ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting_ June 25-28_ Honolulu_ Hawaii

Document Sample
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting_ June 25-28_ Honolulu_ Hawaii Powered By Docstoc
					ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 2A, Traffic Signal Warrants & Equipment, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Overall Intersection Operational and Safety Impacts of Left Turn Phasing
Author(s): Joe Olson
City of Longmont Public Works and Water Utilities
408 3rd Avenue
Longmont, CO 80501
Phone: (303) 651-8323. Fax: (303) 651-8696. E-mail:
Other Authors: Bill Hange, Joe Henderson, John LaSala, Joe Paulson, Mohan Garakhalli
         There are various rules of thumb, guidelines and recommendations available to transportation
professionals to use for determining when to implement protected or protected/permitted left turn phasing.
Generally speaking, these guidelines recommend the use of left turn phasing based on left turn volume,
opposing through volume, left turn delay and/or left turn accident history. These guidelines have a
shortcoming in that they do not take into account the operational and safety impacts on the intersection as
a whole related to the use of left turn phasing. They may lead to the installation of left turn phasing that
has a detrimental impact on other movements at an intersection and on the intersection as a whole. These
impacts could be in the form of increased delays or increased accidents for other movements. The purpose
of this study is to compare the safety and operational effects of left turn phasing options by looking at the
impacts to entire intersections rather than just to the left turn movement in question.

Session: 2A, Traffic Signal Warrants & Equipment, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Framework for Prioritizing the Installation of Warranted Traffic Signals
Author(s): Jim Hanson, P.E.
4601 DTC Blvd., Suite 300
Denver, CO 80237
Phone: (303) 221-7275. Fax: (303) 221-7276. E-mail:
Presented by Charles Meyer, Colorado DOT Region 3
Other Authors: Charles Meyer, P.E.; Jim Nall, P.E.
          Public traffic engineering agencies continually struggle with the allocation of scarce resources.
Agencies must determine where to spend limited funds to improve traffic operations and safety.
Additionally, decisions must be made consistently and based on sound engineering judgment to avoid
liability concerns.
          A methodology for prioritizing where to install warranted traffic signals based on engineering
criteria was developed for Region 3 of the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) as a tool to
help decision makers determine where best to use limited assets. The development of the ranking
strategies will be presented. The presentation will discuss: factors currently used by various public
agencies to prioritize traffic signal installations and the measures chosen for use in the CDOT systems.
          In addition to the ranking methodologies, a database was developed for Region 3 to calculate
intersection ranking scores, prioritize the intersections by the ranking score, and manage the data required
for prioritizing the intersections. The database was designed to allow Region 3 to easily enter and update
data as well provide a way to quickly and easily create prioritization lists for various locations in their
roadway system. Examples from the database will be presented to demonstrate how this tool simplifies
the ranking process for Region 3, helping to ensure continued use of the ranking system.

Page 1 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 2A, Traffic Signal Warrants & Equipment, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Applying MUTCD 2003 Traffic Signal Warrants & Citywide Prioritization Points
Author(s): Monica M. Suter, P.E., T.E., P.T.O.E.,
City of Santa Ana, CA, Public Works Agency, Traffic & Transportation Engineering
20 Civic Center Plaza, M-43
Santa Ana, CA 92701
Phone: (714) 647-5645. Fax: (714) 647-5616. E-mail:
        This paper highlights the MUTCD 2003 traffic signal warrants and point system utilized in the
City of Santa Ana, California, for its Annual Traffic Signal Priority Study. The basis for how the point
system has been developed is described along with the point values assigned for each type of warrant for
new and left-turn traffic signal warrants. Additionally, customized Excel spreadsheet forms have been
developed for new traffic signal and left-turn delay warrants. These will be shared in the presentation and
have been prepared from the practitioner’s perspective along with information that was considered with
regard to the City’s actual police department collision database reporting procedures.
        The methods and procedures applied are presented and further graphical illustrations will also be
shared in the presentation.

Session: 2A, Traffic Signal Warrants & Equipment, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Pedestrian Countdown Heads-The Final Countdown
Author(s): Chad Veinot
Albert Grover & Associates
211 E. Imperial Highway
Fullerton, CA 92835
Phone: 714-992-2990. Fax: 714-992-2883. E-mail:
Other Authors: Mark Miller, City of Fullerton
         Southern California has installed pedestrian countdown heads at numerous intersections. The
countdown heads have been installed at intersections near Colleges and Schools, at high pedestrian
locations near the beach and include one intersection in the City of Fullerton with a "scramble" pedestrian
         According to the California Vehicle Code Section 21456(b): When a pedestrian control signal
showing a Flashing or steady "DON'T WALK" or "WAIT" or approved "Upraised Hand" symbol. No
pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal, but any pedestrian who has
partially completed crossing shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety zone or otherwise leave the roadway
while the "WAIT" or "DON'T WALK" or approved "Upraised Hand" symbol is showing.
         However, observation in the field indicates pedestrians either do not know the law or refuse to
obey it. The question is, do the pedestrian countdown heads encourage pedestrians to break the law or do
they help them obey the law.
         This paper and presentation will describe pedestrian behavior at intersections where they are
installed and get feedback from Traffic Engineers, Law Enforcement and Crossing Guards, then conclude
the effectiveness of the Countdown Heads.

Page 2 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 2B, Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning & Design, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: HCM2000 Unsignalized Pedestrian Crossing Methodology – An Overview of Techniques and
Comparison of Computed Delay with Observed Delays in Homer, Alaska
Author(s): Randy Kinney, P.E., PTOE
10200 Jackpot Bay Circle
Anchorage, AK 99515
Phone: 907 346-2373. Fax: 907 349- 7496. E-mail:
Other Authors: Ahmed Abdel-Rahim, Ph.D., P.E., University of Idaho,
        The paper presents results from a study in Homer, Alaska in which the HCM2000 delay and
Level of Service (LOS) values were compared to pedestrian delay values measured at several heavily
used, unsignalized pedestrian crossings against free-flow traffic. The results show that HCM2000
estimates were comparable to field measured delay at low and moderate levels of traffic volumes where
the headway distribution follows a random state. As traffic volumes increase and approach the
intermediate headway distribution state, the difference between field data and the HCM 2000 estimates
increases and the HCM results should be used with caution. The paper discusses possible modifications to
the HCM2000 model to account for changed flow state which may yield more-accurate pedestrian delay

Session: 2B, Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning & Design, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: In-Roadway Impactable Pedestrian Warning Signs, and Crosswalk Pavements Lights – ITE Public
Agency Council Surveys
Author(s): Joern Kroll, Ph.D.
City and County of San Francisco, Municipal Transportation Agency
1 So. Van Ness Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94102
Phone: 415-554-2347 (new number will most likely be: 415-701-4555). Fax: 415-554-2352. E-mail:
Other Authors: Jonathan Swae, Portland State University
         In April 2005, the ITE Public Agency Council conducted surveys of public agencies to solicit
data and comments on two innovative pedestrian safety devices: In-Roadway Impactable Pedestrian
Warning Signs, and Crosswalk Pavement Lights (for photos, see page 8). Joern Kroll and several staff
members at San Francisco’s Municipal Transportation Agency, Department of Parking and Traffic, had
developed the surveys. ITE made these two surveys available in online format to Public Agency Council
members. This paper summarizes the main results of the survey responses.

Session: 2B, Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning & Design, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Modeling and Evaluation of the Effects of Unsignalized Mid-block Pedestrian Crossings on Arterial
Performance and Level of Service
Author(s): Mohamed S Kaseko, Associate Professor
University of Nevada Las Vegas Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Transportation
Research Center
4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454015
Las Vegas, NV 89154
Phone: (702) 895-1360. Fax: (702) 895-3936/4401. E-mail:

Page 3 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         Marked midblock pedestrian crossings are often provided where adjacent signalized intersections
are spaced far apart. The objective is to discourage pedestrians from jaywalking across the street by
providing them with presumably safer marked crossing locations at midblock where drivers are required
to yield to the crossing pedestrians. However, conventional methods for modeling and evaluation of
arterial streets with such facilities do not normally take into consideration the operation of the crossings
and hence crossings' impacts on vehicle delays and other level of service parameters. When a midblock
crossing location has heavy pedestrian crossing traffic, its impact on arterial performance in terms of
travel time, vehicle delays, queue lengths, number of stops and signal coordination can be significant.
         The objective of this research is to model and evaluate the impacts of these crossings on arterial
performance. The objective is divided into two parts: (1) development of a model that incorporates the
operation of unsignalized midblock pedestrian crossings; and (2) using the model to quantify and evaluate
the effects of such crossings on arterial flow and level of service. The SYNCHRO traffic simulation
software is used. Using various arterial operation scenarios, analysis is done to quantify the impacts of
midblock pedestrian crossings for a selected arterial street segment in Las Vegas, Nevada. However, the
methodology developed for this study can be used for any other arterial. Moreover, the methodology can
be used for optimal signal timing design that accounts for the effects of the mid-block locations on arterial

Session: 2B, Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning & Design, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Adaptive Signal Timing for Bicycles
Author(s): Masoud Akbarzadeh & Ananth Prasad
Santa Clara County Roads & Airports Department
1505 Schallenberger Road
San Jose, CA 95131
Phone: 408-494-1342. Fax: 408-297-0530. E-mail:;
Presented by Ananth Prasad,
Other Authors: Nora Chung, Thien Pham
         Bicycles are considered vehicles and share the roads. However, when it comes to crossing at
signalized intersections, bicycles are usually treated as pedestrians by requiring them to use
pedestrian/bicycle push buttons. This safe and appropriate solution works well for novice bicyclists
although it is not a feasible solution for professional and commuter type bicyclists. This method may also
result in inefficient signal operation if all bicyclists use pedestrian timings to cross at intersections. On the
other hand, if bicyclists use vehicle loops at intersections they get motor-vehicle-based minimum green
and clearance times which may be inadequate to fully clear an intersection. Bicyclists, like pedestrians
and motorists, need adequate crossing time to clear the intersection. Their relative slower speeds
compared to motor vehicles require longer green and clearance times. If bicycle timing parameters are
used at signalized intersections as minimum values, then motorist delay will increase and other safety
issues such as red light violations may occur. Somewhere between the pedestrian timing and motor
vehicle timing is the optimal bicycle timing and providing this only when bicycles are present will
promote safe and efficient multi-modal operation of traffic signals. This research project presents one
possible solution to provide bicycle-related signal timing when bicycles are detected at signalized

Page 4 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 2C, Regional Transportation Planning Methods and Models, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am
to 11:30 am
Title: Planning in Motion - The 2030 Oahu Regional Transportation Plan
Author(s): Thomas Gaul
Kaku Associates, Inc.
201 Santa Monica Boulevard, Suite 500
Santa Monica, CA 90401
Phone: (310) 458-9916. Fax: (310) 394-7663. E-mail:
Other Authors: Shevaun Low and Gordon Lum, Oahu Metropolitan Planning Organization; John
Muggridge, Kaku Associates
         The Oahu Regional Transportation Plan (ORTP) is the official guide for the development of the
major land transportation facilities and programs to be implemented on Oahu. It is a long-term vision
document that outlines transportation goals, objectives, and policies for Oahu. The plan identifies short-
range and long-range strategies and actions designed to promote the development of an integrated
intermodal transportation system that facilitates the safe, efficient, and economic movement of people and
         This paper discusses the development and key elements of the ORTP 2030. ORTP 2030
development has been a two-year planning process, beginning in April 2004 and culminating in the spring
of 2006. The process included an extensive community outreach program, travel demand forecasting,
identification and evaluation of transportation system deficiencies and potential solutions, and revenue
and cost forecasting over the 25-year life of the plan to ensure that the plan is in balance. The paper
describes the overall process used for long-term land transportation planning on the island of Oahu, and
highlights some of the interesting and unique projects considered in development of the plan, ranging
from a new rail transit system to a commuter ferry system connecting different portions of the island,
elevated highways and high-occupancy toll lanes, and a bridge or tunnel crossing Pearl Harbor.

Session: 2C, Regional Transportation Planning Methods and Models, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am
to 11:30 am
Title: How Accurate Are We? A Look Back at the First Microcomputer Traffic Forecasts
Author(s): Erik Ruehr
VRPA Technologies
9520 Padgett Street, Suite 213
San Diego, CA 92126
Phone: 858/566-1766. Fax: 858/566-0243. E-mail:
        The world of computing changed in the early 1980’s when microcomputers were introduced and
the world of travel forecasting changed with it. Before microcomputers were available, travel forecasting
models were run on mainframe computers and were only prepared for large cities. With the introduction
of microcomputers, small and medium-sized urban areas had the resources to prepare computerized travel
forecasting models.
        The first microcomputer forecasts were prepared for a 20-year horizon and were targeted to the
years from 2000 to 2005. It is now possible to look back and check on the accuracy of these forecasts, in
comparison to actual traffic counts. This paper looks back at year 2000 forecasts prepared for the Cities
of Palm Springs and Chico, California. Actual traffic counts from the year 2000 will be compared to year
2000 traffic forecasts. The traffic forecasts were documented by the author in a previous paper,
“Transportation Planning for Small Urban Areas”, presented at the 1982 District 6 ITE Meeting in Salt
Lake City.

Page 5 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

        In addition to traffic counts, the paper will evaluate changes in socioecomic data. Changes in
travel behavior and the addition/deletion of planned roadways will also be evaluated. The paper will
conclude with a summary of what has been learned in an effort to provide recommendations for
improving the accuracy of future traffic forecasts.

Session: 2C, Regional Transportation Planning Methods and Models, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am
to 11:30 am
Title: Making Traffic Models Sensitive to Smart Growth Characteristics
Author(s): Donald Hubbard, TE, AICP
Fehr & Peers
2990 Lava Ridge Court, Suite 200
Roseville, CA 95661
Phone: (916) 773-1900. Fax: (916) 773-2015. E-mail:
Other Authors: Gerard Walters
         Planning and public works agencies have become increasingly aware of smart growth principles
and are under growing pressure from elected officials and the public to adopt them. However, while
various studies have attempted to quantify the effects of smart growth on travel behavior, there has been
no mechanism for incorporating this information into the formal transportation planning process.
         The main analytical tool for forecasting the long-term effects of land use on transportation
networks is the conventional 4-step travel model. Unfortunately, conventional models are insensitive to
most smart growth characteristics. For example, the effect of average block size or sidewalk
completeness on the propensity to walk does not appear in the typical traffic model and so improvements
to these characteristics will be forecast as having no effect on travel behavior. Continued reliance on
conventional modeling creates the impression that smart growth policies will have little effect on travel
behavior; not because there is something wrong with the policies, but because there is something wrong
with the models.
         This paper explains why conventional travel models may be insensitive to smart growth
characteristics and how one model was enhanced to detect smart growth characteristics and predict the
effects on regional travel. The modified model became a centerpiece of a large-scale, award-winning
visioning effort for the Sacramento region and was instrumental in convincing stakeholders of the benefits
of shifting from continued development of low-density suburbs to smart growth development patterns.

Session: 2C, Regional Transportation Planning Methods and Models, Monday June 26, 2006, 10:00 am
to 11:30 am
Title: Using Real Time Transportation System Performance Measures to Fuel a Regional Congestion
Management System
Author(s): Robert L. Bertini
Portland State University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Post Office Box 751
Portland, OR 97207
Phone: 503-725-4249. Fax: 503-725-5950. E-mail:
Other Authors: John Makler, City of Portland and Metro
        All urbanized areas with population greater than 200,000 are required to develop a Congestion
Management System (CMS) and implement it as part of the metropolitan transportation planning process.
A CMS is defined as a systematic process for managing congestion that provides information on
transportation system performance and on alternative strategies for alleviating congestion and enhancing

Page 6 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

mobility. In the Portland, Oregon metropolitan region, Metro (the regional government and metropolitan
planning organization) has adopted a CMS to “efficiently manage and modernize the transportation
system to meet urban demands.” Through a unique partnership with local, regional, state and federal
transportation agencies and Portland State University, Metro is embarking on a five-year Portland Region
CMS Roadmap toward improving the CMS in concert with the region’s regional transportation plan
update. The objective of this paper is to describe how the CMS Roadmap is helping Metro to achieve the
region’s vision for a sustainable transportation system. This will include new efforts to extract data from
multiple sources, including a new freeway traffic data archiving system for measuring travel times in key
corridors as well as describing congestion trends. Freight and transit data will also be included. In
addition, the paper will describe Metro’s efforts to create a congestion management toolbox/guidebook
that will aid local jurisdictions to identify and evaluate appropriate mitigation strategies. These products
should also have applicability outside of the Portland region. Finally some conclusions will be drawn
regarding the region’s collective efforts to improve the management of the transportation system using
performance metrics.

Session: 3A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Assessing The Safety Benefits Of Advance Warning Signals
Author(s): Grant G. Schultz, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE, Assistant Professor Department of Civil &
Environmental Engineering
Brigham Young University
368 Clyde Building
Provo, UT 84602
Phone: (801) 422-6332. Fax: (801) 422-0159. E-mail:
Other Authors: Ryan Peterson, Brigham Young University; Bradley C. Giles, Wavetronix LLC; Stephen
J. Lewis, P.E., PTOE, Project Engineering Consultants, Ltd.
         As motorists approach high-speed signalized intersections (HSSIs), they are often faced with a
dilemma as signal indications turn yellow, and subsequently red. This dilemma may exist due to
inadequate signal timing (dilemma zone) or due to the variability in response times and driving habits of
motorists (decision zone). One alternative to aid in eliminating, or reducing, the potential dilemma faced
by motorists at HSSIs is the installation of an advance warning signal (AWS) upstream of the
intersection. These devices incorporate advanced detection technology that may help to reduce the
probability that a motorist will be caught in a dilemma, while providing advance warning of impending
signal changes to aid the motorist in the decision making process.
         In the summer of 2005, the Utah Department of Transportation installed dynamic AWSs
upstream of four HSSIs in Salt Lake County. These installations included a blank-out sign with the
message “Prepare To Stop” activated in advance of the yellow indication. A research team from Brigham
Young University was retained to determine the effectiveness of the AWS. The researchers used state-of-
the-art data collection systems including radar and video technologies to collect continuous, non-intrusive
data of vehicle speeds and red-light running (RLR) events. The metrics evaluated to determine
effectiveness of the system included speed reduction, RLR reduction, and safety implications (primarily
crash reduction). The purpose of this paper is to provide the results of the research including an analysis
of the data collection methodology, as well as the speed, RLR, and safety benefits observed.

Page 7 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 3A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Enhancing Targeted Traffic Enforcement Efforts In Portland, Oregon
Author(s): Max Coffman
Portland State University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Post Office Box 751
Portland, OR 97207
Phone: 503-725-9746. Fax: . E-mail:
Other Authors: Christopher Monsere, Portland State University
         Enforcement is a key component of any comprehensive traffic safety program, and through a
unique effort the Portland Office of Transportation (PDOT) partners with schools, the court system,
community groups and the Police Bureau to develop a coordinated citywide program to improve traffic
safety. However, like many government agencies, the Police Bureau faces constraints that limit the
resources it can devote to traffic safety. In response, PDOT and the Police Bureau’s Traffic Division
have instituted a program of Strategic and Focused Enforcement (SAFE) to better allocate limited traffic
safety personnel and resources. Using historical crash data, PDOT identified 30 high crash corridors and
the Police Bureau directed enforcement to these areas. This paper explores alternative techniques to
identify SAFE corridors using more recent crash and driver error data. It also highlights the potential for
the city to carry this program through to a more robust, high-profile implementation phase, and the new
data analysis options that will become available in the next few years. This study will be useful for other
practitioners wishing to engage enforcement as a key ally in improving traffic safety.

Session: 3A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Toward Improving Safety for the Signalized Highway-Rail Grade Crossings
Author(s): Bill J. Shao, P.E.,T.E.,PTOE
City of Los Angeles, Department of Transportation
6262 Van Nuys Blvd, Suite 320
Van Nuys, CA 91401
Phone: (818) 374-4688. Fax: (818) 374-4676. E-mail:
         Safety at signalized highway-rail grade crossings has always been a major concern in traffic
signal designs and operations. Its importance was highlighted by the 1995 Illinois accident involving a
school bus. Recent multiple incidents occurred at various highway-rail grade crossings in Southern
California has prompted the City of Los Angeles, Department of Transportation, to examine all of its 105
signalized highway-rail grade crossings while updating the design and operational standards for future
signalized grade crossings.
         The release of 2003 and 2000 MUTCD and updates in AREMA Communications and Signals
Manual have highlighted concerns related to the interconnection of railroad crossing warning systems and
signalized highway-rail grade crossings. Specifically, warning times for simultaneous and advanced
preemptions, and designs for vehicular track and pedestrian clearances must correlate to the physical
limitations of railroad warning system and electronic circuitry.
         This abstract outlines the specific examination efforts to ensure grade crossing safety for
passenger and freight trains, and street-running light-rail trains in Los Angeles. Examples of locations and
projects are highlighted with backgrounds that justified the implementation of traffic signals-based tools,
such as pre-signals, queue-cutters, and slot-clearances. Preliminary evaluations have shown that vehicular
traffic have been mostly cleared away or prevented from entering the Minimum Track Clearance
Distance, which is a testimony that properly designed traffic signals can sometimes be the low-cost and
effective tools toward improving safety at signalized highway-rail grade crossings.

Page 8 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 3A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Effectively Slowing Drivers-Speed Feedback Signs
Author(s): Mark Miller
Albert Grover & Associates
211 E. Imperial Highway
Fullerton, CA 92835
Phone: 714-992-2990. Fax: 714-992-2883. E-mail:
Other Authors: Chad Veinot, Albert Grover & Associates
         The City of Fullerton as part of the California Traffic Safety Program and through a grant from
the California Office of Traffic Safety (OTS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
implemented eighteen (18) Speed Feedback signs at high volume, high speed locations adjacent to heavy
pedestrian (elementary schools) and or bicycle activity areas.
         This project objective was to increase driver awareness of the appropriate speed limit and the
need to change driver behavior which will result in lower speeds at select locations throughout the City.
         This paper and presentation will indicate the reduction in speeds and effectiveness of different
messages that are available for the feedback signs and their effectiveness on driver speeds.

Session: 3B, Road and Intersection Design, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Improving Intersection Efficiency by Separating A Single Two-Way Intersection Into Two One-Way
Author(s): Joel Marcuson
Jacobs Civil
875 W Elliot Rd, Suite 201
Tempe, AZ 85284
Phone: 480-239-3892. Fax: 480-763-8601. E-mail:
         The weak point of arterial roadway design has been arterial/arterial intersections. High traffic
volumes (both through and turning) come together at the same point at the same time. The solution to
this problem typically meant the development of a widened intersection or a grade-separated interchange.
The at-grade solution may be “too little” and the grade-separated solution may be “too much”.
         This is a concept that utilizes aspects of both at-grade intersections and grade-separated
interchanges, featuring the following:
         (1) This concept uses grade separation to modify a single at-grade intersection and create two
separate one-way intersections, one above the other; (2) Each of these two intersections involve the
pairing of two of the four approaches; and (3) Drivers are not required to do anything unusual or
         This type of geometry creates several opportunities for improved efficiencies, including two-
phase signal operation, pairing of approaches to take advantage of peak and off-peak directions, and
modifying signal splits to take advantage of peak and off-peak traffic flows.

Page 9 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 3B, Road and Intersection Design, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Grand Canyon National Park: Improvements to Entrance Station Operation
Author(s): Jonathan Upchurch
National Park Foundation
P. O. Box 11
Mesa Verde National Park, CO 81330
Phone: 970-529-5081. Fax: 970-529-5075. E-mail:
         Grand Canyon National Park is one of the most heavily visited units in the National Park System
with over 4.3 million visitors in 2004.
         The Park is so popular that during the summer season and other holiday periods it is not unusual
for long waiting lines (one mile is common and 1.7 miles occurs occasionally) to develop at the entrance
station and for visitors to encounter long waiting times to enter the Park.
         When the queue extends a mile or more, the total waiting time exceeds 37 to 42 minutes.
         During a full year, it is estimated that 157 days experience at least one hour of congestion and
that there are 515 hours per year during which demand exceeds capacity. These are the hours during
which lines form and long queues develop.
         The capacity of the South Entrance Station is about 350 vehicles per hour; 4,775 vehicles were
processed on the peak summer day in 2005.
         This paper presents information on: 1) an operational analysis of the South Entrance Station; and
2) strategies that the Park will implement in 2006 to reduce waiting times. Information on existing
conditions and current operating characteristics, traffic volumes, capacity of the entrance station, queue
lengths and waiting times, and strategies to facilitate the processing of vehicles are included.
         Those strategies include: increasing the number of lanes, increasing the sales of entry permits at
remote locations, improving information for visitors, and more extensive use of Highway Advisory

Session: 3B, Road and Intersection Design, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Intersection Hazard Elimination and Safety – Improvements in the City of Santa Clarita
Author(s): Srikanth Chakravarthy
Kimley-Horn & Associates, Inc.
5550 Topanga Canyon Blvd, Suite 250
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Phone: 818-2272790. Fax: 818-2272797. E-mail:
Presented by Jean Fares, Kimley-Horn & Associates, Inc.
Other Authors: Andrew Yi (City of Santa Clarita), Srikanth Chakravarthy
         The primary goal of the project was to improve safety and accessibility for the disabled and
senior pedestrians crossing intersections in the City. The City of Santa Clarita, California wanted to
enhance the accessibility, safety, and operation of ten signalized intersections by installing/redesigning
curb ramps wherever necessary and making modifications to the pedestrian crosswalk and sidewalk
layouts to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements. The absence of or poorly
designed/maintained curb ramps (such as slope greater than 8.3%, lack of sufficient landing area near the
ramp, etc.) prevents many wheel chair users from crossing streets. This deficiency is common in many
communities. Other problems commonly observed include longer and narrow pedestrian crosswalks
making wheelchair users, children, and senior persons spend more time in the intersection potentially
diminishing safety and comfort. Kimley-Horn's (KHA) team performed field surveys at the ten
intersections along with City staff and community representatives, to observe the existing traffic signal
system and develop engineering recommendations and traffic signal improvement plans. Based on the

Page 10 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

field observations, KHA recommended and designed new curb-ramps, an expanded landing area behind
the curb-ramps where space was available, and re-aligned crosswalks to reduce the time spent by
pedestrians in the intersection by as much as 3 seconds at some locations. These improvements provide
safer and more pedestrian-friendly intersections for wheelchair users, children, and senior persons. They
also provide a model for how to better design and operate signalized intersections for enhanced ADA

Session: 3B, Road and Intersection Design, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Another Case Against Road Widening: This time, it’s for drivers
Author(s): Joe Fernandez
Fehr & Peers
100 Pringle Avenue, Suite 600
Walnut Creek, CA 94596
Phone: (925) 930-7100. Fax: (925) 930-7090. E-mail:
Other Authors: Ellen Poling, PE, Eddie Barrios, PE
         When charged with improving intersection level of service, adding travel lanes is often a
transportation professional’s first response. While sometimes this is the best solution, situations exist
where adding lanes is akin to digging yourself out of a hole—lots of work, for no good reason.
         Smaller intersections have long been touted as being pedestrian friendly, but little mention has
been made of the potential benefits of small intersections to vehicle delay. At all-way stop controlled
intersections, vehicle operations can worsen with the addition of travel lanes in areas of high pedestrian
volumes. The complexity of right-of-way decisions for pedestrians and vehicles at these intersections
make the effects on traffic operations difficult to analyze with traditional methods such as the Highway
Capacity Manual (HCM). Prior to the availability of multimodal micro-simulation models, the
operational effects of pedestrians at all-way-stop controlled intersections were not considered. Today,
micro-simulation models can quantify the effect of pedestrians on vehicle operations and provide insight
on how additional travel lanes will impact vehicle delay in areas with high pedestrian activity.
         This paper explores situations where additional lanes may worsen vehicle operations for
unsignalized intersections using micro-simulation. It builds upon a condition encountered at Stanford
University where a planned roadway widening was found to worsen vehicle operations when analyzed
using micro-simulation.

Session: 3C, Innovations in Goods Movement, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Rochester Multi-Modal Gateway
Author(s): Charles Huffine, PE, PTOE, AICP
Stantec Consulting, Inc.
2135 S. Cherry Street, Suite 310
Denver, CO 80222
Phone: (303) 758-4058. Fax: (303) 758-4828. E-mail:
         Many changes have taken place in the way freight is moved across the country and
internationally, which have greatly increased efficiency, improved reliability and lowered costs. The
concept of "intermodalism", which enabled goods to be transferred from one mode of transportation to
another relatively seamlessly, revolutionized the shipping industry.
         Unfortunately, a lack of road capacity is severely hampering intermodal port expansion. The Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey recognized that the congestion along the I-95 prohibits more
trucks from accessing the port. As such, they are seeking to locate mode transfer to trucks, warehousing

Page 11 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

and customs functions to locations far away from the congested ports. Cargo gets transferred from ships
to trains, which then travel to bonded warehouses at “Inland Ports”, where customs functions take place,
before being transferred to trucks for shipment. The remote terminal facility, proposed in Rochester NY,
will access land, air, and water modes of transportation. It will be completely unique to the region and
will provide numerous companies with the shipping and receiving facilities and services they currently
seek elsewhere.
         Stantec worked on the Phase I Planning of the Rochester Multi-Modal Gateway Plan. The project
involves coordination with many diverse government agencies, authorities, railroads and private
companies. This paper will discuss the “Inland Port” concept, its benefits, and its application to the
Rochester NY area.

Session: 3C, Innovations in Goods Movement, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Providing Priority for Trucks at Signalized Urban Intersections
Author(s): Bill Kloos
City of Portland
1120 SW 5th Avenue, Room 800
Portland, OR 97204
Phone: 503-823-5382. Fax: 503-823-2026. E-mail:
Other Authors: Peter Koonce, Kittelson & Assoc.; Paul Zebell, City of Portland; Chris Monsere, Portland
State Univ.
         Traffic signal timing settings have a significant effect on the efficiency of freight operations.
Traditional models for traffic signal control consider all vehicles in a single class and operate in a
simplified mode of operation. Given that efficient movement of freight is a goal in most urban areas these
days, we as traffic signal engineers need to find ways to improve safety and efficiency of truck
movements. The City of Portland has embarked on a program to test truck priority options at two
signalized intersections in the City with approach speeds of 35 to 45 mph. Advance detection stations
have been installed approximately 600’ from the stop bars at the two test intersections. These detection
stations (a pair of inductive loops in each lane) have programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that
determine the speed and classification of each vehicle. If the vehicle is determined to be a truck, various
forms of priority can be given. The most common form of priority is to hold the green for high speed
trucks, preventing hard stops and potentially dangerous results. This detection also allows for improved
indecision zone protection for all vehicles, not just trucks.
         This paper will report on the work being done in Portland including an analysis of its
effectiveness with a focus on efforts to automate measurement of the various control strategies on truck
delay, stops, and other measures. This paper will also provide guidance to other agencies on how they
can implement a similar system.

Page 12 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 3C, Innovations in Goods Movement, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Improving the Freight Data Infrastructure and Vehicle Classification Using Single-loop Detector
Author(s): Benjamin Auffray
Portland State University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Post Office Box 751
Portland, OR 97207
Phone: (503) 725-4285. Fax: (503) 725-5950. E-mail:
Other Authors: Robert L. Bertini (Portland State University); Kristin A. Tufte (Portland State
University); Zachary Horowitz (Portland State University)
         Truck traffic on the nation's freeways is forecast to grow significantly in the near future.
Managing the transportation system to ensure the efficient and reliable movement of trucks and the
freight they carry is of vital importance. Knowledge of truck volumes on freeway corridors will therefore
be increasingly important. Until recently, classifying vehicles by their length was done using dual
inductive-loop detectors, automatic vehicle classifiers, or manual counting; however, these techniques
have limited temporal and spatial coverage. Recently, several algorithms have been developed to perform
vehicle classifications based on data from single-loop detectors. The objective of this paper is to evaluate
two such algorithms using the Portland Oregon Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL), an archived
data user service that has been archiving speed, volume, and occupancy data from almost 500 loop
detectors on the metropolitan freeway system since July 2004. The paper describes the implementation of
two vehicle-classification algorithms within PORTAL. The results are displayed graphically so that the
results are accessible to PORTAL's users, which include traffic managers and engineers and university
researchers. The paper describes the evaluation of the two algorithms by comparing their performance to
an archived data set of manual counts and automated video detection counts. By using PORTAL and the
improved vehicle classification system, the performance of single loop detector vehicle classification
algorithms can be validated under a wide variety of conditions. In turn, better information about truck
flow patterns will lead to improved freight planning and operations in the Portland metropolitan region.

Session: 3C, Innovations in Goods Movement, Monday June 26, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Port of Los Angeles Transportation Master Plan: Addressing the National Goods Movement
Author(s): Gary Hamrick
Iteris, Inc.
400 Oceangate, Suite 480
Long Beach, CA 90802
Phone: (562) 432-8484. Fax: (562) 432-8485. E-mail:
Other Authors: Sue Lai, Port of Los Angeles
          The Ports of Los Angeles (POLA) and Long Beach handle 43 percent of all mainland imports and
generate 45,000 daily truck trips. POLA has embarked on a Transportation Master Plan covering the
transportation system of the Ports and surrounding communities. The objectives are to understand the
impacts of international goods movement on the transportation system, evaluate mitigations, and develop
concepts to expand capacity to efficiently handle the cargo. The Master Plan utilizes several powerful
tools to model/evaluate goods movement, including:
          TRUCK GENERATION: spreadsheet model (QUICKTRIP) developed to estimate marine
terminal traffic generation. It calculates truck traffic generation during each hour of the day based on
terminal operating parameters.

Page 13 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

        TRUCK/AUTO TRAVEL DEMAND FORECASTING MODEL: specialized travel demand
model for the Port area which forecasts port trucks, port employee trips and regional trips, using
        INTERSECTION/CORRIDOR ANALYSIS: a post-processor to produce refined turning
movement and link volumes, which are further analyzed through Highway Capacity Manual methods.
        SIMULATION ANLAYSIS: Synchro is used to evaluate complex truck and auto movements at
and near marine terminal gates and at freeway ramp terminus intersections and interchanges.
        The Master Plan estimates the volumes of port trucks and other vehicles evaluates traffic
conditions and proposes roadway improvement projects for deficiencies. The paper will focus on the
methods to analyze roadway impacts, system strategies for truck reduction; methods to model port traffic
volumes; determine roadway deficiencies; examples of improvement projects/costs; and estimates of
truck VMT and VHT, which are used to estimate air emissions.

Session: 4A, Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00
Title: Caltrans Pilot Project Demonstration
Author(s): Srikanth Chakravarthy
Kimley-Horn & Associates, Inc.
5550 Topanga Canyon Blvd, Suite 250
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Phone: 818-227-2790. Fax: 818-227-2797. E-mail:
Presented by Randy Durrenberger, Kimley-Horn & Associates, Inc.
Other Authors: Randy Durrenberger, Margaret Cortes, Elbert Chang, Adam Dankberg, Haniel Chung
         The focus of this project is to evaluate the technical feasibility and functionality of the Innovative
Corridors Initiative (ICI) projects as they pertain to safety, efficiency, mobility, system management and
integration, and applicability to the regional Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) architecture. The
ICI projects being evaluated are: (1) Dynamic Route Advisory System - Circumnav Networks, (2)
Intelligent Loop Detector - Infotek Associates, (3) My 511 and Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) –
NAVTEQ, (4) Bay Area Web Congestion Mapping and Traffic Forecasting – Outreach, (5) Speed Sensor
Demonstration – Speedinfo, (6) TV511 Demonstration - Tele Atlas, and (7) ENCOM Wireless Data
         Each demonstration, along with preliminary observations, was showcased at the 2005 ITS World
Congress in San Francisco in November, 2005. For each project, the technologies, concepts, systems,
services, and ideas are being evaluated by Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. (KHA) to determine the
applicability and appropriateness for widescale deployment. Each ICI demonstration project is unique and
requires an evaluation of hardware, software, and end users, with an emphasis on safety, reliability,
performance, flexibility, and productivity. The evaluation for these projects addresses the following
         1. Does the product function as purported?
         2. Is the data accurate and usable?
         The evaluation criteria, technical and performance analyses, demonstration findings and
observations will be summarized in an evaluation report for each technology. The results will address all
of the goals of the evaluation criteria, discussing the appropriateness of the technologies as it relates to a
convincing cost to benefit case and other system interdependencies.

Page 14 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 4A, Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00
Title: Silicon-Valley ITS Program: Implementation of an Analog/Digital Video Management System
Author(s): Kenneth L. Salvail, P.E.
City of San Jose
200 East Santa Clara Street
San Jose, CA 95113
Phone: 408-975-3705. Fax: 408-292-6093. E-mail:
         The Silicon-Valley Intelligent Transportation System (SV-ITS) Program is a twelve local-county-
state agency partnership that was established in 1995 to jointly develop an intelligent transportation
system to cooperatively manage and improve traffic flow within a growing high tech industry area of San
Jose, California. A regional networked analog video system was deployed for the partnership to support
real time traffic and incident management capabilities. A strategy was developed for sharing each
agency’s traffic video feeds. An analog video system was determined to be the most viable and stable
system to deploy at the time.
         The Program completed its initial deployment of an analog video traffic surveillance system in
1998. It included the installation of analog matrix switchers, point-to-point communication between the
field and traffic management centers, and video tie lines between these centers. Today, the use of the SV-
ITS Program’s video system has expanded to support public safety, homeland security and incident
management. To more cost effectively disseminate video to these partners, a hybrid analog/digital video
management system concept was adopted. This includes the integration of the analog matrix switchers
with digital video servers and distribution of a digital video over an upgraded wide area Ethernet network.
With this solution, the Program is able to build upon the existing high quality local analog video system,
with the newer digital video solutions to improve distribution of 300 video cameras across the region.
         This paper includes reasons for adopting a hybrid analog/digital video management system, and
how it supports the Program’s efforts to integrate local and state agency video systems.

Session: 4A, Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00
Title: Projecting ITS Benefits Based On Empirical Evaluations
Author(s): Joseph Perrin, Jr.
University of Utah, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
122 South Central Campus Drive, Room 104
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
Phone: (801) 949-0348. Fax: (801) 582-6252. E-mail:
         Many transportation agencies are incorporating ITS. Some can install complete systems at once
while other agencies must install their system piece meal as funds become available. As budgets become
more restrictive, where should limited funds be directed? The Salt Lake County ITS Deployment is
evaluated to develop general cost versus benefit relationships for the ITS system. This information is
then applied to the adjacent Utah Counties to expand the ITS system in a cost-effective method based on
user benefits. A generalized ITS cost versus benefit allows planners and policy makers to make decisions
on how the ITS funds are best utilized. Freeways represent roadway location with high volumes but ITS
deployment on freeways is primarily used for incident response. Surface street signal interconnect allows
updates and timing advantages that are experienced on a daily basis as well as during incidents or
diversions from adjacent freeway facilities. The field evaluation of the Salt Lake County ITS
Deployment identified that surface street signal user benefits represent almost 85% of the ITS system

Page 15 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

benefits. When the per-mile benefit is separated, then the following conclusions are identified relative to
the generalized costs and benefits for the Salt Lake County ITS.
        (1) The per mile freeway capital costs are $399,700 with an annual benefit of $309,600
        (2) The per mile surface street costs are $34,900 with an annual benefit of $945,000

Session: 4A, Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00
Title: Implementing cost-effective ITS solutions for medium-sized cities
Author(s): Kerensa Swanson Fromherz, P.E.
The Transpo Group
11730 118th Ave NE, Suite 600
Kirkland, WA 98034
Phone: 425-821-3665. Fax: 425-825-8434. E-mail:
Other Authors: Hicham Chatila, P.E., PTOE
         The concept of Intelligent Transportation Systems centers on improving transportation efficiency
and safety through application of a range of tools and technology. But what does "ITS" mean to members
of a typical community? Unfortunately, we often hear that ITS is a set of complicated and expensive
"bells and whistles" that aren't really necessary or don't serve a significant purpose relative to other
options. Often ITS is thought of as high-tech gadgets, extensive new fiber optics and multi-million dollar
traffic management centers. For large metropolitan areas, a large-scale application may be beneficial, but
for smaller agencies, the investment can rarely be justified.
         This paper and presentation will document two case studies where ITS technology is being
strategically implemented to provide cutting-edge and cost-effective ITS solutions to existing
transportation systems for mid-sized cities in the Northwest. Opportunities and challenges associated with
the implementation of these scalable and situation-appropriate solutions will be shared.
         The following five core techniques, found to be key elements of the case studies for
implementing practical ITS solutions, will be reviewed in depth: 1. Engaging the community - gaining
both internal and external project support through non-traditional stakeholders. 2. Planning for practical
implementation - getting an early start on defining needs, looking for ways to maximize the use of
existing infrastructure and resources, allowing for challenges associated with retrofitting. 3. Investigating
and implementing innovative software applications. 4. Combining cutting-edge technology with off-the-
shelf components. 5. Planning for the future - establishing basic requirements for all new construction
projects, and planning for on-going staffing and maintenance needs

Session: 4B, Work Zones, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: Oregon’s Work Zone Traffic Analysis Program
Author(s): Smith Siromaskul, P.E., Traffic Mobility Engineer
Oregon Bridge Delivery Partners
1165 Union St NE
Salem, OR 97301
Phone: 503-587-2928. Fax: 503-587-2929. E-mail:
Other Authors: V. Irene Toews, P.E., Quality Assurance Engineer, ODOT – Traffic Control Plans
         The State of Oregon is being challenged with historic construction needs over the next 10 years.
Keeping traffic and freight moving during this time of unprecedented construction is one of the top
priorities of the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT). This paper will summarize ODOT’s

Page 16 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

established work zone traffic analysis practices as well as the development of new methodology for
estimating and managing project and corridor work zone delays.
         ODOT’s established work zone traffic analysis methodology is designed to predict the hours of
the day during which lanes or shoulders can be safely closed, and the approximate queue length that
would develop during such closures.
         The new methodology uses established work zone traffic analysis practices and a number of
existing ODOT data sources for traffic characteristics. This methodology is augmented by CORSIM and
regression analysis to develop volume vs. delay curves, which are used to predict lane closure windows,
expected queuing and delays during any hour of any month of the statewide construction program.
         The new methodology has been compiled into a group of spreadsheets designed to automate
analysis calculations allowing for quick determination of lane closure windows and work zone delays.
This information can be calculated for every project and in turn for each corridor on the entire state
highway system for a number of different work zone scenarios for any analysis year.
         The paper will also discuss observations and lessons learned during the extensive data collection
process required to establish base conditions and to calibrate the statewide model.

Session: 4B, Work Zones, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: TravelCast, an innovative approach to construction traffic control and right-of-way management
for growing cities.
Author(s): Michael Kashiwagi
Interwest Consulting Group
8400 Laguna Palms Way
Elk Grove, CA 95758
Phone: (916) 478-2253. Fax: (916) 691-6411. E-mail:
Presented by David Yatabe, City of Elk Grove, CA
Other Authors: David B. Robinson, Associate and Daniel P. Block, Transportation Engineer
         The City of Elk Grove took a proactive approach and developed the right tool for the job known
as TravelCast, which is a construction traffic control management tool used for: (1) Planning for traffic
impacts from individual or multiple construction projects, (2) Testing and evaluating the cumulative
effect of multiple construction traffic control plans, and (3) Demonstrating and justifying implementation
of comprehensive traffic control measures.
         TravelCast was developed in the VISUM transportation software and included an “easy-to-use”
user-interface so that staff can conduct real-time before-and-after scenario testing of multiple traffic
control alternatives without having to rely on outside technical support. One of the most useful outputs
from TravelCast are travel time estimates because they are verifiable and easily shared and understood by
the public.
         This paper will outline the conditions that contributed to the City’s need to develop TravelCast,
detail the development process, and present real-world outcomes from its application.

Session: 4B, Work Zones, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: High-Visibility Apparel for Highway Workers: Working Toward a Common Ground
Author(s): Wayne D. Cottrell
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Civil Engineering Department
3801 West Temple Avenue
Pomona, CA 91768
Phone: 909-869-4612. Fax: 909-869-4342. E-mail:

Page 17 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         The number of work zone incidents in the U.S. has been increasing while that of nearly all other
incident types has been decreasing. In Utah, for example, work zone incidents have been increasing at an
annual rate of 4 to 11% since 1992. One countermeasure is high-visibility safety apparel (HVSA) for
highway workers. As of December 2005, about 75% of State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) had
adopted all or part of the American National Standards Institute’s consensus standards on HVSA. While
the standards (ANSI/ISEA 107-2004) are clear on minimum coverage areas of fluorescent and
retroreflective materials on garments, photometric requirements for retroreflectivity, and material
durability performance levels, they are not specific about garment colors and types, retroreflective shapes
and configurations, and background contrast. As a result, there is limited commonality in DOT practices.
This paper examines HVSA and pedestrian or worker visibility research findings, as well as current
practices and standards. The paper is based on a study funded by the Utah DOT. About ten different
colors or color combinations for daytime apparel were being used by DOTs. About half of the DOTs had
HVSA practices for headwear only. The paper offers some suggestions for HVSA standards, including
bicolor fluorescent yellow-green and orange-red garments, ANSI Class 3 and Class E apparel for flaggers
at all times, Class 2 apparel for daytime construction and maintenance work, large retroreflective shapes
for nighttime wear, and special provisions for high temperatures. Further study is needed on material
colors, shapes, contrast, and the effectiveness of HVSA.

Session: 4B, Work Zones, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: Measures to Mitigate Impacts Associated with Temporary Closure of a Major Intersection in
Orange County
Author(s): Chalap K. Sadam
Albert Grover & Associates
211 E. Imperial Hwy. Ste. 208
Fullerton, CA 92835
Phone: (714) 992-2990. Fax: (714) 992-2883. E-mail:
Other Authors: Greg Wong, P.E., Albert Grover & Associates; Wolfgang Scherr, PTV America, Inc.
         The Sanitation District is proposing to temporarily close a major intersection in northwestern
Orange County for approximately nine months, beginning in May 2006, due to construction activities. A
traffic impact assessment study was conducted to evaluate potential impacts of the closure and to develop
mitigation measures to ameliorate these impacts.
         Using various transportation models, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify locations
that could potentially have significant traffic volume changes. A study area of 40 signalized intersections
was identified for detailed capacity and Level of Service analyses. A complementary traffic assignment
model was built for the study area to predict the complex traffic deviations into the surrounding grid
system which consists of multiple arterial highways. Transportation modeling was helpful in estimating
potential traffic detours expected to occur with the project for each of the analysis peak periods.
         Mitigation measures were developed at study intersections where detour traffic due to the
proposed project is expected to result in a significant impact. Mitigation measures, in the form of traffic
signal timing improvements and signal modifications, were developed for several intersections that met
certain criteria for any of the peak hours.
         This paper identifies the procedures used in conducting the evaluation; lists operational
improvement strategies recommended including coordinated signal timing as a potential mitigation;
identifies potential neighborhood traffic intrusions that can be expected to occur along with proposed
measures to mitigate those impacts; and identifies a traffic-monitoring program recommended for the
study area during the construction period to minimize impacts to area motorists.

Page 18 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 4C, Planning for Community Benefit, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: Designing Speed Controlled Subdivisions without Road Humps
Author(s): David Szplett
Washington Group International
P.O. Box 13
Kuna, ID 83634
Phone: 208 386.6033. Fax: 208 386.6050. E-mail:
         OVERVIEW: Traffic calming is a popular topic for transportation planners and engineers as we
try to make subdivisions more liveable. A common and simple traffic calming approach is to construct
road humps, traffic barriers and unnecessary stop signs. These kinds of measures are often viewed as
negative by drivers who are not speeders or by emergency services providers. Driver-friendly solutions
are needed.
         The authors are an elected member of a city council and a highway department engineer
managing. The City is responsible for approving the new subdivisions and the street system but must
respond to existing concerns over the volume and speed of vehicles on existing streets. Mitigation
measures such as road humps were the popular choices. Increasing public complaints have encouraged an
alternative approach. The staffs have developed a comprehensive list of curvilinear roadways, traffic
chokers and discontinuous streets to reduce travel volumes and speeds for new subdivisions without the
perceived impacts of road humps and unnecessary STOP signs.
         PROCEDURE: The program included nearly fifty streets with various traffic calming controls.
Reported are the traffic speeds, traffic volumes and local residents calls with complaints or support. The
data show that some passive solutions are just as successful as the more punitive solutions with fewer
citizen complaints and lower overall costs.
         VALUE: Traffic engineers, site planners and citizen groups are all interested in planning and
implementation of traffic calming measures. A cookbook list of low cost and effective solutions should
lead to better planning and a happier public.

Session: 4C, Planning for Community Benefit, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: Community Based Planning – A Strong Foundation for Lasting Success
Author(s): Gary Warkentin
RBF Consulting
14725 Alton Parkway
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone: (949) 855-3625. Fax: (949) 330-4130. E-mail:
         Stretched along 8 miles of the Oregon, California Central Pacific Coast is Lincoln City. It is
comprised of 6 villages that incorporated in 1965 into a single city. Highway 101 bisects the community,
serving as both its economic and transportation lifeline and greatest quality of life challenge.
         In January 2000, Lincoln City embarked on its first village redevelopment planning project for
the Village of Taft. Through an intensive community based planning process which involved more than
1,000 people and approximately 100 venues for public participation, significant consensus and
community ownership was gained on critical transportation, land use, urban design and economic
development issues which included: Access Management, Mixed Land Use, State Highway
Improvements, Housing Displacement, Zoning, Funding.
         Over the past 5 years, the unique community based partnership developed in the Village of Taft
and subsequently in the Village of Oceanlake has resulted in the implementation of numerous
transportation enhancement projects in Lincoln City with strong community support. These projects have

Page 19 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

contributed to: Improved Pedestrian Safety, Traffic Calming, Walkable/Compact Development, Enhanced
Community Image.
        The Village of Taft and Oceanlake Redevelopment Projects have received statewide and national
recognition with the FHWA/FTA/APA 2004 Transportation Planning Excellence Award. They offer
many lessons on the relationship between redevelopment and transportation planning and the long term
benefits realized from community based planning.

Session: 4C, Planning for Community Benefit, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: Evaluation Of Performance Measures in Environmental Justice Assessment: Honolulu’s
Author(s): Honglong Li
Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.
1001 Bishop Street, Suite 2400
Honolulu, HI 96813
Phone: 808-566-2211. Fax: 808-528-2368. E-mail:
Other Authors: Shevaun Low (Oahu MPO), Gordon Lum (Oahu MPO)
         This paper explores analytical techniques to assess the transportation benefits and burdens upon
the identified EJ and non EJ zones in Oahu Metropolitan area. Four performance measures were
determined to evaluate accessibility, mobility, safety, and equity. Specific questions and indexes for each
performance measure were developed to define the “disproportionate” impacts. To establish
transportation projects’ connection with local communities, the transportation projects were categorized
and selected based on their type in addition to its geographical location. The method developed for Oahu
is transferable to states, cities, and metropolitan areas throughout the US..

Session: 4C, Planning for Community Benefit, Monday June 26, 2006 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Title: eBART – Sponsoring New Rapid Transit through Innovative Partnerships
Author(s): Lisa M. Young
Wilbur Smith Associates
201 Mission Street, Suite 1450
San Francisco, CA 94107
Phone: 415-495-6201. Fax: 415-495-5305. E-mail:
Other Authors: Bill Hurrell, P.E., Wilbur Smith Associates
         East Contra Costa County (East County) is located in the northeast portion of the San Francisco
Bay Area. By 2030, this expanding region’s housing is expected to grow by 38 percent while jobs are
forecasted to increase by 125 percent. With only one major highway (SR-4) connecting East County to
the rest of the Bay Area, already unacceptable traffic delay and congestion is expected to increase
         Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) is the regional rail system and has a terminal station at the
western end of East County. To serve the future growth and to relieve congestion on SR-4, BART has
proposed a 23 mile rapid transit expansion into East County named “eBART”.
         To secure funding, a revolutionary partnership between local jurisdictions and regional agencies
has allowed a joint sponsorship for eBART. This collaboration was founded through two innovative
funding agreements: a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Cities, the County and BART,
and MTC’s Regional Transportation Expansion Program (Resolution 3434). These agreements charge
the Cities and the County with ridership and land use responsibilities, BART with building the system,
and MTC for funding the system.

Page 20 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         This paper will present the background and process of the MOU and MTC Agreements, the
resulting local land use planning approaches, addressing concerns and issues of the agreements, and
lessons learned when developing multi-agency partnerships. In future years, this project will serve as an
important example for other jurisdictions and transit agencies to realistically achieve new transit service
through public/agency partnerships.

Session: 5A, Beyond the Basics in Traffic Data Collection, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Development of the Bellevue Real Time Arterial Traffic Flow Map
Author(s): Fred Liang
City of Bellevue
301 116th Avenue SE, Leavitt Building, Suite 150
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone: 425-452-5361. Fax: 425-452-5272. E-mail:
         This paper describes how Bellevue overcomes the obstacles and finds a cost effective solution to
develop a web based real time arterial traffic flow map in less than a year.
         Having a flow map that displays the congestion levels of city streets is an invaluable tool to
manage traffic. A web-based flow map can provide drivers up to the minute traffic information.
Knowing when and where the congestion happens, drivers can make informed decision by choosing a
different route or postponing the commute. The flow map also assists engineers to identify incidents,
problem areas and equipment malfunctions.
         Bellevue operates 177 signalized intersections and has 160 signals connected to an UTCS based
centralized signal system. We use the existing advance detectors to collect the vehicle occupancy data.
Every cycle, the signal computer records and smoothens out the occupancy data. With the help of
Bellevue CCTV, we compared the data to various traffic conditions and then determined the matching
threshold values for different congestion levels. Finally, we created a GIS map that displays the
congestion levels in selected colors.
         The flow map was officially launched for public access on April 17, 2006. Anyone with internet
connection can now find out Bellevue traffic conditions from
Bellevue is believed to be the first Washington city to provide the public a real-time traffic conditions
map, and is one of only a handful of American cities to do so.

Session: 5A, Beyond the Basics in Traffic Data Collection, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Automated Origin-Destination Generation from Volume Counts
Author(s): James R. Watson
Korve Engineering
155 Grand Avenue, Suite 400
Oakland, CA 94612
Phone: (510) 763-2929. Fax: (510) 834-5220. E-mail:
Presented by Scott Kawai, City & County of Honolulu
Other Authors: Panos D. Prevedouros, University of Hawaii at Manoa
        Origin-to-destination traffic flows (OxD flows) are needed for freeway and corridor analyses.
They are necessary for creating the base analysis with several traffic and planning simulators. OxD flows
are essential for scenario analyses. Yet, most of the time OxD flows are not known. However, ramp and
cross-sectional volumes from vehicle detection stations along freeways and arterials are known with good

Page 21 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         WatsonOD is a Microsoft Excel “add-in” developed in Visual Basic (VB); it is activated by
simply clicking it from a typical Excel menu. WatsonOD takes traffic volume counts, and generates OxD
flows using several simple algorithms. It produces generic OxD output but it also can generate ready-to-
use input files for Integration and Vissim.
         The production of OxD flows for freeways and single arterial corridors requires minimal input
from the user. The production of OxD flows for networks requires user input to facilitate the more
realistic distribution on turning movements. For this purpose, WatsonOD provides an interface with
which user modifications are accounted for and then OxD flows are updated while maintaining flow
conservation principles.
         The paper presents the state-of-the-art in OxD flow generation, the sources of errors, the methods
used in WatsonOD and the numerical and graphical outputs it produces.

Session: 5A, Beyond the Basics in Traffic Data Collection, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: A GIS Based Regional Screenline Traffic Count Application
Author(s): Mahmoud Ahmadi, Ph.D.
Meyer, Mohaddes Associates
1515 S. Manchester Avenue
Anaheim, CA 92802
Phone: 714.780.7223. Fax: 714.780.7287. E-mail:
Other Authors: Viggen Davidian, PE, and Nicholas Hartman, Meyer, Mohaddes Associates, Anaheim
         Agencies traditionally have placed a great deal of emphasis on the development and
implementation of tools and methodologies for forecasting transportation demand and future highway
performance through the use of travel demand models. However, the development of tools and databases
to validate these models, based on actual existing transportation conditions (counts), has usually lagged
behind. Recognizing these issues, Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) jointly with
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) initiated the Regional Screenline
Traffic Count project to develop a comprehensive, defensible model validation screenline traffic count
database for the Southern California region.
         The key objectives for this project were identified as follows: (1) Development of a regional
screenline traffic count database system; (2) Estimation of the 2003 Annual Average Weekday Traffic
(AAWT) counts, and (3) Maintenance and Update of the Traffic Count System.
         The first step was to develop a GIS based information system for storing existing traffic counts.
Then traffic adjustment factors were developed for converting short duration one-day traffic counts to the
Annual Average Weekday Traffic (AAWT) counts. Since there are insufficient continuous counter
locations that describe how traffic behaves at each screenline location, especially at the arterial locations,
the adjustment factors were developed from data collected at available continuously operated data
collection sites. Then adjustment factors were applied to locations where continuous data is not available.
Last, a cost effective plan was recommended to keep the regional traffic count program up-to-date and
develop a high-quality practical resource framework for all involved parties. The plan recommends a set
of action items to be followed.
         This presentation will provide detail on the methodologies used in this traffic count data
management process, highlighting lessons learned on the procedures used to create a useful complete
database of counts at screenline locations.

Page 22 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 5A, Beyond the Basics in Traffic Data Collection, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Incorporating Incident Data into a Freeway Data Archive for Improved Performance Measurement
Author(s): Jessica Potter
Portland State University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Post Office Box 751
Portland, OR 97207
Phone: (503) 725-4285. Fax: (503) 725-5950. E-mail:
Other Authors: Suman Tasnim, Kristin A. Tufte, and Robert L. Bertini (Portland State University)
         The Portland Oregon Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) archives high resolution traffic
data including speed, volume, and occupancy collected from 500 freeway loop detectors in the Portland
metropolitan area. PORTAL currently provides measures related to total congestion that occurs on the
freeway network, but cannot presently distinguish between recurrent and non-recurrent congestion
effects. In response to the need to make such a distinction, the objective of this paper is to describe the
incorporation of freeway incident data received from the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT)
into PORTAL. ODOT’s freeway incident database includes information about vehicle crashes and stalls,
debris on the road, construction and other random events. The paper demonstrates how users can view
incident data associated with a particular time frame and location. For example, a user analyzing data
from a particular day will be able to immediately access associated incident data so the user can
determine if the traffic pattern is related to an incident. In addition, freeway incident performance metrics
will be described, including tracking of incident trends over time and location and numbers of incidents
by incident type. Finally, the paper will describe how comparing incidents with weather data archived in
the PORTAL database can be used to determine how weather has influenced incidents. The above-
described incident performance metrics are useful to traffic researchers and practitioners and may
contribute to incident-reduction measures in the Portland area.

Session: 5B, Parking, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Strategies To Address Spillover Parking: Roles For Both Public & Private Sectors
Author(s): John Lower
City of Anaheim
200 S. Anaheim Boulevard
Anaheim, CA 92805
Phone: 714-765-5183. Fax: 714-765-4667. E-mail:
Presented by Alfred Yalda, City of Anaheim, CA
        Parking is a major land use issue, directly related to housing, jobs, transportation, and quality of
life. Insufficient parking originates from: 1) population outgrowing available housing; and 2)
underinvestment in apartment management and in parking/transportation systems.
        This paper details how these trends result in reallocation of local street parking spaces to
supplement needs of large person households, and leads to reduced quality of life for all.
        An overview is provided on residential permit parking programs. Anaheim’s was rescinded and
staff was directed to research alternatives to solve parking impacts on single-family neighborhoods near
multiple-family developments that do not meet parking standards. Review of best practices and lessons
learned in local applications will be presented, including: supply side programs to increase off-street
parking to code requirements; and demand-side management and land use alternatives to enable
transportation choices.
        Recommendations will be presented on programs to correct apartment management and to
renovate existing parking/transportation systems, including:

Page 23 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

       1.        Affordable housing parking ordinance adopted in response to concerns that off-street
parking costs made it too expensive to develop affordable housing. It results in affordable housing
measures enable transit as a transportation choice.
       2.       Affordable transportation enabled with our Bicycle Master Plan for route connections
between residential, recreation, school and employment centers.

Session: 5B, Parking, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Smart Parking Meters Take Over the West
Author(s): Ransford S. McCourt, PE, PTOE
DKS Associates
1400 SW Fifth Avenue, Suite 500
Portland, OR 97201
Phone: 503 243-3500. Fax: 503 243-1934. E-mail:
         In early 2002 the City of Portland authorized installation of pay station technology to replace its
aging coin parking meters. With over 7,000 meters in operation, this was a major undertaking. The
SchlumbergerSema manufacturers “smart meter” pay station was selected which cost about $6,100 each
and replaced up to 9 meters per block face (new coin meters cost $650 per space). The smart meters are
solar powered, accept credit cards and remove meter posts from the sidewalk area – significant benefits.
Since that time several western cities have implemented “smart parking meters”. This paper will
highlight the implementation details in the Portland outlining the costs, benefits, user facts (how much
credit card use), maintenance issues and public perception. The paper will highlight other western cities
experiences with the “pay and display” concepts and the initial financial experiences that have been
accrued in the last three years.
         With the rapid advance of the pay and display concepts in the United States in the past few years,
standards for signing to address this new street side activity have lagged behind. This paper will also
highlight recent undertakings by the ITE Parking Council in coordination with the MUTCD committees
on developing standard signing applications for these pay stations on public streets.

Session: 5B, Parking, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Sacramento Central City Parking Master Plan
Author(s): Francesca Halbakken
Department of Transportation, City of Sacramento
915 I Street, Rm. 2000
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: (916) 808-7194. Fax: (916) 808-5573. E-mail:
Other Authors: William R. Loudon, DKS Associates, (510) 267-6623,
         The downtown area of Sacramento is home to the state capitol, state offices, office towers, private
businesses, a major shopping mall, numerous other stores, a historic district that is a major magnet for
tourism and numerous residential neighborhoods. The downtown is at the heart of a multimodal
transportation system that includes direct access to three major freeways, is at the hub of the region’s light
rail system, and is served by many of the region’s bus routes and regional passenger rail. The Parking
Master Plan was undertaken to ensure that parking is supplied, maintained and operated in a way that
supports the continued economic growth of the downtown while also promoting a livable community for
downtown residents and supporting the regional commitment to Smart Growth policies. Following
extensive data collection and review of current management methods, a set of eighty recommendations
were developed. Stakeholder meetings, focus group meetings, a public open house, a web site,

Page 24 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

newsletters and City Council meetings input were used too seek stakeholder and public input. Policies
were formulated to ensure that new development generated enough parking to meet the needs of its uses,
but without reducing incentives for use of transit or other alternative modes. Policies developed related to
support of transit and Smart Growth principles including strategies for elimination of free parking, raising
parking rates, setting time limits to reduce long-term use, allowing reduced parking linked with demand
reduction strategies, unbundling parking costs from development costs and requirements for bicycle

Session: 5B, Parking, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Student Data Collection Fund: Parking Generation of Multiplex Theaters
Author(s): Cal State Sacramento and Portland State University Student Chapterss
         None submitted.

•        Session: 5B, Parking, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Student Data Collection Fund: Saturation Flows at Signalized Intersections with High Pedestrian
Author(s): Portland State University Student Chapter
         None submitted.

Session: 5B, Parking, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Student Data Collection Fund: Calibration of Capacity Parameters for Signalized Intersections in
Author(s): University of Hawaii at Manoa Student Chapter
         None submitted.

Session: 5C, Traffic Simulation Applications, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: From Planning to Simulation: An Integrated Traffic Study Approach
Author(s): Xiaojian “Allen” Nie, Ph.D.
TJKM Transportation Consultants
5960 Inglewood Drive, Suite 100
Pleasanton, CA 94588
Phone: (925) 463-0611. Fax: (925) 463-3690. E-mail:
Other Authors: Jia-Hao Wu, Ph.D. and Christopher Thnay, PE, AICP, TJKM Transportation Consultants
         Typically, a large-scale traffic study involves a two-step process. The first step generally involves
using gravity-based travel forecasting models to forecast traffic volumes for given land use data and near-
term or longer-term roadway network characteristics. In the second step, traffic operations models are
often used to conduct more detailed volume-to-capacity analysis for selected intersections and road
segments. Between the two processes, typically a large amount of data is transferred from the first to the
second step. Manual data transfer proves fallible, cumbersome and costly, especially when it involves a
large number of study intersections with multiple study scenarios. Therefore, an automated data transfer
procedure is invaluable in ensuring data quality, save time, and minimize expense.

Page 25 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         This paper presents a superior methodology that automates data transfer from travel forecasting
models to Synchro. Travel forecasting models are not limited to any particular package as long as it can
export network layout and turn volumes in text format. Popular travel forecasting model software
packages such as TP+, EMME2 and TransCAD will work with this process. Synchro is selected as the
traffic operation tool because it is one of the most widely used programs along with its capability to
conduct traffic coordination and simulation. A utility program was developed to implement the proposed
data transfer methodology. A sample application is also presented. Extensive project experience shows
that a significant amount of time can be saved through the use of the unique data automation process.

Session: 5C, Traffic Simulation Applications, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Large Scale Operational Analysis of I-5 Corridor in Los Angeles
Author(s): Thomas Bauer, P.E., PTOE
PTV America, Inc.
1128 NE Second Street, Suite 204
Corvallis, OR 97330
Phone: 541-754-6836. Fax: 541-754-6837. E-mail:
Other Authors: Diane Jacobs, Caltrans District 7, Los Angeles
         The I-5 Corridor Improvement Project stretches from the Los Angeles / Orange County line to the
I-605 interchange. The project is 12.22 (7.59 miles) long and includes 6 interchanges. The proposed
project entails widening I-5 from currently 6 lanes to either 10 or 12 lanes at an estimated cost of about
$600 Mio in 2005 dollars or about $1 Billion at time of construction. Following standard Caltrans
practice, a Value Analysis was conducted for this project which examined freeway mainline operation,
local street intersection operation, construction impacts, phaseability and project schedule of the proposed
plan. Using an innovative modeling approach consisting of macroscopic and microscopic tools, the study
team was able to accurately reflect existing traffic conditions, assign study area traffic to evaluate
different alternatives and generate all traffic operation analyses for more than 20 alternatives within the 2-
week study period. The study resulted in a 49% improvement in project performance combined with a
20% cost reduction, thus increasing the overall project value by 86%.

Session: 5C, Traffic Simulation Applications, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Toll Plaza Modeling with VISSIM: Capacity Maximization with Electronic and Manual Tolls
Author(s): Juanita Wolfgramm
University of Hawaii at Manoa
2540 Dole Street, 383
Honolulu, HI 96822
Phone: 808-956-0949 (work) 808-457-6997 (cell). Fax: 808-956-5014. E-mail:
         Toll plaza operations on a major urban toll freeway were investigated using simulation with
VISSIM. Data obtained from a 6-lane toll plaza on the Attica Tollway in Athens, Greece were used. The
research objectives were: (1) To model manual toll collection and electronic toll collection (ETC) lanes to
replicate field observed service rates. (2) To model the propensity of heavy vehicles to use the right-most
lanes. (3) To assess the capacity of the toll plaza so that queues are limited to 250 m. (4) To investigate if
toll plaza productivity is higher with one or two ETC lanes.
         Manual lane service times were represented with stop signs. Field-based dwell times were used
to represent the amount of time spent at the toll gate. A speed reduction zone was used to model vehicle
travel through the ETC lanes. The efficacy of these modeling actions was achieved by setting loop
emulators and comparing simulation results with the processing on digital video.

Page 26 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

        There is no easy way for estimating the capacity of a large toll plaza. An iterative process with
multiple random seeds and a step-wise increasing level of demand were used to find the demand level at
which the queue exceeded 250 meters.
        The number of required ETC lanes is affected by the proportion of vehicles equipped with
transponders. When the portion of vehicles with transponders varies between 20% and 30%, a single
ETC lane is sufficient. Two ETC lanes may be required when 40% of vehicles have ETC transponders.

Session: 5C, Traffic Simulation Applications, Tuesday June 27, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Urban Freeway Management Using CORSIM Simulation
Author(s): Kevin Chen
Dowling Associates, Inc.
180 Grand Avenue, Suite 250
Oakland, CA 94612
Phone: 510-839-1742. Fax: 510-839-0871. E-mail:
Presented by Nate Chanchareon , Wilbur Smith Associates
Other Authors: Nate Chanchareon, Wilbur Smith Associates
         Freeway congestion has been projected to become substantially worse in the years to come unless
the effective improvement solutions are proposed to handle its mobility. Many solutions are being
proposed and implemented to alleviate freeway congestion throughout the United States. Additions of
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes, and implementation of
ramp metering are some solutions that are widely used in many urban metropolitan areas to improve
traffic flow on the freeways. These three approaches present cost effective improvements that can be
made to existing freeways at a relatively lower cost than adding new freeways. This paper summarizes
methodologies applicable to perform operational analysis for the above mentioned improvement
solutions. In particular, this paper will primarily focus on the utilization of the microsimulation tool
CORSIM (CORridor SIMulation), to effectively evaluate the pros and cons of such transportation
improvement projects. Two actual projects which utilized CORSIM as the primary traffic analysis tool
are presented in this paper, including the US 101 HOV Corridor Study in Sonoma County, and the I-580
HOV Lane Study in Alameda County, both of which are in the vicinity of the Bay Area, California. This
paper will provide some useful findings from these projects for upcoming freeway improvement projects;
moreover, a summary of pros and cons of using CORSIM simulation in urban freeway management.

Session: 6A, Taking Roundabouts to the Next Level, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: The Effects of Pedestrian Signals at Multi-Lane Roundabouts
Author(s): Benjamin T. Waldman, P.E., P.T.O.E.
LSC Transportation Consultants Inc.
1889 York Street
Denver, CO 80206
Phone: (303) 333-1105. Fax: (303) 333-1107. E-mail:
Other Authors: Bart Przybyl, LSC Transportation Consultants
         The proposed American Disability Act (ADA) Guidelines have recommended that pedestrian
actuated traffic signals be located at all multi-lane approaches to roundabouts. The primary purpose of
this recommendation is to improve safety for visually impaired pedestrians, which almost everyone would
agree would be accomplished if this recommendation is implemented. However, little has been done to
examine the effect that pedestrian signals would have on the capacity and operation of roundabouts. This
paper would examine the effect that a pedestrian signal would have on a multi-lane roundabout. It would

Page 27 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

start with a brief discussion on other research that has previously been completed on this topic. Analysis
would be accomplished by modeling one or several existing roundabout(s) with the VISSIM software.
Traffic volume, delay and queue data would be collected at the subject location(s) and this data would be
used to calibrate the Vissim Model. Then, pedestrian signals would be added to the simulation and
simulation runs would be conducted under several different traffic volume and pedestrian volume
scenarios. Measures of Effectiveness (MOE’s) such as capacity, delay and queue lengths would be
tabulated in order for the different simulation runs in order to compare the MOE’s of the roundabout(s)
with and without the pedestrian signals.

Session: 6A, Taking Roundabouts to the Next Level, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Signalizing Roundabouts: Managing Traffic Flows to Increase the Capacity of Multi-lane
Author(s): Michael V. Iswalt
Fehr & Peers
2990 Lava Ridge Court, Suite 200
Roseville, CA 95661
Phone: 916-773-1900. Fax: 916-773-2015. E-mail:
Other Authors: David Stanek, Fehr & Peers
         Roundabouts have become increasingly popular as a means of traffic control. At high volume
intersections, two-lane roundabouts have been recommended to improve the operating performance,
decrease the number of serious vehicular accidents, and reduce long-term costs by eliminating the need to
maintain signal equipment.
         Despite these advantages, two-lane roundabouts have their limitations. The most common is the
inability of a roundabout to handle unbalanced traffic flows. If traffic from a dominant approach
proceeds unabated into the circulating roadway, traffic from other approaches will not have sufficient
gaps to enter the intersection.
         However, roundabouts should not be automatically rejected in these situations because there are
several technological and design alternatives that can be implemented to overcome these concerns.
Bypass lanes, spiral striping, and metering signals can increase roundabout capacity for locations with
high volumes and/or unbalanced flows.
         These design alternatives were evaluated on a recent interchange reconstruction project in
Placerville, California. The micro-simulation software VISSIM was used to evaluate several iterations of
roundabouts at the ramp terminal intersections under future design year conditions. The simulation
indicates that roundabouts with metering signals, spiral striping, and bypass lanes are effective at
accommodating high volumes and unbalanced flows.

Session: 6A, Taking Roundabouts to the Next Level, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: The Effects of Exiting Vehicles on the Capacity of Single-Lane Roundabout Approaches
Author(s): Yuri Mereszczak
Kittelson & Associates, Inc.
101 S Capitol Blvd Suite 301
Boise, ID 83702
Phone: 208-338-2683. Fax: 208-338-2685. E-mail:
         Preliminary findings from the National Cooperative Highway Research Program 3-65 project
indicate that the majority of measured capacities at single-lane roundabouts in the U.S. are less than
capacities predicted using the HCM 2000 capacity model and other U.S. and international capacity

Page 28 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

models. The HCM 2000 model estimates approach capacity by considering entry driver response to
vehicles in the circulating stream of traffic only, with no consideration for effects due to the exiting
stream of traffic. Observations of entry driver behavior at eight single-lane roundabout approaches
indicate that many drivers entering a roundabout hesitate due to an effect of traffic on the adjacent exit.
Using U.S. data, this paper investigates this effect through the process of including exiting vehicles in
capacity estimation. The findings presented in this report demonstrate that capacity estimates with exiting
vehicles result in improved prediction of the actual capacity of a roundabout approach over estimates
without exiting vehicles. Limited investigation of the proportion of exiting vehicles in the major stream of
traffic showed that this parameter may provide some explanation of the effects of exiting vehicles on
approach capacity. Designers and analysts alike should be aware that capacities at U.S. roundabouts are
lower than most models predict, with hesitation due to exiting vehicles appearing to be a major
contributor to the lower predictions.

Session: 6A, Taking Roundabouts to the Next Level, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Roundabouts at Caltrans: Gaining Momentum
Author(s): Rachel Donovan
California Department of Transportation – District 4
111 Grand Avenue
Oakland, CA 94612
Phone: 510.622.0723. Fax: 510.286.4561. E-mail:
        In the past few years, Caltrans District 4 has been receiving an increasing number of requests
from city and county governments asking for roundabout designs on state highways. Local decision-
makers hope that roundabouts will provide an aesthetic gateway to their local region, increased safety,
smoother traffic operations, lower maintenance costs when compared to a traffic signal alternatives, and
the potential for traffic calming and an enhanced pedestrian and bicycle realm. This report will present
information on how Caltrans’ policies on roundabouts have changed over the years, a history of the first
seven roundabouts built on the state’s highway system, and an update on how the roundabout culture at
Caltrans is currently undergoing a major transformation. As roundabouts pick up momentum at Caltrans,
they are poised to play a major role in the future of the state’s highway system.

Session: 6B, Making Transit Work, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Operation Performance Measure through Transit Priority Systems’ Automation
Author(s): Chun Wong
City of Los Angeles, Department of Transportation
100 South Main Street, 9th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90012
Phone: (213) 972-8628. Fax: (213) 972-8610. E-mail:
         The primary Transit Priority System (TPS) functionality of achieving an on-time reliable
performance through modification of existing traffic signal operations is becoming widely recognized and
substantiated by many successful TPS implementation case studies throughout the country. Leveraging
from its real-time automated vehicle tracking subsystem infrastructure and couple with a database logging
system, a secondary TPS benefit of a real-time automated transit data collection function for transit
performance analysis is gradually immerging. The Los Angeles TPS is exploiting this new benefit and
has developed a new web based application, Transit Reporting and Queries (iTRAQ). Drawn from its
backend Oracle database of actual transit trip time points, the application can produce “drill-out” detail
analysis reports of past transit trips from the weekdays, weekends, mid-night, holidays, etc - anytime at

Page 29 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

any of the over 2000 detection points. The traditional costly and time consuming manual data collection
process to produce a same report is now just a mouse click away. The results from these reports are being
used by Los Angeles traffic engineers to fine-tune traffic signal operations as well as by the Los Angeles
County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA) to better manage its bus fleet operation and to
help to develop a more realistic bus schedule.

Session: 6B, Making Transit Work, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Dumbarton Rail Corridor Alternatives Analysis
Author(s): Ronald C. Holmes, P.E., Sr. Project Manager
HNTB Corporation
1330 Broadway, Suite 1630
Oakland, CA 94612
Phone: 510-208-4599. Fax: 510-208-4595. E-mail:
Other Authors: Howard Goode, Deputy Director SMCTA
         This paper is a case study of the Dumbarton Rail Corridor (DRC), a proposed new 20.5-mile
passenger rail service linking the East and West Bay communities in the San Francisco Bay Area. The
paper demonstrates how the efforts of regional partnerships with rail service providers (passenger and
freight), county and local jurisdictions, and other interested parties can lead to an optimal operating
solution for both passenger and freight service. The paper reviews the history of the DRC project,
outlines the study process, summarizes alternatives development and travel demand, and presents the key
findings from the detailed operations studies and simulations. In addition, it summarizes key lessons
learned and best practices applicable to other agencies considering the development and implementation
of new passenger rail service in their communities.
         The DRC service has been the subject of numerous planning studies since the early 1990s and is
nearly fully funded with $300 million in local funds. Currently the project is entering environmental
documentation and preliminary engineering with an anticipated start-up date of 2010. As part of the
studies needed in project development, detailed operations planning, travel demand, and cost estimating
analyses have been completed. In addition, the study effort has included significant work with the partner
counties and other stakeholders to address local and regional issues related to the delivery of service and
other impacts. Part of this outreach has included extensive discussions and partnership with the Union
Pacific Railroad (UPRR).

Session: 6B, Making Transit Work, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Rapid Bus and East Bay SMART Corridors Program – A successfully implemented partnership
which has increased transit use and roadway efficiency.
Author(s): Cyrus Minoofar
Alameda County Congestion Management Agency
Oakland, CA 94612
Phone: 510-836-2560. Fax: 510-836-2185. E-mail:
Presented by Cesar Pujol, AC Transit
Other Authors: Cesar Pujol, AC Transit and Anush Nejad, Kimley-Horn & Associates
        San Francisco Bay Area is among the most congested and politically diverse communities in the
world. This combination creates unique challenges in implementation of multi-modal and multi-agency
systems. Alameda County Congestion Management Agency and AC Transit have overcome these
obstacles and have developed a partnership among 25 agencies to address congestion and mobility
through a combination of Rapid Bus Transit (BRT), Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and

Page 30 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Emergency Management System (EMS) technologies, known as the East Bay SMART Corridors
        Due to the high cost of land, space constraints and environmental impacts, roadway widening is
no longer the only feasible solution. BRT and ITS technologies maximize on existing resources and can
be implemented in shorter time frame with significantly lower costs and higher impacts.
        BRT systems use transit signal priority, signal coordination, and real-time transit arrival
information to create better bus service and promoting transit ridership. In addition, ITS technologies
monitor traffic flow through CCTVs and detection systems to provide real-time information to
transportation managers and to public to make better decisions based on delays and incidents.
        EMS technologies help in reducing incident response time, while minimizing the impacts of
incidents. These technologies use Automatic Vehicle Location and mobile computer systems allow
responders to locate the closest emergency response vehicle and access real-time information while en
        The implementation of these solutions along San Pablo Avenue Corridor has demonstrated the
success of this approach with a 77% increase in transit ridership and reduction in 1,100 auto trips.

Session: 6B, Making Transit Work, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Inner Geary Transit Preferential Streets (TPS) Project:2003-2005
Author(s): Javad Mirabdal
City and County of San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency
One So. Van Ness Avenue, 7th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94103
Phone: 415-701-4421. Fax: 415-701-4343. E-mail:
Other Authors: Bond M. Yee, City and County of San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency
         In 2003 a project was initiated to improve transit performance on the 38-Geary, San Francisco's
busiest bus route that carries over 50,000 passengers a day. The project intended to improve bus speed
and reliability for the entire route by addressing issues on Inner Geary (Geary and O'Farrell between
Market and Van Ness), the most problematic portion of the route that causes the largest and most variable
delays for transit.
         The primary goal of this project was to improve the rider experience in terms of: Travel time -
reduce average travel times by 15% ; Reliability - reduce travel time variation by 40% ; Comfort -
straighten and smooth Inner Geary bus path.
         In order to achieve these goals the project included: Improved parking management; Improved
transit-only lane; Double length bus bulbs at key stops; Improved local bus stop spacing; Improved
signage; Colorization of the transit-only lane.
         This project aimed to achieve these goals while preserving or enhancing business vitality and
neighborhood livability.
         During the planning phase extensive outreach was conducted and finally the project was
implemented successfully in the summer of 2005. Before and after study was conducted to evaluate the
impact of the project. Javad Mirabdal will present the result of this project.

Page 31 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 6C, Managing Traffic in Neighborhoods, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Reducing the width of a roadway without reducing traffic throughput and enhancing the community
along the way
Author(s): Eric Shimizu, P.E.
CH2M Hill
1100 – 112th Avenue NE
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone: 425-453-5000. Fax: 425-468-3100. E-mail:
Other Authors: Andrew Barash, CH2M Hill
         With so many Americans taking to diets, it may be no surprise that some want their urban
arterials to go on diets as well. This was the desire of the West Hill community of King County,
Washington. The West Hill community has historically been bisected by regional arterials. While
recognizing the need to maintain regional mobility, the community wanted to strike a better balance
between livability and vehicle movement. The results of their “road diet” surprised them, they reduced the
cross-section AND improved capacity. The West Hills corridor study took a context-sensitive approach
focused on improving motorized and non-motorized safety, jurisdictional coordination, enhancing
neighborhood character, and implementing low-impact environmental strategies while balancing traffic
impacts to the roadway network. The study developed in close coordination with King County
Department of Transportation, West Hill Community Advisory Group, and a process of open houses for
the community. This document will highlight the effort towards reducing 4-lane roadways to 3. It will
present the project as a technical “test-bench” for innovations in the analysis of a list of items: existing &
future traffic conditions, accident analysis, research on similar implementations, multiple design options,
visualization, ability to increase space for bicycle lanes without increasing R/W, a forecasted reduction in
rear end accidents by separating the left turn movements, increasing sight distance for vehicles at
intersections, and a potential for reduction in 85% speed without a reduction in corridor capacity. The
context-sensitive approach that the project team took in the work was critical to its success in the eyes of
both the client’s engineering staff and the community.

Session: 6C, Managing Traffic in Neighborhoods, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Engineering a Better Customer Service
Author(s): Lisa Martellaro-Palmer
City of Los Angeles, Department of Transportation
1828 Sawtelle Bl., Rm. 108
Los Angeles, CA 90025
Phone: (310) 575-8138. Fax: (310)575-8143. E-mail:
        Working with the public can be a challenging and at times a formidable task for any public
servant. However, as engineers we may be even more challenged than our non-engineering colleagues
since our temperament and educational background may possibly lead us to the correct engineering
solution while at the same time not adequately stressing social and aesthetic values.
        In todays changing environment we need to be aware and sensitive to the current trend towards
greater citizen and neighborhood empowerment. The winds of change are upon us and the question we
must ask is “How will we as engineers and transportation professionals respond to these challenges?” We
must accept the movement toward greater citizen participation. We must seek the public’s interest and
weigh their collective participatory comments. We must assign value to the public’s interest and input.
        The contemporary public servant must fully cooperate with the citizen requestors in a courteous,
dignified and respectful manner. For those of us who work for a government transportation agency, we
must learn to value and expect public input in the final determination of our answer, product or design.

Page 32 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

These are some of the new guidelines for engineering a better customer service for the citizens of Los

Session: 6C, Managing Traffic in Neighborhoods, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Traffic Management Strategies for New Neighborhoods
Author(s): Stephen M. Pyburn, PE, PTOE
Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
1430 Blue Oaks Boulevard, Suite 120
Roseville, CA 95747
Phone: 916-797-3811. Fax: 916-797-3804. E-mail:
         Traffic problems in residential neighborhoods are becoming increasingly common in the United
States. Such problems are generally attributable to excessive speeds and traffic volumes that are
inappropriate for a residential environment. Speeding and traffic volumes are often seen, by residents, to
be a threat to public safety and their quality of life. Unfortunately, with regard to children and the elderly,
this threat is real.
         For this report, research was conducted to describe the magnitude of traffic problems common to
many neighborhoods. This research was conducted for three general areas, including the severity of the
threat to children and the elderly, factors that contribute to these types of traffic problems, and actions that
can be taken to minimize their occurrence in new neighborhoods. More specifically, research was
conducted on the causes of speeding and excessive traffic volumes in residential areas. This research
included review of literature related to these problems as well as examination of several neighborhoods in
the City of Sacramento that suffer from these issues. In addition to typical roadway design factors, non-
engineering factors were also investigated.
         The research conducted resulted in development of a number of recommendations for the design
new residential neighborhoods. The recommendations provide guidance for the design of new
neighborhoods with the objective of creating neighborhoods that will not require retrofit traffic calming
after they are constructed and occupied.

Session: 6C, Managing Traffic in Neighborhoods, Tuesday June 27, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Dairy and Pacific Neighborhoods Traffic Enhancement Project Study – A Successful One-Way
Street Conversion Project with Community Involvement
Author(s): Carlos Ortiz, P.E., T.E., P.T.O.E.
RBF Consulting
14725 Alton Parkway
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone: 949-855-3657. Fax: 949-837-8007. E-mail:
Other Authors: John Dorado, RBF Consulting
         The Dairy Neighborhood Traffic Study, was initiated by residents within the community of North
Long Beach to change traffic operations along their residential streets from existing two-way to one-way
operations due to narrow roadway widths, cut-through traffic, and provide additional on-street parking.
         In addition, on-going projects within the vicinity of the initial study area, impacted the traffic
study. The study limits expanded to include:
         The Pacific Neighborhood, adjacent to the Dairy neighborhood, with narrow roadway widths.
Also, new elementary school currently under construction within this community.

Page 33 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         The City is planning to beautify a major corridor by providing landscaped raised medians within
the study area. Since the proposed one-way street conversion would have an impact on the location of the
proposed landscaped raised medians, a Landscaped Raised Median Conceptual Plan was developed.
         Neighborhood involvement and project awareness were key components to the success of this
study. A total of five community outreach workshops/meetings were held.
         The Final Conceptual Plans integrates the following: Change existing two-way to one-way
operations on selected streets; Development of traffic operations for year 2005, 2007 and 2010; Potential
new signalized intersections; Potential all-way stop control intersections; Reduce line of sight
obstructions; Improve traffic circulation; Provide additional parking; Improve signage; Minimize cut-
through traffic; Reduce on-coming vehicular conflicts; Remove existing turning restrictions; Evaluation
of left-turn volumes, proposed side street one-way traffic for location of proposed landscaped medians;
Community Enhancement.

Session: 7A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Milled Continuous Shoulder Rumble Strips in Nevada
Author(s): Srinivas S. Pulugurtha
University of North Carolina, Charlotte
9201 University City Boulevard
Charlotte, NC 28075
Phone: 704-687-6660. Fax: 704-687-6953. E-mail:
Other Authors: Vinay K. Vanapalli of University of Nevada, Las Vegas
         In 2002, “ran-off-roadway” single-vehicle crashes accounted for more than 120 fatalities (30% of
total fatalities) and 2,400 injuries (15% of total injuries) in the State of Nevada. The primary causes of
these crashes are inattentive driving, fatigue, drowsiness, fell asleep, driver distraction, alcohol / drugs
involvement, and glare. To address safety concerns related to “ran-off-roadway” single-vehicle crashes,
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is spearheading a movement to increase nationwide use of
continuous shoulder rumble strips to help keep motorists on the road rather than relying on clear roadsides
and traffic barriers. Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) has installed Milled Rumble Strips, a
type of continuous shoulder rumble strips along Interstate freeways and highways in urban and rural areas
of Nevada to alert the drivers and reduce “ran-off-roadway” single-vehicle crashes. However, not much
has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of these continuous shoulder rumble strips in reducing these
“ran-off-roadway” single-vehicle crashes. Also, design specifications such as shoulder width may have an
affect on the effectiveness of such safety treatments. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the
effectiveness of continuous shoulder rumble strips by comparing “before” and “after” installation crash
data, and study the correlation with shoulder width in order to enhance safety. The outcomes are expected
to assist the system managers not only in Nevada, but also nationally, in better understanding the
effectiveness of continuous shoulder rumble strips in reducing “ran-off-roadway” single-vehicle crashes,
and identifying the appropriate design specifications to reduce these crashes.

Page 34 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 7A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Mind The Gap - Statistical Models For Right-Turn Related Crashes At High Crash Locations In
The Las Vegas Valley
Author(s): Paul J. Villaluz, PE, PTOE
G.C. Wallace, Inc.
1555 S. Rainbow Boulevard
Las Vegas, NV 89146
Phone: 702-804-2239. Fax: 702-804-2177. E-mail:
        The research objective was to develop a statistical model that related right-turn related crashes
(RTRC) to volumetric factors at High Crash Locations (HCL) in the Las Vegas Valley. Information from
selected HCL was analyzed with simple bivariate regression analysis and multiple regression analysis.
        Response variables included the number of RTRC, the ratio of RTRC / Million Entering Vehicles
(MEV), and the ratio of RTRC/ Total Intersection Crashes.
        Predictor variables included Right-Turn Volume, Right-Turn-On-Red Volume, Red Time / Cycle
Time Percentage, Cross Product (per 1000 Vehicles) of Right-Turn Volumes and Opposing Through
Volumes, Frequency of Gaps greater than 6.5 seconds, and the Frequency of Gaps less than 6.5 seconds.
        Regression models of the relationships between these particular responses and predictor variables
were found to explain up to 16% of the given data.

Session: 7A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Comparing Collision Types and Severities to Highway Geometric Deficiencies on the Columbia
River Crossing Project
Author(s): Theodore Stonecliffe, P.E.
David Evans and Associates, Inc.
2100 SW River Pkwy
Portland, OR 97201
Phone: (360) 816-2175. Fax: (360) 737-0294. E-mail:
Other Authors: David Parisi, P.E.
         In order to discover any correlation of geometric deficiencies to the number, type, and severity of
collisions along Interstate 5 as part of the Columbia River Crossing Project, a comprehensive safety
analysis was performed for the co-sponsoring Oregon and Washington State Departments of
Transportation by David Evans and Associates (DEA) and Parisi-Associates. The collisions were mapped
on an aerial map by grouping them at every tenth of a mile in both northbound and southbound directions
and by placing a scaled pie chart, which size was determined by the total number of collisions, at each
tenth of a mile point. The pies were divided into four different crash types on the first set of maps and
into three different crash severities on the other.
         Four categories of geometric deficiencies including acceleration/deceleration lane length,
weaving section length, shoulder width, and horizontal and vertical stopping sight distance were
delineated along the center of the freeway in color-coded strips on the crash type maps. The deficiency
severity, showing whether the deficiency such as an acceleration lane length was in the top, middle, or
bottom third of the standard length, was indicated using shades of similar colors.
         The Highway Design Manuals of the respective states were used to determine the geometric
standards and as-built drawings and recent topo surveys were used to determine the existing geometric
conditions. The maps indicated a high correlation between rear-end and side-swipe crashes in
substandard speed change lanes and weaving areas.

Page 35 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 7A, Measuring and Improving Traffic Safety II, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Resolving Crash Data System Issues: Arizona’s Recent Strategies
Author(s): Kohinoor Kar, Ph.D., P.E.
Arizona Department of Transportation, Traffic HES (Safety) Section
2828 N. Central Avenue, Suite 900
Phoenix, AZ 85004
Phone: 602-712-6857. Fax: 602-712-3243. E-mail:
Presented by Mark Poppe, Stanley Consultants
        The single most important factor in an effective traffic safety analysis is the quality and reliability
of crash data. Therefore, identification of issues related to crash data collection, transfer, storage, linking
capabilities, quality control, and maintenance as well as implementing suggested improvements are
extremely important for the success of safety projects and programs.
        The State of Arizona started the crash database on a mainframe more than twenty years back. The
current system is Structured Query Language (SQL)-based, which was converted from mainframe to SQL
server in 1997. There are a number of issues and concerns related to the existing system. Some of them
were identified first by performing a research study as well as by the crash data user group, coordinated
by the author of this paper. After the Safe, Accountable, Flexible and Efficient Transportation Equity Act:
A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) came into existence, a Traffic Records Coordinating Committee
(TRCC) has been formed. Also, the Arizona Governor’s Traffic Safety Advisory Council (GTSAC) has a
Traffic Records subcommittee. TRCC is responsible for developing the Strategic Plan for Traffic
Records, and making recommendations to GTSAC. This paper describes some of the strategies and
recommendations developed in the recent past in order to resolve the existing issues.

Session: 7B, Corridor Planning in the West, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: The Rocky Road of Project Development – Lessons Learned in the Jackson SR-88 Corridor Bypass
Author(s): Sam Morrissey
Wilbur Smith Associates
900 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 930
Los Angeles, CA 90017
Phone: 213.627.3855 Cell: 619.917.7478. Fax: 213.627.3859. E-mail:
         The residents of Amador County, California have recognized the need for improvements to State
Route (SR) 88 through the City of Jackson for more than 25 years. As traffic congestion increases, the
safety of residents and visitors is threatened and quality of life degrades. Although numerous potential
solutions were presented over the years, nothing ever moved past the conceptual stage. Potential
solutions were rejected due to limited community support, high costs, or adverse environmental impacts.
In addition, the piecemeal approach to evaluation of potential solutions provided no firm foundation for
the necessary documentation for ultimate project development. The Amador County Transportation
Commission (ACTC) desired to find out if any improvements were feasible; therefore, a corridor bypass
study was commissioned. The purpose of the study was to analyze the vast number of potential
alternatives on an equal footing so that feasible solutions to solve the increasing problems of congestion,
safety, environmental issues, and quality of life along the SR-88 corridor through Jackson could be
         This paper will describe some of the lessons learned through the course of the Jackson SR-88
Corridor Bypass Study, including: Identifying three study alternatives from a field of more than 25,
working within a mountainous terrain with limited options, working with various local residents with
conflicting goals, and using a set of broad resident concerns to develop quantifiable metrics for the

Page 36 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

evaluation of alternatives. The project was successful and the ACTC now has a set of identified
alternatives for further study and project development.

Session: 7B, Corridor Planning in the West, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: A Road For All Seasons: The Little Cottonwood Canyon Transportation Study
Author(s): Jon Nepstad, AICP
Fehr & Peers Associates, Inc.
302 West 5400 South Ste. 100
Murray, UT 84107
Phone: 801-261-4700. Fax: 801-261-0763. E-mail:
Other Authors: Ritchie Taylor, PE, Utah Department of Transportation; Chris Stethem, Stethem &
         Traffic operations and vehicle safety at resorts is difficult to manage. With two successful ski
areas, Alta and Snowbird at the end of the road, Little Cottonwood Canyon is no exception. If that isn't
tough enough, now throw in about a dozen avalanche slide areas, live artillery, anxious skiers, buses,
whiteout conditions and you've got quite a transportation conundrum. That is exactly what happens every
winter on Little Cottonwood Canyon Highway in the Wasatch Mountains in Salt Lake City.
         Traffic management in Little Cottonwood Canyon relies on the hard work of avalanche
forecasters, maintenance and law enforcement staff, and extensive coordination with the ski resorts. Due
to the diligent efforts of all the parties, the highway has been relatively safe during ski seasons, in spite of
being one of the most avalanche-prone highways in North America. However, with the increasing
popularity and growth of the resorts, additional measures can be taken to continue to ensure a high level
of safety for all modes.
         This unique project examined a wide variety of options to improve the highway safety from
avalanche danger. The study investigated some extreme measures such as realigning the highway out of
slide paths (but into National Forest lands), building snow sheds or tunnels, innovative demand
management concepts such as increased transit service, parking lot metering and ITS measures such as
traveler information systems at park and rides and the resorts. The study provided direction for UDOT,
UTA, Forest Service and the ski resorts for future transportation improvements.

Session: 7B, Corridor Planning in the West, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: I-90 Center Roadway Corridor Study
Author(s): Mark Yand
DKS Associates
719 Second Avenue, Suite 1250
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone: (206) 382-9800. Fax: (206) 587-0692. E-mail:
         Located on the edge of Elliott Bay in Puget Sound, Seattle is located between two large bodies of
water: Puget Sound to the west and Lake Washington to the east. Because of these physical geographic
constraints, Seattle has only two transportation facilities crossing Lake Washington: the I-90 and SR-520
freeways. Faced with a growing population and increased congestion on these key regional links, the
region has conducted extensive studies to evaluate alternatives to increase mobility and access across the
lake. For the I-90 corridor, past studies and regional agreements have identified I-90 as the preferred
corridor for high capacity transit (HCT). This paper discusses the evaluation tools and methodology used
to evaluate the operational impacts and benefits if the existing center roadway on I-90 is converted to
exclusive use for HCT operations. A primary objective of the study was to evaluate the operational

Page 37 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

impacts to the I-90 roadway under different operating scenarios including the option to convert the
reversible center roadway to high capacity transit use. Data generated from the study was used to inform
key agency decision makers on the operational benefits of the future transportation investments
considered for the corridor. The primary tools used for the analysis were the regional EMME/2 travel
demand model and VISSIM.

Session: 7B, Corridor Planning in the West, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Roadway Alternatives Evaluation for the Lewelling Blvd. Improvement Project: Cost Effectiveness
Evaluation using “Incremental Benefit Cost Ratio Method”
Author(s): David Carl Mahama, M.S.
TJKM Transportation Consultants
5960 Inglewood Dr. Suite 100,
Pleasanton, CA 94588
Phone: 925-463-0611. Fax: 925-463-3690. E-mail:
         As part of the evaluation process for the roadway alternatives for the Lewelling Boulevard
Improvement Traffic Engineering Study, there was the need to justify expenditures associated with the
improvements. The analysis included cost of accidents, vehicle operating costs, right of way costs and
investment costs including construction and other associated expenditures to aid in the decision making
process. These costs establish the direct economic value of the project. We will discuss principles and
concepts of economic analysis and specifically using the incremental benefit cost ratio (B/C) method as a
decision making tool. The method compares the discounted benefits and costs for each project and then
compares each alternative to another. The incremental benefit/cost ratio method maximizes the present
value of benefits, i.e. it maximizes (B-C). The best alternative, from an economic evaluation perspective,
is the one having a B/C ratio greater than 1.0 and whose B/C ratios with all other alternatives are also
greater than 1.0. The discussion will highlight the definition of the project alternatives, evaluation criteria,
components of the economic evaluation including roadway benefits and cost with a strong emphasis on
the method of economic analysis.

Session: 7C, Enhancing Transportation Education, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: City of Phoenix Technician Training Program
Author(s): Jenny L. Grote, P.E., PTOE
City of Phoenix Street Transportation Department
200 W. Washington Street, 6th Floor
Phoenix, AZ 85003
Phone: 602-262-7597. Fax: Fax 602-495-0336. E-mail:
         The City of Phoenix Traffic Operations Division has placed a high priority on technician training
as an important element of staff development to better serve the public’s needs. As technology advances,
online training has become available to the transportation profession, which is an extra benefit to those
employees who receive no, or very limited, travel funds and have limited time to attend courses yet they
still have the need to keep up with current information and techniques.
         The City received $25,000 from the Governor’s Office of Highway Safety (GOHS) in three
phases to provide: speakers in classroom-type settings; online courses; and, webinars to address the
technicians' training needs. Phase I included staff interviews to determine training priorities, which
provided the basis for a phased technician training program. Phase II expanded the Phase I in-house
courses with online courses and the increasingly popular webinars. Phase III was completed in December
2005 and included a combination of in-house courses with invited speakers and more online courses.

Page 38 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Since submitting this Abstract last fall, a new grant for an additional $20,000 has been received from
GOHS to continue the excellent training program.
        Training courses, whether they are in-person or online, help Traffic Operations’ staff solve daily
traffic problems of all types and learn what other cities do with similar conditions. Uniform,
comprehensive training that transcends staffing changes will help improve traffic safety for all motorists
in Phoenix, as technicians are furnished with a more comprehensive “toolbox” for meeting traffic
operational and traffic safety needs in the fifth largest city in the United States.

Session: 7C, Enhancing Transportation Education, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Renewing the Profession Via Practitioner-University Partnerships
Author(s): Michael P. Wallace
Fehr & Peers
100 Pringle Avenue, Suite 600
Walnut Creek, CA 94596
Phone: 925-930-7100. Fax: 925-933-7090. E-mail:
Other Authors: Lynn Grosz
          As the large cohort of transportation professionals trained during the 1960s and 70s approaches
retirement, the need to recruit the next generation of engineers and planners has become more pressing.
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly) is doing its part to produce graduates
with real technical knowledge ready to work in industry with their “learn by doing” philosophy. The Cal
Poly ITE student chapter conducts workshops for students to develop interest in transportation
professions and show the breadth of careers available. Fehr & Peers Transportation Consultants is a full
service transportation engineering and planning firm, with major projects entailing traffic simulation,
demand forecasting, and smart growth planning. In addition to its internal staff development and
education programs, Fehr & Peers contributes time and resources to Cal Poly’s College of Engineering
and the student chapter of ITE. This partnership generates interest in the transportation industry and gives
students a greater understanding of how a real firm functions. This paper highlights key Cal Poly "project
based learning" activities, Fehr & Peers internal and external education programs, and activities
facilitating interaction between Cal Poly and Fehr & Peers. It is the hope of the authors that this paper
will stimulate other university/professional partnerships to encourage and support student initiatives,
promote technical excellence and innovation, and increase student awareness of the profession.

Session: 7C, Enhancing Transportation Education, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Promotion of Transortation Engineering through Summer Transportation Institute (STI) Program
for Secondary Students
Author(s): Hassan Hashemian, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Civil Engineering
California State University, Los Angeles
5151 State University Dr.
Los Angeles, CA 90032
Phone: (323) 343-4499. Fax: (323) 343-6316. E-mail:
         The purpose of this paper is to describe the four-week Summer Transportation Institute
curriculum that was developed at California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA) in order to create
awareness and stimulate interest in secondary school students to take advantage of the opportunities that
exist in the transportation industry. The CSULA-STI curriculum was designed to include three programs:
the academic program, the enhancement program, and the sport and recreation program.

Page 39 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

        The academic program allowed students to participate in a series of academic and practical
experiences designed to motivate them toward careers in the transportation industry. The program
exposed students to the latest developments in land, air, and water and space transportation and career
opportunities in each of these industries. The program included presentations by professionals, field trips
to transportation agencies and facilities, exciting hands on projects, and computer applications and
programming. The enhancement and enrichment workshops exposed students to methods and activities,
which improve study habits and enhance academic achievement. The sports and recreation activity helped
to re-enforce the community emphasis of the program, reduce some inhibitions and move the program
forward with a greater degree of mutual support. The program identified goals and objectives by which
the program performance could be measured. The student evaluation forms were used as a method of
measuring whether the objectives were met.

Session: 7C, Enhancing Transportation Education, Tuesday June 27, 2006 1:30 pm to 3:00 pm
Title: Student-Developed Software Applications in Transportation Engineering
Author(s): Kevan R. Shafizadeh, Asst. Professor
California State University, Sacramento
6000 J Street, MS 6029
Sacramento, CA 95819
Phone: (916) 278-5348. Fax: (916) 278-7957. E-mail:
         This paper highlights recent developments in the Civil Engineering program at California State
University, Sacramento (CSUS) where students are producing transportation engineering software
applications related to procedures outlined in the Institute of Transportation Engineers Manual of
Transportation Engineering Studies. These software applications, produced as student projects in
Computer Applications in Civil Engineering (CE 101) by beginning third-year undergraduate students,
are noteworthy to the transportation engineering community because they are written in Microsoft Excel’s
Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), not in a stand-alone package or in a specialized programming
language, making them accessible to most engineers as well as the general public. In addition, these
applications often improve the efficiency of data collection and/or the accuracy of the analysis over
traditional, manual methods. Furthermore, these projects introduce students to basic transportation and
traffic engineering concepts much earlier than they otherwise would in the civil engineering curriculum.
Finally, these applications can be applied and modified by future students in transportation engineering
field exercises or lab courses. In addition to be a programming exercise for students, the goal may be to
eventually develop a suite of “open-source” products that are available to other universities for their lab
courses in transportation engineering or to the general public for free download..

Session: 8A, Traffic Signal Phasing & Timing, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Dealing with ‘Dead’ Time: Optimizing Traffic Signal Operations Using Volume Density Timing
Author(s): Edgar Monroy-Lopez
County of San Diego, Department of Public Works – Traffic Ops
5469 Kearny Villa Road
San Diego, CA 92123
Phone: 858-874-4155. Fax: 858-874-4028. E-mail:
        You’re stopped at the signal with no traffic going through the intersection. You look left and
right and there’s nobody moving. Why are you stopped? Why is there all this ‘dead’ time. That is the
focus of this study, how much green time is wasted and how we can minimize this waste.

Page 40 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

          The author defines ‘Dead’ time as that portion of the cycle when no cars are moving through the
conflict zone. Right turning vehicles are ignored as well as reasonable gaps in traffic, usually less than 1
second. It is admittedly a subjective measure but it is an attempt to quantify the effectiveness of signal
timing, and do so in a short time, half an hour at most for each intersection.
          The author has re-timed traffic signals by using the volume density settings: maximum and
minimum gaps, ‘reduce by’ and ‘reduce every’. But there was a need to measure, in the real world with
all its variables, the improvement – if any – from the timing changes. The basis for these changes is the
formula included with the 200 software for the Type 170 controller. Most agencies do not have the time
to calculate the settings and instead use Non-Density operation, i.e., vehicle extension, maximum gap and
minimum gap are the same. Thus, measuring ‘dead’ time in this study is a way of comparing Volume
Density signal timing with Non-Density timing

Session: 8A, Traffic Signal Phasing & Timing, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Key Attributes to a Successful Regional Signal Timing Project
Author(s): Ramin Massoumi, P.E.
Meyer, Mohaddes Associates
1515 S. Manchester Avenue
Anaheim, CA 92802
Phone: 714.780.7719. Fax: 714.780.7287. E-mail:
Other Authors: Jim Poston, P.E., P.T.O.E., Regional Transportation Commission of Washoe County;
Abbas Mohaddes, Meyer, Mohaddes Associates
        The Cities of Reno, Sparks, and Washoe County in Northern Nevada have invested considerable
time and expense in building, maintaining, and operating signal control systems. The City of Reno has a
Multisonics VMS 330 system, primarily with Multisonics 820A controllers. The City of Sparks has
replaced its VMS 330 system with an Eagle ACTRA® system, using Eagle M-52 controllers. Washoe
County had relied on the City of Sparks' old VMS system, but currently has no central signal system. The
County's controllers are mostly Multisonics 820A. In addition to the agencies that operate and maintain
signalized intersections in the area, other key stakeholders are the Nevada Department of Transportation
(NDOT), Regional Transportation Commission (RTC) of Washoe County, and the driving public.
        Over the years, local agency staff have updated signal timing on an as-needed basis, however, a
regional approach to signal timing has not been conducted since 1999. From the end user perspective,
city limits do not exist. That is, signals across multiple agencies need to be coordinated to allow for
appropriate signal coordination.
        The focus of this paper and presentation will be to present the most important strategies and the
lessons learned in the development and deployment of coordinated signal timing plans across multiple
agencies in a large geographic area.

Session: 8A, Traffic Signal Phasing & Timing, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Flashing Yellow Arrow PPLT Implementation in California
Author(s): Bahman Janka , Transportation Administrator
City of Pasadena
221 East Walnut Avenue, Suite 210
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone: 626-744-4610. Fax: . E-mail:
Other Authors: Mark Miller, City of Fullerton; Norman M. Baculinao, City of Pasadena

Page 41 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         The Cities of Pasadena and Fullerton obtained approval from both FHWA and California Traffic
Control Devices Committee (CTCDC) to implement the experimental Flashing Yellow Arrow (FYA)
Protected/Permissive Left-turn (PPLT) Signal under National Cooperative Highway Research Program
(NHCRP) Report 493, "Evaluation of Traffic Signal Displays under Protected/Permissive Left-turn
         While the actual evaluation of the different displays under NCHRP Report 493 has been
completed, FHWA's Office of Traffic Operations (HOTO) continues to collect traffic data related to the
new FYA PPLT implementation as it considers recommending the new FYA PPLT display as alternate
display in the future MUTCD editions. A total of five locations representing the first FYA PPLT
implementations in California were installed since FHWA and CTCDC approval. Three locations were
implemented in the City of Fullerton, and two in the City of Pasadena. City of Fullerton completed their
installation in late spring of 2005, and the City of Pasadena in the summer of 2005.
         The issues uncovered during the FYA PPLT Implementation from these two agencies would
probably apply to many agencies contemplating to evaluate these new signal displays as summarized in
the following issues/situations: (1) Fullerton utilized NEMA Controller / Cabinet ; (2) Fullerton used a
modified NEMA controller with FYA logic that use Overlap Phases for FYA-PPLT; (3) Fullerton
locations were conversion from a Protected LT to FYA-PPLT, and from a conventional PPLT to the
FYA-PPLT; (4) Pasadena utilized a type 170 controller in a type 332 cabinet; (5) Pasadena used a
modified BiTran 233 program with FYA logic that utilized existing 8-phase cabinet using "phase
redirect" functions; (6) Pasadena installations are for conversion of a conventional PPLT to the FYA
PPLT; (7) Pasadena locations are next to an LRT crossing that requires Track Clearance rail road
preemption; and (8) Both agencies shared the same conflict monitor manufacturer
         This paper and presentation will describe the process for implementing the FYA PPLT and
identify the challenges as well as the benefits for implementing these new experimental displays.

Session: 8A, Traffic Signal Phasing & Timing, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Protected/Permissive Left Turn Phasing: Is It Safe?
Author(s): Rock Miller
Katz, Okitsu & Associates
17852 17th St #102
Tustin, CA 92780
Phone: 714-573-0317. Fax: 714-573-9534. E-mail:
         The paper and presentation will provide the results of a before-and after study conducted in
Tustin CA at 12 locations where protected/permissive (PPLT) phasing was installed about 5 years ago.
The study provides information and possible guidance on potential future left turn accident experience
where this phasing technique is used. The study location is most appropriate, as the City of Tustin
installed many PPLT locations in the early 1980's, removed them in the early 1990's. The City installed
PPLT at other locations in the late 1990s, and is now evaluating the safety record at the most recent
installations. The study will be fully completed by February, 2006.

Page 42 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 8B, School Access Planning, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: School Lets Out, The Mad Scramble! – Designing from the Car Door to the Front Door
Author(s): Harold (Will) Johnson III, P.E., PTOE
LSC Transportation Consultants, Inc.
1889 York Street
Denver, CO 80206
Phone: (303) 333-1105. Fax: (303) 333-1107. E-mail:
Other Authors: Alex Ariniello, P.E., PTOE
         With the ever growing trend of parents dropping their children off at school, rather than having
them walk or utilize public transportation, the traffic conditions in and around school sites are becoming
increasingly congested. In response, Colorado school districts have developed school access guidelines to
improve traffic circulation and the safety of arriving and departing students. This paper summarizes two
separate case studies in which these school access guidelines were utilized to help create more efficient
drop off and pickup activities and gauge their results. Both case studies involve K-8 schools within the
greater Denver Metro Area. Case 1, Eldorado K-8, involves the redesign of an existing elementary school
parking lot to not only create a more efficient drop off/pick up circulation, but to isolate the children from
the parking lot area unless accompanied by a parent. Case 2, involves the design of a proposed parking
lot and drop off/pick-up area for the relocated Bear Creek K-8 school. Bear Creek K-8, an open
enrollment facility, is being relocated 1,000 feet away from its exiting location within a campus it shares
with the local high school. Traffic volumes and arrival/departure patterns were collected for both of the
school sites during morning and afternoon peak periods to be able to gauge the peak demand of both
school sites.

Session: 8B, School Access Planning, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Communicating Collectively and Effectively: Comprehensive Vehicle Management Plan (CVMP)
Author(s): Anita Davidoo, Associate Transportation Engineer
City of Calabasas, Transportation and Intergovernmental Relations Department
26135 Mureau Road
Calabasas, CA 91302
Phone: (818) 878- 4225. Fax: (818) 878-4205. E-mail:
Presented by Robert Yalda, City of Calabasas
Other Authors: Robert Yalda
         Over the past few years the City of Calabasas has faced increasing challenges in dealing with
school traffic. There are a total of eight schools located within the City of Calabasas which encompasses
12.9 square miles in area. Enrollment is comprised of 6,500 students residing in the Los Angeles and
Ventura County Region.
         The City has experienced a significant increase in traffic congestion within the vicinity of local
schools, resulting in school traffic safety concerns, pedestrian accessibility concerns, and delay around
school access. It is commonly said, less is more, but when it comes to the safety of local students,
residents, and commuter traffic efficiency, the City is committed to solving these issues by creating a
Comprehensive Vehicle Management Plan (CVMP). The program was developed through a partnership
comprised of City staff, school board, and law enforcement agencies. Accordingly, CVMP has generated
incentive driven programs to deal with the traffic problems afflicting the City. The program outlines the
implementation of a safe and efficient school bus program, express shuttle bus system, high school
carpool parking only, and preferential parking. Although these programs aim at reducing the wide-spread
traffic problems, the City's lack of roadway infrastructure limits the viability of the program. However,
the City is committed to improve the City's traffic issues.

Page 43 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         CVMP has been developed to solve a problem that generally affects most cities. This abstract
may serve to significantly allow other agencies to extract ides that tenor towards improvements within
their city's obstacles generated by school area traffic.

Session: 8B, School Access Planning, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Pasadena’s Suggested Routes to School Program
Author(s): David Parisi, PE
Parisi Associates Transportation Consulting
58 Alta Vista Avenue
Mill Valley, CA 94941
Phone: 415.388.8978. Fax: 415.276-4173. E-mail:
Presented by Joaquin Siques, City of Pasadena
Other Authors: Richard Yee, PE, PTOE, City of Pasadena; Brett Hondorp, Alta Planning + Design
         This presentation will provide an overview of a Suggested Routes to School program recently
undertaken by the City of Pasadena, California. GIS-based Walking Route maps were developed for each
of the city's 18 elementary and middle schools, following an extensive outreach effort between
Transportation Department and school officials to gather information about commute patterns, identify
walking routes, and assess potential safety improvement needs.
         The project began with a field inventory of pedestrian-related infrastructure (crosswalks, traffic
controls, crossing guards, signage) within the enrollment area of each school. A GIS-based "Suggested
Walking Routes" map was then prepared for each school - arrows guide students to school from all points
of the enrollment area, based on factors such as the presence of all-way traffic controls or crossing guards
at major crossing locations.
         In phase two of the program, the maps and a questionnaire were circulated to school officials and
parents requesting input on the walking routes and potential school safety improvement projects. The
survey - which included questions about mode split and reasons for not walking to school - gave city staff
a detailed picture of the student walking rates, issues of concern, and potential "hot spot" locations for
safety improvements.
         The project resulted in a list of feasible, low-cost capital improvements at each school, including
sidewalk gap repair, lighted crosswalks, in-pavement Yield to Pedestrian signs, and replacing
outdated/damaged school area signage. The City already has dedicated funding for many of the
improvements, and additional funds will come through sources such as the State/Federal SR2S program.

Session: 8B, School Access Planning, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Pedestrian Routes To School Maps-Integrating Asset Management Systems With Pedestrian Route
Author(s): Crystal Killian
Los Angeles Department of Transportation
100 S. Main St., 9th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90012
Phone: 213-928-9725. Fax: 213-928-9710. E-mail:
         The Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT) and the Los Angeles Unified School
District (LAUSD) partnered to prepare updated pedestrian routes to school maps. This partnership was
required because LAUSD was implementing a large construction program that would result in
approximately 50 new schools in Los Angeles. The new schools revised existing school attendance
boundaries and made many maps obsolete. LADOT and LAUSD wanted to use Geographical

Page 44 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Information System (GIS) technology instead of drafting. LADOT also wanted to integrate data for the
Traffic Asset Management System (TAMS) to automate updating recommended crossing information.
The goal was to prepare the pedestrian route maps using existing data sets to minimize the maintenance of
the pedestrian route maps.
         The project required the development of database design and rules for creation of pedestrian route
to school maps. Existing GIS data information was provided by LAUSD including school sites and
attendance area. DOT provided GIS data regarding crossing guards, traffic signals, and smart pedestrian
warning devices. DOT inventories stop signs and crosswalks to create a recommended crossings layer
from stop sign and crosswalk information.
         The final pedestrian route map uses a standard template to make maps look the same. The map
title (school name) is automatically created from the GIS data and the attendance area is automatically
fitted to the map. Crosswalk and stop sign assets are printed as recommended crossings arrows on the
map. Printing of maps is automated so that new school maps can be distributed annually.

Session: 8C, Your Career in Transportation, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Gold Standards “Best Practices” in Transportation Planning from the Ground Up
Author(s): Jeanne Acutanza, PE
1100 112th Avenue NE, Suite 400
Bellevue, WA 98004
Phone: Direct 425-233-3387. Fax: Fax 425-468-3100. E-mail:
Other Authors: Terry Yuen, PE & Cheryl Yoshida, PE
         Tied to the industrial age and the dominance of the automobile as a mode of transportation,
transportation planning/traffic engineering practice is a relatively young and ever evolving practice.
While we as engineers and planners try to solve transportation problems with best engineering practices,
we are faced with many challenges:
         -     Projects are becoming incredibly complex, due to costs, regulations and advocacy groups
         -     Shrinking experienced planning/engineering work force
         -     Training and best practice is still being “formed”
         As a result, transportation professionals have struggled to develop defensible solutions in a timely
         We recognize to develop these defensible solutions requires application of context sensitive
strategies at all levels of transportation solution development and implementation. An element of our
strategy was to develop our own internal quality assurance/quality control series called the “Gold
Standards”. This series developed as a way for individuals to set and meet annual technology
performance goals allowed our group to create a forum for developing and establishing “Best Practices”,
transfer technology across the group, and allow individuals practice in making presentations to peers. A
broad range of topics was covered including alternatives development and screening, establishing
methods and assumptions, developing easy to review graphics and data collection made easy.
         This paper and presentation will discuss the results of the “Gold Standards – Quality Processes”
including outlining some of those practices and reporting on the growth of individuals, as well as
improvement in the transportation decision making processes.

Page 45 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 8C, Your Career in Transportation, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Living Leadership- A Model for Developing Future Leaders
Author(s): Mike Baker, P.E.
David Evans and Associates, Inc.
2100 SW River Parkway
Portland, OR 97201
Phone: 503.499.0484. Fax: 503.223.2701. E-mail:
         To develop our industry’s future leaders, we must understand what motivates and inspires them.
Increasingly, young professionals are not distinguishing between life and career, but are seeing a
confluence of the two. Many are seeking alignment of personal and organizational purpose and values.
Organizations committed to connecting with young professionals will be better positioned in a shrinking
and competitive labor market to attract and retain their best people.
         The framework for leadership, communication, and personal interaction must adapt to an
increasingly intergenerational workforce and evolve beyond established models to provide the platform
for effective collaboration. Situational leadership models reveal what motivates and inspires individuals
through frequent and supportive feedback. Applied effectively, these models expand an organization’s
leadership capacity and capitalize on the strengths of the individual.
         To position for the future we see taking shape, David Evans and Associates, Inc. (DEA) is
engaging early and mid-career professionals through its Future Leaders program. Launched in 2001 to
incorporate younger voices and new ideas into corporate strategic planning, the program is evolving to
more wholly develop individual and organizational leadership capacity.         Program participants are
changing the company and partnering with senior leaders to anticipate and prepare for the firm’s
emerging future.
         This presentation compares and contrasts established and emerging leadership models. It
captures feedback from young professionals regarding what motivates and inspires them, describes
DEA’s program structure, successes and lessons learned, and summarizes the program’s outcomes in
developing individual and organizational leadership capacity.

Session: 8C, Your Career in Transportation, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Small City Traffic Engineering in Our Corner of the World
Author(s): Stephen P. Krest
City of Farmington, NM
800 Municipal Dr.
Farmington, NM 87401
Phone: (505) 599-8201. Fax: (505) 599-8323. E-mail:
          Small city traffic engineering is filled with both challenges and rewards. Rural geographically
isolated small cities offer opportunities for innovation. Farmington, New Mexico is the largest city and
the economic heart of the Four Corners region. With a staff of nine full time employees all aspects of
traffic engineering are addressed in house; from design, construction, implementation and maintenance of
all traffic control devices and systems. This PowerPoint presentation cites examples and gives details of
traffic engineering decisions and work functions performed:
          Respond to citizens and elected officials; Develop standards and criteria for speed humps;
Develop standards and criteria for residential permit parking programs; Promote modern roundabouts as
alternatives to traffic signals; Work with developers to ensure transportation system for future motorists
and pedestrians; Develop traffic control plans and criteria for school zones; Develop and promote Safe
Routes to School Program; Develop bike route and plan facilities; Accommodate and promote pedestrian
facilities; Develop and review traffic control plans for construction; Conduct traffic studies for corridor

Page 46 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

plans and changes in traffic control;Maintain a traffic count program and map; Manufacture, install and
maintain traffic control and street signing; Coordinate and maintain traffic control device inventory
system; Mark street symbols and crosswalks using multiple marking materials; Design, construct and
maintain traffic signals and signal systems; Resource for regional ITS development; Coordinate signal
systems for best progression; Install and maintain in-pavement crosswalk lighting.

Session: 8C, Your Career in Transportation, Wednesday June 28, 2006 8:00 am to 9:30 am
Title: Lessons Every Transportation Engineer and Planner needs to learn.
Author(s): Howard Stein, P.E.
CTS Engineers
20085 NW Tanasbourne Drive
Hillsboro, OR 97124
Phone: 503-690-8080. Fax: 503-645-5930. E-mail:
         This article details key lessons I have learned from years of experience working for a wide range
of clients and communities. These lessons may appear to be obvious, but many professionals (myself
included) need to be reminded of them occasionally:
         (1) Only traffic engineers/planners understand the concept of Level of Service- Most people think
in terms of total travel time, not LOS. They often significantly overestimate how long these trips take,
especially delays congested intersections.
         (2) Traffic engineers know too much math- This lesson is similar to Lesson 1, but also applies to
other types of analyses.. Two common situations where we get into trouble are in calculating trip
generation of a development especially ADTs and in estimating future traffic volumes using a simple
growth factor.
         (3) The public are often the real local traffic experts. Although citizens do not speak “traffic
engineerese”, it is very helpful to listen to their concerns and ideas. They know the real congestion points
and often have practical ideas to address them.
         (4) Visit your project area several times, just before your hearing, and during the most relevant
time periods. Many intersections and corridors have unique operational and safety characteristics. Traffic
operations can be complicated by special circumstances especially poor access management. To address
these issues, you need to visit the study area during the critical peak hour, even if it is at night.
         (5) Lesson 5: Make sure you understand each jurisdiction’s traffic study requirements, design
standards, and hearings/meeting procedures.

Session: 9A, ATMS and ATIS, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Implementing an adaptive traffic signal control: case study of Mill Plain Blvd., Vancouver,
Author(s): Ali G. Eghtedari, Ph.D., P.E.
City of Vancouver, Washington
P.O. Box 1995
Vancouver, WA 98668
Phone: 360-696-8290 (X8661). Fax: 360-696-8588. E-mail:
         The City of Vancouver, Washington, implemented an adaptive control system (OPAC algorithm-
-developed by PB Faradyne Inc.) for traffic signal operations at 12 intersections along Mill Plain Blvd.
Performance measurement of this system was the main objective of this research. Data observed from
travel-time runs (collected via a “floating car”) and data collected from system detectors were used to
compare performance of the system under the control case and the adaptive signal control.

Page 47 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

        This research showed that adaptive traffic signal control generally has a positive impact on the
system; however, differences could be observed based on the direction of traffic and volume thresholds.
Based on the operational studies, average speed improved up to 25%, the travel time decreased up to
20%, and number of stops decreased up to 44% under adaptive control in the eastbound direction.
Westbound traffic, however, was impacted…negatively!
        This paper will also demonstrate the project implementation process. Lessons learned and shared
in this paper will help the practitioners, the researchers, and more importantly the developers of the
adaptive algorithms. This research was originally conducted as part of a dissertation for Ph.D. degree in
Systems Science/Civil Engineering by this author.

Session: 9A, ATMS and ATIS, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Deploying ATC Standards: When, Where, How
Author(s): Ralph W. Boaz
Pillar Consulting, Inc.
20031 Crestknoll Drive
Yorba Linda, CA 92886
Phone: 714-779-2164. Fax: 714-779-2164. E-mail:
         The Advanced Transportation Controller (ATC) Standards provide for open architecture
hardware and software platforms for a wide variety of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) including
traffic management, safety, security and other applications. These standards have been developed by the
ATC Working Groups under the direction of the ATC Joint Committee. The standards facilitate the
development of application programs that will operate on ATCs of numerous designs and produced by
different manufacturers. They also enable multiple application programs to run concurrently and to be
interoperable within a single controller. This creates a powerful cost effective platform for which
complex solutions can be developed and deployed. While this creates an unprecedented opportunity for
the transportation community, it also presents issues and choices not previously faced by transportation
management professionals. This paper updates technical and status information on the ATC Standards. It
expands on the previous paper, “The ATC Application Programming Interface and its Impact on the
Operations and Management of Transportation Systems”, providing practical guidance for deployers.

Session: 9A, ATMS and ATIS, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Panel Discussion on ATIS: What is next?
Moderator: Abbas Mohaddes
Meyer, Mohaddes Associates
1515 S. Manchester Avenue
Anaheim, CA 92802
Phone: 714.780.7285. Fax: 714.780.7287. E-mail:
Panel Members: Peter Dwyer, PB Farradyne, and Mark Owen, Meridian Inc.,
        None submitted

Page 48 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Session: 9B, Freeway Management and Optimization, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Warranting Ramp Meters
Author(s): Scott G. Thomas, P.E., PTOE
Apex Design, PC
13701 W. Jewell Avenue, Suite 250
Lakewood, CO 80228
Phone: 720.298.2540. Fax: 303.969.0489. E-mail:
Other Authors: Jason Osaki
         Ramp meters are known to increase mainline throughput while reducing travel time, queuing, and
frequency of crashes. The MUTCD states that “the installation of ramp control signals should be
preceded by an engineering study…” However, no specific warrants exist to determine whether or not a
ramp meter should be installed.
         The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) created a three-tiered approach to warrant
the installation of ramp meters. This ramp metering feasibility study methodology evaluates sites where
ramp metering could be implemented with clear benefits at a reasonable cost without undue impacts to the
proximate street system. The first tier examines the general characteristics of the locations to determine if
they meet the basic scope of the study. Tier two screens the remaining on-ramps based on an equal
weighting of safety and mobility. Crash history is evaluated to determine the potential to reduce
accidents in the merge influence area that occur during the proposed metering operational period.
Mobility benefits are assessed using volume thresholds and level of service analyses. On-ramps making
it to the third tier are then tested for potential system wide benefits using the VISSIM microscopic
simulation software along with a customized script that replicates CDOT’s traffic demand responsive
ramp metering algorithm. System benefits are measured for each corridor and compared existing (non-
metered) versus metered scenarios.
         Our presentation will give a background of the CDOT ramp metering algorithm, the warranting
methods, and show how the study has been used to prioritize, fund, and implement dozens of ramp

Session: 9B, Freeway Management and Optimization, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Evaluation of Effects of Ramp-Metering on Speed and Traffic Volume of Freeway Using Traffic
Simulation Models
Author(s): Vinod Vasudevan
UNLV- Transportation Research Center
4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454007,
Las Vegas, NV 89154
Phone: (702) 895 1594. Fax: (702) 895 4401. E-mail:
Other Authors: Mohamed Kaseko, Madhuri Uddaraju
         The purpose of ramp meters is to help regulate vehicle in flow to the freeways. By doing so, it
helps shorten commute times, provide a higher degree of safety, and accommodate more vehicles per
hour on the freeway. It is proven that the overall delay of the system reduces during peak hour traffic by
introducing ramp meters. However, since the incoming vehicles are forced to make a complete stop at the
ramp meter before entering freeway, low performance vehicles would not be able to attain free flow speed
of the freeways. In this paper, an attempt is made to evaluate the effectiveness of ramp meters by
considering average speed and traffic volume as criteria. Here, by using traffic simulation software
CORSIM, different combinations of traffic mixes and locations of ramp meter are considered for analysis.
This study shows that the distance of the ramp meter from the freeway as well as vehicle properties play
significant role in the performance of traffic near on-ramp. This study illustrated that the speed of

Page 49 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

vehicles at the upstream and merging sections increased significantly by introducing rampmeter. The
speed of vehicles in these areas increased as the distance of rampmeter from the freeway increased. This
study also showed that the speed of vehicles at the downstream sections was not at all affected by
introduction of rampmeters.

Session: 9B, Freeway Management and Optimization, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Improving the Estimation of Potential Travel-Time Savings from HOV Lanes
Author(s): William R. Loudon
DKS Associates
1000 Broadway, Suite 450
Oakland, CA 94607
Phone: (510) 267-6623. Fax: (510) 267-1739. E-mail:
         HOV Lanes have become an important part of regional transportation systems in metropolitan
areas across the U.S. and in many other countries. The success of HOV lanes is directly related to the
travel-time advantage that they provide to their users. To be successful, the flow in the HOV lane must
be maintained at a reasonable speed even when the speeds in the mixed-flow lanes deteriorate
significantly from congestion. Generally, the key factor in maintaining good speeds in the HOV lane is a
matter of keeping the volume in the lane sufficiently below the capacity of the lane. It is common,
however, for the speed in the HOV lane to be well below what would be expected from the volume in the
lane when the adjacent mixed-flow lane is seriously congested. In research conducted in California, DKS
found that on the most seriously congested freeways, the traditional methods of predicting HOV speed
using only the HOV lane volume/capacity (V/C) ratio almost always over-predicted HOV speeds and
exaggerated travel time advantages. DKS used data from several heavily congested California freeways
to develop a mathematical relationship for estimating HOV lane speed based on the V/C ratio in the HOV
lane and the V/C ratio in the adjacent lanes. The new model produced a significant improvement in speed
estimates and travel-time advantages. This paper describes the research and the resulting model.

Session: 9B, Freeway Management and Optimization, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Design-Build Traffic Control - Managing Expectations
Author(s): Paul F. Brown, PE, PTOE
Carter & Burgess, Inc.
707 17th Street, Suite 2300
Denver, CO 80202
Phone: (303) 820-5242. Fax: (303) 820-2402. E-mail:
Other Authors: Gary Gonzales, Colorado Department of Transportation
         The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) and Denver’s Regional Transportation
District (RTD) have teamed up to design and construct T-REX (the TRansportation Expansion project) in
the southeastern portion of the Denver metropolitan area. This five-year, $1.67 billion highway and transit
construction project has one major goal – to minimize inconvenience to the public during construction. As
in most design-build projects, the contractor was given 30% plans for most of the work, and took
responsibility for completing the design and constructing the project. Since this approach does not allow
for significant input in construction staging, the owner cannot develop traffic control plans. Instead,
general requirements for traffic control must be assembled and placed in the design-build contract, and a
methodology is required to ensure that the contractor’s traffic control meets the project’s goals and
contractual requirements.

Page 50 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

         This paper provides an overview of the traffic control process followed on the T-REX project,
which was crucial in meeting the project’s goal of minimizing public inconvenience. Steps included
owner development of traffic control parameters in the design-build RFP (which eventually became part
of the contract), contract negotiations to refine these parameters, oversight of the contractor to ensure that
the plans prepared meet the contract requirements, traffic control plan approval, and owner oversight of
traffic control implementation in the field. Implementation of each of these steps is described for T-REX,
along with benefits, drawbacks, and lessons learned related to this approach.

Session: 9C, What's New in the West, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Increasing Confidence In The High Capacity, Non-Conventional Continuous Flow Intersection
Author(s): David Thompson, PE
Fehr & Peers Associates, Inc.
302 West 5400 South Ste. 100
Murray, UT 84107
Phone: 801-261-4700. Fax: 801-261-0763. E-mail:
Other Authors: Jon Nepstad, AICP
         Transportation engineers and planners are familiar with conventional types of intersections and
their associated advantages and disadvantages. The Continuous Flow Intersection (CFI) is a new non-
conventional and high capacity intersection design that has a growing interest throughout the U.S. due to
increasing congestion on urban arterials and limited funding. This intersection treatment takes advantage
of displaced left turns to improve intersection operation and capacity. Unfortunately, the limited
information available about the CFI design and operations makes its consideration as a potential
improvement more uncertain than conventional treatments.
         The purpose of this paper is to share useful planning and operational information learned through
a CFI evaluation conducted in the Salt Lake area of Utah. The CFI was proposed during the planning
process for the 3500 South Corridor Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). For one of the most
congested intersections in the eight-mile corridor, the study examined and compared the CFI with a
conventional intersection and a grade separated Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI). The examination
included a cost and impact comparison and an operational analysis using the VISSIM traffic simulation
software which provided a high level of confidence in the analysis results and useful visual simulations of
the operating conditions for the alternatives. The CFI design was determined to be a viable alternative
because of the lower cost, fewer impacts, and improved operation. This information helps to reduce some
of the uncertainty associated with the potential implementation of the CFI design and is directly
transferable to other areas considering innovative approaches.

Session: 9C, What's New in the West, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: The Interstate Highway System: 50 Years of Perspective
Author(s): Jerome W. Hall
Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico
MSC01 1070
Albuquerque, NM 87131
Phone: 505.277.1418. Fax: 505.277.1988. E-mail:
Other Authors: Loretta E. Hall, The Write Equation
         ITE’s District 6 annual meeting coincides with the fiftieth anniversary of the Interstate system,
presenting a unique opportunity to examine the development of the national freeway network, evaluate its
effects on American society, and assess its impact on western states. On June 29, 1956, President Dwight

Page 51 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Eisenhower signed historic legislation that authorized construction of the Interstate Highway System and
created a pay-as-you-go Highway Trust Fund to generate the federal government’s 90+ percent share of
the system’s cost. Although Eisenhower is justifiably credited with making it a reality, the Interstate
system is actually the result of a series of concepts that were refined over three prior decades within the
engineering and political arenas. Developing the system required a visionary financing strategy that
would satisfy diverse philosophical and economic viewpoints. Designing the system presented
unprecedented challenges for standardizing elements that would improve safety and be appropriate for a
truly national highway system. The current 46,500-mile Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of
Interstate and Defense Highways not only achieved the objectives of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of
1956, but it also generated transportation efficiencies and enabled societal mobility to unanticipated
degrees. This paper reviews the Interstate’s experience by tracing its conceptual development; describing
how its major political, societal, financial, and technical challenges were overcome; and evaluating its
influences on the American way of life.

Session: 9C, What's New in the West, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Concept of Operation for the Honolulu Traffic Management Center – Lessons Learned
Author(s): Erin Ehlinger
PB Farradyne
999 Third Ave Suite 2200
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone: 206-382-5250. Fax: 206-382-5222. E-mail:
Other Authors: Ty Fukumitsu (DTS), Pierson Koike (DTS)
         The Concept of Operations for the Honolulu Traffic Management Center was completed in May
of 2005. The work was conducted to assess the readiness of DTS to take on new functions related to joint
operations with the Honolulu Police Department and the Hawaii DOT.
         The work began by baselining the current functions performed and the resources available to
perform these functions (staffing, field and traffic management center equipment and systems,
maintenance equipment and systems facilities). The findings address, in a comprehensive and holistic
manner, how each of these elements contributes to the intended outcome of improved arterial operations.
         A strategic approach and set of actions items, including a staffing plan, were developed with
budgets assigned to each. Performance measures were also developed and will soon be implemented.
         Each of the key findings and the action plan will be presented.
         A key result of the report is that the approach and presentation were apparently successful in that
new funding to support some basic needs and move forward with an operations-based program were
appropriated by the City Council. The acceptance of and compliance with the action plan are key
measures of the plan's success.

Session: 9C, What's New in the West, Wednesday June 28, 2006 10:00 am to 11:30 am
Title: Impact of Cell Phone Conversation While Driving on Car Following Behavior"
Author(s): Ivana Vladisavljevic
University of Utah, Utah Traffic Lab
122 South Campus Drive, Room 104
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
Phone: 801-585-5859. Fax: 801-585-5860. E-mail:

Page 52 of 53
ITE District 6 2006 Annual Meeting, June 25-28, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstracts of Papers To Be Presented

Page 53 of 53

Shared By: