. Well, in this world you can't have everything that you
want. And they better get used to it."

       Paraphrasing: "Tell me if I understand you correctly. You're saying that
women are asking for two things. They want to be treated equally and specially, and
they can't have it both ways. Is that right?"

        Asking Probing Non-judgmental Questions: "Let me ask you a question. If
you had a bright daughter who had told you that she wanted to be a successful career
person and mother, would you advise her to choose only one goal, or would you
encourage her to pursue both goals? Secondly, if you didn't have a daughter, but had a
son who wanted to be a successful career person and father, would you give him advice
different from what you would give your daughter?"




                                                                                        24
                           ACTIVE LISTENING
                            (Emotional Listening)

Definition: Active listening is emotionally understanding and supporting another
       person. It is listening for the underlying feelings of a person's words
       and/or actions.

       A helpful way to master this relationship skill is to use one of these active
       listening starters:

              a.     you seem...
              b.     you sound...
              c.     you look...
              d.     you must feel...
              e.     are you feeling...?
              f.     it sounds like you're...
              g.     it looks like you're...

       Then add the appropriate feeling word such as pleased, excited, upset,
       angry, etc.

            Applications:

       1.   One of your student's gives you this message:

            "You're not going to believe this. My guidance counselor just told
            me that I got a $5000 scholarship!"

            The active listening response:

            "You must be thrilled (pause). Tell me more about it."

       2.   Another student gives you this message:

            "You are not going to believe this. My parents are splitting up!"

            The active listening response:

            "You sound very upset (pause). Do you want to talk about this?"




                                                                                 25
                 Active (Emotional) Listening Practice

        Directions: In the left column, record the word or phrase that the speaker
says. In the right column, record what you think the speaker is feeling when
he/she is telling his/her story.

             Word or Phrases                                Feelings




                                                                                26
          Non-verbal Body Language Cues that Show Acceptance
                          and Rejection*

        BODY PART                ACCEPTANCE                          REJECTION

           EYES                Maintain eye contact.              Avoid eye contact.

        FACIAL                Reflect the feelings of            Remain stone-faced.
      EXPRESSIONS                  the speaker.

                               Open, support self-             Folded under the arms.
          HANDS                 expression and the
                                 sender's message
                             Reflects the concern and            Rejects the sender's
                                 the interest in the               message; harsh,
          VOICE               sender's message; has              monotone with little
                              inflection, changes in             change of speed and
                                speed and volume.                      volume

        POSTURE                 Leaning toward the             Moving away from the
                                     sender.                          sender

           FEET                 Directed toward the            Directed away from the
                                      sender.                          sender




       On the following pages you will find these additional relationship skills: validating,
giving and receiving constructive positive, negative, and corrective feedback, and the
Conflict Resolution Mehtod.


    * These non-verbal body language cues most particularly relate to Anglo-
    Americans.




                                                                                        27
        Supplemental Relationship Skills: Validating, Giving and
 Receiving, Constructive Postive Feedback, Corrective Feedback,
           Negative Feedback and Conflict Resolution




                                  Validating
Definition: To validate another person is to let that person know through your
       verbal and nonverbal language that you support and understand the
       feeling, the experience or the thought that he/she is sharing.

Application for a Young Adult:

Setting: Suppose a friend of yours shares this message with you.

       "I'm eighteen years old, and I have absolutely no idea what I want to do
       with my life. My parents, my teachers, my relatives and even some of
       my 'friends' are trying to help me decide. But, what if I don't want to
       decide right now? Why can't I just enjoy myself? Why must I make a
       decision about my future right now? Why can't people appreciate and
       accept me for who I am?"

Validating: "Rich, first of all I really appreciate your telling me this. I'm having
      similar thoughts and feelings right now. . . .I know I'm going to college,
      but I really don't know if that is the right decision for me. I'm really not
      ready to think like an adult. I just want to have fun for a while. In other
      words, I pretty confused, and I wish my parents, teachers and friends
      would get off my case."

Discounting:"Rich, I know exactly how you feel because I went through the
      same thing a couple of weeks ago. You see..."

                                         or

Invalidating:"Rich, we're good friends. Right? Take my advice. Don't worry
       about it. You'll forget about it soon enough. It will all work itself out.
       Now let's go to the mall. Okay?"




                                                                                    28
                             Validating


Application for an Adult:

Setting: Suppose a friend of yours shares this message with you.

       "I'm forty-five years old. Frankly, I have done all the things that I once
       desired to do. I've been a teacher, a husband, a father. I built a nice home.
       My kids are doing well in school; my marriage is fine. I'm supposed to be
       happy. I should be a living example of the American dream. But , you
       know what...I'm not happy. Something is missing--- Is this what I'm all
       about? Is this what life is all about?---I want to do something really
       significant and meaningful. I just don't like the place I'm in right now."

Validating: "Richard, first of all I really appreciate your sharing this with me. I
      feel honored that we're so close that you could tell me what's going on
      inside of you. I just want you to know that I have never exactly gone
      through what you are telling me, but about three years ago I had a major
      crisis regarding what I should be doing with my life. You see...."

Discounting: "Richard, I know exactly how you feel because I went through the
      same thing three years ago. You see..."

                                 or

Invalidating: "Richard, we're good friends and I care about you a lot. Take my
       advice. Don't worry about it. You'll forget about it soon enough. It will all
       work itself out. Believe me. Now let's go and play some handball. Okay?"




                                                                                  29
                Giving and Receiving Constructive Positive Feedback

Definition: To give another person constructive positive feedback(CPF) is to let
        that person know those specific behaviors he/she emits that you
        appreciate. A general formula for giving CPF is as follows:

               1. State and own your positive feeling:
                  Example: "I really appreciate it...
                           "I enjoy...
                           "I love...

               2. State the specific behavior.
                  Example: "...when you listen to me."
                          "...the way you tell stories."
                          "...being next to you."

Note #1:       The formula for giving CPF may be reversed. See below:

               1. State the specific behavior.
                  Example: "When you listen to me...

               2. State and own your positive feeling.
                  Example: "...I really appreciate it."

Note #2:      The statement, 'you are a wonderful person' is not CPF for two
       reasons:
              1. The words 'you are' do not show personal ownership of the
                 feeling.
              2. The words 'a wonderful person' do not specify the behavior
                 the speaker appreciates or admires.

Note #3:       The statement, 'I like you', is not CPF. Although this statement
               satisfies the first condition, owning and stating one's positive
               feeling, it does not satisfy the second condition, specifying the
               behavior that one admires.

                       Receiving Constructive Positive Feedback

        Upon receiving constructive positive feedback it is appropriate to
        acknowledge the message being sent by showing acceptance through one's
        body language, by paraphrasing or validating.




                                                                             30
     GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE NEGATIVE
              AND CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK

DEFINITION: Constructive negative feedback (CNF) is a special kind of
       negative feeling statement. It involves telling a person what specific
       behaviors he/she does that bother or irritate the speaker. The formula
       for giving CNF is as follows:
            1. State and own your negative feeling.
                Example: I really do not appreciate it ...
                          I dislike...
                          I get upset...
                          I hate...

               2. State the specific behavior.
                  Example: ...when you do not listen to me.
                             ...when you ignore me.
                             ...when you call me 'stupid.'
                             ...when you forget to call me.

Note:          The formula for giving CNF may be reversed. See below:
               1. State the specific behavior.
                  Example: "When you do not listen to me..."

               2. State and own your negative feeling.
                  Example: "I really do not appreciate it."

       Sharing CNF should be given under certain conditions. Those conditions
are described below:

       Constructive negative/corrective feedback may be shared under these
conditions:

       Key: CNF= Constructive Negative Feedback; DNF= Destructive
Negative Feedback

1.      when it is requested. It is not stated spontaneously when the listener is
        unprepared for receiving it.
        CNF: "Is this a good time for me to give you some constructive negative
        feedback?"
        DNF: "I have had enough. You just have to hear this..."




                                                                              31
2.    when it is stated in behavioral terms. It is not stated in general or
      global terms.
      CNF: "I get upset when you ignore me."
      DNF: "You treat me terribly."

3.    when it is given to help both the listener and the speaker. It is not given
      to help the speaker only.
      CNF: "I'm very concerned about our relationship. Sometimes I feel that
      you don't listen and respect my opinions."
      DNF: "I've got to take care of my needs right now and tell you this. You
      don't care about my opinions."

4.    when it relates to something that the listener can change.
      CNF is not stated when the listener suffers from some irreversible
      handicapping condition.
      DNF: "It really bothers me to see you now that you have lost your sight."

5.    when it is stated as a request, not as a demand.
      CNF: "I would greatly appreciate it if you would consider..."
      DNF: "You must..."

6.    when it is stated in relative not absolute terms.
      CNF: "Sometimes you come late..."
      DNF: "You always come late..."
       NOTE: To give constructive corrective feedback (CCF) is to tell the
receiver what he/she can do to adjust or correct his/her behavior.
       CCF: "Next time, I'd like you to..."

       NOTE: If CNF and CCF are stated properly, the receiver can
acknowledge the message verbally and non-verbally by emitting the following
behaviors:
       1. saying thank you.
       2. paraphrasing.
       3. probing for clarification.
       4. probing for additional information.
       5. respectfully listening.
       6. non-verbally accepting the feedback through:
             a. eye contact
             b. facial expressions such as nodding
             c. leaning posture toward the speaker
             d. facing the speaker




                                                                              32
              THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION METHOD

       Assumption: A and B are in conflict.

Step One: A and B agree to use the Conflict Resolution Method when they are in
conflict.

Step Two: A gives B constructive negative feedback:

Example: "I get very upset when you promise to meet me at a certain time; I'm there on
time; you come one hour late, and don't let me know that you will be delayed."

Step Three: B accurately paraphrases and actively listens to A, and then shares his
message.

Example: "You're saying that I should have the courtesy and decency to call you if I
know that I am going to be late. (paraphrase). Right now you are very angry at me.
(active listening) I don't like having to report to you where I am all the time. I'm not a
child, and I resent being treated this way."

Step Four: A accurately paraphrases and actively listens to B, and then shares her
message.

Note: Steps Three and Four continue until A and B thoroughly understand each other's
thoughts and feelings.

Step Five: A and B brainstorm alternative ways of resolving their interpersonal problem.

Step Six: A and B agree to implement one or more of the alternatives suggested during
brainstorming.

Step Seven: If the problem is resolved, the process ends. If the problem remains, then A
and B select a different alternative.




                                                                                             33
               Consensus Building Through the APCA Process

              (APCA) four-step approach to building consensus

After hearing the ideas of another person, initiate these four steps:

(1)   Ask for clarification: "What do you mean by...,?"

(2)   Paraphrase: " This is what I believe you are saying..." "Tell me if this is your
      point of view...,"

(3)   Check for understanding: “Can you tell me more about...?”

(4)   Add, if necessary: "This is what I would like to add to what you are saying..." I
      have nothing more to add; we have achieved consensus."

                                      APCA

                          (Finding Common Ground)




COMMON
GROUND




                                                                                     34
    Sample Activities Designed to Transform the Traditonal Classroom
       Into A Community of Thoughtful and Respectful Learners

Attribute #3. Empower your classroom community to develop common
values, shared goals, and expectations.

  EXPECTATIONS THEORY
        UNVOICED,                                                               VOICED,
        UNCLEAR AND                   EXPECTATIONS                              CLEAR AND
        UNREALISTIC                                                             REALISTIC




          UNFULFILLED                       DEMANDS                           FULFILLED




          ANGER AND                         FEELINGS                        SATISFACTION
          RESENTMENT




          NO OR POOR                        RESULTS                            GOOD
          PRODUCTION                                                        PRODUCTION




* Adapted from Sherwood, John J. and John C. Gildewill. Planned Renegotiation: A Norm-Setting
 OD Intervention. The 1973 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators. John E.Jones and J.William
 Pfeiffer, Eds. San Diego, CA: University Associates, 1973, 195-202.




                                                                                                35
     WHAT BEHAVIORS DO YOU EXPECT FROM YOUR CLASSMATES?


                           INDIVIDUAL EXPECTATIONS


Directions: On the lines below record a list of behaviors that you expect from your
classmates.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________




                                                                                      36
                        PAIRED EXPECTATIONS
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________




                                                                     37
                           TEAM EXPECTATIONS

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________




                                                                     38
                     CLASSROOM EXPECTATIONS
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________



                                                                     39
                                             NAME




                           CIRCLES OF OUR CLASSROOM VALUES




                                          OUR
                                       CLASSROOM
                                         VALUES




                                             Example:
                                              Respect




Directions:
Record your name in the space provided at the top. Then record one value in a blank
circle that you would like the members of our class to honor. A value is a desirable
behavior such as respect. See the example above. You may record two additional values
in two different blank circles3.



3
 This activity is adapted from one found in Solomon, R., & Solomon, E. (2009). Toolbox for Teachers and
Mentors: Moving Madrichim to Mentor Teachers and Beyond. Tucson, AZ: Wheatmark Publishers.




                                                                                                    40
      Sample Activities Designed to Transform the Traditonal
     Classroom Into A Community of Thoughtful and Respectful
                             Learners

Attribute #4. Enable your students to develop a shared responsibility for
each member of the classroom community.

                                   Productive Habits of Mind

        According to Robert J. Marzano 1 productive habits of mind are mental
dispositions that facilitate the thinking process. What are these productive habits of
mind? They are:

         Being sensitive to feedback, seeking accuracy, evaluating the effectiveness of
         your actions, being precise, engaging intensely in tasks even when answers or
         solutions are not available, pushing the limits of your knowledge and
         performance, generating and following your own standards, and generating
         new ways of viewing situations.


        Marzano's list, however, does not exhaust all the productive habits of mind, or
cognitive dispositions and social behaviors that students need in order to become
thoughtful, respectful and collaborative learners. Therefore, on the lines provided,
record a list of additional productive and responsible attitudes and behaviors that
teachers would like students to possess that would support a “thought-filled and
respectful ” classroom.

 ______________________________________________________________________

 ______________________________________________________________________

 ______________________________________________________________________

 ______________________________________________________________________

 ______________________________________________________________________

 ______________________________________________________________________

 ______________________________________________________________________



1
    Marzano, R. J. (1992). The Many Faces of Cooperation Across the Dimensions of Learning. Davidson,
    N., &Worsham, T (Eds.) Enhancing Thinking Through Cooperative Learning. NY: Teachers College
    Press, 7-28.




                                                                                                   41
Being Respectful Toward Yourself and the Members of Our Class

 SELF-TALK           PEER TALK         NON-EXAMPLE            EXAMPLE
"WHAT I NEED         "WHAT MY             "WHAT I             "WHAT I
  TO SAY TO         CLASSMATES          SHOULD NOT           SHOULD DO
   MYSELF"           CAN SAY TO          DO OR SAY"           AND SAY"
                         ME"
Don't put yourself Can you say that in Roll your eyes and   What can I do to
or your classmates   another way?        say, "You're         help you?
      down                                  stupid!"




                                                            "So what you're
                                                              saying is...




                                                                               42
                    Four-Box Chart for




 SELF-TALK     PEER TALK     NON-EXAMPLE     EXAMPLE
"WHAT I NEED    "WHAT MY        "WHAT I      "WHAT I
  TO SAY TO    CLASSMATES     SHOULD NOT    SHOULD DO
   MYSELF"     CAN SAY TO      DO OR SAY"    AND SAY"
                  ME"




                                                        43
                                  Reflection Questions
Directions: Reflect on the three questions posed below, and record your thoughts in the
space provided.

                        What Responsibilities Do Students
              Owe to Themselves, Their Classmates, and Their Teacher?
                Question #1: What Do Students Owe Themselves?




               Question #2: What Do Students Owe Their Classmates?




                 Question #3: What Do Students Owe Their Teacher?




                                                                                          44
Sample Activities Designed to Transform the Traditonal Classroom Into
        A Community of Thoughtful and Respectful Learners


Attribute #5. Empower your classroom communithy (which includes the
     teacher) to co-determine the learning task or project. This can be
     accomplished through the APCA process (page 34) ; however, later in the course we
     will discuss and experience several brainstorming and webbing (i.e. visual thought-
     linking or mind mapping) procedures which enable students to generate questions
     and topics for classroom investigation (see pages 107-108, 121-123, also refer to
     pages 69-72).

Attribute #6. There is positive interdependence. Positive interdependence refers
    to learning activities that are designed so that students must work together in order
    to accomplish a common task or learning objective. This is achieved by sharing
    materials, having access to disparate information or through structured role
    assignments (i.e. student A speaks while student B listens and asks probing and
    clarifying questions.) Later in this course we will devote a special section on paired
    and cooperative learning procedures that promote positive interdependence (pages
    103-114).

Attribute #7. There is a strong sense of class or community loyalty. The
     following activites facilitate the creation of shared values and a sense of class or
     community loyalty.
        • Classroom Expectations (pages 35-39)
        • Circles of Our Classroom Values (page 40)
        • Productive Habits of Mind (pages 41-43)

     Here are a few additional activities that facilitate class or community loyalty and
     reinforce shared values:
        • Invite your class to create its own theme, song, motto, crest of arms, banner,
            rap, poem, handshake, logo, and dance.

Attribute #8. Specific time is set aside to reflect on how well the class or
    community is addressing its academic objectives and relational needs.
    See a few suggested activities on the next several pages.




                                                                                            45
Reflection Activities to Evaluate How Well the Academic Objectives and
  Relatonal Needs are Being Addressed in the Classroom Community


 Sentence Completions

     a. The teacher records several sentence fragments on the chalkboard, chart
        paper or on an overhead transparency. Here are some examples:
        1. One thing I learned from today's (yesterday's) lesson,
           activity/discussion/ event/ experience is (was)...
        2. One thing I learned about myself is...
        3. One thing I’d like everyone to know.
        4. One thing that concerns me is....
        5. One thing I learned about our team/group/class/community is...

     b. The teacher gives the members some 'wait time', perhaps two minutes, to
        complete the sentence fragments by themselves.

     NOTE: The teacher may permit members to form pairs to exchange sentence
           completions before sharing in public.

     c. The teacher may first model completing the sentence fragments previously
        recorded.

     d. Each member is given an opportunity to complete the sentences out loud.


 Discussion Whip

     a. The teacher explains that a discussion whip is an opportunity for the
        members of the classroom community to explain in a few words what they
        are thinking and feeling about how the class is functioning from both an
        academic and relational perspective.

     b. The teach gives the students some 'wait time,' perhaps 30 seconds, to get
        in touch with their thoughts and feelings.

     c. In round robin fashion each member is invited to share her/his present
        thoughts and feelings.




                                                                                  46
Good and Welfare
      The teacher explains the Good and Welfare norms:
      1. Listen attentively and respectfully to each participant.
      2. Each member has an opportunity to share a good and welfare
         statement without being interrupted. A good and welfare statement
         may be:
         a. a thought
         b. a feeling
         c. a preference
         d. an informed opinion
         e. an experience
         f. a validation
         g. giving a previous speaker some constructive positive feedback
      3. Each member has the right to pass.
      4. While others are sharing, each member is invited to take notes
         regarding what he/she wants to express.
         a. First the teacher models giving a good and welfare statement.
         b. In round robin fashion each member is given an opportunity to
             share a good and welfare statement.

Self-Disclosing Evaluation Statements
    a. The teacher explains that a self-disclosing evaluation statement is a
       member's personal assessment of an activity which has just taken place.
       Here are some examples of self-disclosing evaluation statements:
       1. The part of the discussion that I enjoyed most/ least was...
       2. I felt excluded when...
       3. I felt included when...
       4. I felt discounted when...
       5. I felt accepted when
    b. The teacher records some incomplete self-disclosing evaluation statements
       on the chalkboard, chart paper or on a transparency.
    c. The teacher gives the students some think and write time, perhaps 90
       seconds, to complete the self-disclosing evaluation statement.

   NOTE: The teacher may permit members to form pairs to exchange their self-
   closing evaluation statements before sharing in public.
   d. The teacher may model completing the sentence fragments previously
       recorded.
   e. Each member is given an opportunity to share a self-disclosing evaluation
       statement.




                                                                             47
                             Plus, Minus, and Interesting

Directions: At the end of the lessons students record what they liked about the lesson
under the plus column, what they didn't like about the lesson under the minus column and
what they found interesting, what they question or wish to comment upon under the I
column.
          (P) Plus                     (M) Minus                   (I)Interesting




                                                                                     48
      Reflection Form for Processing Social Skills for the Primary Grade Level1

Directions: Use statements that deal with the assigned social skills. Statements are read
aloud to the class. Each student completes the Reflection Form by putting an X over the
happy face for Yes or an X over the sad face for No. When each group has reached
consensus, the teacher writes in the goal setting answer.

Analysis


1. I shared in my group/ our class today.



2. I encouraged others in my group/our class.



3. I used names.



4. Others shared with me.



5. I felt encouraged by people in my group/our class.



6. Others in my group/our class used my name.

Goal Setting

Which social skill will your group/our class use more next time?

    ____________________________________________________________




1
    Dee Dishon and Pat Wilson O'Leary have given us permission to publish this reflection form for
    processing social skills. Dishon, Dee and Pat Wilson O'Leary. Third Edition. (1998). A Guidebook for
    Cooperative Learning: A Technique for Creating More Effective Schools. Holmes Beach, Florida:
    Learning Publications




                                                                                                      49
Reflection Form for Processing Social Skills for the Upper Elementary/Junior High
                                      Level1

Directions: Put an X on the line where you think you or your group or the class
performed on social skills in today's lesson.

1. I encouraged others.
   _____________________________________________________________________
   always                                                          never

2. I followed directions.
     _____________________________________________________________________
     always                                                          never

3. I responded to others' ideas.
     ____________________________________________________________________
     always                                                          never

4. We encouraged everyone in our group.
    ____________________________________________________________________
    always                                                          never

5. We followed directions.
    ____________________________________________________________________
    always                                                          never


6. We responded to others' ideas.
    ____________________________________________________________________
    always                                                          never


Directions: Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase that you feel best completes the
sentence.

The social skill I will practice more consistently next time is ___________________

_______________________________.I will do this by___________________________,
                                                  (three specific behaviors)
____________________________, and _______________________________________.



1
    Dee Dishon and Pat Wilson O'Leary have given us permission to publish this reflection form for
    processing social skills. Dishon, Dee and Pat Wilson O'Leary. Third Edition. (1998). A Guid book for
    Cooperative Learning: A Technique for Creating More Effective Schools. Holmes Beach, Florida:
    Learning Publications.




                                                                                                      50
Reflection Form for Processing Social Skills for Senior High/Adult Level1


Directions: Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase that you feel best completes the
sentence.

Analysis

The social skill we used most consistently today is                 _________________________

____________________ by _________________________________________________
                                   (three specific behaviors)
______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________


Goal Setting

The social skill we want to be sure to use next time is _____________________________

________________________________ because_________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________


Constructive Positive Feedback

I appreciate how you helped our group/class by __________________________________
                                                            (name specific behaviors)
________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________




1
    Dee Dishon and Pat Wilson O'Leary have given us permission to publish this reflection form for
    processing social skills. Dishon, Dee and Pat Wilson O'Leary. Third Edition. (1998). A Guidebook for
    Cooperative Learning: A Technique for Creating More Effective Schools. Holmes Beach, Florida:
    Learning Publications.




                                                                                                      51
                      Self/Peer/ Quad and Community Assessment

KEY: The inner circle refers to your participation. The second circle refers to your partner's
     participation. The third circle refers to your quad's or your team's participation. The
     largest circle refers to your class or community's participation.

       1 means excellent; 2 means good; 3 means fair and 4 means poor.

       Each sector refers to a different way to contribute. Sector I refers to listening; Sector II
       refers to speaking; Sector III refers to helping others and Sector IV refers to working
       on task.

DIRECTIONS: Write a 1, 2, 3 or 4 in each portion of the circle from each sector.
Therefore, if you write a 1 in the me portion of Sector I that means you did an excellent job
listening today. If you write a 2 in my partner's portion of Sector II that means your partner
did a good job speaking today. If you record a 3 in my quad/team’s portion of Sector III that
means the members of your quad/team did a fair job of helping each other, and if you record
a 4 in my class/community's portion of Sector IV that means that the class/community did a
poor job of working on task today. In total you could have four numbers in each
sector.



     SECTOR I:                         MY          CLASS/                 SECTOR II:
     LISTENING                                     COMMUNITY              SPEAKING


                                            MY     QUAD/
                                                   TEAM

                                            MY    PARTNER


                                             ME




SECTOR III:                                                               SECTOR IV:
WORKING ON TASK                                                           HELPING OTHERS




                                                                                                 52
                                THEME ONE:
                        LEARNING TO THINK SKILLFULLY

1.     Learning to think skillfully

       This theme deals with strategies we can teach students to develop their own
cognitive structures. These cognitive structures are the prerequisite neurological
pathways students need to develop in order to gather, organize, and process information.
They are the basic connections students need to acquire thinking skills and processes.

        We will then explore specific thinking skills including focusing, defining
problems, setting goals, information gathering, observing, formulating questions,
remembering, organizing, comparing, classifying, ordering, representing, analyzing,
identifying main ideas, identifying errors, generating, inferring, predicting, elaborating,
integrating, summarizing, restructuring, evaluating, establishing criteria, and verifying.

        This will be followed by an explanation of these thinking processes (i.e. the
combination of one or more thiking skills): comparing, classifying , inducing, analyzing
errors, decision making, investigation, constructing support, abstracting, analyzing
perspectives, experimental inquiry, problem solving, the scientific method, hypothesis
testing, and invention.

        Lastly, within this theme we will examine the broader connection of learning to
thinking skillfully by elaborating upon five of the twelve brain/mind learning principles
generated by Renate N. Caine and her colleagues (2008) including: Each brain/mind
learns in a unique way; the brain/mind requires social interaction; the brain/mind is
influenced by emotions; the brain/mind searches for patterns and seeks meaning and the
brain is a complex organ that can funtion on many levels and in many ways
simultaneously.


What are cognitive structures and how do these structures relate to thinking?

        Cognitive structures, the pathways of neurological connections in the brain, are
the pathways of neurological connections in the brain that a student needs to develop in
order to make meaning of the data he/she receives. Accordingly, in order for a student to
read, write, develop thinking skills and processes. his or her brain must first acquire a set
connections which transmit data from one brain nerve cell, a neuron, to another neuron.

       For clarification, let's examine how the brain transfers data from one neuron to
another.

        In the diagram below you will see two brain neurons or nerve cells. Note how
the neuron on the left has an axon with terminal buttons where the neurotransmitters are
stored. These neurotransmitters fire a chemical that transfers the data from neuron #1 to




                                                                                          53
the dentrites of neuron #2 across the synapse, the space between the two brain nerve
cells.



             TWO BRAIN NEURONS EXCHANGING INFORMATION


          NEURON #1
           DENDRITES
                                         THE NEUROTRANSMITTERS
                                         ARE STORED AT THE END
                                         OF THE AXON AND FIRE AT
                                         THE TIP OF THE AXON
                                           TERMINAL BUTTONS



                                                      SYNAPSE




                        AXON

                                                                            AXON




                                                                           DENDRITES




                                                        NEURON #2




        In the next diagram, you will notice how electrical impulses from neuron #1 travel
down its axon to its neurotransmitter which then releases data to the receptor sites on the
dendrtites of neuron #2.




                                                                                        54
         This transfer of data from one brain neuron to another is the basic connection that
facilitates learning. If these basic neurological pathways are not formed and hard-wired,
students have great difficulty in making connections with prior knowledge and
experiences, finding patterns, identifying predictable rules, and abstracting principles
that they can apply to new situations. In short, without the development of these
prerequisite cognitive structures our students will encounter considerable difficulty in
making meaning of their experiences.




                                                                                         55
 How can we help students develop these prerequisite cognitive structures for
 thinking?


         Dr. Betty K. Garner4 in her book, Getting to Got It!: Helping Struggling Students
 Learn How to Learn, informs us that although we cannot give our students these
 prerequsite neurological connections, we can help them develop their own cognitive
 structures.

 A Formal Lesson Plan Model for Helping Students Developing Their Own Cognitive
                            Structures for Thinking5

1.   Students Experience and Explore Sensory Data
     The teacher provides concrete examples of items for students to touch, see, hear,
     small and taste. Instead of telling students what they should be sensing, the teacher
     asks them to describe what they are experiencing. Thus, a teacher might say, for
     example:
        • What do you see?
        • What do you hear?


2.   Students Describe the Sensory Data.
     The teacher asks the students to describe what they are experiencing with their
     senses. By asking or responding to certain questions the students are making
     connections with their prior knowledge. Thus, a teacher might say, for example:
        • What does it sound like?
        • What does it smell like?
        • What does it feel like?
        • What does it look like?
        • What does it taste like?

3.   Teacher Explains and Clarifies. The teacher clarifies and builds upon student
     descriptions, introduces new concepts, and asks students to put in their own words
     what they understand. By posing the following questions the connections between a
     student’s prior knowledge and new experience are being strengthened.
         • What sense do you make of this?
         • What part do you know for sure?
         • What patterns do you see?
         • If you were going to explain this to someone, how would you say it in your
            own words?




 5
  Adapted from Betty K Garner at this website address: http://www.all-
 edu.com/eng05.html . Retrieved January 30, 2009.



                                                                                         56
4.   Students Demonstrate Understanding. Students demonstrate understanding by
     applying the knowledge in a new way. For example, students might
       • Write a paragraph, letter, or poem
       • Do a role-play or newscast
       • Create a song or rap
       • Draw a picture
       • Perform a mime

5.   Teacher and Students Evaluate the Lesson. Students and teacher reflect on and
     evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson, how it could be improved, and what
     questions come to mind as a result of the experience. Here are some sample
     questions that a teacher might pose:
       • What part of the lesson was clear?
       • What part of the lesson was hard to understand?
       • What can I do next time to make the lesson more understandable?



                                  The Importance of
                     Comparative Cognitive Structures For Thinking

         Comparative cognitive structures are a sub-set of the cognitive structures created
 in the brain. Comparative cognitive structures help us process information by identifying
 how bits of data are alike and different. They include recognition, conservation of
 constancies, classifications, spatial orientation temporal orientation and others. These
 comparative structures are foundational to learning (Garner, 2007).

          Recognition is the ability to identify a match or fit between two or more pieces of
 data. It is one of the first cognitive structures we learn to use and one that we often take
 for granted.

         Here is an example of how the comparative cognitive structure of recognition
 works without a planned instructional intervention. An infant sees a woman for the first
 time. He senses her through sight, sound, touch, taste and smell. Initial sensory input
 provides isolated bits of data. When the child sees or hears another woman, he mentally
 represents and processes the data by comparing the two samples. Over time the child
 begins to recognize general characteristics of women, and calls all women the same
 name, e.g. mama. In fact, the child can mentally represent or visualize in his mind the
 concept of woman (i.e. mama) even when no one is present. Later on, he begins to learn
 the names of different images of women, e.g. mother, aunt, grandmother and so on. This
 process of sensing and distinguishing data, naming it, and visualizing it continues
 throughout life.


      As a teacher, what can we do with students who cannot perform these pre-requisite
 cognitive operations for thinking? How can we help students develop the comparative




                                                                                           57
cognitive structures to:

         •   Classify a set of objects
         •   Organize data
         •   Describe the location of objects in the classroom
         •   Sequence data or events
         •   Tell time on an analog clock
         •   Visualize how to get from one place to another place

       In the next exercise we will share sample learning activities designed to help
students develop their own comparative cognitive structures for conservation of
constancy, classification, spatial and temporal orientation.

Learning activities designed to help students develop their own comparative
cognitive structures6


            Comparative Cognitive Structure: Conservation of constancy
         Definition              Example of the Problem            Discussion Question
The ability to understand      Student does not understand Why is conservation of
how some attributes or         that the same amount of         constancy a basic building
characteristics of a thing     water placed in two             block for thinking? How
can change while others        different glasses (i.e. one     does conservation of
remain the same.               that is wide and one that is    constancy apply to your
                               tall) contains the same         subject/content area?
                               amount of water.
Sample learning activity to teach students conservation of constancy: Give students
two 8 ½ by 11 sheets of paper. Ask students to place one sheet on the desk and crunch the
second sheet into a ball. Teacher poses a set of questions or challenges: What do you see
on the desk? Describe them. Which sheet of paper weighs more? Explain that each sheet
of paper weighs the same.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students develop
conservation of constancy?




6
  The following information about comparative cognitive structures, their definitions and the associated
learning activities are adapted from Garner, Betty K. (2007). Getting to Got It! Helping Struggling Students
to Learn How to Learn. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.




                                                                                                        58
         Comparative Cognitive Structure: Classification of Common Traits
          Definition             Example of the Problem        Discussion Question
The ability to identify,        Student does not understand Why is the classification of
compare, and order              that running, jumping and   common traits a basic
information or data to create walking are action words.     building block for thinking?
meaning based on                                            How does classification of
understanding the                                           common traits apply to your
relationship of parts to each                               subject/content area?
other and parts to the whole.
One kind of classification is
the classification of
common traits.
Sample learning activity to teach students to classify common traits: Take two
characters in a novel or story and identify common traits.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
how to classify common traits?


        Comparative Cognitive Structure: Classification of Common Purpose
          Definition              Example of the Problem            Discussion Question
The ability to identify,        Student does not understand Why is the classification of
compare, and order              that a car, a truck, a bus, a    common purpose a basic
information or data to create train, an airplane and a           building block for thinking?
meaning based on                bicycle are all means of         How does classification of
understanding the               transportation.                  common purpose apply to
relationship of parts to each                                    your subject/content area?
other and parts to the whole.
One kind of classification is
the classification of
common purpose.
Sample learning activity to teach students to classify things accords to a common
purpose. Invite students to make a list of objects in the classroom, and then create
classifications for those objects e.g. things I use for writing.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
how to classify common traits?




                                                                                          59
             Comparative Cognitive Structure: Classification of an Order
          Definition              Example of the Problem            Discussion Question
The ability to identify,        Student does not understand Why is the classification of
compare, and order              how to classify or organize an order a basic building
information or data to create data from smallest to              block for thinking? How
meaning based on                largest, most to least, first to does classification of an
understanding the               last, lowest to highest, etc.    order apply to your
relationship of parts to each                                    subject/content area?
other and parts to the whole.
One kind of classification is
the classification of data
according to an order.
Sample learning activity to teach students to classify things according to an order.
Put in rank order the countries with the most to least population: USA, Russia, China and
India.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
how to classify data or information according to an order?


Comparative Cognitive Structure: Classification of Frequency or Probability
          Definition            Example of the Problem            Discussion Question
The ability to identify,       Student does not classify or Why is the classification of
compare, and order             organize data such as the (a) frequency or probability a
information or data to create number or percentage of         basic building block for
meaning based on               days absent or late to school thinking? How does
understanding the              (b) average height of          classification frequency or
relationship of parts to each students in class, (c)          probability apply to your
other and parts to the whole. number or percentage of         subject/content area?
One kind of classification is correct or incorrect answers
the classification of data on on a quiz.
the basis of frequency or
probability. (E.g. attendance
or absences from school,
the batting average of a
baseball player, etc.).
Sample learning activity to teach students to classify things according to frequency
or probability. Ask students to create a chart of the temperature for the month of
February, and then determine the number or percentage of days that the temperature was
above 45 degrees.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
how to classify data or information according frequency or probability?




                                                                                       60
      Comparative Cognitive Structure: Spatial Orientation of Material Space
          Definition              Example of the Problem        Discussion Question
The ability to identify and      Student cannot describe    Why is spatial orientation of
compare where objects and where objects are in the          material space a basic
places are in relationship to classroom in relationship to building block for thinking?
each other and oneself with other objects. Student has      How does spatial
regard to material space.        difficulty understanding   orientation of material
Material space consists of       how to use these kinds of  space apply to your
physical, material things        descriptive words: in, on, subject/content area?
that have three-dimensional under, next to, etc.
form, occupy space, and are
perceived by the five
senses, i.e. sight, touch,
hearing, taste and smell.
Sample learning activity to teach students material spatial orientation: Ask student
to describe the location of an object in your classroom.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
spatial orientation of material space?

  Comparative Cognitive Structure: Spatial Orientation of Representational Space
          Definition               Example of the Problem         Discussion Question
The ability to identify and      Student cannot explain the   Why is spatial orientation of
compare where objects and location of objects through         representational space a
places are in relationship to drawing, the use of icons, or basic building block for
each other and oneself with other symbolic notations          thinking? How does spatial
regard to representational       (i.e., , , , <, >, #, O, orientation of
space. Representational          ∆., ‰, . ., etc.).        representational space apply
space uses lines or edges to                                  to your subject/content
define two-dimensional                                        area?
shapes and symbols.
Drawings, diagrams, lines,
paintings, photos and videos
use shapes to represent or
stand for persons, places,
things and ideas. Coding
systems such as languages,
numbers, and musical
notations are also two-
dimensional spatial
relationships that
communicate meaning.
Sample learning activity to teach students representational spatial orientation: Ask
students to make a diagram of their room.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
spatial orientation of material space?




                                                                                        61
       Comparative Cognitive Structure: Spatial Orientation of Abstract Space
          Definition              Example of the Problem       Discussion Question
The ability to identify and      Student cannot mentally   Why is spatial orientation of
compare where objects and map going from one place         abstract space a basic
places are in relationship to to another.                  building block for thinking?
each other and oneself with                                How does spatial
regard to abstract space.                                  orientation of abstract space
Abstract space is a visual                                 apply to your
cognitive construct used to                                subject/content area?
explain or represent spatial
relationships. For example,
we use abstract space when
planning a trip.
Sample learning activity to teach students representational spatial orientation: Ask
students to make a diagram of their room.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
spatial orientation of abstract space?


     Comparative Cognitive Structure: Temporal Orientation for Telling Time
          Definition              Example of the Problem            Discussion Question
The ability to process           Student cannot tell time by Why is temporal orientation
information by comparing         using an analog clock or       for telling time a basic
events in relationship to        watch.                         building block for thinking?
when they occur by telling                                      How is temporal orientation
time (i.e. explaining the                                       for telling time apply to
time as displayed on an                                         your subject/content area?
analog clock or watch).
Sample learning activity to teach students how to tell time: Show students an analog
clock, one that displays time with an hour and minute hand, and has the numbers 1
through 12 in the correct order. Ask them: what is the position of the big hand (hour) and
the position of the smaller hand (the minute) on the face of the clock. Then tell your
students what time it is, and ask your students to repeat the time that you had announced.
Then invite your students to visualize the time you had stated and without looking at the
clock, have them draw the face of the clock showing the time that you had stated. This
four step process: (1) gathering sensory data; (2) naming that data; (3) visualizing the
data and (4) representing the data is one way to teach students how to read an analog
clock. Repeat the process at other times of the day.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students understand
spatial orientation of abstract space?




                                                                                         62
  Comparative Cognitive Structure: Temporal Orientation for Sequencing Events
                                        Over Time
         Definition             Example of the Problem            Discussion Question
The ability to process        Student cannot tell the         Why is temporal orientation
information by comparing      sequential order of events      for sequencing events over
events in relationship to     over a period of time. Thus time a basic building block
when they occur by            a student cannot explain        for thinking? How is
sequencing events over        what comes first, second,       sequencing events over time
time.                         third, etc.                     apply to your
                                                              subject/content area?
Sample learning activity to teach students how to sequence time: Give your students
an agenda for your lesson indicating the sequence or order of activities planned for your
lesson.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students sequence
events over time?


    Comparative Cognitive Structure: Temporal Orientation for Measuring Time
         Definition              Example of the Problem            Discussion Question
The ability to process          Student cannot determine       Why is temporal orientation
information by comparing        the duration of time, i.e. the for measuring time a basic
events in relationship to       amount of time required to     building block for thinking?
when they occur by              complete a task.               How is temporal orientation
measuring time (i.e.                                           for measuring time apply to
determining the duration of                                    your subject/content area?
an event.)
Sample learning activity to teach students how to measure time: Give your students
an agenda indicating the sequence or order of activities planned for the lesson, and then
tell them the duration of each activity (e.g. 3 minutes, 10 minutes, etc.) Give your
students an agenda for your lesson indicating the order of what will be covered.
Application Question: What can you do as a teacher to help your students measure
time?




                                                                                        63
                      WHAT ARE THE THINKING SKILLS?


        What is thinking? What is a thinking skill? When does a thinking skill become a
thinking process? What is thinking about thinking (metacognition)? Do we have
taxonomy for thinking on which educators can agree? In 1984 the Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) asked these seven researchers and
practitioners to address these important questions: Robert J. Marzano, Ronald S. Brandt,
Carolyn Sue Hughes, Beau Fly Jones, Barbara Z. Presseisen, Stuart C. Rankin, Charles
Suhor. In 1988 these men and women published the first comprehensive framework for
thinking instruction called Dimensions of Thinking: A Framework for Curriculum and
Instruction. In it they identify and define twenty-one core thinking skills that can be
taught through the curriculum. A chart of the ASCD’s 21 core thinking skills with
definitions appears on the next pages.




                                                                                      64
 Chart of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD)
                     21 Thinking Skills and Their Definitions

     Thinking Skill                                  Definition
    Defining Problems      Clarifying needs, discrepancies or a puzzling situation
      Setting goals        Establishing direction and purpose
        Observing          Obtaining information through one or more senses
 Formulating questions     Seeking new information through inquiry
        Encoding           Storing information in long-term memory
        Recalling          Retrieving information from long-term memory
       Comparing           Noting similarities and differences among things
       Classifying         Grouping and labeling things on the basis of their attributes
         Ordering          Sequencing things according to a given criterion
      Representing         Changing the form but not the substance of information
  Identifying attributes   Determining characteristics or parts of something
     and components
   Identifying relation-   Recognizing ways in which elements are related
    ships and patterns
 Identifying main ideas    Identifying the central element
    Identifying errors     Recognizing logical fallacies and other mistakes, and, where
                           possible, correcting them
       Inferring           Going beyond available information to identify what is
                           reasonably true
      Predicting           Anticipating next events, or the outcome of a situation
      Elaborating          Explaining by adding details, examples, or other relevant
                           information
     Summarizing           Combining information efficiently into a cohesive statement
       Restruc-            Changing existing knowledge structures to incorporate new
         turing            information
  Establishing criteria    Setting standards for making judgments
       Verifying           Confirming the accuracy of claims


       A list of 13 thinking processes appears on the following page. As a reminder, a
thinking process is a combination of one or more thinking skills.




                                                                                           65
                          13 Thinking Processes * and Their Definitions

       Thinking                                             Definition
       Process
      Comparing          Identifying and articulating similarities and differences between
                          things.
      Classifying        Grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their
                          attributes.
       Inducing          Inferring unknown generalizations or principles from observation or
                          analysis.
       Deducing          Inferring unstated consequences and conditions from given
                          principles and generalizations.
    Analyzing Errors     Identifying and articulating errors in your own thinking or that of
                          others.
    Decision Making      A process which asks students to make choices among alternatives:
                          e.g. What/who might be the best/worst alternative in order to meet
                          certain criteria?
     Investigation       There are three types of investigations: in this framework:
                          definitional, historical, and projective; each one challenges students
                          to answer different kinds of questions. (a) Definitional
                          Investigation: What are the defining characteristics or salient
                          features of some topic? (b) Historical Investigation: How did event
                          X happen? Why did event X happen? (c) Projective Investigation:
                          What would happen if...? What would have happened if...?
      Constructing        Constructing a system of support or proof for an assertion.
        Support
      Abstracting          Identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern
                           of information.
       Analyzing           Identifying and articulating your personal perspectives in relation to
      Perspectives         the perspectives of others.
      Experimental         Students are asked to explain, hypothesize some physical,
        Inquiry            psychological or sociological phenomenon.




*
      These definitions of thinking processes are based on ones found in Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J.,
      Arredondo, D.E., Blackburn, G.J. Brandt, R.S., and Moffett, C.A. (1991), Dimensions of Learning:
      Teacher's Manual (draft version). Aurora, Colorado: McRel Institute.




                                                                                                           66
   Thinking                                   Definition
    Process
Problem Solving   Students find (a) solution(s) to a question that has some
                  constraining or limiting condition imposed from the outside.
                  Problem solving usually involves a set of steps including: (1) State
                  the goal. (2) Identify the constraints or limiting conditions. (3)
                  Identify ways of overcoming the constraints or meeting the limiting
                  conditions. (4) Select and try out alternatives. (5) Evaluate
                  alternatives.
   Invention      Students create something new that meets a perceived need.
                  Inventions are not limited by outside constraints; however, they are
                  limited by the specific standards of the inventor. Invention also
                  involves a set of steps including: (1) Identify a situation you want to
                  improve. (2) State your goal. (3) Identify your standards. (4) Make
                  a model sketch, or outline of your invention. (5) Start drafting your
                  invention. (6) Share it.




                                                                                      67
 A SEVEN STEP MODEL FOR TEACHING
          A THINKING SKILL

1. STATE THE RATIONALE FOR THE THINKING SKILL.

2. DESCRIBE OR DEFINE THE THINKING SKILL.

3. MODEL OR DEMONSTRATE THE THINKING SKILL.

4. INVITE LEARNERS TO IDENTIFY THE INDICATORS
    OF THE THINKING SKILL.

5. GUIDED PRACTICE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

6. REFLECTION ON PRACTICE AND APPLICATION OF THE
    THINKING SKILL

7. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE




                                                   68
     Graphic Organizers Are Tools to Help Students Describe and Depict Their
                                    Thinking


      Under the first theme of the course, learning to think, we discussed the importance
of the brain developing cognitive structures that enable us to give meaning to the sensory
data we experience. We will now explore graphic organizers which are visual-spatial
templates that help us focus, organize and structure our thinking. Graphic organizers are
essential tools for thinking. Here ae some sample graphic organizers (Ramsey, 19987).




7
 Printed with permission given by Diana L. Ramsey, (1998) Making Connections: Structures and
Strategies for Integrated Teaching and Learning, Morristown, NJ: Center for Lifelong Learning, Inc. 36-
37.




                                                                                                     69
70
                                 Graphic Organizer Overview*

     The following descriptions identify the thinking skills associated with the graphic
organizers presented on page 70. When reading each description, please look at the
graphic organizer depicted on the previous page.
BAR GRAPH
ANALYZE , EVALUATE
A bar graph is used to illustrate a quantitative comparison. Like items are given a
numerical value and are placed on the chart in relation to other items.

PIE GRAPH
ANALYZE, PRIORITIZE, SYNTHESIZE
The pie graph or pie chart demonstrates the weight given individual items in comparison
to one another.

MIND MAP
SYNTHESIS, BRAINSTORM, ANALOGIZE, ATTRIBUTE, ANALYZE
A mind map is a complex organization of information which shows the grouping of
information as well as the connections between groups of ideas. It is unique to the creator
and develops divergent thinking.

WEB
BRAINSTORM, ATTRIBUTE, INFER, ANALOGIZE
The web is a brainstorming tool that allows for the addition of information without
judging or classifying the information being gathered.

RATING SCALES
EVALUATE, ANALYZE
Rating scales are used to compare qualities or traits of a series of items or topics. Rating
scales also allow the learner to record and then look for the frequency or occurrence of
those traits or characteristics.

LINE GRAPH
ANALYZE, SEQUENCE
The purpose of a line graph is to show a trend or pattern in comparison to another trend
or pattern.

DATA DISK
CLASSIFY, ANALYZE, SYNTHESIZE, ATTRIBUTE
A data disk is a place for students to gather various kinds of information about a given
topic and to record it according to particular categories.



*
    Printed with permission given by Diana L. Ramsey, (1998). Making Connections: Structures and
    Strategies for Integrated Teaching and Learning, Morristown, NJ: Center for Lifelong Learning, Inc.
    36-37.




                                                                                                     71
PRIORITY PYRAMID
ANALYZE, EVALUATE, CLASSIFY, PRIORITIZE
The shape of this pyramid organizer communicates an assessment of value from greatest
to least. The high level thinking skills used in this organizer allow students to make
judgments and then to add information to illustrate each priority level.

ONE AND ALL
COMPARE/CONTRAST, ANALYZE, SYNTHESIZE, CLASSIFY
One and all is a variation of the Venn diagram. In this organizer, the learner is able to
compare and contrast three or four items. The center of the diagram identifies the
attributes that are held in common by all the items described in the outside sections of the
chart.

DATA SHEET
ANALYZE, CLASSIFY, ATTRIBUTE
The data sheet is a linear organization of facts about a selected list of topics. The left
column lists those items to be analyzed and the top row provides the categories of
information.

FLOW CHART
SEQUENCE, SYNTHESIZE, CLASSIFY
The flow chart organizes a series of events in a systematic way which allows for multiple
possibilities. A simple sequence chart simply arranges events or components in a
sequential pattern.

RANK ORDER
SEQUENCE, ATTRIBUTE, EVALUATE
Items are ranks according to their value, from greatest to least important.

MARGIN THINKING
SYNTHESIZE, INFER, HYPOTHESIZE, ANALOGIZE
Margin thinking is an organizer that allows the learner to first gather facts and
information and record them in the center rectangle. The outer margin is used to jot down
personal reactions, associations, impressions, qualifiers or questions.

VENN DIAGRAM
COMPARE/CONTRAST, ANALYZE, ATTRIBUTE
Compare/contrast thinking is easily recorded on the Venn diagram. It allows for clear and
concise organization of ideas and leads to the identification of critical attributes.

FISHBONE
CAUSE AND EFFECT, CLASSIFY, BRAINSTORM, ANALYZE
The fishbone is a linear mind map that is used with the purpose of showing cause and
effect. The box contains the outcome or effect. Each rib of the fish is a general cause and
the bones are the effects.




                                                                                             72
            Five Foundational Brain/Mind Principles of Teaching Thinking
                            (Renate N. Caine, et al., 2008)


1.   Each brain/mind learns in a unique way.

         Although the average brain weighs about three pounds, each brain functions
 idiosyncratically. As explained in the previous section on the biology of the brain, each
 brain is unique because it receives disparate data from the senses, and then transmits and
 interprets that data differently. Furthermore, as we have also discussed before, each brain
 creates its own cognitive structures which connect its prior knowledge to new
 experiences.

 What are the instructional implications of principle #1, each brain/mind learns in a
 unique way? Record your thoughts in the space provided.




 2. The brain/mind requires social interaction.

     Social interactions are critical for learning because they activate the brain to make the
 essential neurological connections for thinking. It is possible for thinking to be stimulated
 internally through individual "brainstorming", but more neurological connections are
 generated through interaction with other people.




                                                                                            73
What are the instructional implications of principle # 2, the brain/mind requires
social insteraction? Record your thoughts in the space provided.




3. The brain/mind is influenced by emotions.

    Thinking is also affected by the emotional state of the learner. When a student is calm
the normal pathway for processing information is as follows: The stimulus is received by
the brain's sorter, the thalamus, and then routed to the appropriate functional area in the
brain for different kinds of activity such as walking, reading, seeing, problem solving, and
creative thinking etc.

    On the on the other hand, when a student is threatened or intimidated, natural body
chemicals (adrenaline, vasopressin, peptide, cortical, serotonin, testosterone,
progesterone, etc) are released in the brain and the circulatory system to prepare the
person for flight or fight. The heart rate is increased, blood pressure rises, the large
muscles are taut, and the body prepares to combat the danger. In lieu of using the normal
pathway, the thalamus to the cerebral cortex, a new emergency route is utilized by the
brain. The stimulus now goes directly from the thalamus to a section in the mid-brain call
the amygdala which immediately shuts down the creative and critical thinking portions in
the cerebral cortex of the brain.


        The diagram on the next page depicts a view of the brain showing the cerebral
cortex, the thalamus and the amygdala.




                                                                                         74
                      Looking Inside of the Brain




The next chart describes the brain under high and normal emotinal stress.




                                                                            75
                    The Brain Under High and Normal Emotional Stress



                               1. Emotional Stimulus




                              2. Thalamus for sorting




          3. With High Stress                         3. With Normal Stress




        4. Brain automatically                        4. Brain interprets the
        responds to the stress                        stress and then responds




       a.   heart rate is increased                    Routes information to the
       b.    blood pressure rises                       appropriate functional
       c.   large muscles are taut                          area of the brain
       d.    body prepares to
             combat the danger

   It is also important to note that the brain has its own intrinsic chemical reward
mechanism. That is, when a student participates in a learning activity that is perceived as



                                                                                         76
 meaningful, relevant, stimulating and appropriate, the brain releases natural pleasure
 chemicals such as dopamine and norepinephrine, as well as natural opiates (endorphins)
 which provide intrinsic rewards for the learner. These "natural highs" are transported and
 transmitted to the neurons with the information, and enable students to associate pleasure
 with learning.

     Thus, our emotions influence how we think.

 What are the instructional implications of principle # 3, the brain/mind is
 influenced by emotions? Record your thoughts in the space provided.




4.    The brain/mind searches for patterns and seeks meaning.
         The brain is a meaning maker; it is naturally curious and is continuously making
 connections or finding patterns between new stimuli and prior knowledge. These new and
 emerging connections become the principles, the concepts, the assumptions, and the
 values that shape our thinking.

 What are the instructional implications of principle # 4, the brain/mind searches for
 patterns and seeks meaning? Record your thoughts in the space provided.




                                                                                        77
5. The brain/mind is a complex organ that can function on many levels, and in
many ways simultaneously. For example, the brain can see things whole to part and
part to whole; it can operate consciously and unconsciously; it can link new information
to stored data, creatively solve problems, and reflect upon itself all at the same time.


What are the instructional implications of principle # 5, the brain/mind is a
complex organ that can function on many levels and in many ways
simultaneously? Record your thoughts in the space provided.




                                                                                      78
                                        THEME TWO:
                                     THINKING TO LEARN

2.        Thinking to learn

This theme relates to teaching students how to apply the thinking skills they have
acquired to the course content or curriculum. Accordingly, in this portion of the course
we will explore the following topics/questions:

      • What are the essential or core questions in a subject/content or curriclum area?
      • How can teachers empower students to generate their own questions?
      • How can the questioning frameworks and taxonomies of several major authors (see
         below), plus graphic organizers, engage students to apply their thinking skills and
         processes to the curriculum?
      • What are the questioning frameworks of Lyman, Wiederhold and Solomon?
      • What are the taxonomies of educational objectives of Bloom, Anderson and
         Krathwohl, and Marzano and Kendall?




    What Are Essential Questions of A Content/Subject or Curriclum Area According
                        to Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe?*

        Essential questions go the the heart of a discipline. They can be found in the most
historical (and controversial) issues and problems in a field of study. For example: Is
history always biased? Does art reflect culture or help shape it? etc.

       Essential questions naturally recur. The same important questions get asked and
re-asked throughout one's learning and in the history of the field. For example: What
makes a great book great? Why must countries solve problems through war? Why is
there hunger in the world?

        Essential questions raise other important questions. Such questions lead to other
essential questions as well as to more specific subject and unit level questions. For
example the question, in nature, do only the strong survive?, leads to other questions
such as: What do we mean by "strong?" Are insects strong since they are survivors?




*
      Printed with permission given by Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J.(1998). Understanding by Design.
      Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.




                                                                                                   79
     What Are Unit Questions According to Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe?*

        Unit questions are subject and topic specific. These questions frame the unit of
study. They guide the exploration of "big ideas" and processes within particular subjects.
For example: The question, "is science fiction great literature", guides inquiry within a
specific literature unit. This unit question links to the overarching question, "what makes
a great story?", addressed by the entire English department.

       Unit questions have no one obvious "right" answer. Unit questions are not
intended to yield a "pat" answer. Rather, they serve as doorways into inquiry, research
and discussion. They uncover rather than cover up the subject's controversies, puzzles,
and perspectives.

        Unit questions are deliberately framed to provoke and sustain student interest.
Unit questions work best when the questions are designed and edited to be thought-
provoking to students, capable of engaging them in sustained inquiries. Such questions
often involve the counter-intuitive, the visceral, the thought-provoking, the controversial.
For example: Do the lyrics to rock music songs qualify as "poetry?"; Does food that is
good for you have to taste bad?




                                                                                          80
          Examples of Essential and Unit Questions According to
                 Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe*
           Essential Questions             Unit Questions
Art:                                               unit on masks: What role have masks
Why and how do people create?                      played in various cultures? What do masks
Does art reflect culture or shape it?              and their use reveal about the culture?
Literature:                                        unit on mysteries: How do great mystery
What makes a great story?                          writers hook and hold their readers?
Science:                                           unit on insects: How does the structure
Do only the strong survive?                        and behavior of insects enable them to
How does an organism's structure enable it         survive?
to survive in its environment?
History/Government:                                unit on the U.S. Constitution: Are there too
Does power inevitably corrupt?                     many Constitutional checks and balances?
How do we provide checks and balances              Does the separatioon of powers between
on government?                                     the three branches of government create a
Can individual liberty and the "common             deadlock? Is the Constitution maintaining
good" be balanced?                                 an efficient and realistic balance between
                                                   national and state power?
Mathematics/Economics:                             unit on money: Why do we need money?
What is valuable?                                  How do we use money in daily life? What
What is the value of money?                        are the diffferent coins worth?

Language Arts:                                     unit on persuasive writing/speaking: How
Whom we believe, and why?                          does an effective persuader persuade?
Geography:                                         unit on any state or region: How does the
How does the geography, climate, and               geography, climate and natural resources
natural resources of a region influence how        of _____________ influence how its
people live?                                       people live?

       In this section of the text we will discuss the following cognitive frameworks
designed to empower students to generate the questions that they want to explore in a
given content/subject or curriculum area:
           • Think-Trix (Lyman)8
           • Q-Matrix (Wiederhold) and
           • Six Types of Data (Solomon) ) 9


*
 Printed with permission given by Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J.(1998). Understanding by Design.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
8
  Think-Trix was created and developed by Dr. Frank Lyman and his colleagues at the University of
Maryland-Howard County (MD) Teacher Education Center. Lyman, F. T., Jr. (1987) The Think Trix: A
Classroom Tool for Thinking in Response to Reading. In Reading: Issues and Practices, 1987 Yearbook of
the State of Maryland International Reading Association Council, J. D. Coley, Editor. Dr. Lyman has
given us permission to publish the Think-Trix material included in this text.




                                                                                                   81
These Three Frameworks provide Visual Cueing Prompts To Empower Students to
            Generate Their Own Questions for Classroom Discussion:
  Think-Trix (Lyman), Q-Matrix (Wiederhold) and Six Types of Data (Solomon)

        Frank Lyman created the Think-Trix visual cues as a device to prompt students to
create their own questions for classroom discussion and inquiry. Each visual cue is
designed to empower students to ask the following seven types of questions:

                                            Think-Trix
           Visual Cue                                     Types of Questions
                R                                         Recall or Remember

                                                                Similarity



                                                               Difference


                                                            Cause and Effect


                                                         From Idea to Example


                                                         From Example to Idea



                                                               Evaluation




9
 These student-generated questioning approaches, Frank Lyman’s Think-Trix, Chuck Wiederhold’s Q-
Matrix and Richard and Elaine Solomon’s Six Types of Data are adapted from Solomon, R., Davidson, N.
& Solomon, E. (2003). The Handbook for the Fourth R III: Relationship Activities for Cooperative and
Collegial Learning. Volume III. Tucson, AZ: Fourth R Consulting, LLC, 407-417, and 75.




                                                                                                  82
        On the next two pages review Lyman’s Think-Trix Questioning Chart, and his
poster and/or handout for student generated questions. Note how each visual cue is
designed to prompt students to create different types of questions. Sample questions
related to each visual cue are listed in the last column.


                   Frank Lyman’s Think-Trix Questioning Chart

        Visual Cue            Meaning of the Visual Cue          Sample Questions
                                     Recall or              Can you recall the name of
            R                       Remember                        our president?
                                                            How is something similar to
                                       Similarity                  something else?
                                                             E.g. How is a book similar
                                                                    to a computer?
                                                             How is something different
                                      Difference               from something else?
                                                            E.g. How is a book different
                                                                  from a computer?
                                                              Why does/did something
                                                                        happen?
                                   Cause and Effect           What is/was the result?
                                                              E.g. Why do things fall
                                                                from the sky? What
                                                              happens when someone
                                                                loses his or her job?
                                                                What is an example?
                                From Idea to Example                  Idea: Artist
                                                               E.g.. Can you give an
                                                            example of a famous artist?
                                                                What is the big idea
                                From Example to Idea              (generalization)?
                                                              E.g. Albert Einstein and
                                                               Isaac Newton created
                                                              theories in what field of
                                                                        science?
                                                             What is more important to
                                                                     you and why?
                                      Evaluation            E.g.. Why is it important to
                                                                  get an education?




                                                                                       83
                        The Think-Trix Chart
        Visual Cues        Meaning            Types of Thinking




NOTE:       The above seven types of thinking can be applied across all
            curricular areas. A Social Studies example appears below.

Visual Cue/Type of           Examples of Content Questions for Social Studies
       Thinking
R/ Recall            How many stars are on the American Flag?
     / Similarity    How is the American flag similar to the dollar bill?
     / Difference    How is the American flag different from the dollar bill?
   / Cause and       Why did the United States enter World War II? (Cause question)
     Effect          What are three results of the United States entering World War II?
                     (Effect question)
                     Name two other American symbols.
     / Idea to
       Example
                     The American flag and the dollar bill are examples of .... ?
     / Example to    (American culture/ American national symbols, etc.)
      Idea
  / Evaluation       Is the American flag a good symbol? Give three reasons.




                                                                                    84
       The chart below can be made into a poster to be displayed in the classroom.

               Room Poster and/or Handout Using Lyman’s Think-Trix
                         for Student-Generated Questions

  Visual Cue         Meaning of the               Student-Generated Questions
                      Visual Cue
       R                 Recall or
                        Remember


                         Similarity




                        Difference




                     Cause and Effect




                       From Idea to
                         Example



                     From Example to
                          Idea




                        Evaluation




      Below see the questioning prompts created by Chuck Wiederhold. Dr.
Wiederhold called his visual cueing chart, the Q-Matrix. Note that the matrix provides a




                                                                                      85
list of question starters that relate to different horizontal categories (i.e. event, situation,
choice, person, reason and means) and vertical categories (i.e. present, past, possibility,
probability, prediction, imagination). Let’s explain how the matrix works. Let’s assume
that the teacher intends to conduct a classroom discussion on the State of Israel, and
wants her students to select the questions for discussion. After explaining the Q-Matrix,
the teacher invites the students to pose any question on the matrix. For example a student
might say, “I want to ask a Present/Event question. I want to know: What is the capital
of Israel?” Another student might say, “I want to ask a Probability/Person question. I’d
like to know: Who Can bring about peace between the Israelis and the Palestinians?”
Last, a third student might want to pose an Imagination/Means question and say: “I’d
like to know How Might the resources of Israel, and her surrounding neighbors be used
to help each other in the region?”

                        The Q-Matrix of Chuck Wiederhold, Ph.D.10

   Category        Event       Situation       Choice         Person         Reason         Means
   Present         What         Where/         Which           Who            Why           How
                    Is?        When Is?          Is?            Is?            Is?           Is?
                   What         Where/         Which           Who            Why           How
       Past        Did?         When            Did?           Did?           Did?          Did?
                                 Did?
                   What         Where/         Which           Who            Why            How
  Possibility      Can?         When           Can?            Can?           Can?           Can?
                                 Can?
                   What         Where/         Which          Who            Why            How
 Probability       Would        When           Would?        Would?         Would?         Would?
                    ?          Would?
                   What         Where/         Which           Who            Why            How
  Prediction       Will?        When           Will?           Will?          Will?          Will?
                                 Will?
                  What          Where/         Which           Who            Why            How
Imagination       Might?        When           Might?         Might?         Might?         Might?
                                Might?

The Q-Matrix is copied with permission from Kagan Publishing from the book
Cooperative Learning & Higher-Level Thinking by Dr. Chuck Wiederhold
available from Kagan Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com.

10 *
    Wiederhold, C (1998). Cooperative Learning & HIgher-Level Thinking. San Clemente, CA: Kagan
Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com .
The Q-Matrix chart was also published in Solomon, R, Davidson, N. & Solomon, E. (2003). The Handbook
for the Fourth R III: Relationship Activities for Cooperative and Collegial Learning. Volume III. Tucson,
AZ: Fourth R Consulting, LLC, 417. 10 For elaboration on Dr. Wiederhold’s questioning framework
including a Q-Matrix chart see this website: http://www.criticalthinking.net.au/QMatrix.html Retrieved
January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                     86
     Like the Think-Trix, the Q-Matrix can be made into a classroom poster to
empower students to create their own questions for discussion.

        The next visual cueing prompt was created by Richard and Elaine Solomon.11
The graphic organizer below defines the six types of information, conversational,
intrapersonal data and/or questions.


                   FACTS                                CONCEPTS                       EXPERIENCES
     GENERALLY ACCEPTED DATA:
                                             ABSTRACT IDEA:                    AN EVENT ONE HAS ENCOUNTERED:
     e.g. There are 60 seconds in an
     hours, 24 hours in a day, seven         e.g. When I think of July 4th I   e.g. One July 4th that I
     days in a week and 52 weeks in          think of this big idea,           remember is the time... What
     a year. Independence Day is July        independence. What other          experience do you remember
     4th. My birthday is.. .                 concepts do you associate with    for the fourth of July?
                                             July 4th?




                                     SOLOMON’S SIX TYPES OF
                                     INFORMATION/QUESTIONS


                  FEELINGS                              PREFERENCES                    INFORMED OPINIONS
      A POSITIVE AND/OR NEGATIVE              CHOICES AMONG SEVERAL             A DECISION AND THE REASON/S
      EMOTION:                                OPTIONS:                          FOR CHOOSING THAT OPTION:
      e.g. When I think of July 4th I feel    e.g. My favorite American         e.g. My favorite American
      pride because of the sacrifices         holiday is...                     holiday is Thanksgiving because
      that others have made for me.           What is your favorite holiday?    we get together with our family
      When I think of July 4th I also                                           and friends, have a great meal,
      feel sadness because of the                                               and celebrate the things for
      losses that others have                                                   which we are thankful.
      endured.                                                                  What is your favorite holiday and
                                                                                why?


11
  Solomon’s six types of information/questions graphic organizer was originally published in Solomon,
R.D., & Solomon, E.C. (1985). The Handbook for the Fourth R: Relationship Skills. Vol. I., Columbia,
MD: National Institute for Relationship Training, Inc.




                                                                                                                87
        Once students understand the six types of information/questions, the teacher can
transition them to the simplified poster which appears below:




       FACTS                      CONCEPTS                    EXPERIENCES




           SIX TYPES OF QUESTIONS TO ASK



     FEELINGS                    .
                                PREFERENCES                        INFORMED
                                                                    OPINIONS



      This poster, like the Think-Trix and the Q-Matrix ones, can serve as a visual
prompt for student-generated questions during a classroom discussion.

        The chart below presents some sample questions that students can pose during a
classroom discussion. Note how the three visual cueing prompts can be applied across
the different curriclum areas.

           Sample Content Applications of the Three Cueing Prompts
                 That Can be Applied Across the Curriculum
 Curriculum or        Think-Trix             Q-Matrix             6 Types of
  Content Area                                                    Questions
 Social Studies   Can you recall the Where did writing first What are the three
                  names of the first  originate?             branches of
                  three presidents of (past/situation        government?
                  the United States? question)               (factual question)
 Language Arts    What is your        What is a poem?        What does reading
                  favorite book and   (present/event         comprehension
                  why? (evaluation    question)              mean? (conceptual
                  question)                                  question)




                                                                                       88
Mathematics   Given: A=10 and        What would it mean to     What is your
              B= 5. Then how         be mathematically         favorite
              much is 2A and 3       literate? What would      mathematics
              B? (causal             the world be like if      subject?
              question); A train     people were               (preference
              travels along a        mathematically            question)
              straight line track    literate?
              at the rate of 80      (imagination/event
              miles per hour.        question)
              How far does it
              travel in 4 hours?
              5 hours? 6 hours?
               (effect question)
  Science     How is biology         How will the study of     What is a neuron?
              similar to             biology change in the     (factual question)
              chemistry?             future?
              (similarity            (prediction/means
              question)              question)
  Music       What are some          Who can write an          What was your
              differences            original theme song       favoite musical
              between the voice      for our class?            experience?
              and a violin?          (possibility/person       (experience
              (difference            question)                 question)
              question)
  Health      Eating nutritonal      Would it be possible
              food and doing         for us to end hunger in   What is your
              regular exercise are   the world?                favorite form of
              examples of what       (probability/situation    exercise and why?
              larger idea? (from     question)                 (informed opinion
              example to idea                                  question)
              question)
   Art        The big idea is        When might it be          Who is your
              beauty. Can you        necessary for each        favorite artist?
              give five examples     child to learn to draw,   Explain. (informed
              of beauty in art or    paint or create art?      opinion question)
              nature? (from idea     (imagination/situation
              to example             question)
              question)




                                                                                 89
       Benjamin Bloom developed the first and most widely known educational
taxonomy in 1956 (Bloom, 1956). In his book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
(Cognitive domain), he described six types of thinking: knowledge, comprehension,
application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In the chart below, you will find
definitions of the six types of thinking, and sample questions and sentence stems.

               Questions and Directions Worksheet (Bloom's Taxonomy)1

Directions: In the last column, write questions or directions based on the type of thinking
described in each row.
     Type of          Definition         Sample Questions or         Your Question or
    Thinking                                      Stems                  Directions
   Knowledge        Recalling        Where did...
                    data i.e. facts, What was...
                    concepts, etc. Who (was) were...
                                     When did...
                                     How many...
                                     Locate in the story where...
                                     Point to...
Comprehension Explaining             Tell in your own words...
                    the meaning What does it mean...
                    of               Give an example of...
                    information      Describe what...
                                     Illustrate the part of the
                                     story that...
                                     Make a map...
  Application       Using            What would happen to you
                    knowledge in if...
                    a new            Would you have done the
                    situation        same as...
                                     If your were there would
                                     you...
                                     How would you solve this
                                     problem in you own life?
                                     In the library, find
                                     information about...
                                     Solve this algebra problem
                                     by applying the rule
                                     for completing the square.




1
  This worksheet is adapted from one found in Kagan, Spencer (1992). Cooperative Learning: Resources
for Teachers. 159. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com .




                                                                                                   90
 Analysis    Identifying parts   What things would you
             and relationships   have used...
                                 What other ways could...
                                 What things are
                                 similar/different...
                                 What part of this story
                                 (etc.) was most...
                                 What things couldn't
                                 have happened in real
                                 life?
                                 What kind of person is...
                                 What caused...to act the
                                 way... did?
                                 Outline...
Synthesis    Reasoning from      What would it be like
             parts to whole      if...
                                 What would it be like to
                                 live...
                                 Design a...
                                 Pretend you are...
                                 What would happen
                                 if....Why/Why not?
                                 Add a new twist to the
                                 story.
                                 Tell (write) a different
                                 ending
Evaluation   Judging             Would you recommend
             knowledge based     this book to your friend?
             on criteria         Why/Why not?
                                 Select the best...Why is it
                                 the best?
                                 What do you think will
                                 happen to...
                                 Why do you think that?
                                 Could this story really
                                 have happened?
                                 Which person in the
                                 story would you most
                                 like to meet? Why/Why
                                 not?
                                 Was...good or bad?
                                 Why?
                                 Do you like this story?
                                 Why?




                                                               91
Name__________________________

              Bloom’s Taxonomy Worksheet for Elementary Grades

  Type of        Definition Picture Clue     Question Cues        Your Questions
 Thinking
Knowledge        I know…                       recall, list,
                                               define, tell,
                                               describe,
                                               identify, show,
                                               label, name,
                                               who, when,
                                               where
Comprehension     I                            summarize,
                  understand                   describe,
                  …                            contrast, predict,
                                               associate,
                                               estimate, discuss
Application       I can                        apply,
                  use…                         demonstrate,
                                               calculate,
                                               illustrate, show,
                                               solve, change,
                                               experiment
Analysis          I can                        analyze,
                  compare                      separate, order,
                  …                            explain, connect,
                                               classify, arrange,
                                               divide
Synthesis         I can                        combine,
                  create…                      modify,
                                               rearrange, plan,
                                               create, design,
                                               invent, what if,
                                               rewrite
Evaluation        I can                        assess, decide,
                  decide…                      rank, grade, test,
                                               convince, select,
                                               judge, explain,
                                               conclude,
                                               compare,
                                               summarize
Permission to include this elementary version of Bloom's taxonomy was given by Nancy
Legath, 2003.




                                                                                   92
      Story Analysis from Bloom's Taxonomic
                  Perspective

Knowledge:        Recall the main characters and
                  events.

Comprehension:          Give several examples of
                        the main character's
                        behavior.

Application:      Would you have done the same
                  as______________?

Analysis:        Identify stereotypes.

Synthesis:       Make up a new ending.

Evaluation:      Evaluate the main character (+
                 and-).

Analysis/Synthesis/Evaluation:

The moral of the story is _______________
____________________________________
____________________________________



                                                   93
        In 2001, Anderson and Krathwohl11 slightly revised Bloom's work into these six
taxonomic levels: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and
creating. The chart on the following pages provides a definition, a set of related learning
verbs, a list of student and teachers behaviors, and a column on assessments.

           Expanded Taxonomy of Learning by Anderson and Krathwohl12

Taxonomy       Definition      Related Learning          What the      What the      Assessments
                                    Verbs                 Student      Teacher
                                                           Does           Does
Remember      Recall         Tell, list, describe,      Absorbs       Directs        Students
              specific       name, repeat,              Remembers     Tells          recognize,
              bits of        remember, recall,          Recognizes    Shows          recall or find
              information    select, match, know,       Responds      Examines       information.
                             locate, report,
                             recognize, observe,
                             choose, who, what,
                             where, when, cite,
                             define, indicate,
                             label, memorize,
                             outline, record, relate,
                             reproduce, underline
                             identify, state,
Understand Construct         Explain, restate, find,    Explains      Demon-         Students
           meaning           describe, review,          Translates    strates        organize
           from              relate, define, clarify,   Demon-        Listens        previously
           information       illustrate, diagram,       strates       Questions      learned
                             outline, summarize,        Interprets    Compares       material,
                             interpret, paraphrase,     Summarizes    Examines       rephrase it,
                             transform, compare                                      describe it in
                             similarities and                                        their own
                             differences, derive                                     words, use it
                             main idea, arrange,                                     for making
                             convert, defend,                                        comparisons,
                             discuss, discuss,                                       change from
                             estimate, extend,                                       one form of
                             generalize, give                                        representa-
                             examples, locate,                                       tion to
                             report, translate                                       another.




12
  From L. W. Anderson and D. R. Krathwohl (eds) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and
Assessing Taken from www.ntlf.com/Library/ Expanded%20Taxonomy%20of%20Learning.doc Retrieved
January 30, 2009.




                                                                                          94
Taxonomy   Definition        Related Learning           What the    What the     Assessments
                                  Verbs                  Student     Teacher
                                                           Does        Does
Apply      Use            Apply, practice,              Solves      Shows        Students use
           methods,       employ, solve, use,           novel       Facili-      previously
           concepts,      demonstrate, illustrate,      problems    tates        learned
           principles,    show, report, paint,          Demon-      Observes     information
           and theories   draw, collect,                strates     Criticizes   in order to
           in new         dramatize, classify, put      Uses                     solve a
           situations     in order, change,             know-                    problem or to
                          compute, construct,           ledge                    complete
                          interpret, investigate,       con-                     familiar or
                          manipulate, modify,           structs                  unfamiliar
                          operate, organize,                                     tasks.
                          predict, prepare,
                          produce, schedule,
                          sketch, translate
Analyze    Identify       Analyze, dissect,             Discusses   Probes       Students will
           how parts      detect, test,                 Uncovers    Guides       1) identify
           relate to      deconstruct,                  Lists       Ob-          reasons,
           one another    discriminate,                 Dissects    serves       causes, &
           or to a        distinguish, examine,         Compares    Acts as a    motives;
           larger         focus, find coherence,        and         resource     2) consider
           structure/     survey, compare,              contrasts                available
           purpose        contrast, classify,                                    evidence to
                          investigate, outline,                                  reach a
                          separate, structure,                                   conclusion,
                          categorize, solve,                                     inference or
                          diagram, determine                                     generaliza-
                          evidence and                                           tion; 3)
                          conclusions, appraise,                                 analyze a
                          break down, calculate,                                 conclusion,
                          criticize, debate,                                     inference or
                          experiment, identify,                                  generalization
                          illustrate, infer, inspect,                            to find
                          inventory, question,                                   supporting
                          relate, select                                         evidence.




                                                                                         95
Taxonomy   Definition       Related Learning         What the     What the    Assessments
                                 Verbs                Student      Teacher
                                                       Does          Does
Evaluate   Judge the      Coordinate, judge,         Judges       Accepts     Students
           value of       select/choose, decide,     Disputes     Lays bare   judge the
           something      debate, evaluate,          Forms        the         merit and
           based on       justify, recommend,        opinions     criteria    value of an
           criteria,      verify, monitor,                        Har-        idea, a
           processes,     measure, the best way,                  monizes     solution to a
           or standards   what worked, what                                   problem, an
                          could have been                                     aesthetic
                          different, what is your                             work, etc.
                          opinion, test, appraise,
                          assess, compare,
                          conclude, contrast,
                          criticize, discriminate,
                          estimate, explain,
                          grade, interpret, rate,
                          relate, revise, score,
                          summarize, support,
                          value
Create     Generate a     Create, hypothesize,       Generates    Reflects    Students will
           coherent       design, construct,         Hypothe-     Extends     1) produce
           functional     invent, imagine,           sizes        Analyzes    original work
           whole;         discover, present,         Plans        Evaluates   or
           recognize      deduce, induce, bring      Designs                  communica-
           new            together, compose,         Produces                 tion; 2) make
           patterns       pretend, predict,          Constructs               predictions;
                          organize, plan, modify,    Argues                   3) solve
                          improve, suppose,                                   problems;
                          produce, set up, what                               4) invent,
                          if, propose, formulate,                             hypothesize,
                          solve (more than one                                devise a
                          answer), arrange,                                   procedure;
                          assemble, categorize,                               argue for a
                          collect, combine,                                   position;
                          devise, explain,                                    present a
                          generate, manage,                                   work of art or
                          perform, prepare,                                   music to be
                          rearrange, reconstruct,                             juried
                          relate, reorganize,
                          revise, and argue for




                                                                                      96
       In 2007 Marzano and Kendall13 published a New Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives which is even more complex and sophisticated than the previous taxonomies.
Their new taxonomy includes six levels of cognitive processing (i.e. retrieval,
comprehension, analysis, knowledge utilization, metacognitive, and the self-system) and
three domains of knowledge (i.e. information, mental procedures and psychomotor
procedures). A diagram of their new taxonomy of educational objectives appears below.


                   Diagram of the New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives of
                                    Marzano and Kendall14




     Level 6:
     Self-System


     Level 5:
     Metacognitive System



     Level 4:
     Knowledge Utilization (Cognitive System)



     Level 3:
     Analysis (Cognitive System)


     Level 2:
     Comprehension (Cognitive System)


     Level 1:
     Retrieval (Cognitive System)



                      Levels of Cognitive Processing




        The reader is encouraged to investigate Marzano and Kendall's new taxonomy of
educational objectives to determine how to apply their framework to his or her
instuctional practices.
13
   Marzano, Robert J. & Kendall, John S. (2007), The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Second
Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
14
   Printed with permission given by Marzano, R. J. & Kendall, J. S. (2007), The New Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives. Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.




                                                                                                  97
                        Thinking To Learn as Deep Understanding

        In this last section of theme #2, thinking to learn, we present the perpsectives of
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. These authors propose that thinking to learn involves
empowering students to engage in deep rather than superficial understanding of the
content or curriculum. They suggest there are six facets to deep understanding involving:
(1) explaining, (2) interpreting, (3) applying what one has learned, (4) appreciating ideas
from multiple perspectives, (5) showing empathy toward divergent points of views and
feelings, and (6) possessing self-knowledge of one's wisdom and limitations. See their
explanations of the six facets of deep understanding on the following pages.

                             Six Facets of Deep Understanding
                              Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe*

1.     Explanation: sophisticated and apt explanations and theories which provide
       knowledgeable and justified accounts of events, actions, and ideas. Why is that so?
       What explains such events? What accounts for such action? How can we prove it?
       To what is this connected? How does this work? What is implied?

2.     Interpretations: narratives and translations that provide meaning. What does it
       mean? Why does it matter? What of it? What does it illustrate or illuminate in
       human experience? How does it relate to me? What makes sense?

3.     Application: ability to use knowledge effectively in new situations and diverse
       contexts. How and where can we use this knowledge, skill, and process? How
       should my thinking and action be modified to meet the demands of this particular
       situation?

4.     Perspective: critical and insightful points of view. From whose point of view? From
       which vantage point? What is assumed or what needs to be made explicit and
       considered? What is justified or warranted? Is there adequate evidence? Is it
       reasonable? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ideas? Is it plausible?
       What are its limits? So what?

5.     Empathy: the ability to get "inside" another person's feelings and worldview. How
       does it seem to you? What do they see that I don't? What do I need to experience if I
       am to understand? What is the artist or performer feeling, seeing, and trying to
       make me feel and see?

6.      Self-Knowledge: the wisdom to know one's ignorance and how one's patterns of
       thought and action inform as well as prejudice understanding. How does who I am
       shape my views? What are the limits of my understanding? What are my blind
       spots? What am I prone to misunderstand due to prejudice, habit and style?

*
     Printed with permission given by Wiggins, G, & McTighe. J. (1998). Understanding by Design.
     Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. We added the word deep
     to their construct.




                                                                                               98
                    Assessment of Understanding (Wiggins and McTighe) *

       You really understand _____________________ when you can...

       Facet #1: Explanation
       -Explain...
       -Give examples of...
       -Make connections with...
       -Offer a sophisticated theory of...
       -Provide an apt analogy for...
       -Justify/support ...
       -Prove/verify...
       -Teach...
       -Avoid common misconceptions or simplistic views of...

       Facet #2: Interpretations
       -Interpret...
       -Make sense of...
       -Tell a revealing story of...
       -Show the importance or meaning of...
       -Relate it to your experience (or the experiences of others)...

       Facet #3: Application
       -Apply it in a new situation...
       -Show or demonstrate...
       -Design/invent...
       -Overcome a challenge or constraint, such as...

       Facet #4: Perspective
       -Analyze...
       -See___ from the point(s) of view of...
       -Compare and contrast...
       -Critique...
       -Critically examine assumptions such as...
       -See the limits of...

       Facet #5: Empathy
       -Walk in the shoes of...
       -Experience the same or very similar event or emotion
       -Reach a common understanding with _____________concerning...
       -Entertain the seemingly odd or alien view that...



*
    Printed with permission given by Wiggins, G, & McTighe. J. (1998). Understanding by Design.
    Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.




                                                                                            99
       Facet #6: Self-Knowledge
       -Recognize your prejudice(s) about...
       -Identify the "lens" through which you view...
       -See how your habits influence how you approach...


                        Convergent and Divergent Questions


       Irrespective of which questioning framework you use as a teacher (i.e. Think-
Trix, Q-Matrix, Solomon's Six Types of Questions, Bloom's, Anderson and Krathwohl's,
Marzano and Kendall's taxonomies or the Six Facets of Understanding of Wiggins and
McTighe), you and your students can pose convergent or divergent questions to the
members of the class.

       Convergent questions are ones that have only one right anwer whereas divergent
questions allow for multiple correct responses.




                                                                                  100
                                   THEME THREE:
                                THINKING TOGETHER

3.     Thinking together


       One important way to help students develop deep understanding is througth their
engagement in peer thinking also called co-thinking, co-cognition. or thinking together
For peer thinking to be successful a number of preconditions must be present. They
include:
       1.      The creation of a safe place for thinking, a classroom that invites
               innovative ideas to be shared without fear of criticism.
       2.      A classroom community where students feel free to make mistakes in their
               pursuit of knowledge.
       3.      A classroom where students have mastered the relationship skills (i.e.
               respectful listening, listening for six different types of data, finding free
               information, paraphrasing, asking open question, probing, achieving
               consensus through the APCA [Ask, Paraphrase, Check for understanding
               and Add] process, etc.) that facilitate creative and critical thinking. See
               explanations of these relationship skills on pages 17-27, and page 34.


        In this section of the course we will share a many cooperative learning procedures
that encourage peer thinking in dyads (i.e. learning pairs) and quads (i.e. learning teams
of four). As a reminder, we are assuming that you, the teacher, have taught your students
the prerequisite relationship skills for thinking together. Again kindly refer to pages 17-
27, and 34 for a listing and description of those essential social or relationship skills for
peer thinking.

       Before we discuss the different cooperative learning procedures that facilitate
thinking together, let’s reflect on this question. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of thinking together? Record your thoughts within the spaces provided in
the chart on the next page.




                                                                                        101
            Advantages (+s) and Disadvantages (-s) for Thinking Together

              The Pluses (+s)                                The Minuses (-s)




        Given the minuses that you have generated, what interventions or instructional
methods can a teacher implement that would overcome those disadvanges? For example,
you might suggest that one disadvantage of thinking together is that one student might
dominate the conversation, and not gives others the time to share their thoughts. A
remedy to deal with this situation is to use a timer so that each student is given equal time
to speak. On the chart below, record a challenge associated with thinking together in the
left column, and then generate some alternative strategies to deal with that challenge in
the right column. See the example on the next page.




                                                                                        102
Thinking Together: Challenges and Possible Interventions to Meet Those
Challenges15

              Challenges                                          Possible Interventions
One student dominates the discussion                  •    Use a timer
                                                      •    Rotate roles: one person speaks while
                                                           the other asks probing non-judgmental
                                                           questions.




15
  This exercise is an application of the critical thinking tool ALoU (Advantages, Limitations, Overcoming
Limitations, and Unique features) which will be discussed later in the course.




                                                                                                     103
What is Cooperative Learning?

         The field of cooperative learning is rich a varied. Indeed there are many methods
of cooperative learning. For an elaboration on the various approaches to implementing
cooperative learning see the Handbook of Cooperative Learning Methods by Shlomo
Sharan (1993). What all these approaches share is that students work together
cooperatively in small groups of 2-5 members in order to accomplish an academic task
in a positive and mutually supportive manner. In a theoretical synthesis of varied
cooperative and collaborative learning approaches, Davidson (1994, 2002) has identified
five attributes that are common to all the approaches. These are:
    1. A common task or learning activity suitable for group work
    2. Small-group interaction focused on the learning activity
    3. Cooperative, mutually helpful behavior among students
    4. Interdependence in working together
    5. Individual accountability and responsibility

       In addition to these common attributes, there are nine other attributes which vary
among the approaches to cooperative and collaborative learning. Examples of these are
how groups are formed, how or whether to teach interpersonal skills, the structure of the
group, and the role of the teacher. For further details, see Davidson (1994, 2002).

    For syntheses of the cooperative learning research see the extensive reviews by
Johnson and Johnson (1989), Slavin (1990), Sharan (1980, 1990), and Newmann and
Thompson (1987) at the high school level. Additional reviews have focused on
conditions for productive group work (Cohen, 1994), task-related group interaction in
mathematics groups (Webb, 1991), and cooperative learning with post-secondary
students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (Springer et al., 1999).

        Research conducted in many different subject areas and various age groups of
students has shown positive effects favoring cooperative learning in academic
achievement, development of higher order thinking skills (both critical and creative), self
esteem and self confidence as learners, intergroup relations including friendship across
racial and ethical boundaries, social acceptance of mainstreamed students labeled as
handicapped or disabled, development of interpersonal skills, and the ability to take the
perspective of another person.

NOTE: WE ARE ABOUT TO DESCRIBE SEVERAL COOPERATIVE
LEARNING PROCEDURES FOR THINKING TOGETHER. THE FOCUS OF
THIS COURSE IS NOT TO TEACH COOPERATIVE LEARNING PER SE. WE
VIEW COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS A HELPFUL VEHICLE TO EMPOWER
STUDENTS TO THINK SKILLFULLY, CRITICALLY AND CREATIVELY.
STUDENTS INTERESTED IN THE THEORY, RESEARCH AND
APPLICATIONS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ARE ENCOURAGED TO
TAKE SPECIFIC COURSES SUCH AS THE COOPERATIVE CLASSROOM:
KAGAN'S INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES OFFERED THROUGH THE
REGIONAL TRAINING CENTER .




                                                                                       104
Ten Paired or Dyadic Cooperative Learning Procedures for Thinking Together

Note: Many of the cooperative learning procedures that follow are marked with an
asterisk. They can be found in this book: Spencer Kagan and Miguel Kagan (2009).
Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. Website
www.KaganOnline.com .

    1. Think-Pair-Share: This is a three step paired learning activity. During step one,
       each member individually and silently thinks about a question posed by the
       teacher. During the second step, two members are paired to exchange and discuss
       their responses. During step three, each member may share his response, his
       partner's response, a synthesis or something new with the quad, another quad, or
       the entire class. Participants always retain the right to pass or not share
       information

         Note: The question for thinking together can also be posed by a student. Once you
         have taught your students the various cognitive frameworks and/or taxonomic
         contructs you or they can pose questions involving different thinking skills and
         processes. See some possibilities below:
    •    Think-Trix Questions: R/ Recall,      / Similarity,    / Difference,     / Cause

         and Effect,         / Idea to Example,         / Example to Idea and / Evaluation
    •    Q-Matrix Questions: Questions related to these categories on the vertical axis:
         Present, Past, Possibility, Probability, Prediction, and Imagination and these
         categories on the horizontal axis: Event, Situation, Choice, Person, Reason and
         Means.
    •    Solomon’s Six Types of Questions: Factual, Conceptual, Experiential, Emotional
         (Feelings), Preferential and Informed Opinion questions.
    •    Bloom’s Taxonomic Questions: Questions on these levels: Knowledge,
         Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation.
    •    Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomic Questions: Questions on these levels:
         Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate and Create
    •    Wiggins and McTighe’s Six Facets of Understanding Questions: Questions that
         ask students to explain, interpret, apply, and show perspective, empathy and
         reveal self-knowledge.

    2. Two Step Interview: Students are placed in dyads and one student is called A and
       the other is B. Here are the steps of Two Step Interview. (1) A interviews B. (2) B
       interviews A.
         *
    3.    Pairs Check: (1) Each learning pair is given an even number of problems to
         solve. For example, let us say that each dyad has two math problems to solve.

*
  Pairs Check is a dyadic cooperative learning procedure adapted from the work of Kagan, S. & Kagan, M.
(2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com .




                                                                                                  105
         Teacher assigns one member of the dyad to be A and his/her learning partner to
         be B. (2) Let A try to solve the first math problem out loud. That is, before
         computing or giving an answer, A must explain to his partner, B, what he is
         about to do and his rationale for doing it. (This is a Think Aloud) The
         responsibility of B is threefold: (a) to ask clarifying questions, (b) to offer
         corrective feedback when needed and (c) to share constructive positive feedback.
         (3)The roles are then reversed. B now tries to solve the second (math) problem,
         while A asks clarifying questions, offers corrective and constructive positive
         feedback. (4) After each dyad has achieved consensus on the answers to these two
         math problems, they check their work with another dyad. If they all concur, they
         then move on to two new problems. If they are in disagreement, they discuss their
         strategies for problem solving, trying to achieve consensus on their answers. If
         they are baffled, they may seek assistance from the teacher or another dyad.
         *
    4.    Rally Round: Basic version:(1) Teacher assigns one member of the dyad to be A
         and his/her learning partner to be B and then poses a divergent question.
         Pairs take turns sharing responses. A states an answer and B listens. B states an
         answer and A listens. Continue in this manner.

         Elaborated version:(1) Teacher assigns one member of the dyad to be A and
         his/her learning partner to be B and then poses a divergent question. (2)
         Participants individually brainstorm and record answers to the problem posed. (3)
         Pairs take turns sharing answers. A states an answer from her list and B listens. If
         B has that answer on his list, he places a check next to his answer. If B does not
         have that answer on his list, he adds it to his list. Then B gives a new answer and
         A listens and records new information on her list. Note: A and B do not discuss
         their answers at this time. This discussion occurs after the teacher announces that
         the time limit has elapsed.

    5. Reciprocal Teaching (Palinscar and Brown, 1984): This is an excellent reading
       comprehension and discussion procedure for learning pairs. Each dyad (1) silently
       reads a paragraph or section of a text. (2) summarizes what they have read. (3)
       poses questions to themselves about the reading. (4) clarifies and explains what
       the reading means and (5) predicts the contents of the next paragraph or section.

    6. Paired Consensus: Thinking pairs are formed and each dyad uses the APCA
       process to achieve consensus. APCA stands for Ask question, Paraphrase, Check
       for understanding and Add. See page 34 for details on the APCA process.




*
 All the dyadic cooperative learning procedures with an asterisk are adapted from the work of Kagan, S. &
Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing,
www.KaganOnline.com.




                                                                                                    106
          *
    7.     Pair Question and Answer: This is a specialized paired leaning activity for
          review. A student may pose a question to the teacher or the class when both
          members of the dyad do not know the answer or have different answers to a
          question. The teacher can add the following rule: A student may ask the teacher or
          the class a question after consulting with another learning pair.

    8. Paired Word Webbing: Each dyad is given a set of related words or concepts. The
       dyad must then create a graphic organizer which depicts and describes the
       relationships among the given concepts. See the sample word web below:

          Directions: Create a Word Web with these words or concepts:
          Brain/mind principle of learning
          Co-thinking
          Decision making
          Defining problems
          Each brain learns in a unique way
          Q-Matrix
          Reciprocal teaching
          Six-types of data
          Teaching thinking for the 21st century
          Thinking processes
          Thinking skills
          Thinking together
          Think-Trix
          Visual cueing


                                             Q-Matrix
                                             Think-Trix
          Thinking skills                    Six-types of data
          Defining problems                                                      Thinking processes
                                             Visual cueing                       Decision making

         Thinking together
                                             Teaching Thinking for the
      Co-thinking                            21st century
     Reciprocal teaching
                                           Brain/mind principle of learning
                                           Each brain learns in a unique way




*
 All the dyadic cooperative learning procedures with an asterisk are adapted from the work of Kagan, S. &
Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing,
www.KaganOnline.com.




                                                                                                    107
       9. Paired Webbing: Each dyad is assigned one fact or concept which is written
          within a circle that is placed in the middle of a sheet of paper. With pen, pencil or
          magic marker in hand, each member of the dyad silently and simultaneously
          records a related fact or concept, or writes a question on the paper. Each dyad can
          combine its web with that of another learning pair and thus create a team web of
          questions and answers. This team web can serve as a springboard for future class
          discussion. See the sample pair web below.

                  It is a graphic organizer linking
                  thoughts and ideas together. It may
                  contain statements of fact or questions.
                  It is created within learning pairs and is
                  best done silently.

                                                            Why must it be done silently?
                        What is it?


                                           PAIRED
                                          WEBBING




       10. *Co-op Cards: This is a paired three step procedure that was originally designed
           to help students master rote information such as the multiplication tables or the
           state capitals in the U.S.A. Co-op cards can also be used for more complex
           cognitive operations. Assumption: each student prepares a set of flashcards. On
           the front side of the card is a question; the reverse side has the answer. Let us call
           one student the tutor and his/her partner, the learner. During step one, the tutor
           shows and reads both sides of the co-op card to the learner. The learner may write
           or trace the answer if needed. The tutor then shows the front side (question) of the
           card and asks for the answer. During step two, the tutor shows the question and
           asks the learner for the answer. During step three, the tutor poses the question
           without showing the card. After each step, if the learner states the correct answer,
           he/she is praised and given the card. If the learner gives an incorrect answer, the
           tutor retains the card and gives the learner some helpful supplemental
           information.




*
    All the dyadic cooperative learning procedures with an asterisk are adapted from the work f Kagan, S. &
    Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing,
    www.KaganOnline.com.




                                                                                                       108
Eleven YeYYYeStanThinThr


       1. Mill and Freeze: The students and the teacher walk around the classroom greeting
          the members of the learning community. At the signal given by the teacher, all
          members stop in their place. They freeze. Each member finds a new learning
          partner with whom he or she thinks together.
            *
       2.    One Stay, One Stray: After discussing some topic with his/her learning partner,
            one member remains in his/her seat and the other finds a new seated person with
            whom to think and discuss ideas. This dyadic cooperative learning group
            formation procedure is sometimes called a Gallery Walk where one person
            remains to explain their work project (i.e. poster, web, poem, song, etc) while the
            other explores the gallery of projects of the other pairs. At a point in time, each
            pair reverses roles.
            *
       3.    Inside/Outside Circle: Members count off the number of members in the class
            (e.g. 1,2,3, etc.). (2)The odd numbered members stand and form a circle facing
            inward toward each other. They form the inside circle. (3) Each even numbered
            member stands behind one odd numbered member. They form the outside circle.
            (4). Each odd numbered member (Inside Circle) turns around and faces the even
            member who is standing behind. They exchange information. (5) The teacher
            then invites one member to make two decisions: (a) State a number from 1 to 5
            and (b) State a direction: right or left. Let us assume that the member selected
            answers "3 to the right" (6)The teacher then directs only the members on the
            Inside Circle or the Outside Circle to move "3 to the right." The others remain in
            place. (7) Each member now has a new partner with whom to exchange
            information. Partners thus take turns thinking together.
            *
       4.    Stir the Class: (1) Dyads (learning pairs) stand next to each other in a circle or
            oval. (2) The teacher or a student poses a question. (3) Members of each dyad
            face each other and discuss the answer to the question posed. (4) At a time
            designated by the teacher, the discussion ends, and all dyads stand shoulder to
            shoulder forming a circle or oval again. (5) The teacher assigns each member of
            the dyad a number, one or two. (6) The teacher calls out a number, let's say,
            "one" This means that all number ones in each dyad must find a new learning
            partner with whom to think together.




*
    All the dyadic cooperative learning procedures with an asterisk are adapted from the work of Kagan, S. &
    Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing,
    www.KaganOnline.com.




                                                                                                       109
5. Turn to Your Neighbor: The teacher poses a divergent or convergent question to
   the class and says: "Turn to your neighbor and discuss this question for a set
   period of time." The dyad then engages in an unstructured discussion on the
   question posed.

6. Random Learning Pairs: Count the number of students in class and divide that
   number in half. Thus for example if there are 34 students in class, prepare 34
   index cards. Then write one number on each card from 1 to 17 twice. Thus you
   will have two cards with the number 1 on it, two cards with the number two, etc.
   If you have an odd number of students, add a third index card with the number 1
   written upon it. Place all the index cards in a hat or box, and invite each student to
   close his/her eyes and select one card. The two (or three) students with the same
   number are new learning pairs/partners. In lieu of using numbered cards, you can
   prepare cards with matching colors, animals, songs, television shows, athletes,
   entertainers, etc.

7. Line Up: The teacher asks students to form a line based on some arbitrary fact, for
   example one’s date of birth. Students born in January are at the beginning of the
   line and students born in December are at the end of the line. Students are then
   paired by virtue of their position on the line up. There are numerous categories to
   use for lining up students, for example, first or last names, the second letter of the
   first name, etc. In fact, you can invite students to generate their own categories for
   the line up. Pairs are then formed on the basis of where individuals stand on the
   line up. The teacher may select pairs who are next to each other, ones who are at
   the beginning or at end of the line up, or select pairs randomly.

8. Yes, No, Maybe: The teacher writes the words, Yes, No and Maybe on three
   separate sheets of paper. The middle of the room is cleared, and the teacher places
   the word, Yes, on the floor on one side of the room, the word, No, on the opposite
   side of the room, and the word, Maybe, on the floor in the middle of the room.
   The teacher asks the class members to pretend that three imagtinary parallel lines
   divide the classroom into the "yes' line, the "no" line and the "maybe" line. The
   teacher, then announces a choice for each indivdiual class member to make, for
   example: “ Do you like vanilla ice cream?" The class members are invited to
   stand on one of the three imaginary lines indicating their preference. Thinking
   pairs are then formed based on where they stand on these imaginary lines. The
   teacher can create dyads based upon those who agree or disagree. Indeed, the
   teacher can choose to create thinking triads, one from the Yes, one from the No
   and one from the Maybe imaginary line.

9. Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down, Arms Folded: Similar to Yes, No, Maybe, the teacher
   poses a question and each class member responds non-verbally in this manner:
   Thumbs Up means that I agree; Thumbs Down means that I disagree and Arms
   Folded means that I am not certain right now. Thinking pairs are then formed
   based upon their non-verbals.




                                                                                    110
       10. *Corners/Clusters: The teacher poses a divergent question with multiple answers
           such as what is your favorite type of music? The teacher with the help of the
           students brainstorm categories related to that topic. In this case, the class might
           identify these types of music: rock, hard rock, classical, rap, etc. After all the
           categories are identified, the teacher announces:"All students who prefer rock
           music move to that corner of the room. Students who prefer hard rock go to that
           corner...." Thinking pairs are then formed based upon their preferences. Note:
           Depending upon the students' preferencs ther may be more than four corners.
           Thus, you might have five, six or more clusters representing the different
           preferences of students.

       11. Stand Up, Sit Down: The teacher poses a convergent question such as do you
           favor capital punishment? Students who agree stand up. Students who disagree
           remain seated. Thinking pairs are then formed based upon whether they agree or
           disagree with the question that the teacher posed.


    Nine Easily Implemented Cooperative Learning Procedures for Thinking Together
                 in Quads (Cooperative Teams Containing Four Members)

         Below you will find a brief explanation of how to carry out nine easily
implemented cooperative learning procedures for thinking in quads. We use the word
quad to refer to a team of four learning partners. Note how positive interdependence is
embedded within each of these cooperative learning procedures. Thus each of these
activities requires students to work together in order to accomplish their common task or
learning objective. This is achieved by sharing materials, having access to disparate
information or through structured role assigments (i.e student A speaks while student B
listens and asks probing or clarifying questions.).

       1. Simple Jigsaw: Basic version: The teacher divides an assignment into four parts
          and each quad member is responsible for learning and teaching one-fourth of the
          assignment to his team mates. Students may be pre and post tested on their
          mastery of the material. Variation: (1) Each quad mate is given some content to
          learn, problem to solve or skill to perform. (2) Each quad mate plans how to teach
          the material or skill to the other members of the quad/team. (This includes
          developing a means of checking for understanding to determine whether the other
          quad members have really learned the information or skill presented.) (3) Each
          quad mate teaches the material or skill to the other members of the quad. (This
          includes checking for understanding.)




*
    All the dyadic cooperative learning procedures with an asterisk are adapted from the work of Kagan, S. &
    Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing,
    www.KaganOnline.com.




                                                                                                       111
     *
2.    Numbered Heads Together: The students in each quad are given or choose a
     number: 1,2,3, or 4. When the teacher poses a question and says, "Numbered
     Heads Together" or says "group discussion time," quad members get together and
     discuss the question, making certain that all members can answer or respond to
     the question posed. After a prescribed period of time, the teacher restates the
     question and announces a number, i.e. 1, 2, 3 or 4. Students having that number in
     all the different quads are called upon individually to state responses to the
     question. The teacher calls a second number and the procedure continues. This
     procedure combines group discussion and individual accountability.
     *
3.    Three Step Interview: Each member of the quad is given or chooses another quad
     member to be her learning partner. Let's say persons 1 and 2 are partners, and
     persons 3 and 4 are partners. During step one, 1 interviews 2, while 3 interviews
     4. Note: to interview is to ask open or clarifying questions, not to share one's own
     data. During step two, the members reverse roles; thus 2 interviews 1, while 4
     interviews 3. During step three, each member shares her learning partner's
     responses with the quad.
     *
4.    Partners: (1) Each learning pair reads and studies its assigned topic. (2) Same
     topic learning pairs in two different quads meet to check for understanding. (3)
     Each learning pair plans how to teach its topic to the other members of the
     original quad/team. (This includes developing a means of checking that the other
     quad members have really learned the information.) (4) Each learning pair teaches
     its topic to the other members of the quad/team.
     *
5.    Round Table (Round Table Brainstorming). Each quad is given one sheet of
     paper on which to record different responses to a question posed by the teacher.
     Each quad member is invited to write one new response to the teacher's question
     on the quad's paper. The paper is then passed around the quad in clock-wise or
     counter-clock-wise fashion. A student who does not have a new response says, "I
     pass", and then gives the paper to the next student. The paper may be passed
     several times around the quad. The teacher decides whether students should write
     and say responses, or just write them. Round Table Brainstorming combines
     Round Table with the brainstorming technique. A more sophisticated form of
     Round Table has students passing around four sheets of paper with each sheet
     posing a different question, or with all four pages having the same question. This
     version is called Simultaneous Roundtable. In general, Round Robin differs from
     Round Table in that quad members only state their answers without recording
     them on a team paper. Round Robin Brainstorming combines Round Robin with
     Brainstorming.




                                                                                    112
         *
    6.    Group Discussion with Talking Chips: Assumption: Each member of the quad
         has a talking chip (i.e. a pen, a pencil, a crayon, a checker, etc.) The rule for
         sharing information is as follows: a member may share information only after she
         has placed her talking chip in the center of the table. Members may not share
         additional information until the chips of the other members have been placed in
         the center of the table. Members then retrieve their chips. Any member may begin
         talking provided that she places her chip in the middle of the table.

    7. Think-Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981): This is a three step paired cooperative structure.
       During step one, each member individually and silently thinks about a question
       posed by the teacher. During the second step, two members are paired to
       exchange and discuss their responses. During step three, each member may share
       his response with the entire class. Variation: During step three, each member may
       share his response, his partner's response, a synthesis or something new with the
       entire class. Participants always retain the right to pass or not share information.

    8. Think-Trix Cooperative Questioning: Think-Trix are visual cues that prompt
       learners to formulate and answer questions in seven different ways: (1) to recall
       data, (2) to identify similarities, (3) to identify differences, (4) to determine cause
       and effect, (5) to deduce (go from a general idea to an example), (6) to induce (go
       from a set of examples to a general idea), and (7) to evaluate. The Think-Trix
       Cooperative Questioning activity includes these five steps: (1) With your learning
       partner, create seven Think-Trix questions for discussion. (2) Pose one of your
       questions to a quad mate, another quad, the entire class/group or the leader. (3)
       Select someone to answer the question posed. (4) Invite others to share their
       answers. (5) Pose another question. Variation: Use the Q-Matrix or
       Solomon’s Six Types of Data instead of the Think-Trix cues.

    9. Three Minute Review: At any time during a lecture, the teacher gives each quad
       three minutes to (a) review what has been shared, (b) ask each other clarifying
       questions, and (c) share answers. At the end of the three minute review, students
       may pose questions that have not been addressed by their quad mates.

              Three More Complex Cooperative Learning Procedures
                            for Thinking Together in Quads
    Note: A quad is a learning team of four.

    1. Expert Jigsaw (Aronson, et al., 1978): (1) A task or set of materials is divided into
       several component parts or topics. (2) Each quad member is given a topic on which
       to become an expert. (3) Members who have the same topics meet in expert groups
       to discuss their topics, analyze the data, and plan how to present their findings to
       their team mates. (4) Members return to their original quads and teach what they
       have learned.

*
 All the cooperative learning procedures with an asterisk are adapted from the work of Kagan, S. &
Kagan, M. (2009), Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing,
www.KaganOnline.com




                                                                                                     113
2. Team Webbing: Each quad is assigned one fact or concept which is written on a
   sheet of paper. With pen, pencil or magic marker in hand, each quad member
   silently and simultaneously records a related fact or concept, or writes a question
   on the paper. Each quad thus creates a team web of questions and answers which
   can serve as a springboard for future class discussion.

3. Team Projects: (1) The teacher assigns a topic for each quad or all the quads.
   (2) Members of each quad are given or choose a role to play (e.g. taskmaster,
   gatekeeper, materials collector, encourager, etc.). (3) Quads complete the project.
   (4) Quads present the project to the entire class. Team Projects can also be done
   without role assignments7




                                                                                    114
                              THEME FOUR:
                      THINKING ABOUT THEIR OWN THINKING

4.     Thinking about their own thinking

                                 Reflection Question

Why should students think about their own thinking? Why is metacognition, thinking
about one’s thinking, important?
Directions: Record your thoughts in the space provided.




                                 Reflection Question

What metacognitive or reflection exercises have we already covered in class?
Directions: Record your thoughts in the space provided.




                                                                                     115
         In this course we have previously discussed several constructs and learning
activities which enable students to reflect upon their own thinking. They include:

      •   Solomon's six types of conversational or intrapersonal data (i.e. facts,
          concepts, experiences, feelings, preferences and informed opinions) on pages
          17 and 87
      •   graphic organizers on pages 69-72
      •   reflection activities designed to assess how well the academic objectives and
          relational needs are being addressed by the classroom community (i.e. sentence
          completions, self-disclosing evaluation statements, good and welfare, PMI,
          reflection forms for processing social skills) on pages 46-49
      •   the first column of productive habits of mind (i.e. self-talk: what I need to say
          to myself) on pages 41-43
      •   the sixth facets of understanding, self-knowledge on pages 97-99

       Now we will explore these topics:
       • six procedures that foster metacognition including think-alouds, pairs check,
         cooperative concept attainment, concept mapping, and KWL.
       • five reflection instruments: the reflection ladder, the EIAG journal, the self-
         regulation, creative thinking, and critical thinking assessment forms followed
         by a discussion of how cognitive filters frame our perceptions.




                                                                                       116
Six Procedures that Foster Metacognition:
        1. Think Alouds: Think Alouds are the verbal or written documentation of our
           inner voice, our self-statements, our intrapersonal data or our self-knowledge.
           Think Alouds are the externalization of our inner reflections. We can teach
           our students how to Think Aloud through modeling. For example, a teacher
           might say: “How shall I teach this lesson? What are my choices? I could ...”
           Then invite students to share their own content-specific Think Alouds. For
           example, a student might say to him/herself: “The first thing I need to do to
           solve this problem is...” Also see Pairs Check how Think Alouds are
           embedded within the dyadic procedure.
             *
        2.     Pairs Check:
             (1) Each learning pair is given an even number of problems to solve. For
             example, let us say that each dyad has two math problems to solve. Teacher
             assigns one member of the dyad to be A and his/her learning partner to be B.
             (2) Let A try to solve the first math problem out loud. That is, before
             computing or giving an answer, A must explain to his partner, B, what he is
             about to do and his rationale for doing it. (This is a Think Aloud.) The
             responsibility of B is threefold: (a) to ask clarifying questions, (b) to offer
             corrective feedback when needed and (c) to share constructive positive
             feedback.
             (3)The roles are then reversed. B now tries to answer the second (math)
             problem, while A asks clarifying questions, offers corrective and constructive
             positive feedback.
             (4) After each dyad has achieved consensus on the answers to these two math
             problems, they check their work with another dyad. If they all concur, they
             then move on to two new problems. If they are in disagreement, they discuss
             their strategies for problem solving, trying to achieve consensus on their
             answers. If they are baffled, they may seek assistance from the teacher or
             another dyad.

        3. Cooperative Concept Attainment. The teacher has a specific concept in mind
           and has prepared a set of examples (exemplars) and non-examples (non-
           exemplars) of that concept. The exemplars are recorded in the first column of
           a chart (see below) and the non-exemplars are recorded in the third column.
           The challenge for the students is to identify the concept by analysis of its
           critical attributes. Here are the steps of Cooperative Concept Attainment.
           (1) Students individually compare and contrast the data in the first column
           (exemplars) with the data in the third column (non-exemplars).
           (2) Students individually record their thoughts in the middle column: What do
           the exemplars have in common? What distinguishes the exemplars from the
           non-exemplars? What are you saying to yourself right now?


*
 Pairs Check is a dyadic procedure adapted from the work of Kagan, S. & Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan
Cooperative Learning: Resources for Teachers San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing,
www.KaganOnline.com.




                                                                                                  117
(3) The teacher records additional items to the exemplar and non-exemplar
columns.
(4) Students are placed into dyads to discuss their thinking regarding the defining
attributes that distinguish the exemplars from the non-exemplars listed in columns
one and three.
(5) Steps three and four are repeated until most of the students have hypothesized
the essential attribute(s) which distinguish (es) the exemplars from the non-
exemplars, and can name the concept.
(6) Students supply an exemplar and a non-exemplar, and name the concept.
(7) Students contribute additional items and ask their classmates to identify them
as examples or non-examples of the concept.
(8) Students share their thinking aloud mentioning the thought process each
student used to guess the teacher’s concept. See the example of concept
attainment on the next two pages.




                                                                              118
    Cooperative Concept Attainment Worksheet Sample Problem


                    What do the exemplars
 Exemplars          have in common? What         Non-Exemplars
                    distinguishes the
                    exemplars from the non-
                    exemplars? What are you
                    saying to yourself?

1. New York                                       1. Indiana



2. North Carolina                                 2. Illinois



3. New Jersey                                     3. Idaho



4. Maine                                          4. Kansas



5. Florida                                        5. Nevada



6. Oregon                                         6. Ohio



7. California                                     7. Colorado



8. Massachusetts                                  8. Kentucky



9. Washington                                     9. Wisconsin




                                                                 119
                    Cooperative Concept Attainment Worksheet


Directions: Record the exemplars in the first column and the non-exemplars in the third
           column. Compare and contrast the exemplars and the non-exemplars. Then
           in the middle column record either (a) the essential attribute(s) that the
           exemplars share, (b) the attribute(s) which define the difference between the
           exemplars and the non-exemplars or (c) what you are saying to yourself as
           you are comparing and contrasting the exemplars and non-exemplars (e.g. I
           need more information; I think all the exemplars...)
                             What do the exemplars
        Exemplars            have in common? What                  Non-Exemplars
                             distinguishes the
                             exemplars from the non-
                             exemplars? What are you
                             saying to yourself?




                                                                                     120
4. Concept Mapping: Concept mapping is a method of describing and depicting
   one's intrapersonal data through drawing and and connecting images
   (geometiric symbols such as circles and lines) and words. Each mind map or
   graphic thought-link is an individual creation and representation of one's ideas
   and feelings. Here are three concept maps that one might create to describe
   this course

         #1- Learning to                             #2- Thinking to Learn
              Think




                                 5 Conceptual
                                Themes for the
                                    Course,
                                   Teaching
                                Thinking for the
                                 21st Century




      #3- Thinking                                             #5- Thinking Big
        Together                #4- Thinking About
                                  One’s Thinking




                                                                                  121
     21 Thinking Skills
focusing, defining problems, setting
goals, information gathering,                            14 Thinking Processes
observing, formulating questions,                   comparing, classifying , inducing,
remembering, organizing,                            analyzing errors, decision making,
comparing, classifying, ordering,                   investigation, constructing support,
representing, analyzing, identifying                abstracting, analyzing perspectives,
main ideas, identifying errors,                     experimental inquiry, problem solving, the
generating, inferring, predicting,                  scientific method, hypothesis testing, and
elaborating, integrating,                           invention.
summarizing, restructuring,
evaluating, establishing criteria, and
verifying.




                                  Topics and Sub-Topics
                                  within the Theme,
                                  Learning to Think




                   5 Mind/Brain Learning Principles
                  #1. The brain/mind learns in a unique way.
                  #2. The brain/mind requires social interaction.
                  #3. The brain/mind is influenced by emotions.
                  #4. The brain/mind searches for patterns and seeks meaning.
                  #5. The brain is a complex organ that can function on many levels
                  and in many ways simultaneously.




                                                                                           122
           21 Thinking Skills
  focusing, defining problems, setting
  goals, information gathering, observing,
  formulating questions, remembering,                             14 Thinking Processes
  organizing, comparing, classifying,                     comparing, classifying , inducing, analyzing
  ordering, representing, analyzing,                      errors, decision making, investigation,
  identifying main ideas, identifying errors,             constructing support, abstracting, analyzing
  generating, inferring, predicting,                      perspectives, experimental inquiry, problem
  elaborating, integrating, summarizing,                  solving, the scientific method, hypothesis
  restructuring, evaluating, establishing                 testing, and invention.
  criteria, and verifying.




                                        Topics and Sub-Topics within
                                        the Theme, Learning to Think




                          5 Mind/Brain Learning Principles
                #1. The brain/mind learns in a unique way.
                #2. The brain/mind requires social interaction.
                #3. The brain/mind is influenced by emotions.
                #4. The brain/mind searches for patterns and seeks meaning.
                #5. The brain is a complex organ that can function on many levels and in many
                ways simultaneously.




         #1- Learning to Think
                                                                  #2- Thinking to Learn



                                          5 Conceptual
                                        Themes for the
                                       Course, Teaching
                                      Thinking for the 21st            #5- Thinking Big
#3- Thinking Together
                                             Century




                                     #4- Thinking About One’s
                                             Thinking




                                                                                                         123
5. KWL: KWL is a metacognitive procedure which asks students to retrieve (a)
   what they know (K) about a subject/topic, what they want (W) to know about
   that subject/topic and lastly what they have learned (L) about that
   subject/topic after the lesson or unit has be taught. See below a typical graphic
   organizer for the KWL metacognitive learning procedure.


      K                              W                               L




                                                                               124
Five Reflection Instruments: These five reflection instruments serve as a template into
   which students can record their intrapersonal data.
       1. The Reflection Ladder (page 126)
       2. The EIAG Journal (pages 127-128)
       3. The Self-Regulation Assessment Form (page 129)
       4. The Creative Thinking Assessment Form (pages 130-131) and
       5. The Critical Thinking Assessment Form (pages 132-133)

       The five reflection instruments appear on the next several pages.




                                                                                     125
          The Reflection Ladder


         What     facts    did    you     learn    today?




       What    concepts     did     you    learn   today?




 What    preferences       were     you     thinking    about    today?




What   informed    opinions       were     you     considering   today?




 What    experiences       relate   to    what     we   did   today?




        What    feelings    arose    in    you     today?




                                                                          126
                                          The EIAG Journal *

E= Event or Experience: What event or experience happened in class today that was
significant to you?




I= Identify what had happened: What did you see or do? What did others see or do?




A= Analyze: What you were thinking and feeling at the time?




What do you think others were thinking and feeling?




*
    The EIAG Journal can also be implemented as a classroom discussion activity.




                                                                                    127
G= Generalize:
What does this event or experience tell you about yourself?




What does this event or experience tell you about other students?




What does this event tell you about our class?




What might you do similarly or differently next time?




Other thoughts?




                                                                    128
                     SELF-REGULATION ASSESSMENT FORM *
           Questions          Not at      Some-      Mostly Completely Does not
                                  All      what                               Apply
Do I understand what I am
supposed to be doing?
Do I understand what my
classmates are doing?
Do I have goals, sub-goals,
and a time line to reach my
goals?
Do I know what resources I
need to complete my part of
the task?
Am I satisfied with the way
that I am managing my
resources?
Do I need alternative
resources?
Do I ask my classmates for
help when I need their
assistance?
Do I give my classmates
constructive positive and
negative feedback when it is
necessary?
Do I accept the feedback of
my classmates?
Do I change my behavior
when it is necessary?
Am I aware that my efforts
affect my outcomes?
Do I realize that working
harder and smarter yields
better results?
What have I learned about myself, my classmates, and working in groups from this
activity?




*
  Adapted from Solomon, R.D., Davidson, N. & Solomon. E.C.L. (1993). The Handbook for the Fourth R
III: Relationship Activities for Cooperative and Collegial Learning. Columbia, MD: National Institute for
Relationship Training, Inc., 180.




                                                                                                     129
                       CREATIVE THINKING ASSESSMENT FORM1
           Questions            Not at Some- Mostly Completely Does not
                                 All    what                    Apply
Do I generate ideas that are
imaginative (far-out,
speculative, fresh,
unconventional, or unusual) ?
Do I find ways of looking at a
problem from different
perspectives and viewpoints?
Do I make links, connections
and associations among
ideas?
Do I invite and encourage
others to share new and
unconventional ideas?
Do I help maintain an
atmosphere that is non-
judgmental, not exclusive and
not confrontational?
Do I set goals that challenge
my knowledge and abilities?
Do I use resources that are not
commonly used to obtain
answers or solutions to my
task or assignment?
Can I go beyond linear, step
by step thinking?
Do I ever think outside of the
box by generating new
paradigms and approaches?
Can I see the big picture, and
think globally?
Can I think about a situation
from a multi-cultural
perspective?
Can I balance both convergent
and divergent thinking about a
situation?




1
    Adapted from Solomon, R.D., Davidson, N. & Solomon. E.C.L. (1993). The Handbook for the Fourth R
    III: Relationship Activities for Cooperative and Collegial Learning. Columbia, MD: National Institute
    for Relationship Training, Inc., 180.




                                                                                                   130
         Questions               Not at   Some-   Mostly   Completely Does not
                                  All      what                        Apply
When working on a complex
task and not making progress,
do I pause to generate new
ways of viewing what I am
doing?
Do I ever change my ways of
viewing or doing my work?
Can I specify times when it is
important to view things from
different perspectives?
When working on a complex
task, do I identify creative
standards for myself
regarding how my final
product will look or sound?
After the task is completed,
do I reflect on how well I met
my standards?




                                                                          131
                        CRITICAL THINKING ASSESSMENT FORM1
           Questions           Not at  Some-  Mostly Completely Does not
                                 All    what                     Apply
Do I support my point of view
with evidence?
Do I admit when I am
inaccurate?
Am I willing to correct my
inaccuracies?
Do I realize how important it
is to be accurate?
Can I cite examples when
accuracy was important
during an individual, group or
class learning activity?
Do I realize the times when I
am not being clear?
Am I willing to correct my
lack of clarity?
Do I ask for clarification
when information is not clear
to me?
Can I cite examples when
being clear was important
during an individual, group or
class learning activity?
Am I open to new ideas that
are contrary to my opinion?
Am I willing to collect data
that is contrary to my
opinion?
Do I take time to consider
whether my data are valid?
Can I cite examples when
being open minded is
important during an
individual, group or class
learning activity?
Do I stop to think about what
I am about to do before
engaging in some complex
task?

1
    Taken from Solomon, R.D., Davidson, N. & Solomon, E.C.L. (1993). The Handbook for the Fourth R
    III: Relationship Activities for Cooperative and Collegial Learning. Columbia, MD: National Institute
    for Relationship Training, Inc., 180.




                                                                                                    132
           Questions                Not at      Some-       Mostly     Completely Does not
                                     All         what                              Apply
 Do I stop to think about what
 I am about to say before
 responding to a complex
 question?
 Do I take a position on an
 important matter when it is
 warranted?
 Do I refran from making
 generalizations based on very
 limited data?


                                       Cognitive Filters

How Cognitive Filters Frame Our Perceptions: Cognitive filters are the frames of
reference, the lenses or prisms that people unknowingly use as they perceive the world.
These filters can relate to one’s gender, sexual preference, race, ethnicity, class, religion,
age, nationality, political ideology, parental values, personality traits, professional work
and other variables.

                                    Reflection Questions

 1. What other cognitive filters do people use either consciously or unconsciously?
 2. Do scientists, historians, writers, psychologists, artists, musicians, etc. have unique
 cognitive filters ? Record your thoughts in the space provided.




         Now let's examine how gender can influence the way we perceive things. Kindly
 complete the survey of female and male roles that appears on the next page. Note that
 there are no correct or incorrect answers for the survey.




                                                                                           133
                              Cognitive Filters
                     A Survey on Female and Male Roles*
Directions:        There are no correct or incorrect answers for this survey. Please read
                   each statement carefully and decide to what extent you agree or disagree
                   with it. Here is the key:
                   SA= STRONGLY AGREE
                   A=       AGREE
                   D=       DISAGREE
                   SD= STRONGLY DISAGREE
                   M= MIDDLE ( agree and disagree)
                   P=       PASS
Please write your preference on the line next to each statement.

1. Men are natural leaders: women like to be led.                                           1._____

2. The title Ms. should replace Miss and Mrs.                                               2._____

3. Young children need their mothers' loving care during
   the first two years of life.                                                             3._____

4. A woman should take equal responsibility in initiating
   a relationship as a man.                                                                 4._____

5. Little boys are naturally more aggressive than little girls.                             5._____

6. Fathers should take an equal role in raising children.                                   6._____

7. In general, men are superior to women.                                                   7._____

8. A woman is as capable as a man to serve as President
   of the United States.                                                                    8._____

9. Little girls are naturally more nurturing than little boys.                              9._____

10. Women are not more emotional than men.                                                 10._____




*
    Taken from Solomon, R. & Solomon, E. (1987), The Handbook for the Fourth R II: Relationship Skills
    for Group Discussion and Process, Volume II. Columbia, MD: National Institute for Relationship
    Training, Inc., 59.




                                                                                                 134
                                Reflection Question

What other instructional activities or strategies can teachers implement to help their
students become aware of their cognitive filters? Record your thoughts in the space
provided.




                                                                                 135
                                  THEME FIVE:
                        TEACHING STUDENTS TO THINK BIG


5.       Thinking Big (seeing the larger picture through creative and critical
         thinking)

        In the previous themes we have discussed the thinking skills, processes,
cognitive frameworks, individual and peer reflection tools and activities. We will now
focus on learning activities designed to enable students to think creatively and critically
on the larger issues that we confront in the 21st century such as war and peace, global
warming, environmental protection, hunger and poverty, ethics, universal health care,
quality education, etc. In particular, we will explore these topics and questions:

     •   What is creative thinking?
     •   Dr. Paul Torrance on the four dimensions of creative thinking
     •   Creative thinking methods that enable students to understand shifting viewpoints,
         perspectives and associations
     •   What is critical thinking?
     •   Dr. Donald J. Treffinger’s tools for creative and critical thinking
     •   What is authentic learning?
     •   Instructional activities designed to provide students with an opportunity to
         understand and appreciate multiple perspectives: deBono’s Hats, Spectrum of
         Opinion, Opinion Charting and Structured Controversy
     •   Group problem solving via brainstorming
     •   Problem solving including Send-A- Problem, and Moral Dilemmas
     •   The scientific method including “How High Does a Ball Bounce?”
     •   The Handshake Problem and Counting Rectangles Problem
     •   Group investigation and Co-op Co-op
     •   The Weird Object Problem

         In this course we have previously covered several constructs and learning
activities which enable students to see the bigger picture within a given subject area.
They include:

         •   Looking at the curriculum from the perspective of the eight multiple
             intelligences (i.e. body/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,
             mathematical/logical, musical/rhythmic, verbal/linguistic, visual/spatial and
             naturalist) on pages 8-12
         •   Specific methods to transform the traditional classroom into a community of
             thought-filled and respectful learners on pages 6-52
         •   Prior knowledge and the productive habits of mind that students bring into the
             classroom on pages 41-43
         •   Comparative cognitive structures (pages 57-63) , thinking skills (pages 64-65),
             and processes (pages 66-67), and the relationship skills (pages 14-34)




                                                                                          136
•   The five brain/mind principles that inform instruction: Namely, that each
    brain/mind learns in a unique way; the brain/mind requires social interaction;
    the brain/mind is influenced by emotions; the brain/mind searches for patterns
    and seeks meaning and the brain is a complex organ that can function on many
    levels and in many ways simultaneously on pages 73-78
•   Essential and unit questions and the six facets of understanding of Wiggins and
    McTighe on pages 79-81
•   Lyman’s Think-Trix (pages 81-85, 88-89), Wiederhold’s Q-Matrix (pages 85-
    8-89) and Solomon’s Six Types of Intrapersonal Data (pages 87-89)
•   The taxonomies of Bloom (pages 90-93), Anderson and Krathwohl (pages 94-
    96), and Marzano and Kendall (page 97)
•   Graphic organizers on pages 69-72
•   Concept mapping (pages 121-123), Paired Webbing (page 108) and Team
    Webbing (page 114)
•   Dyadic and cooperative learning procedures for thinking together on pages
    105-114
•   Metacognitive procedures (pages 117-124), the reflection instruments (pages
    125-132), and cognitive filters (pages 133-135)




                                                                              137
                     Rules for Paired, Group or Classroom Brainstorming

        This isa structured group discussion procedure wherein the rules for
brainstorming are followed. The general rules for brainstorming are:
         1. You may say anything that comes to mind during the allotted time limit.
         2. You may repeat or modify the ideas previously presented.
         3. You may not discuss, praise or reject the ideas presented.
         4. Select someone to record the ideas suggested.
         5. Evaluate ideas after brainstorming is completed.

               Rules for Paired, Group or Classroom Nominal Brainstorming

NOTE: Nominal brainstorming does not require a time limit; however, a recorder is
      needed.

         1.    Each member spends a short period, e.g. 60 seconds, thinking of and
               recording solutions to a given group task or problem.
         2.    In round robin fashion each member shares one new or different solution
               to the problem presented.
         3.    There is no criticism of the ideas presented.
         4.    Members may pass if they have no new or different solution to offer.
         5.    When all the members pass three times, nominal brainstorming ends.
         6.    Ideas are evaluated after nominal brainstorming ends.

        Note: The genius of the brainstorming is that it separates the creative
thinking phase from the critical thinking phase (evaluation). It is difficult to be both
creative and critical simultaneously.

                       Reflection Challenge on Creative Thinking

Question: What is creative thinking?
Directions: Brainstorm a list of words or ideas that you associate with creative thinking.
Do this indiviudally and then in pairs. Record your thoughts in the space provided.




                                                                                           138
          WORDS OR PHRASES ASSOCIATED WITH CREATIVE THINKING*

 Alternative perspectives, at the edge of possibility, big picture, building on the ideas of
 others, different intelligences, different modalities, divergent, encouraging, far-out,
 fertile,free, fresh, generative, global, imaginative, inviting, making associations, making
 links or connections, multicultural, multi-dimensional, new combinations, new
 perceptions, new ways of viewing, non-judgmental, non-linear, not either/or, not
 exclusive, not forced choice, not polarized, open, open to possibilities, reorganization of
 reality, search for new meaning, shifting viewpoints, speculative, thinking outside of the
 box, unbounded, unconfined, unconventional, unrestrained, unrestricted, and unusual




                                      What is Creative Thinking?

        Here are several definitions for creative thinking:

1.      Creative thinking is the ability to create. It is the generation of an idea or product that
        is original, imaginative and uncommon. A creative idea or product is associated with
        the words or phrases listed in the above box.

2.      Creative thinking involves creating something new or original. It involves the skills
        of flexibility, originality, fluency, elaboration, brainstorming, modification, imagery,
        associative thinking, attribute listing, metaphorical thinking, and forced relationships.
        The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence16.

3.      Creative thinking refers to:
           • Specific thought processes which improve the ability to be creative.
           • Being in an optimal state of mind for generating new ideas.
           • Thinking deliberately in ways that improve the likelihood of new thoughts
               occurring.
           • Maximizing the ability of the brain to think of new ideas.
           • The ability to think of original, diverse and elaborate ideas.
           • A series of mental actions which produce changes and developments of
               thought.
           • The process of exploring multiple avenues of actions or thoughts17.


 *
   Reprinted with permission from Dr. James Bell, Professor, Howard County Community College, (1997).
 Teaching Students to Think Critically by Using Active Learning and Cooperative Learning, Presentation at
 the First Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Towson, Maryland, March 4, 1997.

 16
      Taken From http://www.brainstorming.co.uk/tutorials/definitions.html Retrieved January 30, 2009.
 17
      Taken From http://www.brainstorming.co.uk/tutorials/definitions.html Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                         139
                              Torrance on Four Simultaneous
                                 Dimensions of Creativity


       A well-known framework for creative thinking was developed by Paul Torrance18
in 1979. His creative thinking processes involve four dimensions or cognitive attributes
which occur simultaneously and in no specific sequence, order or hierarchy. They are
fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and originality. These four dimensions are defined
below, along with key words and application activities.

                                            Fluency19
Definition: Fluency refers to the production of a great number of ideas or alternate
solutions to a problem. Fluency implies understanding, not just remembering information
that is learned. In group brainstorming, individuals are contributing to a group/class list,
without judgment, either positive or negative Accordingly, the facilitator acknowledges
(i.e. "thank you") or records each idea presented by the members of the brainstorming
group. This component of fluency recognizes the valuable contribution of each
participant and does not stop the generation of new ideass Note: The evaluation of ideas
occurs at the end of group brainstorming.
Key words: Compare, convert, count, define, describe, explain, identify, label, list,
match, name, outline, paraphrase, predict, summarize.
Application activities
Trace a picture and label the parts.
Outline an article you find on your topic.
How many uses can you think of for a clothes hanger?
List 15 things that are commonly red or contain red.
Example: Apple, blood, brick, caboose, cherry, Christmas stocking, exit sign, fire alarm,
flag, heart, red nose reindeer, rose, tomato, wagon, etc.




18
 Torrance, Paul (1979). The Search for Satori and Creativity. Buffalo, NY: Creative
Education Foundation.
19
     This chart was adapted from this website:
http://www.bethel.edu/%7Eshenkel/PhysicalActivities/CreativeMovement/CreativeThinking/Torrance.html
Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                              140
                                         Flexibility
Definition: Flexibility refers to the production of ideas that show a variety of possibilities
or realms of thought. It involves the ability to see things from different points of view and
shifting perspectives. Flexibility refers to the ability to use many different approaches or
strategies for problem solving.
Key words: Change, demonstrate, distinguish, employ, extrapolate, interpolate, interpret,
predict.
Application ideas
What would happen if .... (e.g.) there were no automobiles?
How would a ... (e.g. dog) look to a ... (e.g.flea)?
How is _______ like ________?
How would you feel if ... (e.g. you were invisible for a day)?


                                        Elaboration
 Definition: Elaboration is the process of enhancing ideas by providing more detail.
Additional detail and clarity improves interest in, and understanding of, the topic.
 Key words
 Appraise, critique, determine, evaluate, grade, judge, measure, select, test.
 Application ideas
 Tell your neighbor about your last family trip using as many details as possible.
 What can you add to_______ to improve its quality or performance?
 Describe all the possible characteristics of the red quality in a wagon.
 Example: Shade, finish, texture, uniformity.


                                          Originality
 Definition: Originality involves the production of ideas that are unique or unusual. It
involves synthesis or putting information about a topic back together in a new way. An
original idea should be (a) useful in that it meets a need, (b) understandable in that its
purpose or function is clear,(c) unusual in that it is perceived as being both novel and
attractive, and (d) user-friendly in that easily applied by the consumer or operator of the
product or service.
 Key words: Compose, create, design, generate, integrate, modify, rearrange,
reconstruct, reorganize, revise.
 Application ideas
 Find an original use for_________.
 What would be the strangest way to get out of bed?
 Design a new___________ that is better than the one you have.




                                                                                         141
Creative Thinking Through Shifting Viewpoints, Perspectives, and Associations*


        Perspective: Looking at things (i.e. people, places, objects, ideas,) from different
points of view. Here are some perspective questions: From whose point of view? From
which vantage point? What is assumed or what facet needs to be made explicit? What is
justified or warranted? Is there adequate evidence? Is it reasonable? What are the
strengths and weaknesses of the ideas? Is it plausible? What are its limits? So what?



                                                  VIEWPOINT
How would........................................look to ..................................................................?
                 a fast food meal                                  a nutritionist
                 a voting machine                                  a communist
                 a glass of water                                  a scientist
                 an open door                                      a puppy
                 a fossil                                          an archeologist
                 a garbage can                                     a conservationist
                                                                   a raccoon
                                                                   an ant
                                                                   an antique dealer




                            INVOLVEMENT PERSPECTIVE
How would you feel if you were...
                                  an immigrant?
                                  in charge of immigration?
                                  denied the right to vote?
                                  forced to take a particular job?
                                  the only person who could write?




*
  These ideas on creative thinking through shifting viewpoints, perspectives and associations are printed
with permission given by Ramsey, D.L. (1998). Making Connections: Structures and Strategies for
Integrated Teaching and Learning, Morristown, NJ: Center for Lifelong Learning, Inc., 50-52.




                                                                                                                          142
                                        SENSING ASSOCIATIONS
 If you were a ................................., what would you sense?
                 pet cat
                 person being arrested
                 3-D figure
                 a white blood cell
                 a political leader speaking in Congress

                                              Sensing Perspectives
      Sight                   Hearing               Touch            Taste                             Smell
       An                     An Ant               An Atom         A Mountain                         A mirror
 Extra-terrestrial

You are .................................................................., describe how it feels to be...
              a scientist who discovers cloning
              the first woman president
              a soldier being tried for treason
              a carpenter buying lumber for a first project
              a child going to camp for the first time
              the best friend of someone making a bad choice


                      REORGANIZATION OF REALITY/PERCEPTION*

 What would happen if........................................................were true?
                          we all spoke one language
                          there were space aliens
                          we were running out of fossil fuels
                          all living things have feelings



 Suppose ........................................................... happened. What would be the
 consequence?

                professional athletes were no longer paid large salaries
                the cure for cancer was found
                there were reliable lie detector tests
                we had year round school
                we had a woman president

 *
      Printed with permission given by Ramsey, D.L. (1998). Making Connections: Structures and
      Strategies for Integrated Teaching and Learning, Morristown, NJ: Center for Lifelong Learning, Inc.,
      36-37.
 *    Printed with permission given by Ramsey, D.L. (1998). Making Connections: Structures and
      Strategies for Integrated Teaching and Learning, Morristown, NJ: Center for Lifelong Learning, Inc.,
      54.




                                                                                                                 143
What would happen if there were no .....................................................................?
                                           gasoline
                                           fences
                                           political parties
                                           containers to hold toxic chemicals
                                           child care centers
                                           trees left to cut down
                                           teacher
                                           doctors
                                           lawyers


         On the next five pages you will find five activities designed to enable students to
perceive data from shifting viewpoints, perspecitves and associations. These five
activities are:

         1.   The Diversity Circles of______________ (page 145)
         2.   de Bono's Six Thinking Hats (pages 146-147)
         3.   Spectrum of Opinion (page 147)
         4.   Opinion Charting (page 148) and
         5.   Structured Controversy (pages 149-150)




                                                                                                            144
                              The Diversity Circles of



                                SOCIO-             FAMILY
                                ECONOMIC
                                BACKGROUND




                                                                 GENDER/
                 ETHNICITY/                                      SEXUAL
                 ANCESTRY                                        ORIENTATION




                                                                     RACE

              DISABILITY




                                                              RELIGION




INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Write your name on the line at the top of the page, and your first name in the large
   circle in the middle.
2. In the smaller circles write something about yourself that relates to the category
   within each circle; e.g. family---small, large, extended, nuclear, only child, military,
   single parent, alcohol, traditional, etc.
NOTE: You have the right to pass or not record information in a category. You are
   encouraged to create your own categories in the vacant circles.
3. Mill around and find a partner whose circles are least like yours.
4. Mill around and find a pair whose circles are different from both of yours.




                                                                                      145
                              de Bono's Six Thinking Hats20

        The six thinking hats are used "to unscramble thinking so that a thinker is able to
use one thinking mode at a time -- instead of trying to do everything at once." (p. 199)
By putting on different thinking "hats," the thinker is stimulated to think in different
ways. The six hats can provide varied thinking roles. The six hats method is used to
switch thinking away from a typical argumentative style into a "mapmaking" style.

        White Hat: virgin white, pure facts, figures, and information. In White Hat
thinking, one gives facts and figures in a neutral and objective manner without emotions
and opinions. This is akin to the functioning of a computer that gives precise facts and
figures for which it is asked. Information can range from checked and proven facts to
data which have not been fully verified and which have some degree of "likelihood."

        Red Hat: seeing red, emotions and feelings, also hunches and intuition. The Red
Hat legitimizes emotions and feelings as an important part of thinking. It makes feelings
visible so they can become part of the thinking process. This can include more complex
"feelings" such as hunches, intuition, sense, and taste.

       Black Hat: negative judgment, why it will not work, devil's advocate. Black Hat
thinking is concerned with negative assessment. This hat points out what is wrong,
incorrect and in error, how something does not fit experience or accepted knowledge,
why something will not work, and design faults. This is not construed as argument but
as an objective attempt to put negative elements onto the map for consideration.

        Yellow Hat: sunshine, brightness and optimism, positive, constructive,
opportunity. Yellow Hat thinking is concerned with positive assessment. It covers a
positive spectrum ranging from the logical and practical at one end to dreams, visions,
and hopes at the other end. It is concerned with effectiveness -- making things happen.

        Green Hat: fertile, creative, plants springing from seeds, movement,
provocation. Green Hat thinking emphasizes creativity and the search for alternatives. It
includes provocation to take us out of our usual patterns of thinking, and lateral thinking
to cut across typical patterns. With this hat the idea of movement replaces the idea of
judgement.




20
     de Bono, E. (1985). Six Thinking Hats. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.




                                                                                        146
        Blue Hat: cool and control, orchestra conductor, thinking about thinking. The
Blue Hat is the "control" hat which organizes the thinking itself. It calls for use of the
other hats, defines the topic for thinking, sets the focus, defines problems and shapes
questions. It monitors the thinking (i.e. thinking about the thinking needed to explore the
topic) and ensures that rules of the game are observed.




                                  The Spectrum of Opinion




                                      Moderate wants to
                         Liberal      support the status
                         wants to     quo.
                         slowly                            Conservative
                         change                            wants to slowly
                         conditions                        introduce
                         in a new                          conditions of
                         direction.                        the past.


  Radical left wants conditions
  to change now.                                            Reactionary right wants to
                                                            return to the past now.




                                                                                         147
             THE       OPINION         CHARTING             FORMAT


                                                            !!! RESPONSES:
                                                             SEE THE KEY BELOW
  OPINION QUESTION:                                     1     2   3     4    5     6
                                                              !
  SAMPLE: SHOULD A SPECIFIC TIME BE
  DESIGNATED DURING THE SCHOOL DAY
  FOR STUDENTS TO PRAY?

  PLACE YOUR OPINION QUESTIONS ON THE
  LINES BELOW




KEY FOR QUESTIONS 1 THROUGH 6

1. Answer the opinion question by recording a Y for yes, and N for no, an M for maybe,
   a P for pass and a ? meaning ' I do not know,' in box number 1. Use this key for the
   following five questions.
2. Can you give one reason in favor of why you chose Y/N/M/P/? (Box 2)
3. Do you personally own this opinion? (Box 3)
4. Do you understand the other opinions on the question? (Box 4)
5. Can you give one reason why others choose different opinions on this question?
   (Box 5)
6. Have you ever publicly stated your opinion on this question before? (Box 6)




                                                                                   148
                  THE STEPS FOR A STRUCTURED CONTROVERSY*

    Assumption: members are placed in teams of four (quad).

    1. Select Controversy and Provide Materials: Select a controversial issue and
       formulate a statement or question to discuss; e.g. would a statute prohibiting flag
       burning be a violation to the first amendment, or should there be an amendment to
       the constitution requiring a balanced budget?

    2. Pairs Study and Prepare: Divide quad into two sub-groups, each one taking
       opposing positions on the controversy. Each sub-group researches and develops its
       position and plans how to present the best case possible to its adversarial counterpart.

    3. Pairs Present: Each sub-group makes its presentation with both members orally
       participating. After its presentation, the opposing sub-group asks clarifying questions
       without arguing.

    4. Pairs Challenge: Each sub-group challenges the position of its adversaries
       identifying unsubstantiated assumptions, erroneous facts, logical fallacies and faulty
       conclusions.

    5. Pairs Switch: The sub-groups reverse roles presenting the positions of their
       adversaries.

    6. Team Discussion for Synthesis: The sub-groups drop their adversarial positions,
       clarify their understanding of each other's information and rationale, and work on a
       team report attempting to find a higher-level synthesis.

    7. Team Prepares Report: Each team finalizes its report.

    8. Team Presents: Each team makes a presentation to the entire class summarizing its
       report, (e.g. ten minutes). All members of the team should orally participate in the
       presentation.

    9. Individual Test (Optional Step):Each member of the team takes an individual test
       on the controversial topic.



*
  David and Roger Johnson, University of Minnesota created structured controversy. Johnson, D. W. &
Johnson, R. T. (1992). Creative Controversy: Intellectual Challenge in the Classroom. Edina, MN:
Interaction Book Company.




                                                                                              149
      THE STEPS FOR A STRUCTURED
             CONTROVERSY                                                *




Assumption: members are placed in teams of four (quad).

Step 1.              Select Controversy and Provide
                     Materials

Step 2.              Pairs Study and Prepare

Step 3.              Pairs Present

Step 4.              Pairs Challenge

Step 5.              Pairs Switch

Step 6.              Team Discussion for Synthesis

Step 7.              Team Prepares Report

Step 8.              Team Presents

Step 9.              Individual Test (Optional Step)

*
  David and Roger Johnson, University of Minnesota created structured controversy. Johnson, D. W. &
Johnson, R. T. (1992). Creative Controversy: Intellectual Challenge in the Classroom. Edina, MN:
Interaction Book Company.




                                                                                                 150
                      Reflection Challenge on Critical Thinking

Question: What is critical thinking?

Directions: When you think of the phrase 'critical thinking', brainstorm a list of words or
ideas that comes to mind. Do this individually and then in pairs. Record your thoughts in
the space provided.




                                                                                      151
                   Words or Phrases Associated with Critical Thinking*

Clear thinking, effective thinking, good reasoning, good thinking, thinking straight,
intelligent thinking, smart thinking, practical thinking, practical reasoning, good
judgment, reflective judgment, higher order thinking, higher order thinking skills,
complex thinking, Bloom's higher levels of educational objectives, reasoning (reasoning
abilities), problem solving (creative problem solving), assess the reasons for making
decisions, making informed decisions, assessing the validity of arguments, critical
evaluation, critical analysis, dealing with controversy, assessing evidence, assess both the
evidence and reasons in a communication, raising questions, raising good questions,
asking intelligent questions, informal reasoning, informal logic, critical reading, reading
critically, reading between the lines; involves only skills (abilities); involves skills plus
dispositions (attitudes, tendencies); involves knowledge skills and dispositions; involves
the attitude of skepticism, metacognition (metacognitive thinking--thinking about
thinking); discovering the weaknesses in the ideas, reasoning, and evidence of others;
discovering the weaknesses in our own ideas, reasoning, and evidence, being self-critical,
self correcting, self assessing, and self evaluating.



                          Examples of Critical Thinking Questions*

Here are questions for consideration:
What do I know about the source of the information?
Do I understand what I have read?
Am I clear on the definition of key terms?
What assertions (arguments, claims, conclusions) is the writer or speaker making?
What evidence is given to support the assertions (arguments, claims, conclusions)?
What assumptions is the writer or speaker making?
Are there other ways of explaining the evidence?
What additional evidence might I need to obtain to decide what to believe?
What do I decide to believe?
How can I use (apply) what I have learned?




*
  Reprinted with permission from Dr. James Bell, Professor, Howard County Community College, (1997).
Teaching Students to Think Critically by Using Active Learning and Cooperative Learning, Presentation at
the First Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Towson, Maryland, March 4, 1997.
*
  Reprinted with permission from Dr. James Bell, Professor, Howard County Community College, (1997).
Teaching Students to Think Critically by Using Active Learning and Cooperative Learning, Presentation at
the First Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Towson, Maryland, March 4, 1997.




                                                                                                   152
                                   What is Critical Thinking?*
                                     Several Perspectives

1. Critical thinking is the active and systematic attempt to understand, evaluate, and find
    flaws in arguments.
2. Critical thinking involves deciding what to believe and how to act after a careful
    evaluation of the evidence and reasoning in a communication.
3. If students are to exhibit critical thinking skills, they must learn to decide when
    specific cognitive skills are relevant (a metacognitive skill) and then successfully
    apply the cognitive skills to solve problems.
4. Critical thinking is an active, purposeful, organized, cognitive process we use to
    carefully examine our thinking and the thinking of others, in order to clarify and
    improve our understanding.
5. Critical thinking is an investigation whose purpose is to explore a situation,
    phenomenon, question, or problem to arrive at a hypothesis or conclusion about it that
    integrates all available information and can therefore be convincingly justified. In
    critical thinking, all assumptions are open to question, divergent views are
    aggressively sought, and the inquiry is not biased in favor of a particular outcome.
6. The hallmark of a critical thinker is an inquiring mind. Simply put, good thinkers are
    good questioners. Critical thinking is the process of raising questions.
7. Critical thinking involves the skill and propensity to engage in an activity with
    reflective skepticism.
8. A critical thinker is the individual who is appropriately moved by reasons.
9. Critical thinking is skillful, responsible thinking that facilitates good judgment
    because it (1) relies upon criteria, (2) is self-correcting, and (3) is sensitive to context.
10. Critical thinking is the process of purposeful, self-regulatory judgment. This process
    gives reasoned consideration to evidence, contexts, conceptualizations, methods, and
    criteria.
11. Critical thinking is the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the
    probability of a desirable outcome.




*
    Reprinted with permission from Dr. James Bell, Professor, Howard County Community College,
    (1997). Teaching Students to Think Critically by Using Active Learning and Cooperative Learning,
    Presentation at the First Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Towson, Maryland, March 4,
    1997.




                                                                                                  153
                       The Creative Problem Solver’s Basic Toolbox
                             by Donald J. Treffinger Ph.D.21

    Tools for Generating Possibilities               Tools for Focusing Possibilities
           (Creative Thinking)                             (Critical Thinking)
Brainstorming: Generating many, varied,        Hits and Hot Spots: Selecting promising
or unusual options for an open-ended task      or intriguing possibilities (identifying
or question.                                   “hits”) and clustering, categorizing,
                                               organizing, or compressing them in
                                               meaningful ways (finding “hot spots”).
Force-Fitting: Using objects or words that ALoU: Refining and Developing: Using a
seem unrelated to the task or problem, or to deliberate, constructive approach to
each other in order to create new              strengthening or improving options, by
possibilities or connections.                  considering Advantages, Limitations (and
                                               ways to overcome them), and Unique
                                               features.
Attribute Listing: Using the core elements PCA: Paired Comparison Analysis:
or attributes of a task or challenge as a      Setting priorities or ranking options
springboard for generating novel directions through a systematic analysis of all
or improvements.                               possible combinations.
SCAMPER: Applying a checklist of               Sequencing: SML: Organizing and
action words or phrases (“idea-spurring        focusing options by considering short,
questions”) to evoke or “trigger” new or       medium, or long-term actions.
varied possibilities.
Morphological Matrix: An analytical tool Evaluation Matrix: Using specific criteria
for identifying the key parameters of a task, in a systematic manner to evaluate each of
generating possibilities for each parameter, several options or possibilities to guide
and then investigating possible                judgment and selection of options.
combinations (“mixing and matching”).
                        Source: Center for Creative Learning, © 2008




21
 Reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                               154
                      Tools for Generating Possibilities (Creative Thinking)22

                                      Brainstorming
Definition: Generating many, varied, or unusual options for an open-ended task or
question.
Sample learning activity: In a class that was preparing to study the countries of Africa,
the teacher presents the following task: Brainstorm a list of questions that you want to
investigate about each country in Africa.
Brainstorm other applications of the Brainstorming tool in your content area:




                                        Force-Fitting
Definition: Using objects or words that seem unrelated to the task or problem, or to each
other in order to create new possibilities or connections.
Sample learning activity: A groups of students made Force-Fitting card decks by gluing
pictures of everyday objects on large index cards (one picture per card). They used their
Force-Fitting cards to generate some new and unusual ideas for improving the furniture
of the classroom. They started by exploring some ways to improve the room’s straight,
hard, metal and formed-plastic chairs. The students selected three cards randomly from
their deck: a table lamp with a flexible goose-neck frame, a fancy diamond necklace, and
a telescope. Then they used the three objects to think of new ways to improve their
chairs. The flexible lamp immediately led them to think about mounting a similar lamp
on the top of the chair’s back to provide a convenient and adjustable light source. They
also stretched their thinking beyond this first, rather obvious connection and soon turned
to the flexible neck of the lamp, which led them to consider modifying the back of the
chair so that its position could be moved (from left to right, or from straight to a reclining
position). The fancy diamond necklace made them think about decorating the outside of
the chair’s frame so that each student could personalize his or her own chair. The card
also suggested creating a chair that was ornate and fancy and might even be elevated like
a throne, which could be used to recognize certain students for special occasions or
accomplishments. The students like the idea of earning the right to use the “Diamond
Chair” as a special privilege.
Brainstorm other applications of the Force-Fitting tool in your content area:




22
 All these tools for creative (i.e. brainstorming, force-fitting, attribute listing, SCAMPER, and the
morphological matrix) and critical thinking (i.e. hits and hot spots, ALoU, PCA, SML, and the evaluation
matrix) are reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                     155
                                      Attribute Listing*
Definition: Using the core elements or attributes of a task or challenge as a springboard
for generating novel directions or improvements.
Sample learning activity: A student explored ways to improve his science project
presentation. He identified three key attributes or parts of the presentation: (1) visual
display: (2) oral presentation, and (3) written report. Then, he generated ways to improve
or modify each of those parts. Below is a list of possible changes for his task:
       1. Visual display: Make it larger, use an easel, use bright colors, use a computer
            to make written parts and drawings, add some charts and graphs, use some
            pictures or cartoons to get attention, include something that moves, use an
            overhead projector, add lights, add something people can touch or use.
       2. Oral Presentation: Use music in background, use sound effects, use Power
            Point, dress up in a lab coat, wear a necktie, and use props.
       3. Written Report: Put in notebook, make colorful cover, do it on a computer,
            add some more graphs and charts, include some photographs, use color and
            highlight parts, use more labels, use more variety in the words, add a glossary
            of terms.

Brainstorm other applications of the Attribute Listing tool in your content area:




*
 All these tools for creative (i.e. brainstorming, force-fitting, attribute listing, SCAMPER, and the
morphological matrix) and critical thinking (i.e. hits and hot spots, ALoU, PCA, SML, and the evaluation
matrix) are reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                     156
                                      SCAMPER*
Definition: SCAMPER: Applying a checklist of action words or phrases (“idea-spurring
questions”) to evoke or “trigger” new or varied possibilities. SCAMPER is an acronym to
prompt students to look for new possibilities by applying the following checklist of
action words or phrases:
        • S- Substitute
        • C- Combine
        • A- Adapt
        • M- Magnify, Minify/Minimize
        • P- Put to other uses
        • E- Eliminate
        • R- Reverse or Rearrange.

Sample learning activity: One group of students working on a unit on inventions chose to
study the telephone. They used the SCAMPER tool to identify many, varied, and unusual
ways the telephone might be modified and improved. Then, they searched stores and
catalogs, located examples of modifications and extensions of the basic idea of the
telephone, and considered what SCAMPER words and questions might have led to those
modifications. For example, ‘combine’ might have been used to create a telephone that
also had a video screen. ‘Magnify’ (or make larger) might have stimulated the thinking of
the makers of a phone with giant touch-tone buttons on its keypad. Combine or ‘put to
other uses’ might have led one clever group to a wristwatch that included a cell phone
and a TV remote. The students concluded their project by hypothesizing new changes and
developments that might be produced in the future.

Brainstorm other applications of the SCAMPER tool in your content area:




*
 All these tools for creative (i.e. brainstorming, force-fitting, attribute listing, SCAMPER, and the
morphological matrix) and critical thinking (i.e. hits and hot spots, ALoU, PCA, SML, and the evaluation
matrix) are reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                     157
                                  Morphological Matrix*
Definition: An analytical tool for identifying the key parameters of a task, generating
possibilities for each parameter, and then investigating possible combinations (“mixing
and matching”).
Sample learning activity: Morphological Matrix:

In one class studying the elements of character, the teacher provided the following
Morphological Matrix:

    #               Who                         Where                 What                   Why
    1          Young Children                   Home             Trustworthiness             Peace
    2         Elementary School                 School              Respect                 Conflict
                    Kids
    3           Middle School                   Mall              Responsibility          Order
    4            High School                   Office               Fairness               Calm
    5              College                    Internet             Citizenship            Anger
    6              Parents                 Church/Temple             Caring                Flow
    7             Teachers                   Cafeteria            Participation           Verbal
                                                                                       Communication
    8             School Staff                 Business             Preparation           Writing
    9            Business Folks                 Media               Promptness           Listening
    0                Police                     Travel                 Love              Nonverbal
                                                                                       Communication

The teacher asked students to use the last four digits of their phone numbers to randomly
obtain one item from each column. Students then combined the four items to create
sentences describing how the basic elements of character are used in everyday life.

For example, the four digits 5881 yielded the following items: college, business, prepared
and peace. The students combined these items to produce the sentence; Most college
students are preparing to enter business fields and want to find peace within their lives.

The four digits 4352 yielded the items high school, mall, citizenship and conflict. The
students combined these items to produce this sentence; When high school students
exhibit good citizenship they will not encounter conflict in the mall.

Students developed the sentences individually and then worked in pairs to combine their
sentences or to choose the best one for a presentation to the whole class. Later they wrote
reflections on the activity.



*
 All these tools for creative (i.e. brainstorming, force-fitting, attribute listing, SCAMPER, and the
morphological matrix) are reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for
Creative Learning, www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                        158
Brainstorm other applications of the Morphological Matrix tool in your content
area:




                                 Tools for Focusing Possibilities
                                       (Critical Thinking)

                                   Hits and Hot Spots*
Definition: Selecting promising or intriguing possibilities (identifying “hits”) and
clustering, categorizing, organizing, or compressing them in meaningful ways (finding
“hot spots”).
Sample learning activity: In a high school science class, the students worked on
designing appropriate zoo habitats for several endangered species. The students selected
an animal, conducted research on the animal, and then generated lists of questions they
had about the animal and its habitat. They used Hits and Hot Spots to identify the most
important questions and to identify four major clusters to guide their subsequent research
and planning.

Another class used the Hits and Hot Spots tool to plan a school party. First, they
generated tools to come up with a list of more than 80 possibilities. Using Hits and Hot
Spots tool they grouped (or clustered) their Hits into the following five Hot Spots:
Activities, Refreshments, Place, Time and Cost. They decided to host an after-school
party in the cafeteria. They could afford soda and popcorn. Dancing was the favorite
activity. Several students volunteered to bring in their CDs and supply the music.

Brainstorm other applications of the Hits and Hot Spots tool in your content area:




*
 All these tools for creative (i.e. brainstorming, force-fitting, attribute listing, SCAMPER, and the
morphological matrix) and critical thinking (i.e. hits and hot spots, ALoU, PCA, SML, and the evaluation
matrix) are reproduced with permission given Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                     159
                                          ALoU*
Definition: Refining and Developing: Using a deliberate, constructive approach to
strengthening or improving options, by considering Advantages, Limitations (and ways to
overcome them), and Unique features.
Sample learning activity: One group of students generated ideas on how to improve
communication between the deaf and the hearing members of the school community. The
group decided to take a closer look at one of the ideas. Show a ‘word of the day’ in sign
language during the morning TV announcements. Ask teachers and students to use it.
They used the ALoU (Advantages, Limitations [and ways to overcome them], and
Unique features) tool to improve and strengthen this idea. Their work is shown below.
Advantages:
    • Easy to manage and do within our time limits
    • Fun for everyone
    • People would actually be learning sign language a little at a time
    • Seeing and using sign language would become more accepted in school
    • No cost involved
    • Very visible
Limitations (and how to overcome them):
    • How to ensure that it would be used?
        1. Let teacher know the words ahead of time so that they can include ways to use
           them in their daily/weekly plans.
        2. Make a contest, like a spelling bee each month.

    • How to get participants to take it seriously?
      1. Do a “hush day” to help people get a firsthand understanding of the need for
         all to communicate.
      2. Bring in or create a school presentation using words and sign language to
         demonstrate the importance of diversity.
Unique Features:
      • Our deaf populations might be able to communicate with all others in the
         school without the need for an interpreter.
      • Sign language might be seen as a language just like other foreign languages
         and be taught as a subject.

Brainstorm other applications of the ALoU tool in your content area:




*
 All these tools for critical thinking (i.e. hits and hot spots, ALoU, PCA, SML, and the evaluation matrix)
are reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                       160
                           PCA* (Paired Comparison Analysis)
Definition: Paired Comparison Analysis: Setting priorities or ranking options through a
systematic analysis of all possible combinations.
Sample learning activity: The PCA tool can be used whenever students have a set of
appealing options to rank or prioritize. Once class used the PCA tool to help decide
which of several possible field trips they preferred to take, knowing that time and budget
limitations might make only one field trip possible for the group that year. Five options
were generally appealing to many of the class members: the zoo, a concert by the local
symphony orchestra, the nearby Inventor’s Hall of Fame and Invention Center, a local
newspaper office and a theme park.

The class discussed several important criteria to consider in evaluating the options,
including cost, time required, personal appeal and interest, relating the trip to other class
activities, and studies, learning value, and possibility of students visiting the site at
another time with friends, family and other groups. Each student in the class then
completed a PCA sheet. The trip to the fall of fame/invention center was the highest
ranking option, followed by the concert and the trip to the newspaper office.

The students prepared a proposal about their choices and were rewarded by winning
approval for trips to both the invention center and the symphony concert!

Brainstorm other applications of the PCA tool in your content area:




*
 All these tools for creative (i.e. brainstorming, force-fitting, attribute listing, SCAMPER, and the
morphological matrix) and critical thinking (i.e. hits and hot spots, ALoU, PCA, SML, and the evaluation
matrix) are reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                     161
                   Sequencing SML* (Short, Medium and Long-Term)
Definition: Organizing and focusing options by considering short, medium, or long-term
actions.
Sample learning activity: A group of middle school students decided to plan and
conduct a campaign in their school to make students aware of the importance of
community service by young people. The wanted to build interest by sharing information
about a particular project in their community for which the students could volunteer.
They used the Sequencing (SML) tool to arrange a number of possible action step in a
workable and appropriate order.
    • In the short term (and before they contacted any other agencies or the student
        body), the students needed to understand community service better themselves.
        They listed questions to ask representatives from one or more community
        agencies. Next, they researched agencies in their community that needed
        volunteers and would be receptive to middle school students and would also be
        interesting to students.
    • As a medium-range step, the group prepared and rehearsed the kind of interview
        they would do with representatives from the agencies, contacted one agency,
        conducted their interviews, and began doing some volunteer work themselves.
    • The students’ long-term steps involved creating an appealing presentation that
        incorporated information from their interviews and personal experiences to
        inform other students and to stimulate their involvement.


Brainstorm other applications of the Sequencing SML tool in your content area:




*
 All these tools for creative (i.e. brainstorming, force-fitting, attribute listing, SCAMPER, and the
morphological matrix) and critical thinking (i.e. hits and hot spots, ALoU, PCA, SML, and the evaluation
matrix) are reproduced with permission given by Dr. Donald J. Treffinger, Center for Creative Learning,
www.creativelearning.com. Retrieved January 30, 2009.




                                                                                                     162
                                    Evaluation Matrix
Definition: Using specific criteria in a systematic manner to evaluate each of several
options or possibilities to guide judgment and selection of options.
Sample learning activity: A social studies class is about to make a decision about a
service learning project and has brainstormed these five options: (1) Collect food for a
local food bank; (2) Tutor children after school; (3) Collect trash on a road near the
school; (4) Volunteer at a nursing home and (5) Collect clothing for the needy These
options are listed in the left column of the evaluation matrix.
The class then generated these five criteria:
        • Is the project easily implemented? 1 = difficult to implement; 5 = easy to
            implement
        • Is the project costly? 1 = high cost; 5 = no or low cost
        • Will the project require a lot of time to do? 1 = much time; 5 = little time
        • Does the project relate to our curriculum? 1 = does not relate to the
            curriculum; 5 = directly relates to our curriculum
        • Does the project require much preparation? 1 = much preparation; 5 = little
            preparation

                                              Criteria
  Options        Easily        Costly    Requires Relates to Requires a           Totals
              Implemented                a Lot of       the      Lot of
                                          Time      Curriculum Preparation
Collect             5            4          3            4          5               21
Food
Tutor               1            5           2            4             5           17
Children
Collect             3            2           4            3             5           17
Trash
Volunteer           3            4           3            4             5           19
at a
Nursing
Home
Collect             3            5           4            4             5           21
Clothing
for the
Needy

The class wrote a word or phrase to represent each criterion as column headings in the
matrix. They decided to use a 1-5 rating scale, with 1 as the lowest rating and 5 as the
highest rating. They evaluated each option against each criterion and totaled the ratings
for each option. They looked at the results and noticed that options (1) Collect Food and
(5) Collect Clothing each totaled 21. The class then discussed which of these options
was the best choice, and ultimately decided upon option (1) to collect food for a local
food bank.




                                                                                       163
Brainstorm other applications of the Evaluation Matrix tool in your content area:
Record your learning activity below:




Directions: Complete the Evaluation Matrix Chart below. Include (a) Your
options, (b) Your criteria with your rating scale.
                                             Criteria
  Options                                                                Totals




                                                                               164
                Additional Instructional Strategies and Activities to
              Empower Students to Think Big, or See the Larger Picture

       In theme five we focus our attention on learning activities designed to enable
students to think creatively and critically on the larger issues that confront us in the 21st
century problems such as war and peace, global warming, environmental protection,
hunger and poverty, ethics, universal health care, quality education, etc. One excellent
approach to meeting this goal of enabling students to understand the larger picture is to
implement authenic learning activities into the curriculum.

       Accordingly, in the next section we will cover the following questions and topics:
       • What is authentic learning?
       • How can the teacher and his/her students create authentic learning activities?
       • Sample authentic learning activities implemented across the curriculum




                                                                                          165
              What is Authentic Learning?*




          Learning where students construct
          meaning and produce knowledge.




           Learning where students use
           disciplined inquiry to construct
           meaning.




           Learning where students aim their
           work toward production of
           discourse, products, and
           performances that have value and
           meaning beyond success in school.




*   Taken from Newmann, F. M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1993). Five Standards of Authentic Instruction.
    Educational Leadership, 60 (7), 8-12..




                                                                                         166
                             Standards for Authentic Learning*



                                       Higher-Order Thinking
   Requires students to manipulate information and ideas in ways that transform their meaning,and
   implications such as when students combine facts and ideas in order to synthesize, generalize,
   explain , hypothesize or arrive at some conclusion or interpretation.



                                       Depth of Knowledge
 Knowledge is deep when students can make clear distinctions, develop arguments, solve problems,
 construct explanations, and otherwise work with relatively complex understandings.



                                    Connectedness to the World
 Learning activities are connected to the world when they relate to events, ideas and experiences that
 are outside of the classroom. Students address real-world problems (e.g. conflict, hunger, poverty,
 homelessness, global warming, ethics,etc. and implement actions that address these issues within and
 outside of the classroom.



                                    Substantive Conversation
 Conversation is substantive when there is considerable interaction about the ideas of a topic. Students
 share these ideas openly and freely, and respond directly to the comments of previous speakers. The
 dialogue builds coherently on participant’s ideas to promote improved collective understanding of a
 theme or topic



                               Social Support for Student Achievement
 Social support for student achievement exists when the climate of the class is one of mutual respect.
 Members operate upon the belief that all students can learn important knowledge and skills.




*Taken from Newmann, F. M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1993). Five Standards of Authentic Instruction.
Educational Leadership, 60 (7), 8-12.




                                                                                                         167
   How can the teacher and his/her students create authentic learning activities?

        Having created a community of thought-filled and respectful learners, the teacher
poses these simple but profound five questions:

           1. What subject/s have we been studying?
           2. What topic would you like to investigate next? Alternative question: Here
              are a set of topics that we can investigate next, which one seems most
              interesting to you?
           3. Given the topic that we have selected, what are some of your burning
              questions that we should investigate?
           4. While engaged in the investigation, the teacher poses this question: What
              useful product could we as a class create for others? This product would
              demonstrate our mastery of the topic investigated.
           5. With whom can/should we share what we have learned?

       The grapic organizer on the next page provides a flow chart of a five step
authentic learning process. This is follwed by:
            • differert types of student research activities
            • sample student developed mastery projects that are also useful products,
               and
            • a listing of sample target audiences.




                                                                                     168
AUTHENTIC LEARNING ACTIVITY FLOW CHART




            SUBJECT AREA




            TOPIC OR UNIT




       STUDENT GENERATED PROBLEM




            USEFUL PRODUCT




          TARGETED AUDIENCE




                                         169
     Sample Student Developed Mastery Projects that Are Also Useful Products23




            Map                                        Power point
            Questionnaire                              Slide show
            Scrap book                                 Written letter
            Discussion                                 Video
            Collection                                 Film
            Mock Trial                                 Panel discussion
            Play                                       Quiz show
            Role-play                                  Bulletin board
            Learning center                            Statue
            Machine                                    Campaign
            Invention                                  Terrarium
            Chart                                      Song
            Book                                       Rap
            News article                               Flag
            Diorama                                    Coat of arms
            Art work                                   Graphic organizer
            Musical performance                        Toy
            Project cube                               Debate
            Family tree                                Television program
            Display                                    Museum display
            Party/Celebration                          Cooking demonstration
            Fair                                       Poster
            Letter to the editor                       Lecture
            Puppet show                                Photographic display
            Painting                                   Play
            Puzzle                                     Dance
            Diagram                                    Game
            Timeline                                   Costume
            Graph                                      Test
            Demonstration                              Recipe
            Poem                                       Simulation
            Diary                                      Brochure
            Mobile                                     Flow chart
            Advertisement                              Story
            Mural                                      Fable
            Collage                                    Graph

            WHAT OTHER WAYS CAN STUDENTS DEMONSTRATE
             THEIR MASTERY OF THE SUBJECT MATTER?




23
 This list is taken from the Gifted and Talented Program Handbook for Middle School Resource Teachers,
Howard County (Maryland) Public Schools, 10910 Route 108, Ellicott City, MD 21043; (410) 313-6600.




                                                                                                 170
                                     Suggested Target Audiences24

       Governmental Agency                        Community Organization
       General Public                             Scientific Organization
       School Library                             Hospital
       Genealogical Society                       Nursery School
       Historical Society                         Parents
       County Executive                           Relatives
       Politician                                 Parent Teachers Association
       Non-Profit Corporation                     Friends
       Company                                    Police
       Museum                                     Neighbors
       Senior Citizens Group                      Theater
       Boy/Girl Scout Troop                       Fire Department
       Students                                   Library
       College                                    Humane Society
                        WHO ELSE MIGHT BE INTERESTED?




24
 This list is taken from the Gifted and Talented Program Handbook for Middle School Resource Teachers,
Howard County (Maryland) Public Schools, 10910 Route 108, Ellicott City, MD 21043; (410) 313-6600.




                                                                                                 171
          Sample Authentic Learning Activities25 in Different Content Areas

                                Social Studies and Related Subjects
      Topic/Unit             Sample Student                Useful                       Targeted
                                 Generated                Product                       Audience
                                  Problem
Civil War                  There is no             Spreadsheets on               -Howard County
(American History,         comprehensive list Union and                          Historical Society
Math, Language             of Howard County Confederate troops
Arts)                      soldiers who fought from the county,
                           for the Union or        listing residence and
                           Confederacy.            occupation when
                                                   possible
Recycling (Earth           White paper is being White paper                      The entire school
Science, Ecology           thrown away at our collection system                  population and the
Math, Art,                 school.                 and weekly pick-up            environment
Language Arts)                                     by paper company
Homelessness (All          When clients arrive A school-wide drive               Local shelter
subjects)                  at a shelter, often     to provide new
                           their first priority is towels and toiletries
                           to bathe.               for the local shelter
Homeless                   How can we help         -Collection                   Local village
(Sociology,                the homeless in our campaign                          associations
Psychology,                county?                 -Article                      Civic associations
Political Science,                                 -Directory of local           PTA groups
Economics, Math,                                   service agencies
Language Arts)
Traveling to               Young children             -Kids Kit which            -FAA
different places           unaccompanied by           give procedures for        -Community
(Geography,                an adult find              each airline (e.g.         -Consumer
Language Arts, Art,        traveling alone very       bathroom, pick-up)         Protection
Music)                     intimidating.              -Letter to the FAA         -Travel Agents
                                                      -Slide-tape
                                                      -Pamphlet




25
     This activity chart is based on actual authentic learning activities in which elementary and secondary
     students in the Howard County Public Schools have participated. For more information contact Mr.
     Robert O. Glascock, Curriculum Coordinator of Gifted/Talented Program, Howard County Public
     Schools, 10910 Route 108, Ellicott City, MD 21043; (410) 313-6600.




                                                                                                       172
                       Social Studies and Related Subjects
    Topic/Unit          Sample Student            Useful             Targeted
                            Generated            Product             Audience
                             Problem
Geography (Art,        Geographical         -Games                -Students
Computers,             facts and concepts   (Geopardy, the        -County
Language Arts)         are an area of       Geography Game)       Curriculum Office
                       weakness for         -Computer             -Board of
                       many people          software              Education
                                            -Article or           -Newspaper
                                            editorial             -Pre-school,
                                            -Geography club       nursery
                                            -Presentation         school
                                            -Lesson for pre-      -Social Studies
                                            school children       journal, magazine
Voter Registration     How can students     -Awareness            -High school
 (Political Science,   be encouraged to     campaign              students
 Civics, Sociology,    register to vote?    -Pamphlet             -League of
 Math,                                      -Mock registration    Women Voters
                                            voting                -Political parties
                                            -Presentation/
                                            Assembly
Vandalism at           How to decrease      -Pamphlet             -All students
 school (All           destruction of       -Video                -PTA
 subjects)             school property      -Survey
                                            Assembly
Archaeology            How can we teach     -Mini archaeology     -History Society
 (Language Arts,       students about the   museum                -Urban
Ind. Arts, Art)        methodology of       -Archaeological       Archaeology
                       the archaeologist?   dig                   Center
                                            -Simulation           -Students
                                            -Video, slide-tape,   -Media Center
                                            filmstrip             -Library
                                            -Kit for novice
                                            archaeologists
                                            -Mini-course
                                            -"How to Book"
                                            for the beginner




                                                                                  173
  Multiculturalism    People are not         -Book of              -Library
  (all subjects)      aware of the           contributions         -Civic Groups
                      contributions of       -Speakers Bureau      -Ethnic Groups
                      different              -Original play        -Schools
                      American groups        -Video, slide-tape,   -Government
                      in our county (e.g.    filmstrip             agencies
                      women, Laotian,
                      African, etc.)

                          Science and Related Subjects
    Topic/Unit         Sample Student             Useful           Targeted
                          Generated              Product          Audience
                           Problem
Guinea Pigs          Students who buy     A "How to Care for Pet shops which sell
(Biology, Zoology,   guinea pigs need a   Your New Guinea    guinea pigs
Language Arts)       quick, free handout Pig" brochure
                     on how to take care
                     of their guinea pig.
Environment,         Jet skis harm the    Working model of a Kawasaki Company
Pollution (Earth     environment.         solar-powered jet
Science, Physical                         ski (invention)
Education, Math,
Industrial Arts)
Trees (Botany,       Industry has           Seedlings with         Community
Math, Language       depleted state         brochure on their      organizations such
Arts, Art)           forests.               planting and care      as scout troops,
                                                                   church groups, and
                                                                   garden clubs
Horses (Zoology,    What facilities are     Directory (facility,   -Horse owners
Language Arts, Art) available for           location, costs,       -Library
                    boarding a horse?       comments)
Sea Animals         Do sea animals have     Article                -Aquarium
(Zoology, Math,     a shorter life          Graph                  -Water theme parks
Language Arts)      expectancy when in      Correlational Study    -Ranger Rick
                    captivity?                                     Magazine
                                                                   -World Magazine
Small pets           In what ways can       -Exercise center       -Pet stores
(Zoology, Art,       small caged animals    invention              -Pet owners
Language Arts,       (gerbils, hamsters)    -Filmstrip, video      -Ranger Rick
Industrial Arts)     get adequate           -Pamphlet              Magazine
                     exercise?              -Article               -World Magazine




                                                                                 174
                        Science and Related Subjects

    Topic/Unit        Sample Student           Useful               Targeted
                         Generated            Product               Audience
                          Problem
Air pollution       How to reduce air   -Article, editorial,   -Earth Wee planning
( Earth Science,    pollution from      pamphlet               committee
Ecology, Social     burning leaves      -"Stream               -Government
Studies, Language                       Awareness"             agencies
Arts, Art)                              coloring book          -World Magazine
                                        -Environmental club    -Civic Associations
                                        -Presentation during   -Newspapers
                                        Earth Week             -EPA
                                        -Original play         -Builders
                                        -Videotape             Associations

Space (Art,         Cracker float in     -An invention to      -NASA
Industrial Arts)    space                prevent crackers      -Astronauts
                                         from floating in      -Airlines
                                         space
Space Program       In what way has the -Position paper        -NASA
(Engineering,       space program        -Cartoon              -Congress/Senate
Physics, Math,      affected our         -Album                -Newspaper
Language Arts, Art) everyday life?
                    (What products
                    were developed
                    through space
                    exploration)
Dinosaurs           Where are dinosaurs -Model                 -Historical Society
(Geography,         located in our area? -Map                  -Archeological
Archeology,                              -Brochure for         Society
Paleontology, Art,                       student               -Newspaper
Ind. Arts,                               archeologists
Horses (Zoology,    In what way will     -Graph                -Stable
Economics, Math,    owning a horse       -Pamphlet             -Library
Computers, Art,     financially impact a -Animated Movie
Language Arts)      family?




                                                                              175
                       Mathematics and Related Subjects
     Topic/Unit      Sample Student          Useful                   Targeted
                        Generated           Product                   Audience
                         Problem
School Absenteeism What percentage of -Graph                     -Students
(All subjects)     students at our    -Presentation              -Parents-
                   school are absent                             -Board of Education
                   every day?                                    -Teachers
                                                                 -MD State Dept. of
                                                                 Education
School Graduation     What percentage of   -Graph                -Students
Rate (All subjects)   students graduate    -Presentation         -Parents-
                      from our school?                           -Board of Education
                                                                 -Teachers
                                                                 -MD State Dept. of
                                                                 Education


                                English/ Language Arts
    Topic/Unit           Sample Student          Useful               Targeted
                           Generated            Product               Audience
                            Problem
Short Story           Literature is a form Student short         See student
                      of communication; stories, essays,         publications
                      it should be read by poems, etc.
                      many people.

                             Health and Related Subjects
     Topic/Unit         Sample Student           Useful               Targeted
                           Generated            Product               Audience
                            Problem
Fire Safety          In what ways may     -Fire Safety Day       -Students
(Language Arts, Art, children remember -Book, pamphlet,          -Parents
Music, Drama)        what to do when a    video, filmstrip       -Fire Dept.
                     fire occurs at home? -Fire Safety Kit       -Children's
                                          -Mini-course           magazine
                                          -Fire Safety Poster
                                          -Play
                                          -Game for primary
                                          students
Eating disorders     How might we         -Learning Center       -Teen magazines
(Psychology,         inform students      -Article for parents   -Popular family
Language Arts, Art, about the dangers of and students            magazines
Ind. Arts, Music,    specific eating      -"Danger Sign"         -Health Dept.
                     disorders?           pamphlet               -School health dept.




                                                                                   176
Smoking (Math,       How might we help      -"Quit" pamphlet       -Concerned students
Economics,           children who are       -Awareness             -Health agencies
Language Arts,       concerned about        campaign               -School heath dept.
Drama)               loved ones who         -Presentation to       -American Lung
                     smoke?                 different groups       Ass.
                                            -"quit" Program        -Heart Ass.
                                                                   -PTA
Glasses              Many students who      -Glasses Club          -Students who wear
                     have glasses do not    -Pamphlet with         glasses
                     wear them.             strategies to increase -Ophthalmologists
                                            wearing time           -Parents
                                                                   -School health dept.
Drugs (Biology,     Students need           Establish Drug-Free The entire school
Biochemistry, Math, meaningful              Zones group for the population with
Social Studies)     involvement as          school                 special events for
                    alternative to drugs.                          feeder schools


                     Physical Education and Related Subjects
     Topic/Unit       Sample Student            Useful             Targeted
                         Generated             Product             Audience
                          Problem
 Baseball (Art,      Many young           -Baseball clinic     -Players
Language Arts)      children have poor    -Cartoon;"How to     -Library
                    baseball skills.     be a better baseball  -Coaches
                                         player
 Baseball Cards      How can we           -Article             -Children's
 ( Economics,       interest others to    -Baseball Card      magazines
Statistics,         collect baseball     Club                  -Students
Computer, Math,     cards?                -Video, slide-tape,  -Baseball card
Language Arts, Art)                      filmstrip on         shops
                                         methodologies for
                                         card collecting
                                          -Newsletter for
                                         collectors




                                                                                    177
                       Home Economics and Related Subjects
    Topic/Unit         Sample Student             Useful              Targeted
                           Generated             Product              Audience
                            Problem
Restaurant Food      How might parents -Family restaurant        -Maryland
(Nutrition, Biology) identify which       guide                  Restaurant
                     restaurants cater to -Article               Association
                     children?                                   -AAA
Sibling Rivalry      How might sibling -Pamphlet                 -Local counseling
(Psychology, Art,    rivalry be reduced? -Presentation           agency
Language Arts)                            -Puppet Show           -Students
                                          -Video, filmstrip      -PTA groups
                                          -Article
Baby-sitting         How can baby-        -Baby-sitting          -Secondary school
(Psychology, Art,    sitters be better    handbook               students
Language Arts)       trained?             -Mini-course           -Media Center
                                          training               -YMCA/HA
                                          -Video                 -Human Health and
                                          -Baby-sitters' Club    Welfare Association
Cosmetics            Hair and make-up     -Editorial position,   -Teen magazine
(Sociology,          articles in teen     paper, article         -Newspaper
Mathematics,         magazines rarely     -Graph                 -Civil Rights
Economics,           picture Black                               organizations
Language Arts)       females
Clothing (Art,       Adult designed       -Original design and   -Childrens' clothing
Music, Ind. Arts)    clothes for children prototype              manufacturers
                     often are not what   -Clothing patterns     -Pattern companies,
                     children like to     -Fashion Show          fabric stores
                     wear.                                       -Students
                                                                 -Parents




                                                                                     178
            DESCRIPTIVE                          CORRELATIONAL                      CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE
   Researchers systematically            Researchers investigate the          Researchers investigate an effect,
   collect data , and report the         possible relationship between        a condition or a phenomenon, and
   results. E.g. Collect data            two or more events, factors, or      then attempt to understand the
   comparing the salaries of             sets of data. E.g. What is the        cause(s). E.g. Why are there so few
   women doing the same jobs as          relationship between                 women chief executive officers of
   men.                                  comparable salaries for              Fortune 500 companies?
                                         women and job satisfaction?




                                   DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH *


             ACTION                              HISTORICAL                               EXPERIMENTAL
 Researchers investigate the           Researchers collect and              Researchers investigate the effect(s) of
 effect(s) of applying a new           evaluate data related to the         a treatment or intervention upon two
 skill, approach or treatment          past. They view original             comparable groups. One group (the
 in solving an existing                sources, and use secondary            experimental) receives the treatment,
 problem. E.g. What effect             o observations made by               and the other group (the control) does
 will the establishment of an          others. Data sources may             not. i.e. the experiment group receives
 on-site day care center have          include diaries, newspapers,         instruction with the teacher using
 on the workforce?                     letters, documents, land,            gender neutral language, while the
                                       census and immigration               control group does not. The dialogues
                                       records, etc. E.g. What              of students in the experimental and
                                       events led up to the passage         control groups are videotaped and
                                       of the 19th Amendment, the           analyzed to determine the effect(s) of
                                       amendment giving women               the treatment (i.e. the use of gender
     QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL
                                       the right to vote?                   neutral language on student discourse).
 Researchers investigate the
 effect(s) of a treatment or
 intervention without
  controlling all the variables.
 e.g. a smoking cessation
 advertisement is shown to a                                                         CASE OR FIELD STUDY
 mixed group of smokers (i.e.                                                 Researchers conduct a in-depth
 women and men). The                             DEVELOPMENTAL                investigation of one or more samples
 research question is: As a              Researchers investigate patterns     in a natural setting to increase the
 result of the advertisement,            and sequences of change over a       knowledge base of the field. E.g. A
 which people, if any, stop              period of time. E.g. The             nursery school class is studied to
 smoking?                                development of verbal and            determine whether male children are
                                         mathematical ability of boys and     treated differently than female
                                         girls.                               children.




*Adapted from the Gifted and Talented Program Handbook for Middle School Resource
 Teachers, Howard County (Maryland) Public Schools, 10910 Route 108, Ellicott City,
                         Maryland 21043; (410) 313-6600.



                                                                                                                179
                                Rules for General Brainstorming

    1.        Sat anything that comes to mind during the time limit.

    2.        You may repeat, modify or piggyback upon the ideas previously presented.

    3.        Do not discuss, praise, criticize or reject the ideas presented.

    4.        Select someone to record the ideas.

    5.        Evaluate ideas after brainstorming is complete.

                      Group Problem Solving Via Brainstorming*
Defintion: Students work together cooperatively in groups of four to discuss ideas and
solve problems. Students achieve a group solution for each problem; everyone must
understand the solution before the group continues.

                 Five Steps for Group Problem Solving Via Brainstorming

         1.     Define the problem.

         2.     Brainstorm alternatives to solving the problem.

         3.     Select the best alternative for solving the problem.

         4.     Implement the alternative chosen.

         5.     Evaluate the implementation of the alternative chosen.

         Note: If problem is not solved, revisit step 1.

                       Alternative Method to Group Problem Solving* :
                             (Formulate, Share, Listen and Create)

         1.      Formulate a solution individually.

         2.      Share your solution with your team mates.

         3.      Listen to the ideas of your team mates.

         4.      Create a new solution using the ideas of your team mates.


*
  Davidson, N. (1990). Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: A Handbook for Teachers: Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley.
*
  Adapted from Johnson, D., Johnson. R. & Smith, K. (1991). Active Learning: Cooperation in the College
Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company, 5,11-13.




                                                                                                  180
                          Guidelines for Group Problem Solving*

1.      Work together in groups of four.
2.      Cooperate with the other group members.
3.      Achieve a group solution for each problem.
4.      Make sure that everyone understands the solution before the group goes on.
5.      Listen carefully to others and try, whenever possible, to build upon their ideas.
6.      Share the leadership of the group.
7.      Make sure that everyone participate and no one dominates.
8.      Take turns writing problem solutions on the board.
9.      Proceed at a pace that is comfortable for your own group.



                         Group Process Questions for Discussion*

1.      Did your group achieve at least one solution to the problem or task?
2.      Did everybody understand the solution?
3.      Did people ask questions when they didn't understand?
4.      Did people give clear explanations?
5.      Did everyone have a chance to contribute ideas?
6.      Did people listen to each other?
7.      Did any one person take over the group?
8.      Did the group really work together on the task?
9.      Was there enough time for exploration?
10.     Other questions:


                          Group Inquiry or Group Discussion
       Students work together cooperatively to discover and verify principles, following
the guidelines for group problem solving.



                                Group Problem Posing
       Groups pose problems which other groups solve. This is sometimes known as
"send a problem" or " pass a problem."




*
 Davidson, N. (1990). Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: A Handbook for Teachers: Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley.




                                                                                              181
                            Send-A- Problem

         Assumptions:
1.   The group is divided into teams of four (quads)
2.   The leader has prepared one problem or case study per team.
3.   Three copies of each problem or case study are placed in a Send-A-Problem
     folder.


                       The Steps of Send-A-Problem

1.   Each team is given a Send-A-Problem folder into which are placed three
     copies of a problem or case study. The problem or case study is written on a
     form called the Send-A-Problem Worksheet. Each team removes the
     worksheet, reads and discusses the problem or case study.

     More than one team can deal with the same problem or case study.

2.   After discussing the problem, each team records on the Send-A-Problem
     Worksheet (a) ways of solving the problem, and (b) a recommended solution.
     The worksheet is then replaced into the Send-A-Problem folder.

3.   The Send-A-Problem folder with the completed worksheet is then passed to a
     new team who has not yet discussed that problem or case study.

4.   The new team opens the Send-A-Problem folder, removes a worksheet that
     has not been completed, reads and then discusses the problem or case study.

5.   Steps 2 and 3 are repeated.

6.   This third team then removes the two completed worksheets of the previous
     teams, studies their findings and recommendations and prepares a written/oral
     report. This report should include the main ideas of the previous teams, and
     offer a final recommendation.




                                                                               182
    The Steps of Send-A-Problem

1. Brainstorm alternative(s).

2. Record recommendation(s).

3. Send the problem to another quad.

4. Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3.

5. Prepare a report.




                                       183
                SEND-A-PROBLEM AS A MORAL
           MORAL DILEMMA IN THREE CONTENT AREAS

#1: Social Studies Moral Dilemma

You are an advisor to the President of the United States. 52 Americans have
been held hostage in Iran for 444 days. The relatives of the hostages are
pleading for the President to take some action. What advice would you give
the President?

1. What are your options?




2. What should you do? Explain.




3. What is your rationale for choosing this option? Explain.




                                                                        184
                            #2: Science Moral Dilemma

You are a biologist working on the AIDS disease at the National Institute of Health. Here
is the study you are conducting. 100 AIDS patients, the experimental group, are receiving
a new treatment, while another 100 AIDS patients, the control group, are receiving a
placebo, a substance like sugar that should have no effect on the patient. To your surprise,
after three months the disease of the experimental group of patients is being arrested while
the patients in the control group are getting progressively worse. The research calls for a
testing period of six months to learn if there are any long lasting harmful results. What
should you do?

1. What are your options?




2. What should you do? Explain.




3. What is your rationale for choosing this option? Explain.




                                                                                      185
                    #3: Physical Education Moral Dilemma

You are the starting halfback on your varsity football team. Your team won the county
championship and next week will play in the State championship game. You're in the
locker room after practice and notice that the quarterback is taking some pills. You ask
your friend, the starting quarterback, what he is doing and he confides in you. He tells
you not to tell the coach or anyone that he is taking steroids, an illegal drug to build
muscle. Your team needs the services of the quarterback. You know that if you report this
incident to the coach then your friend, the quarterback, will not play in the championship
game. You want to win the State championship game because a win could mean that you
might obtain a football scholarship to the college of your choice. What should you do?


1. What are your options?




2. What should you do? Explain.




3. What is your rationale for choosing this option? Explain.




                                                                                     186
         SEND-A-PROBLEM PROBLEM SOLVING FORMAT


              Define the problem in this box.




           Brainstorm alternatives in this box.




Select and then record the best alternative(s) in this box.




 Rationale: Explain your reason(s) for selecting your alternative(s)
             in this box.




                                                                       187
             SEND-A-PROBLEM PROBLEM SOLVING FORMAT
Record the problem or controversial issue in the box below.




Record the position that you are taking on this problem or contro-
versial issue in the circle below: Record your supporting arguments
on, by or between the spokes surrounding the circle.




                                                               188
                                THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD26

        Students can practice general scientific inquiry by using the following process:

1. Identify the problem; describe the subject or phenomenon under study.

2. Identify relevant information; identify what you already know about it.

3. Generate hypotheses;
      a. Try to create linkages or relationships with things you already know. Don't
      limit your thinking at this stage.
      b. Develop a principle, theory, or model about what you are studying.
      c. From your model, generate hypotheses, predictions, or questions to be
      answered.

4. Test hypotheses;
       a. Design a scientific procedure (e.g. an experiment) that will guide your
       investigation of your hypothesis, prediction, or question. Be aware of the
       assumptions you are making.
       b. Conduct the investigation and gather information.

5. State conclusions;
       a. Organize and analyze the information, relating it back to your hypothesis,
       prediction, or question. Check to see how consistent your findings are with what
       you know about the phenomenon.
       b. Determine the extent to which your findings can be used to predict other
       phenomena by designing new scientific procedures (e.g. new experiments).
       c. Determine what observations might disconfirm your hypothesis, and design
       new procedures as a further test.




26
  Marzano, R, Brand, R., et al. (1988) Dimensions of Thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development.




                                                                                                 189
                   HOW HIGH DOES A BALL
                       BOUNCE?                                •




        VARIABLES INVOLVED?

        ROLES IN THE EXPERIMENT

        DROP BALL

        OBSERVE

        RECORD

        COMPUTE

5 TRIALS PER HEIGHT

        AVERAGE

        COMPUTE B/H


•
    Davidson, N. (1990). Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: A Handbook for Teachers: Reading, MA:
    Addison-Wesley.




                                                                                              190
                      The Counting Rectangles Problem                              *




Problem #1:




        Count the number of rectangles in the figure above, which is a 5 X 1 rectangle.
        Develop a systematic counting procedure for counting the rectanges in an n x 1
        rectangle.


Problem #2:

        Count the number of rectangles in each of the following square figures:




        Predict the number of rectangtes in a 4 x 4 square, then an n x n square.

        How are the answers to problem 1 and 2 related? What connections do you see
        between the algebra and geometry of the two situations?




*
    Davidson, N. (1990). Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: A Handbook for Teachers: Reading, MA:
    Addison-Wesley.




                                                                                              191
                              The Handshake Problem:
                                 A Math Challenge

What will be the total number of handshakes in the room if
everyone in our class shakes hands with everyone else exactly
once?


            The Six Steps of Group Investigation                                       *




1. The class determines sub-topics of a multi-
   faceted problem and organizes into research
   groups.

2. Each group plans what it will investigate and
   how it will go about it.

3. All groups carry out their plans.

4. Groups plan their presentations.

5. Groups make their presentations.

6. Leader and students collaborate in the
   evaluation of the investigations.


*
 Yael and Shlomo Sharan (1992) present the history and theory of group investigation, and ways of
implementing this model in their book Expanding Cooperative Learning Through Group Investigation,
NY: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.




                                                                                                192
              The Six Steps of Group Investigation*




        1. SUB-TOPICS AND RESEARCH
           GROUPS

        2. PLANNING THE INVESTIGATION

        3. CARRYING OUT THE
           INVESTIGATION

        4. PLANNING THE PRESENTATIONS

        5. GROUP PRESENTATIONS

        6. EVALUATION

*SIMPLIFIED VERSION




* Yael and Shlomo Sharan (1992) present the history and theory of group investigation, and ways of
implementing this model in their book Expanding Cooperative Learning Through Group Investigation,
NY: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.




                                                                                                 193
              The Ten Steps of Co-op Co-op                                          *



          1. Participant-centered group
             discussion

          2. Selection of learning teams

          3. Teambuilding

          4. Team topic selection

          5. Sub-topic selection

          6. Sub-topic preparation

          7. Sub-topic presentations

          8. Preparation of team presentations

          9. Team presentations

        10. Evaluation
*
    Taken from Kagan, S. & Kagan, M (2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan
    Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com .
.




                                                                                            194
             BEFORE TEACHING YOUR TEAM MATES
              CONSIDER THESE FOUR QUESTIONS27

        1. What should we teach our team
           mates?

        2. How shall we teach our team
           mates, i.e. lecture, role-play, use
           Co-op Cards, use visuals, etc.?

        3. How will we know that our team
           mates have learned the
           information? Should we test them?

        4. What parts do we play when we
           teach our team mates?




27
 These four questions would apply for any learning activity which involves teaching a partner or team
mates, e.g. Partners, Group Investigation, Co-op Co-op, etc.




                                                                                                    195
      The Steps for Weird Objects

Assumptions:
1. Members form teams (4 to 6 members per
   team).
2. The leader gathers a set of (weird) objects
   whose purpose or function is unknown.
3. Each team selects one object.

Step One:     Brainstorm possible uses of the
              object.
Step Two:     Give the object a name.
Step Three:   Prepare a poster, skit, or
              advertisement promoting the object.




                                                 196
                                      Index
Topic                                                                          Page
Abstract Space                                                                   61
ALoU (Advantages, Limitations and Ways to Overcome Them), Unique
    Features                                                                    160
Alter-ego Role-Play                                                             124
Alternative Method to Group Problem Solving                                     179
ASCD Core Thinking Skills                                                        65
Asking Open Questions                                                            20
Assessment Forms                                                           129-132
    Creative Thinking Assessment Form                                           130
    Critical Thinking Assessment Form                                           132
    Self-Regulation Assessment Form                                             129
Assessment of Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                     98-100
Attribute Listing                                                          154, 156
Authentic Learning                                                         165-178
    Activities                                                             171-177
    Definition                                                                  165
    Flow Chart                                                                  168
    Standards                                                                   166
Axon                                                                         54-55
Bibliography                                                                    206
Bloom’s Taxonomy                                                             90-93
Body Language for Acceptance and Rejection                                       27
Brain Under High and Normal Emotional Stress                                     76
Brain/Mind is a Complex Organ that Can Function On Many Levels, and in
    Many Ways Simultaneously                                                     78
Brain/Mind is Influenced by Emotions                                             74
Brain/Mind Principles of Teaching Thinking                                   73-78
    Each Brain/Mind Learns in a Unique Way                                       73
    Brain/Mind is a Complex Organ that Can Function On Many Levels,
        and in Many Ways Simultaneously                                          78
    Brain/Mind is Influenced by Emotions                                         74
    Brain/Mind Requires Social Interaction                                       73
    Brain/Mind Searches for Patterns and Seeks Meaning                           77
Brain/Mind Requires Social Interaction                                           73
Brain/Mind Searches for Patterns and Seeks Meaning                               77
Brainstorming                                               112, 138, 154, 155, 179
    General Brainstorming Rules                                                 179
    Nominal Brainstorming                                                       138
    Round Robin Brainstorming                                                   112
    Round Table Brainstorming                                                   112
    Rules for Paired, Group or Classroom Brainstorming                          138
Checking for Understanding                                                       23
Circles of Our Classroom Values Activity                                         40
Classification                                                               58-60




                                                                              197
Cognitive Filters                                     133-136
   Survey on Male and Female Roles                        134
Cognitive Structures                                    53-57
   Axon                                                 54-55
   Dendrites                                            54-55
   How the Brain Exchanges Information                  53-55
   Neurons                                              53-55
   Neurotransmitters                                    53-55
   Synapse                                              54-55
Common Purpose                                             59
Common Traits                                              58
Community or Thoughtful and Respectful Learners           3, 5
Comparative Cognitive Structures                        57-63
   Recognition                                             57
   Conservation of Constancy                               58
   Classification                                       58-60
       Common Purpose                                      59
       Common Traits                                       58
       Frequency or Probability                            60
       Order                                               59
   Spatial Orientation                                  60-62
       Abstract Space                                      61
       Material Space                                      60
       Representational Space                              61
       Virtual Space                                       62
   Temporal Orientation                                 62-63
       Measuring Time                                      63
       Sequencing Events Over Time                         63
       Telling Time                                        62
Concept Mapping                                           121
Conflict Resolution Method (CRM)                           33
Consensus Building Through The APCA Process                34
Conservation of Constancy                                  58
Constructive Corrective Feedback (CCF)                  31-32
Constructive Negative Feedback (CNF)                    31-32
Constructive Positive Feedback (CPF)                       30
Convergent Questions                                      100
Co-op Cards                                               108
Co-op Co-op                                               193
Cooperative Concept Attainment                        117-120
Cooperative Learning                                  104-114
   Paired or Dyadic Cooperative Learning Procedures   105-108
       Co-op Cards                                        108
       Pair Question and Answer                           107
       Paired Webbing                                     108
       Paired Word Webbing                                107




                                                          198
       Paired Consensus                                                            106
       Pairs Check                                                             105-106
       Rally Round                                                                 106
       Reciprocal Teaching                                                         106
       Think-Pair-Share                                                            105
       Two Step Interview                                                          105
Cooperative Learning Group Formation Procedures                                109-111
       Corners/Clusters                                                            111
       Gallery Walk                                                                109
       Inside/Outside Circle                                                       109
       Line Up                                                                     110
       Mill and Freeze                                                             109
       One Stay, One Stray                                                         109
       Random Learning Pairs                                                       110
       Stand Up, Sit Down                                                          111
       Stir the Class                                                              109
       Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down, Arms Folded                                         110
       Turn to Your Neighbor                                                       110
       Yes, No, Maybe                                                              110
   Cooperative Learning Procedures in Quads                                    111-114
       Expert Jigsaw                                                               113
       Group Discussion with Talking Chips                                         113
       Think-Pair-Share                                                            113
       Numbered Heads Together                                                     112
       Partners                                                                    112
       Round Table                                                                 112
       Round Table Brainstorming                                                   112
       Simple Jigsaw                                                               111
       Team Projects                                                               114
       Team Webbing                                                                114
       Thee Step Interview                                                         112
       Think-Trix Cooperative Questioning                                          113
       Three Minute Review                                                         113
Cooperative Learning Procedures in Quads                                       111-114
Corners/Clusters                                                                   111
Counting Rectangles Problem                                                        190
Creative Thinking Assessment Form                                              130-131
Creative Thinking                                            130-131, 139-150, 154-159
   Definitions                                                                     139
   Dimensions of Creative Thinking (Torrance)                                  140-141
   Shifting Viewpoints, Perspectives and Associations                          142-144
       Five Activities to Enable Students to Perceive Shifting Viewpoints      146-150
           deBono’s Six Thinking Hats                                          146-147
           Opinion Charting                                                        148
           Spectrum of Opinion                                                     147
           Structured Controversy                                              149-150




                                                                                  199
            The Diversity Circles of_____                                       145
        Torrance, Paul on four dimensions of creative thinking              140-141
            Elaboration                                                         141
            Flexibility                                                         141
            Fluency                                                             140
            Originality                                                         141
        Tools for Creative Thinking                                         154-159
            Attribute Listing                                              154, 156
            Brainstorming                                                   154-155
            Force-Fitting                                                   154-155
            Morphological Matrix                                       154, 158-159
            SCAMPER                                                        154, 157
    Words or Phrases Associated with Creative Thinking                          139
Critical Thinking                                                  151-154, 159-164
    Critical Thinking Questions                                                 152
    Definitions/Perspectives                                                    153
    Tools                                                                   159-164
        ALoU (Advantages, Limitations and Ways to Overcome Them, and
            Unique Features)                                                    160
        Evaluation Matrix                                              154, 163-164
        Hits and Hot Spots                                                 154, 159
        PCA (Paired Comparison Analysis)                                   154, 161
        Sequencing: SML (Short, Medium, Long-Term)                         154, 162
    Words or Phrases Associated with Critical Thinking                          152
Creative Thinking Tools                                                     154-159
Critical Thinking Assessment Form                                           132-133
Critical Thinking Questions                                                     152
Critical Thinking Tools                                                     159-164
deBono’s Six Thinking Hats                                                  146-147
Deep Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                               98-100
Dendrites                                                                     54-55
Dimensions of Creative Thinking                                             140-141
Discussion Whip                                                                   46
Divergent Questions                                                             100
Dyads                                                                           101
Each Brain/Mind Learns in a Unique Way                                            73
EIAG Journal                                                                127-128
Elaboration                                                                     141
Emotion (Active) Listening                                                    25-26
Essential Questions                                                           79, 81
Evaluation Matrix                                                      154, 163-164
Expanded Taxonomy of Learning (Anderson and Krathwohl)                        94-96
Expectations Theory                                                               35
Expert Jigsaw                                                                   113
Five Activities to Enable Students to Perceive Shifting Viewpoints          146-150
Flexibility                                                                     141




                                                                                200
Fluency                                                                        140
Force-Fitting                                                             154-155
Four Basic Conversational Relationship Skills                                   18
Fourth R                                                                        15
Free Information                                                                19
Gallery Walk                                                                   109
Garner, Betty                                                               56-57
Giving and Receiving Feedback                                               30-32
Good and Welfare                                                                47
Graphic Organizers                                                          69-72
Group Discussion with Talking Chips                                            113
Think-Pair-Share                                                          105, 113
Group Investigation                                                       191-192
Group Problem Posing                                                           180
Group Problem Solving via Brainstorming                                        179
Group Process Questions for Discussion                                         180
Guidelines for Group Problem Solving                                           180
Handshake Problem                                                              191
Hits and Hot Spots                                                        154, 159
How High Does A Ball Bounce?                                                   189
How the Brain Exchanges Information                                         53-55
Inside/Outside Circle                                                          109
KWL                                                                            124
Learning Pairs                                              101, 105-108, 110, 112
Learning to Think Skillfully                                                    53
Line Up                                                                        110
Lyman, Frank                                                           81-85, 113
Material Space                                                                  60
McTighe, Jay                                                        79-81, 98-100
    Assessment of Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                98-100
    Deep Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                         98-100
    Six Facets of Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                98-100
Metacognitive Procedures/Activities                                       117-125
    Alter-ego Role-Play                                                   124-125
    Concept Mapping                                                       121-123
    Cooperative Concept Attainment                                        117-120
    KWL                                                                        124
    Pairs Check                                                                117
    Think-Alouds                                                               117
Mill and Freeze                                                                109
Moral Dilemmas                                                            183-185
Morphological Matrix                                                 154, 158-159
Multiple Intelligences                                                        8-12
Name Tent                                                                        7
Neurons                                                                     53-55
Neurotransmitters                                                           53-55




                                                                              201
New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives of R. Marzano and J. Kendall             97
Nominal Brainstorming                                                          138
Numbered Heads Together                                                        112
One Stay, One Stray                                                            109
Opinion Charting                                                               148
Order                                                                           59
Originality                                                                    141
Pair Question and Answer                                                       107
Paired Webbing                                                                 108
Paired Word Webbing                                                            107
Paired Consensus                                                               106
Paired or Dyadic Cooperative Learning Procedures                           105-108
Paired, Group or Classroom Brainstorming                                       138
Pairs Check                                                           105-106, 117
Paraphrasing                                                                    21
Partners                                                                       112
PCA (Paired Comparison Analysis)                                          154, 161
Peer Thinking                                                                  101
Plus, Minus, and Interesting                                                    48
Probing                                                                         20
Problem Solving                                                            179-195
    Alternative Method to Group Problem Solving                                179
    Co-op Co-op                                                                193
    Counting Rectangles Problem                                                190
    Group Investigation                                                    191-192
    Group Problem Posing                                                       180
    Group Problem Solving via Brainstorming                                    179
    Group Process Questions for Discussion                                     180
    Guidelines for Group Problem Solving                                       180
    Handshake Problem                                                          191
    How High Does A Ball Bounce?                                               189
    Moral Dilemmas                                                         183-185
    Send-A-Problem                                                         181-187
    Weird Objects                                                              195
Productive Habits of Mind                                                    41-43
Q-Matrix (Wiederhold)                                                        85-87
Quads                                                                          101
Questions                                                                      100
    Convergent                                                                 100
    Divergent                                                                  100
Rally Round                                                                    106
Random Learning Pairs                                                          110
Reciprocal Teaching                                                            106
Recognition                                                                     57
Reflection                                                          46-52, 115-135
    Activities                                                      46-52, 115-135




                                                                              202
        Discussion Whip                                        46
        For Processing Social Skills                       49-52
        Good and Welfare                                       47
        Plus, Minus and Interesting                            48
        Self-Disclosing Evaluation Statements                  47
        Sentence Completions                                   46
    Instruments                                          129-133
        Creative Thinking Assessment Form                130-131
        Critical Thinking Assessment Form                132-133
        EIAG Journal                                     127-128
        Reflection Ladder                                     126
        Self-Regulation Assessment Form                       129
Reflection Ladder                                             126
Relationship Skills                                        14-34
    Body Language for Acceptance and Rejection                 27
    Checking for Understanding                                 23
    Conflict Resolution Method (CRM)                           33
    Consensus Building Through The APCA Process                34
    Emotion (Active) Listening                             25-26
    Four Basic Conversational Relationship Skills          18-23
        Asking Open Questions                                  20
        Free Information                                       19
        Paraphrasing                                       21-23
        Probing                                                20
    Giving and Receiving Feedback                          30-32
        Constructive Corrective Feedback (CCF)             31-32
        Constructive Negative Feedback (CNF)               31-32
        Constructive Positive Feedback (CPF)                   30
    Respectful Listening                                       24
    Seven Step Model for Teaching A Relationship Skill         16
    Simple Listening                                       21-23
    Six Types of Conversational Data                           17
    Validating                                             28-29
Representational Space                                         61
Respectful Listening                                           24
Round Robin Brainstorming                                     112
Round Table                                                   112
Round Table Brainstorming                                     112
SCAMPER                                                  154, 157
Scientific Method                                             188
    How High Does A Ball Bounce?                              189
Self-Disclosing Evaluation Statements                          47
Self-Regulation Assessment Form                               129
Send-A-Problem                                           181-187
Sentence Completions                                           46
Sequencing Events Over Time                                    63




                                                             203
Sequencing: SML (Short, Medium, Long-Term)                                   154, 162
Seven Step Model for Teaching A Relationship Skill                                 16
Seven Step Model for Teaching A Thinking Skill                                     68
Shifting Viewpoints, Perspectives and Associations                            142-144
Simple Jigsaw                                                                     111
Simple Listening                                                                21-23
Six Facets of Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                        98-100
Six Types of Conversational Data                                                   17
Six Types of Data/Questions (Solomon)                                           87-88
Solomon, Richard (Six Types of Data)                                        17, 87-88
Spatial Orientation                                                             60-62
Spectrum of Opinion                                                               147
Stand Up, Sit Down                                                                111
Stir the Class                                                                    109
Structured Controversy                                                        149-150
Student Responsibilities to Themselves, Their Classmates and the Teacher           44
Survey on Male and Female Roles                                                   134
Synapse                                                                         54-55
Taxonomies                                                                      90-97
    Expanded Taxonomy of Learning (Anderson and Krathwohl)                      94-96
    New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives of R. Marzano and J. Kendall            97
    Taxonomy of B. Bloom                                                        90-93
Taxonomy of L. W. Anderson and D. R. Krathwohl                                  94-96
Taxonomy of B. Bloom                                                            90-93
Teaching Students to Think Big                                                136-195
    Creative Thinking                                                         139-159
        Definitions of Creative Thinking                                          139
        Dimensions of Creative Thinking                                       140-141
        Shifting Viewpoints, Perspectives and Associations                    142-144
            Five Activities to Enable Students to Perceive Shifting
            Viewpoints                                                        142-147
                deBono’s Six Thinking Hats                                    146-147
                Opinion Charting                                                  148
                Spectrum of Opinion                                               147
                Structured Controversy                                        149-150
                The Diversity Circles of_____                                     145
        Torrance, Paul on four dimensions of creative thinking                140-141
            Elaboration                                                           141
            Flexibility                                                           141
            Fluency                                                               140
            Originality                                                           141
        Tools for Creative Thinking                                           154-159
            Attribute Listing                                                154, 156
            Brainstorming                                                     154-155
            Force-Fitting                                                     154-155
            Morphological Matrix                                         154, 158-159




                                                                                 204
            SCAMPER                                                     154, 157
        Words or phrases associated with creative thinking                   139
Team Projects                                                                114
Team Webbing                                                                 114
Telling Time                                                                  62
Temporal Orientation                                                       62-63
The Diversity Circles of_____                                                145
Thee Step Interview                                                          112
Think-Alouds                                                                 117
Thinking About One’s Thinking                                           115-135
Thinking Big                                                            136-195
Thinking Processes                                                        53, 66
Thinking Skills                                                            64-65
    ASCD Core Thinking Skills                                          53, 64-65
    Seven Step Model for Teaching A Thinking Skill                            68
Thinking to Learn                                                        79-100
Thinking Skillfully                                                        53-78
Thinking Together                                                       101-114
Think-Pair-Share                                                        105, 113
Think-Trix (Lyman)                                                   81-85, 113
Think-Trix Cooperative Questioning                                           113
Three Minute Review                                                          113
Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down, Arms Folded                                          110
Tools for Creative and Critical Thinking                                154-164
Tools for Creative Thinking                                             154-159
    Attribute Listing                                                   154, 156
    Brainstorming                                                       154-155
    Force-Fitting                                                       154-155
    Morphological Matrix                                           154, 158, 159
    SCAMPER                                                             154, 157
Tools for Critical Thinking                                             159-164
    ALoU (Advantages, Limitations and Ways to Overcome Them, and
        Unique Features)                                               154, 160
    Evaluation Matrix                                              154, 163-164
    Hits and Hot Spots                                                 154, 159
    PCA (Paired Comparison Analysis)                                   154, 161
    Sequencing: SML (Short, Medium, Long-Term                          154, 162
Torrance, Paul on four dimensions of creative thinking                  140-141
    Four dimensions of creative thinking                                140-141
        Elaboration                                                         141
        Flexibility                                                         141
        Fluency                                                             140
        Originality                                                         141
Traditional Classroom                                                         5
Treffinger, Donald                                                      154-164
    Creative Thinking Tools                                             154-159




                                                                            205
        Attribute Listing                                                154, 156
        Brainstorming                                                     154-155
        Force-Fitting                                                     154-155
        Morphological Matrix                                         154, 158-159
        SCAMPER                                                          154, 157
    Critical Thinking Tools                                               159-164
        ALoU (Advantages, Limitations and Ways to Overcome Them, and
            Unique Features)                                             154, 160
        Evaluation Matrix                                            154, 163-164
        Hits and Hot Spots                                               154, 159
        PCA (Paired Comparison Analysis)                                 154, 161
        Sequencing: SML (Short, Medium, Long-Term)                       154, 162
Turn to Your Neighbor                                                         110
Two Step Interview                                                            105
Unit Questions                                                              80-81
Validating                                                                  28-29
Virtual Space                                                                  62
Visual Cueing                                                               82-88
Weird Objects                                                                 195
Wiederhold, Chuck                                                           85-87
Wiggins, Grant                                                      79-81, 98-100
    Assessment of Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                98-100
    Deep Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                         98-100
    Six Facets of Understanding (G. Wiggins and J. McTighe)                98-100
Words or Phrases Associated with Critical Thinking                            152
Words or Phrases Associated with Creative Thinking                            139
Yes, No, Maybe                                                                110




                                                                             206
                                    Bibliography

Albert, Linda. (1989) A Teacher's Guide to Cooperative Discipline: How to Manage
   Your Classroom and Promote Self- Esteem. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance
   Service.
Anderson, L.W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (Editors) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning,
   Teaching and Assessing Taken from www.ntlf.com/Library/
   Expanded%20Taxonomy%20of%20Learning.doc Retrieves January 30, 2009.
Aronson, E., Blaney, N. Stephan, C., Sikes, J. & Snapp, M. (1978) The Jigsaw
   Classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Aronson, E., N. Blaney, C. Stephan, J. Sikes and M. Snapp (1978). The Jigsaw
   Classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Baron, J., and Sternberg, R. (Eds.). (1987). Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and
   Practice. NY: Freeman
Bell, J. (1997). Teaching Students to Think Critically by Using Active Learning and
   Cooperative Learning, Presentation at the First Annual Lilly Conference on College
   Teaching, Towson, Maryland, March 4, 1997.
Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (1991). Blueprints for Thinking in the Cooperative
   Classroom. Palatine, IL: Skylight Publishing.
Bennett, B., Rolheiser-Bennett, C., & Laurie Stevahn (1991). Cooperative Learning:
   Where Heart Meets Mind. Toronto, Ontario: Educational Connections.
Beyer, B. (1987). Practical Strategies for the Taching of Thinking. Boston, MA: Allyn
   and Bacon.
Beyer, B. (1991). Teaching Thinking Skills: A Handbook for Secondary School
   Teachers. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Cognitive domain). NY:
   Longman.
Brody, C. & Davidson, N. (1998) (Eds.). Professional Development for Cooperative
   Learning: Issues and Approaches. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Brookfield, S. (1987). Developing Critical Thinkers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Brooks, J. G., and Brooks, M. G. (1993). In Search of Understanding: The Case for
   Constructivist Classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
   Curriculum Development.
Brubacher, M, Payne, R. & Rickett, K (1990). Perspectives on Small Group Learning:
   Theory and Practice. Oakvale, Ontario: Rubicon Publishing Inc.
Caine, N. Cane, R , G, McClintic, G, C. & Klimek, K. J. (2009). 12 Brain/mind Learning
   Principles in Action: Developing Executive Functions of the Human Brain. Second
   Edition.Thousand Oaks: CA: Corwin Press.
Caine, R. & Caine, G. (1997). Education on the Edge of Possibility. Alexandria, VA:
   Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Caine, R., & Caine, G. (1991). Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain.
   Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Caine, R.N., Caine, G. McClintic, C & Klimek, K. (2005). 12 Brain/Mind Learning
   Principles in Action: The Fieldbook for Making Connections, Teaching and the
   Human Brain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.




                                                                                 207
Clarke, Judy ,Wideman, R. & Eadie, S. (1990) Together We Learn. Toronto: Prentice-
    Hall.
Clyde, J.A. & Hicks, A. (Summer, 2008). Immersed in Inquiry. Thinking Skills NOW
Cohen, E. G. (1994). Designing Groupwork:Strategies for the Heterogeneous
    Classroom. Second Edition. NY: Teachers College Press, 1986.
Cohen, Elizabeth (1986, second edition 1994). Designing Group Work: Strategies for
    the Heterogeneous Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia
    University.
Corbin, B. (2008). Unleashing the Potential of the Teenage Brain: 10 Powerful Ideas.
    Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Costa, A. (Ed.). (1985). Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking.
    Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Costa, A., & Lowery, L. (1989). Techniques for Teaching Thinking. Pacific Grove, CA:
    Midwest Publications.
Costa, Arthur L. (1991). Teaching For, of and About thinking. In Developing Minds: A
    Resource Book for Teaching Thinking. Revised Edition. Alexandria, VA: Association
    for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1, 31-34.
Crawford Beamon, G. (2007). Brain-Based Teaching with Adolescent Learning in Mind.
    Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Dalton, J. (1985). Adventures in Thinking. Melbourne, Australia: Thomas Nelson
    Australia.
Dantonio, M. (1990). How Can We Create Thinkers? Questioning Strategies that Work
    for Teachers. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
Davidson, N. (1990) Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: A Handbook for Teachers.
    Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Davidson, N., & Worsham, T. (1992) (Editors). Enhancing Thinking Through
    Cooperative Learning. New York: Teachers College Press.
Davidson, Neil (1994, second edition 2002). Cooperative and Collaborative Learning:
    An Integrative Perspective. In Thousand, J. Villa, R. & Nevin, A. (Eds). Creativity
    and Collaborative Learning: A Practical Guide for Empowering Teachers and
    Students. Baltimore, MD. Brookes Publishing, 13-30.
de Bono, E. (1991). Teaching Thinking. London: Penguin.
de Bono, Edward (1985). Six Thinking Hats. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
Dewey, J. (1991). How We Think. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
Dishon, D. & Wilson O'Leary, P. (1998) Third Edition. A Guidebook for Cooperative
    Learning: A Technique for Creating More Effective Schools. Holmes Beach, Florida:
    Learning Publications.
Educational Leadership ( November, 1998) . How The Brain Learns. Alexandria, VA:
    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 56 (3).
Educational Leadership (February, 2008). 65 (5). Teaching Students to Think.
    Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 65 (5).
Educational Leadership (October, 2006). Reading, Writing and Thinking. 64 (2).
Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (1996). Strategies for Teachers: Teaching Content and
    Thinking Skills. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Ellis, S. S. & Whalen, S. F. (1990) Cooperative Learning: Getting Started. NY:
    Scholastic Professional Books.




                                                                                   208
Fogarty, R. & Bellanca, J. (1989). Patterns for Thinking, Patterns for Transfer: A
   Cooperative Team Approach for Critical and Creative Thinking in the Classroom.
   Palatine, IL: IRI Group.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. NY: Basic
   Books.
Garner, Betty K. (2007). Getting to Got It! Helping Struggling Students to Learn How to
   Learn. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Gibbs, J. (1989): Tribes: A Process for Social Development and Cooperative Learning.
   Santa Rosa, CA: Center Source Publications.
Graves, N. & Graves,T. (1990) What is Cooperative Learning? Tips for Teachers and
   Trainers. Santa Cruz, CA: Cooperative College of California.
Gregory, G.H. & Parry T. (2006). Designing Brain-Compatible Learning. Third Edition.
   Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Hassard, J. (1990) Science Experiences. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing
   Company.
Hyerle, D. (1996). Visual Tools for Constructing Knowledge. Alexandria, VA:
   Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Jensen, E. (2008). Brain-Based Learning: The New Paradigm of Teaching. Second
   Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Jensen, E. (1998). Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA:Association for
   Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1989) Leading the Cooperative School. Edina, MN:
   Interaction Book Company.
Johnson, D. , Johnson, & Smith, K. A. (1991). Active Learning: Cooperation in the
   College Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company, 5, 11-13.
Johnson, D. W., Johnson , R. & Holubec, E. (1986) Circles of Learning: Cooperation in
   the Classroom . Revised Edition. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R (1992). Creative Controversy: Intellectual Challenge in the
   Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R. (1989) Cooperation and Competition: Theory and
   Research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
Kagan, S. & Kagan, M. (1998). Multiple Intelligences: The Complete MI Book. San
   Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com .
Kagan, S. & Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA:
   Kagan Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com .
Kohn, A. (1986) No Contest: The Case Against Competition. Boston, MA: Houghton-
   Mifflin.
Krathwohl, D.R.; Bloom, B.S. & Masia, B.B. (1964). Taxonomy of Educational
   Objectives-The Classification of Educational Goals: Handbook II: Affective Domain.
   New York: McKay.
Lazear, D. (1991). Seven Ways of Knowing: Teaching for Multiple Intelligences.
   Palatine, IL: Skylight Publishing.
Lazear, D. (1991). Seven Ways of Teaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple
   Intelligences. Palatine, IL: Skylight Publishing.
Loken, B. (Summer, 2008). Differentiating Math Through Expeditions. Thinking Skills
   NOW (online only) Educational Leadership, 65 (9).




                                                                                  209
Lyman, F. (1981). The Responsive Classroom Discussion: The Inclusion of All Students.
    Mainstreaming Digest. University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.
Lyman, F. (1987) The Think Trix: A Classroom Tool for Thinking in Response to
    Reading.In Issues and Practices, Yearbook of the State of Maryland International
    Reading Association Council, 4, 15-18.
Marzano, R. et al. (1988). Dimensions of Thinking: A Framework for Curriculum and
    Instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
    Development.
Marzano, R. et al. (1991). Dimensions of Learning: Teacher'sManual. (Draft version).
    Aurora, CO: McRel Institute.
Marzano, R. J. & Kendall, J. S. (2007), The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
    Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Marzano, R. J. (1992). The Many Faces of Cooperation Across the Dimensions of
    Learning. Davidson, N. & Worsham, T. (Eds.) Enhancing Thinking Through
    Cooperative Learning. NY: Teachers College Press, 7-28.
McCabe, M. E. & Rhodes, J. (1988) The Nurturing Classroom: Developing Self-Esteem,
    Thinking Skills and Responsibility Through Simple Cooperation. Willits, CA: ITA
    Publications.
Meyers, C. (1986). Teaching Students to Think Critically. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Moorman, C. & Dishon, D. (1983). Our Classroom: We Can Learn Together. Bay City,
    MI: Personal Power Press.
Newman, S. & Allen D. (Summer, 2008). Senior Studies: Life Prep 101 Skills NOW
    (online only) Educational Leadership, 65 (9).
Newmann, F. & Thompson, J. (1987). Effects of Cooperative Learning on Achievement
    in Secondary Schools: A Summary of Research. Madison, WI: National Center on
    Effective Secondary Schools.
Newmann, F. M. & Wehlage, G. G. (1993). Five Standards of Authentic Instruction.
    Educational Leadership, 60 (7), 8-12.
Ornstein, R., & Thompson, R. F. (1984). The Amazing Brain. Boston, MA: Houghton
    Mifflin.
Palinscar, A.S., and Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-
    fostering and Comprehension-monitoring Activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1,
    117-175.
Presseisen, B. (1987). Thinking Skills Throughout the Curriculum: A Conceptual
    Design. Bloomington, IN: Pi Lambda Theta.
Ramsey, D. L. (1998). Making Connections: Structures and Strategies for Integrated
    Teaching and Learning, Morristown, NJ: Center for Lifelong Learning, Inc.
Reid, J., Forrestal. P & Cook, J. (1989). Small Group Learning in the Classroom.
    Scarborough, Australia: Chalkface Press.
Roy, P. A. (1990) Cooperative Learning Groups: Students Learning Together.
    Wilmington, DE: Patricia Roy Company.
Schmuck, R. A. & Schmuck, P.A. (1988). Group Processes in the Classroom. Dubuque,
    IA: William C. Brown Company.
Schmuck, Richard & Schmuck, Patricia. (2000, Eighth edition). Group Processes in the
    Classroom. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark Publishers.




                                                                                210
Schniedewind, N. & Davidson E. (1987). Cooperative Learning-Cooperative Lives: A
    Sourcebook of Learning Activities for Building a Peaceful World. Boston, MA: W.C.
    Brown Company.
Schniedewind, N. & Davidson, E. (1983). Open Minds to Equality: A Sourcebook of
    Learning Activities to Promote Race, Sex, Class and Age Equity. Englewood Cliffs,
    NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Sharan, S. (1980). Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects
    on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations. Review of Educational Research.
    241-271.
Sharan, S. (1990) Cooperative Learning: Theory and Research. West Port: CT: Praeger
    Publishers.
Sharan, S. (Ed.) (1993). Handbook of Cooperative Learning Methods. Westport, CT:
    Greenwood.
Sharan, S. & Sharan, Y. ( 1992) Expanding Cooperative Learning Through Group
    Investigation, NY:Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
Sharan, S. (1980). Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects
    on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations. Review of Educational Research,
    150, 241-271.
Shaw, V. (1992). Communitybuilding in the Classroom. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Kagan
    Cooperative Learning.
Sherwood, J. J., & Gildewill, J.C. (1973) Planned Renegotiation: A Norm-Setting
    OD Intervention. The 1973 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators. In
    .Jones, J.E. & Pfeiffer, W. (Editors). San Diego, CA: University Associates,
    1973, 195-202.
Silver, H. F., Strong, R. W. & Perini, M. J. (2007). The Strategic Teacher: Selecting the
    Right Research-Based Strategy for Every Lesson. Alexandria, VA: Association for
    Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Slavin, R. (1983) . When Does Cooperative Learning Increase Student Achievement?
    Psychological Bulletin. 94, 429-445.
Slavin, R. (1990) Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice. Englewood
    Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Slavin, R. (December, 1989/January 1990). Research on Cooperative Learning:
    Consensus and Controversy. Educational Leadership. 47(4), 52-55.
Slavin, Robert. (1990). Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research, and Practice.
    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Solomon, R, & Solomon, E. (1987). The Handbook for the Fourth R II. Relationship
    Skills for Group Discussion and Process. Volume 2, Columbia, MD: National
    Institute for Relationship Training, Inc.
Solomon, R. & Davidson, N (December, 1990). Cooperative Learning and the
    Relationship Skills: Tools for Positive Social Development. Cooperative Learning,
    11 (2), 25-27.
Solomon, R. & Solomon, E. (1987). The Handbook for the Fourth R: Relationship Skills.
    Volume 1, Columbia,MD: National Institute for Relationship Training, Inc.
Solomon, R. & Solomon, E. (2009). Toolbox for Teachers and Mentors: Moving
    Madrichim to Mentor Teachers and Beyond. Tucson, AZ: Wheatmark Publishers.




                                                                                    211
Solomon, R., Davidson, N. & Solomon, E. (1993). The Handbook for the Fourth R III:
    Relationship Activities for Cooperative and Collegial Learning. Volume 3.
    Columbia, MD: National Institute for Relationship Training, Inc.
Solomon, R., Davidson, N. & Solomon, E. (2003). Mentoring Teachers in a Professional
    Learning Community: Participant’s Guide. Tucson. AZ: Fourth R Consulting, LLC.
Sousa, D.A. (2006). How the Brain Learns. Third Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Press.
Springer, Leonard, Stanne, Mary Elizabeth & Donovan, Samuel S.. (1999). Effects of
    Small-Group Learning on Undergraduates in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and
    Technology: A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research. (69), 21-51.
Sternberg, R. (1994). (Ed.). Thinking and Problem Solving. NY: Academic Press.
Sternberg, R. J. (1983). How We Can Teach Intelligence. Philadelphia, PA: Research
    for Better Schools.
Swartz, R., & Parks, S. (1992). Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking into Content
    Instruction: A Lesson Design Handbook. Pacific Grove, CA: Critical Thinking
    Press and Software.
Swartz, R., & Perkins, D. (1990). Teaching Thinking: Issues and Approaches. Pacific
    Grove, CA: Midwest Publications.
Sylwester, R. (1995). A Celebration of Neurons: An Educator's Guide to the Human
    Brain. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Torrance, P. (1979). The Search for Satori and Creativity. Buffalo, NY: Creative
    Education Foundation.
Treffinger, D. J. (Summer, 2008). Preparing Creative and Critical Thinkers. NOW
    (online only) Educational Leadership, 65 (9).
Volger, K. E. (Summer, 2008). Asking Good Questions. NOW (online only) Educational
    Leadership, 65 (9).
Webb, Noreen (1991). Task-Related Verbal Interaction and Mathematics Learning in
    Small Groups. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 22(5), 366-389.
Weiderhold, C (1998). Cooperative Learning & HiIgher-Level Thinking. San Clemente,
    CA: Kagan Publishing, www.KaganOnline.com .
Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J.(1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA:
    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Willis, J. (2006). Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning: Insights from a
    Neurologist and Classroom Teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
    and Curriculum Development.
Willis, J. (2007). Brain-Friendly Strategies for the Inclusion Classroom: Insights from a
    Neurologist and Classroom Teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
    and Curriculum Development.




                                                                                    212

								
To top