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									                            CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                   Barbara Capizano
                                  SED 720-Dr. Cooks



                                      ARTICLES


Article #1: Donna Maher, “Positioning in a Middle Class School Culture: Gender,
Race, Social Class, and Power.” Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 45:3 (Nov.
2001): 200-209

Summary
In studying adolescent discourse patterns outside the classroom, Donna Mahar argues that
these studies shed some light on the stance students take in the classroom. The discourse
patterns that are established can have an impact on how students respond to teachers and
other students. Mahar’s research centers around two boys who were antagonistic towards
each other, and who both felt they had to position themselves relative to power outside
the classroom before they could assume their place within the school arena. The
altercations of the boys, Mahar posits, is an example of the “intersection of language,
power, and social class occurring in what is considered a level playing field -- public
education.” In their search for acceptance, the two students used language to establish a
dominant stance in the middle school status structure. One student’s weapon was gender
taunts, which was returned with racial slurs. Each student needed to become literate in the
adolescent social code of behavior as well as socially appropriate modes of
self-expression before the classroom could “become a comfortable place to experiment
with personal literacies of power.”

Significance
For a social science teacher, the examination of gender, race, social class, and power in a
school setting can illuminate the larger study of these issues in the broader world context,
while educating educators of these issues within their own school structure. Teachers
need to understand the role of adolescent literacy by reading the words and world of the
diverse groups of students they have in their classroom. In this study, the staff did not
ignore the subtextual dynamics of these students, but sought to bring them out in the
open. The school created workshops that introduced issues of race, gender, and social
class in the curriculum. Some methods included: literacy letters about self-selected
books, personal writing journals of poems and stories available for public publishing, and
thematic units designed to center around social justice. Using these strategies opened the
door to the students that were usually left out of such discourse. Both boys included in
the study improved academically once these issues were brought to the forefront.


Literacy Connection
The use of language as a tool of power was the center of this study. The complexities of
adolescent literacy and the impact in the classroom should be observed across the
curriculum. This study revealed reading, writing, and speaking that were not connected to
academic discourse, but were rich in insight into the world beyond school. Although
these students had strong personal literacies, they did not possess the skills needed in the
traditional sense to access power in the middle school academic environment until the
issues were addressed that impeded this progress. These students needed to be familiar
with the codes of power that were used in both the social discourse of their peers and the
dominant academic discourse of the school.


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Article #2: Cheryl Mason & Anthony Dralle, “Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow: The
History of Social Science Classrooms.” Journal of Education Vol. 181 No. 3 (2000):
1-13.

Summary
The main focus of this article is the use of PDAs (personal digital assistants) in the social
science classroom. The arguments for the use of PDAs lie largely in the availability and
easy access for students throughout the school day. If students had individual PDAs at
their disposal, they can us them in a myriad of ways. With the use of graphics they can
chart maps, charts and organize data, such as the country’s population growth from the
U.S. Census Bureau and other historical statistics. They can reference works, including
important documents, such as, as the Constitution and the Federalist Papers. As an
organizational and efficient classroom tool, students can “synch” their PDAs with the
class desktop and retrieve files from the teacher and be able to send work back to the
teacher as well as other students. Concerning the issue of cost, evidence reveals a distinct
difference in the amount of supplying PDAs and desktops computers, showing a savings
by using the former.

Significance
The argument for PDAs is compelling from a social science teacher’s perspective for a
variety of reasons. Students not only learn “from” computers, by accessing information,
but they learn “with” computers, by using the computer as a tool to organize and create.
Studies show the goal for all students to have access to computers, is far from realized.
Mason and Dralle point to a recent survey that reveals, “fewer than one-third of all
principals reported had as much as 60 minutes of access to school computers each week.”
In an information age, this inequity should be addressed. They also posit if students had
access to a pencil for less that one hour a week, there wouldn’t be fluent writers and
teachers wouldn’t assign homework that depended on the use of the pencil. The use of
technology has changed considerable in the last 40 years, but is seldom discussed in the
social science classroom. Taking into account the amount of material that needs to be
covered to satisfy standards and frameworks, teachers do not have available time to
discuss the contemporary issues concerning computers. Students should be encouraged to
investigate and think critically about technology itself with issues stated in the article,
such as, the government’s role in school technology and protection of children’s First
Amendment rights. Students who can delve into these issues can understand the impact of
current and past technological advancements and can link it with the positive capabilities
of technology.

Literacy Connection
In our quest as teachers to recognize each students’ learning ability, the use of computers
is not only a modern necessity, but a tool to highlight the technological intelligence of
some students. There are many forms of literacy, including the ability to access and
creatively use computers to learn and to effectively transfer that knowledge and be
assessed from it. Students will also be able to use reference works, such as, dictionaries
and electronic thesaurus, expanding access to literary guides while at task.


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Article #3: Shelley Hong Hu, “Teacher’s Full Knowledge of Students’ Popular Culture
and the Integration of Aspects of the Culture in Literacy Instruction.” Education Vol.
122 No. 4 (2002).

Summary
The focus of this article’s research is the positive effects of integrating popular culture
into the classroom. In the twenty-first century the educational system is continually
advancing in the definition of literacy and the goal for all students to be literate. Much to
the critics dismay, popular culture does have a place in reading and writing lessons, and
across the curriculum, and in all classrooms. Hu argues that inservice and preservice
teachers are not adequately prepared on how to integrate popular culture into their
curriculum. Her research explores teacher views on pop culture and their own biases they
bring into the classroom. She conducts workshops with teachers which allows them to
examine their own culture, thereby, allowing them to relate their experiences to that of
their students.

Significance
Although attention to pop culture should be given across the curriculum, it is naturally
imperative that social science teachers fully integrate it into their lesson plans. For all
subjects, pop culture can be used to enhance student learning, but social science is the
study of culture; not to include pop culture would be excluding its value in the context of
socio-cultural histories. In this ever-changing society with the massive presence of
popular culture, it is critical for teachers to become aware of, and value, students
experiences outside of the classroom. Hu is astutely aware of teacher reluctance to use
popular culture and the ideology of some teachers who feel it is their “moral duty” to
keep it out of the classroom. These short-sighted educators cannot fully appreciate the
increasingly permeating role of pop culture in the lives and worlds of children and
adolescents. Pop culture surrounds children as well as adults through popular music,
literature, games, movies, and commercial advertising. As teachers become aware of their
own experiences with their own pop culture, they will be able to provide insight into
enhancing student learning in the classroom.

Literacy Connection
Hu’s research showed that student popular culture involved more “oral literacy,“ and
“media literacy,“ than “book literacy.” Students spent many hours with friends singing
music and playing on the computer, using more technology than their teachers did. At
least one-third of the students, pop culture was connected to cultural and linguistic
experiences --Latinos listened to Latino music and African-Americans listened to their
favorite rappers. Schools, however, still use book literacy and fail to acknowledge other
literacy skills. Hu asserts that students show a broad spectrum of literacy skills through
interactivities with popular culture. They have to know “story grammars,” and have the
ability to “infer character traits,” by reading comic books and cartoons, and watching
television. Using teacher workshops, teachers will realize that students, like themselves,
use many forms of literacy in their pop culture and it should be the responsibility of the
teacher to provide their students with the ability to become aware of their literacy skills
and be able to transfer them to learning at school. Instead of resisting the use of it,
teachers should learn ways to creatively use popular culture for students to use as a
literacy tool.

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Article #4: “Creative Teacher: Risk, Responsibility, and Love.” Journal of Education
Vol. 183 No. 1 (2002): 33-48

Summary
“Teaching is not a lost art but regard for it is a lost tradition (Jaques Barzun 1945).” Has
teaching become a “mechanical pedagogy?” The author of this article claims that
teaching as a creative and autonomous profession is being diluted by the increasing
demands of accountability in the schools. This insightful piece is a must read for all
inservice and preservice teachers in all disciplines who feel some of what makes teachers
unique is being overridden by the desire for high scores on standardized tests. The author
argues that teacher “artfulness,” part of the natural creativity in good teaching, “requires
teachers to be more than technicians.” The move towards an educational system that is
corporate in style relegates teachers as mere laborers. Although the focus is on school
bureaucracy, this article posits that teachers are not entirely blameless. As long as unions
impose constraints on teachers, too, it is another measure to restrict teacher autonomy,
and deprives teachers control of their curriculum. The author offers three ways to keep
teaching alive in the classroom: risk, responsibility, and love. Teachers need to take a risk
-- “teacher autonomy is risky business.” It is only natural that the most fundamental fear
is the fear to confront success and failure in the interest of better teaching. In addition, to
be creative is to be considered “politically liberal,” and teachers don’t want to rock the
boat when their livelihood is at stake. Another fear is that with autonomy comes
irresponsibility. However, there needs only to be a balance between risk and
responsibility. The author offers that creativity needs to be responsible to a body of
working practices and beliefs. Finally, risk and responsibility cannot be used if there is
not a passion for students. A creative, loving teacher, aims to inspire students and will
take a risk for those they love.

Significance
Have we moved away from creative teaching? This article is an extension of the on-going
debate of the merits of standards and frameworks. The focus has been on the effect of
standards on students and teaching, but this article further explores the creativity of
teachers itself in response to the restrictions of standardized tests. We, as educators, do
not seek this profession so we can “teach by numbers.” This author makes a valid claim
when he comments on the current situation and states that it, “not only eliminates creative
incentive and excellent teaching, but is an active incentive not to risk creativity or
excellence.” Society needs to respect the art teaching and we need to demand creative
teaching that the profession of teaching encompasses. We are not technicians. As the
conclusion of this article warns, “we might meet some basic standards, but we will not
teach or learn much.”

Literacy Connection
Teacher autonomy means teacher control of her classroom and curriculum. The high
proportion of diverse cultures in our nation’s schools support a return to this type of
pedagogy. How can we teach, motivate and assess the distinct learning and literacy
abilities of all of our students unless we have the freedom to present materials in ways
that are significant and effective for our students, regardless of the demands of the
academic standards?

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Article #5: Loretta Frances Kasper, “Applying the Principle of Non-Judegmental
Awareness to the ESL Writing Class.” Journal of Teaching Writing Vol. 14 1&2 (1999)

Summary
Reading and writing for the ESL student can be a frightening experience and studies
show that instructor feedback plays a significant role in a student’s progress as a writer.
This article offers suggestions for all teachers of any discipline strategies to use to help
the ESL writer gain confidence in their writing ability, and score higher on writing
achievement tests. By applying the principle of non-judgmental awareness, students are
less anxious about writing. Non-judgmental awareness involves being aware of the
relevant aspects of a student’s work instead of making excessive critical judgments.
Some of the techniques used are: fluency first (clarity before correctness), instructor
feedback via task-oriented questions (suggestions on how to improve clarity and content),
vocalization of thought (students vocalize thought when they have trouble writing).
Initially, the focus is on the content of student writing and not the form. The idea is that
if a student feels comfortable writing, and doesn’t feel intimidated by teacher response,
then the form of writing can be cultivated after confidence has been set.

Significance
This article challenges the basic writing programs that have been in place for years. Many
ESL programs emphasize the final product of a student’s writing, and not the process of
writing itself. Teachers focus only on grammatical errors and mistakes that students
make. This undoubtedly causes the students to be so concerned with making errors that
they refuse to take chances with their writing. Non-judgmental awareness can create a
climate in our classrooms that can encourage students to pay attention to the relevant
aspects of their writing and not focus on the fear of making mistakes. The study of this
article claims to have observed success in general student writing ability and student test
scores.

Literacy Connection
One of the most important aspects of literacy is the ability to express oneself. Writing is a
critical component of expression, therefore, the goal for ESL students should be
proficient writing. Writers should be encouraged to to develop and expand upon ideas,
and are responsible for their own progress. Non-judgmental awareness makes
communicative competence more important than grammatical accuracy.




                           CRITIQUE OF LESSON PLANS

Lesson Critique #1:         1920’s Consumer Culture
               http://ohioteach.history.ohio-state.edu/Lessons/1920sconsumercult.html


Summary
The objective for this lesson is to introduce to the students the importance of
consumerism in the 1920’s, as well as the similarities between commodities and culture
of the past and of the present. By using primary documents and images, students will
learn to analyze and interpret them as amateur historians. The students are shown
advertisements typical of the period and are asked to explain differences in advertising
approaches and types of appeal, such as factual, emotional, or sexual. Students are also
asked to identify the target of the advertisements and to examine the attributes that
advertisers feel are more valuable. Another comparative exercise noted is to have the
students gather magazines from different time periods, preferably thirty years apart, that
they can use to contrast the types and topics of stories, goods advertised, methods used to
sell them, and the diversity of people represented in them. The last part of this lesson is a
discussion of stereotypes in advertisements today that students can access on the web.

Positive Aspects
As this lessons creator acknowledges, students are aware we live ion a consumer society.
Having students explore the time period in which society changed from valuing
“personality” over “good deeds,” is an important lesson in itself. To have them identify
the comparison between the past and the present is invaluable and will encourage
students to broaden their view of the world. The exercises are comprehensive and
satisfies its objectives.

Negative Aspects
There is not clear time frames include in this lesson plan, nor is there a suggested age
level. It contains only an introduction, objectives, and the body, which is merely divided
into three parts: (1) Outie or Innie? (the shift from inward to outward looking goals),
Consume What? (evaluating ads), and Advertising Stereotypes. In addition, the only
assignments and assessments are derived from written essay work.

Adaptation
This is a good lesson, but I would first separate it into integral parts. This lesson would
take two- three 50 minute class periods. I would use the first day as an introduction to
consumerism of the 1920’s, and a comparison of the two advertisements as offered in this
lesson. The author does suggest group work to write an essay paper, but I would have the
students write individual responses to the ads and group them in small groups after the
slides are shown to share with other students their feelings about the slides. The students
would then remain in their groups and use the class computers to access other
advertisements of the period, most notably, advertisements promoting the sale of the
automobile, radio, and television. I would draft a questionnaire with prompt questions to
answer as they evaluate the ads. On the second day, I would assign different small groups
to analyze magazines from different time periods, as outlined, and have the group
distinguish between the differences and similarities of certain topics, given them from
me. That night’s homework assignment would be to search for contemporary
advertisements for persistent stereotypes and be prepared to share with the class the
following day their conclusions. The students would be assessed not only for their writing
skills but also group work and oral presentation skills.

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Lesson Critique # 2: The Great Depression and FDR
                    http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/2496.html
Summary
This lesson is intended to help students understand the causes and effects of the Great
Depression and Roosevelt’s New Deal. The lesson begins with a review of the Stock
Market Crash which preceded and contributed to the economic crisis. To familiarize
students with this oppressive era, a video clip from A Journey of Natty Gann is shown,
followed by a discussion of the film. After the discussion, the teacher lectures on the
differences between Hoover policies and that of his successor, Roosevelt. This is a segue
to Roosevelt’s First hundred Days of the New Deal, when he was able to pass the 15
measures aimed at creating more jobs for the unemployed. The class is divided into six
groups, where the students will use the cooperative (jigsaw) method of learning the
measures.

Positive Aspects
Using the cooperative learning method is an effective and efficient way to teach a
concept. Having the first set of students in a group become an “expert” on one of the
measures and then regrouping so one expert from each measure is in a newly formed
group, emphasizes student-centered, instead of teacher-centered, learning. The homework
assignment is a crossword puzzle that is used as an assessment for what was learned in
class, which focuses on the idea of accountability for class time.

Negative Aspects
This is quite a bit of material to cover in 50 minutes. The lesson does not state how far
they explore the stock market crash the day before, but to cover the crash, its effect,
Hoover and Roosevelt policies, a video of Natty Gann, and a cooperative learning
exercise seems like to much in too little time.

Adaptation
I would use this lesson but I would stretch it into two days. The first day I would cover
only the depression and its effects on the American people. The film is a good idea, but
there are also many still photos that could be used on overheads, or in a power point, to
supplement the film. I would have class discussion and possible a journal exercise to
flesh out student emotions of the images. The second day I would examine Roosevelt and
his New Deal. This was an important time in our history, characterized by the social
programs of the 20th century that are, at present, controversial among politicians as to the
merits of having depression era policies in effect. Roosevelt’s policies were a
demarcation from the traditions of the past, which called for a laissez-faire type
government clearly useless in the face of an economic crisis. His policies, their use in the
past, and their connection to the present, is worth one day’s time. I am not particularly
concerned that students remember the measures, but the cooperative learning method is a
good exercise that allows the students participation in their own learning process so I
would use the measures to fulfill that goal.

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Lesson Critique #3: World War II
                  http://ofcn.org/cyber.serv/academy/ace/soc/cecsst/cecsst195.html

Summary
This WWII lesson, which extends over several days, will supply the students with enough
information about the outbreak of the war and its major players that they can move on to
more details of the war itself, its outcome, and its effects on the world today. Students
will study events, such as: the rise of Mussolini and Hitler, Japan’s invasion of
Manchuria, and the U.S. recognition of the Soviet Union. In addition to Mussolini and
Hitler, they will become familiar with the following leaders: Joseph Stalin, Hideki Tojo,
Winston Churchill, and Franklin Roosevelt.

Positive Aspects
Typically, not enough attention or study at the high school level involves the intriguing
and powerful leaders during WWII. For obvious reasons, Hitler remains the exception.
This lesson looks closely at the rise of the dictators and the events that precipitated war.
The war did not begin in a vacuum. When asked what their prior knowledge is of WWII,
most students invariably answer is the Holocaust. Not intending to devalue that horrific
aspect of this war, but there were many events, people, and motivations involved that
need to be examined before this war, which changed the landscape of Europe forever, can
be understood. This lesson uses many different methods to teach these concepts. To learn
about trigger events, the teacher has the class divide into groups assigned one event and
they are to write a news item for a television news broadcast. Another assignment is to
create a resume for one of the leaders. The creativity of the students is assessed as the
students pair up to make a poster illustrating the rise of dictatorship in the 1930’s. For the
mathematically minded, a flow char assignment is used to trace Allied and American
responses to Hitler’s moves from 1935-1941. Finally, a geography lesson is included as
the students outline the reason for Japan’s territorial aspirations by studying its location.
This lesson encompasses the many different learning styles and abilities of all students.

Negative Aspects
This lesson is more of a unit, or a mini-unit. It would be easier to follow this lesson if
time frames were included for each assignment, but that could also be a positive aspect if
a teacher is looking for flexibility.

Adaptation
I would use some of the activities this teacher has included in his lesson. In my own unit
on WWII, I have separated the European Theater from the Pacific Theater and the events
leading up to each. However, this lesson covers all events leading up to the war in Europe
the war in the Pacific, Japanese motivation, and events in the U.S. prior to the war. In my
opinion, this is not effectively divided.

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Lesson Critique #4: The Fight for Civil Rights
http://www.uiowa.edu/~socialed/lessons/CivilRights.html

Summary
During the struggle for civil rights, two notable men, Malcolm X and Martin Luther
King, had visions of how to find a solution to discrimination. This three day lesson
compares the two ideologies of these men and allows the students, through the use of
primary documents (letters and speeches), the material to reconstruct and interpret the
past. They will recognize the similarities and differences of two great civil rights leaders,
their target audiences, their perceived problems and solutions, and will be able to
speculate as to which solution was more desirable for whom, and why.

Positive Aspects
The two primary documents used are King’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” and the
“The Ballot or the Bullet,” by Malcolm X (excerpts are used instead of full text). These
are two pieces of work that will give the students enough information of the two
ideologies of these two men. Enough time is given to fully explore this topic -- one day
each document. Group work is also used. Students will be asked to read the document
with certain questions in mind (teacher writes these on the board), and then in groups
answer one question per group. The class will then discuss their findings. The essay
assignment for homework on the second day is a good way to organize the similarities
and differences between the two men and hone student writing skills. The third day
“role-playing,” activity is wonderful and something I hadn’t thought of. The class is
divided into two groups: Northern whites and African-Americans and Southern whites
and African-Americans. Each group will decide whose ideology they would follow, or
could make up their own, and the strategies they would employ, including with the pros
and cons of each. This lesson also contains good examples of extensions that can be used
including the following: students write their own speech, examining the role of women in
the civil rights movement, creation of a civil rights collage, and students write a
newspaper article.

Negative Aspects
At the end of the third day, another essay is assigned -- it would be just a regurgitation of
the day’s activity. Dividing the class into two groups makes the groups too large.

Adaptation
This is an effective lesson. My own unit on the Civil Rights Movement also contains this
comparison exercise. I will, however, add the third day (except for the third essay
assignment), and I would make smaller groups.
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Lesson Critique #5: JFK: the 1960 election and Foreign Policy
http://www.lessonplanpage.com/SSLA-JFK-Election60vs00AndForeignPolicy912.html


Summary
This lesson is part of a unit on the Presidency of John F. Kennedy. The purpose of this
lesson is to introduce to students the presidency and the foreign policy dilemmas that
plagued it. The objective of this lesson include: students will learn the following: the
major players in world politics during 1960-63, a comparison of the election of 1960 and
2000, key events of the period, and how to evaluate the effectiveness of Kennedy’s
foreign policy. Using a worksheet , the students take notes as the teacher lectures on the
following events: the Invasion of Cuba, the Berlin Crisis, and the Invasion of Cuba.

Positive Aspects
The three events are an effective categorization of “plagues” on a presidency. The
teacher uses visuals, (overheads, maps, and video), to complement the lecture. The
students are able to work in groups when they are assigned a “role” to play -- Kennedy
advisors --as they debate what course of action should be taken as a solution to the Cuban
Missile Crisis. Should America bomb Cuba and start a possible nuclear war? Should this
administration bomb Iraq? This lesson/debate is definitely related to today’s foreign
affairs situation, as current controversy surrounds our country’s plan of a “preemptive”
strike on of Iraq. The homework assignment is a letter to be drafted by the students to
President Kennedy either criticizing or defending him on one of the events covered in the
lesson. This is a good strategy to have the students write affectively about their feelings,
while using the assignment as an assessment of student comprehension of the material
covered in class.

Negative Aspects
The anticipatory set, used as an introduction, compares the strange similarities of
Kennedy and Lincoln. I don’t think is a good start to foreign policy issues and should be
used after the Kennedy assassination. The first part of the lesson is an explanation of the
1960 election and the 2000 election. Again, I wouldn’t use this in the lesson on foreign
policy. The issue could be used in another lesson prior to this on. This lesson should only
focus on the three foreign policy events as stated.

Adaptation
Instead of the Lincoln/Kennedy similarities, I would begin this lesson with a KWL on
nuclear power and the prospect of nuclear war. I would omit the comparison of the
presidential elections of 1960 and 2000. I would definitely use overheads for visuals
while I lectured on the three key events. I would add a segment of the film, Thirteen
Days, as part of the lecture on the Cuban Missile Crisis. The group work and homework
assignments would remain the same.

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                                                  LESSON PLANS


Lesson Plan: Pacifism WWI
Grade Level: 10
Approximate Time: One 50 minute class period
30 students


Objective: Although leaders made the decisions, most people on both sides were equally
committed to military action. Young men rushed to enlist, cheered on by women and
their elders. It seemed at exciting adventure. But the reality and ugliness of war were felt
at home -- with the first casualty lists. Many countries mobilizing for war did not want
any pacifistic sentiment to damage the gains they had made through the use of
propaganda. In response to growing anti-war movements, these governments banned any
material they deemed destructive to the “war effort.” One such novel was “All Quiet On
the Western Front, “ written by Erich Remarque. Later when this novel became a
Hollywood movie, Hitler when mobilizing for WWII, banned the showing of this film in
any occupied country. This lesson will provide the student with an alternative view to the
optimism prevalent in the years during the Great War.
In this lesson the students will:
                            ----Recognize the alternative view of war from the eyes of
pacifists.
                             ----Identify the U.S. categorization of pacifism related to
conscription.
                             ----Analyze works from soldiers and artists who experienced
the war
                                    firsthand.
                             ----Observe a controversial anti-war film and be able to
identify the
                                    context in which it was banned.


Materials:          Pen and Paper
                         Lecture Notes
                         Handouts: “Is War Ever Justified?” / Wilfred Owen “Dulce
Et Decorum
                                             Est.” / No Conscription League
                         Film: “All Quiet on the Western Front.”
                         Television w/VCR

Anticipatory Set:
10 minutes:
1. Read “Is War Ever Justified” handout with students.
2. Discuss the different views.
3. Explain how different segments of society can have different motivations and
perspectives in regards to war.
4. Have them answer in their journals the same question: Is war ever justified? Why or
why not?
5. When they are finished writing in their journals, ask for a few volunteers to share what
they have written.

Steps:
10 minutes:
6.. Lecture on different pacifist groups and their relation to WWI. Instruct the students to
     take notes.
10 minutes:
7. Distribute the Owen poem to the class and discuss.
8. Choose certain segments of the poem to evaluate. Have the students relate their own
personal feelings toward aggression and war. How does this poem make them feel? In
what passages does the author assist in developing a visual picture of what he has seen?
15 minutes:
9. Explain to the students they are going to see a movie that was made as a reaction to
the war -- it was banned by countries mobilizing for war because of its anti-war
sentiment. 10. Ask the students why they think a movie would be banned. How does if
help or hurt the war effort and from whose perspective?
11. Play segment of “All Quiet On the Western Front.”
Closure:
12.When the movie is over, ask the students if there is any particular scene that they felt
they related to. Did anyone’s opinion changed from what they wrote in their journals?
13. Ask for opinions on the filmmaking itself. This is an old black and white. Did it look
realistic?

Homework:
The students will be asked to write a poem of their own regarding war or to analyze a
poem that was written in response to war. This could be from any time period.

Assessment:
The students will be assessed on the following: completion of the assignment, grammar,
sentence structure, detailed analysis, and proper citation if another work is quoted.
Evaluation:
This is a powerful subject and has a connection to current issues. Given the limits of time,
discussion of contemporary conflicts might be cut short. Depending on the interest I see
in the student to flesh this out more, this lesson might need to be extended. Another
reason for extension is to show this entire classic film.


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Lesson Plan: Totalitarianism
Grade Level: 10
Time: Approx. one 50 minute class period
Students: 30

Objectives: The totalitarian regimes in Europe during the early part of the
twentieth-century provide an illustration of the contrast between a democratic republic
and a government that suppresses citizen involvement while totally controlling the
political, social, economic, and cultural framework of a country or nation. This lesson is a
continuation of Day 6, where the students learn about the depression and its role in the
rise of dictatorships in Europe, the difference between fascism and communism, and an
introduction to the major totalitarian powers during the inter-war years. This lesson will
highlight the Nazi regime with Hitler in power and focus on the cultural effects on its
populace. The students will watch the film, Swing Kids, about a group of German
youths who defy the government’s ban on swing music and the indoctrination and
formation of the Hitler Youth Groups. Through journal writing, the students will be able
to identify with the youths of Germany and can reflect on the nature of cultural control.
The students will be able to:
                         -----Examine the meaning of a “totalitarian” state.
                         ---- View a film not only for the aesthetics, but for the content as
well.
                         ---- Enable them to see how the role of government can affect
their lives
                                and culture.

Materials :
                   Journal
                    Paper
                    Pen or Pencil                       .
                    Film: Swing Kids
                    Television w/VCR


Anticipatory Set:
10 minutes
1. Ask the students to write in their journals their reflections on this question: How would
you feel if the government would not let you listen to the music you wanted to listen to
and they banned, say, rap music -- making it illegal if you listened to it?

Steps:
30 minutes
2. Show segment of the film, Swing Kids .
3. Ask the students to identify and write down totalitarian strategies used by Nazis and
the Hitler Youth Group.
4. Give an example (banning books) so they know what is meant by strategy.
5. After the film is over, discuss the different strategies. Some questions could include:
Were the strategies obvious? subtle? If our country was under a totalitarian regime, what
are some strategies do you think would be used to control the population? Why? Do you
think strategies like this are possible in a democratic society? Do you think we have them
now under different guises? Explain.
5 minutes:
6. Have the students fill out the “movie review” handout. Some questions on the handout
include: Would they rent the movie or recommend it to others? Why or why not? What
part of the segment was their favorite? Did the director get his point across? How--what
methods did he use?
Closure:
5 minutes
7. Discuss the journal entries.
8. Ask for volunteers to read what they had written in their journals. Can they relate
totalitarianism to their own lives?

Homework:
No written homework is assigned. The students are asked to reflect on their journals, the
movie, and the difference between our democracy and the totalitarian state. Tell them to
make the distinction and to remember it when we discuss our country’s attempts to stop
the spread of communism after WWII during the Cold War.

Literacy Aspect:
Students will reflect in their journals and be given the opportunity to assess a film for
symbolism. This lesson will give the students a chance not only to learn about history but
to apply and analyze historical concepts to their own lives.

Assessment:
The film observations will be collected and assessed on the students attention to the
movie. There are no right and wrong answers as to what elements of it represented a
totalitarian regime, I just want them to think empathetically of what it was like to live
under a this type of rule.

Evaluation:
The film will be a strong learning experience, especially with the current criticism against
some of the gangsta rap music today. The students are accustomed to the freedom to
listen to what they want, if their parents approve, but have no concept of how much a
government could control their cultural preferences--and in many countries, do. I think
this lesson is a good departure from the lecture oriented Day 6, which this is a
continuation of.

                                    ******************************
                                    ******************************



Lesson Plan: JFK and Foreign Policy
Grade: 11
Time: Approx. one 50 minute period
Students: 30

Objectives: President John F. Kennedy walked into the oval office at 6:59 p.m. He
was about to deliver some frightening news to the American people -- news of a
mounting Soviet threat in Cuba. Just 17 years earlier, the United States and the Soviet
Union had embraced and toasted their stunning victory in Word War II. Now, the
wartime alliance had soured into a bitter and dangerous rivalry, a cold war, affecting the
entire world. This lesson will show how this tension affecting the presidency of John
Kennedy and the foreign policy. After this lesson, the students will be able to:
                          ----Explain the events surrounding three main events: the
                                 Cuban Missile Crisis, the Invasion of Cuba, and the
Berlin Crisis.
                          ----Develop a resolution to an international crisis given the
                                 facts Kennedy had available to him.
                          ----Evaluate the effectiveness of Kennedy’s foreign policy and
will be
                                 able to both criticize and defend his decisions.

Materials:     Pen and Pencil
                      Worksheet for Notes
                      Overheads / Maps
                      Video, “Thirteen Days.”

Steps:
5 minutes
1. Anticipatory Set: Using the KWL format, ask the students what they know about
nuclear power and nuclear war.
2. Discuss the effects of nuclear war and who how having the technology had political
advantages.


30 minutes
2. Lecture:
       A. Review Kennedy’s solutions of the Cold War: policy of “flexible response,”
            increase in defense spending, peace corps, and the alliance for progress.
       B. Invasion of Cuba -- Bay of Pigs fiasco -- show map of Cuba in relation to
           the United States.
       C. The Berlin Crisis -- show overheads of Germany. Berlin, bomb shelters, Berlin
            Wall.
       D. The Cuban Missile Crisis -- show overhead of U2 spy lane pictures.
             1. Review Kennedy’s options
             2. Review American blockade on Cuba
             3. Show segment of the film, “Thirteen Days.”


10 minutes
3. Group Work: Divide the class into groups of 5 or 6.
4. Have them pretend they are Kennedy advisors and must agree on a solution to the
Cuban Missile Crisis. Should American bomb Cuba and start a possible Nuclear War, or
we remove our missiles from Turkey (which would make us look weak) in hopes that the
Soviet Union removes theirs from Cuba?

Closure:
5 minutes
5. Explain to the students how historians treat Kennedy’s foreign policy.
6. Assign homework.

Homework:
Students write a letter tot President Kennedy and either defend or criticize him on one of
the following areas: Invasion of Cuba, Berlin Crisis, or the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Literacy Aspect:
The students are able to think about what their prior knowledge is about nuclear power
during the KWL exercise. Oral expression is used while role playing Kennedy’s advisors.
The homework assignment assesses their comprehension of the day’s material while
allowing them to freely express their opinions on the solutions rendered during these
crises.

Assessment:
The students will be assessed on their cooperative group ability and class participation.
The homework assignment will be graded on completion and evidence of clear thinking
and support from class lecture.


Evaluation
 I think this is an effective lesson and is reasonable as far as time frame is allowed.
Sometimes more than just a short segment of a film is needed for effectiveness but
Thirteen Days is a very dry, detailed film that anything longer than a segment would
probably lose students at certain levels. A short piece will be sufficient to portray the
tension.

                                    *****************************
                                    *****************************




Lesson Plan: 1950’s Popular Culture
Grade: 11
Time: Approx. on 50 minute class period
Students:30

Objective: As part of a broader unit on the Cold War, this lesson is provided to help
students understand the popular culture of the 1950’s, which was influenced by the
country’s political tensions. Using the cooperative learning method students will be
introduced to four aspects of the 50’s culture: cars, fashion, TV, and rock and roll. The
students will be able to:
                  ----Work together in expert groups to construct a presentation on their
                        subject.
                  ----Teach their assigned group the material learned in their expert
groups.
                  ----Present findings to a group of peers.
                  ----Listen a group member present findings and evaluate.

Materials:     Textbooks
                    1950’s CD, CD player, and headset
                    1950’s Sitcom
                    1950’s Ladies Home Journal
                     Book on Cars

Steps:
3 minutes
Anticipatory Set
1. Brainstorm with students about rock and roll stars of the 50’s. Write their answers on
the board.
2. Ask them if they have ever listened to their music.
2 minutes
3. Explain to the class they will be formed into groups where each one of them will
become an “expert” on one aspect of 50’s culture. They will become an expert by joining
an “expert group” where they will consolidate information about the topic and report
back to their original group.

4 minutes
4. From the groups. Each groups member is assigned a topic: fashion, TV, cars, rock
and roll.
18 minutes
5. Expert Meeting -- Using the material available to them, students will assemble
information to bring back to their groups.
      Fashion: Magazines and Textbooks--Advertising was a major influence in fashion
(as t
                   today). James Dean was an influence for boys. Marilyn Monroe
influenced
                   girls.
      Rock and Roll: CD, CD player, and headphones -- Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, Little
                   Richard, Bobby Darin.
      TV: Episode of a 50’s sitcom -- I Love Lucy, Father Knows Best -- encouraged
                   stereotypes.
      Cars: Book on 1950’s cars -- new highways, teenagers use for recreation(drive-ins,
                    drive-thrus)

20 minutes
6. Team Report - Each original group will get back together. Each member will
                  present their information. Students take notes.

Closure:
2 minutes
7. The last couple minutes in class will be used for students to evalutate the member so
their group using a preprinted worksheet. Did they feel the “expert” had presented their
information effectively? Were all group member working cooperatively in their expert
groups? Did you feel this was an efficient way to present material?

Homework:
The students will be asked to write a one-page essay describing 1950’s culture using the
information thay accumulated in class.

Literacy Aspect
The students will be using a myriad of literacy tools: textbooks, music, magazines,
visuals (car book), anf their own cultural experiences to relate to this lesson. Students
learn from each other and have the opportunity to orally present their research to their
peers. The homework is an efficient way to assess comprehension of the lesson and the
students writing skills.

Assessment
An informal assessment will be made on the student’s ability to: assemble and work
cooperatively in a group, present their information to their group, and listen and write
notes during presentations. The homework would be graded on completion,
comprehension, evidentiary support, spelling, and grammar.


Evaluation
The success of this lesson will be in the acquisition of good resources for the students.
The teacher would have to have 1950’s material accessible for use. The gourps would
have to be able to have the television and CD player running at the same time without
distracting the other students. This lesson could be extended to a full project where the
groups would orally present their aspect of 50’s culture for the entire class using the
visuals, or more, provided.

                                     ******************************
                                     ******************************



Lesson Plan: Progressivism and Hip Hop
Grade: 11
Time: Approx. One 50 minute class period
Students: 30

Objective: Between 1880-1920, political corruption, labor unrest, and urban decay
plagued the United States. During this period of rapid industrialization and urban growth,
Americans responded to these issues, yet avoided a radical upheaval of the whole system.
This was one of the greatest periods of reform in the history of the Unites Sates--the
Progressive Era. This lesson is part of the unit on Progressivism and focuses on
African-American activists, most notably, Ida B.Wells, who led the anti-lynching
movement. In 1892 about 230 people were lynched in the United States. Contemporary
hip hop culture is similar in fashion, as the voices of hip hop seek societal changes which
is manifested in song and verse. After this lesson, the students will:
               ----Identify lynching, KKK, Ida B. Wells, and Billie Holiday.
               ----Understand the impetus behind the founding of the NAACP and the
National
                      Urban League.
               ----Analyze Billie Holiday’s song, “Strange Fruit” and be able to compose
lyrics
                      using their experiences with their own popular culture to express
their
                      feelings towards the injustice of African-Americans during the first
half of
                      the 20th century.
              ----Be able to make a connection between using pop culture to effect social
                      change.

Materials:    CD Player/ CD of “Strange Fruit”/ Written Lyrics
                    Overhead
                   Lecture Notes/ Pictures of Lynchings

Steps:
5 minutes
1. Anticipatory Set: Students will listen to Billie Holiday’ “Strange Fruit” while
viewing its lyrics on the overhead.
8 minutes
2. After the song, break down the lyrics and orchestrate whole class discussion of the
underlying meaning of the song.
3. Explain to the students that Billie Holiday was one of the greatest blues singers of all
time. Her song “Strange Fruit” was actually written during the Harlem Renaissance in the
1920’s (covered in the next unit), but was introduced in today’s lesson to make the
connection between the use of song and culture to effect societal change.

5 minutes
4.. Have students write in their journals their feelings toward the song. Ask for volunteers
to share what they wrote.

20 minutes
5. Have students take notes while lecturing on American lynching and Ida B. Wells.
    A. Explain the background of Wells: born to slave parents in Mississippi who died
    of yellow fever when Ida was only 14. She raised her family alone. She taught
school,
    experienced rampant racism, and as a newspaper writer, became an advocate for
black
    equality.
    B. Show pictures of mob lynching.
    C. Discuss the efforts of the NAACP and the National Urban League

Closure:
10 minutes
6. Explain the homework assignment.

Homework:
Students are to write lyrics to a song that would express their feelings toward the injustice
and racism felt by African-American during the Progressive Era. Emphasize the inclusion
of an advocacy of change in their work. Students should review their prior knowledge of
the African slave trade, slavery in the U.S., and Reconstruction to inspire them. The
students should create a poster that, at the very least, displays their lyrics. Review the
day’s lesson.

Literacy Aspect
Students will journal write their feelings about the Holiday song and will be able to
transfer that into their own creative lyric or poem to fulfill the homework assignment.
With the help of visual overheads, the students will be guided in their note taking.

Assessment
Students will be assessed on the homework assignment by the following criteria:
completion, neatness, evidence of the advocacy of social change, and creativity.
Evaluation
This lesson is powerful in itself. The need for social change during the 20th century, and
important figures, such as, Ida B. Wells, are perfect vehicles to show the ability of people
who have pushed for national reform. I think the Holiday song will touch the students’
emotions enough to motivate them is writing their own pieces.

                                ******************************
                                ******************************




                                               RESOURCES

Resource #1: Reminisce: The Magazine That Brings Back the Good Times

Reminisce is a magazine that is issued every two months. This periodical that boasts,
“the magazine that brings back the good ole times, does exactly that. Each issue is replete
with articles that are meant to relive the past through personal histories, interviews, and
commentaries. The articles are not more than a couple pages long, and the magazine
itself is extremely visual by using: old photos, old ads, old recipes, cartoons, and
crosswords. For example, one issue contains an article of personal accounts of the use of
the old permanent wave machines for women to curl their hair, and shows a picture of
young child “hooked up” to this electric contraption. Another issue has an article
describing the “Harvey Girls” of the old west, who were waitresses in a string of
restaurants along the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway throughout the Southwest
that had a 70 year history.

The price is reasonable, costing the subscriber approximately $12.00 a year ($2.00 an
issue). History teachers can use this as a source for information regarding first hand
experiences of the past, to introduce students to ads, pictures, recipes, and the general
culture of old Americana. Students can use this magazine as a research tool for preparing
papers and projects.

The only negative aspect of this magazine is the sparseness of cultural diversity. Some
articles show different cultural perspectives, but many don’t.


Resource #2: History Alive: Engaging All Learners in The Diverse Classroom
(TCI)

The introduction of this manual states, “this is a series of instructional practices used by
social study teachers that allows students with diverse learning styles to “experience”
history.” This exceptional resource contains different strategies to use in the classroom to
address the need of teachers to adapt their instruction to effectively assess students from
different cultural backgrounds and multiple intelligences. The manual’s authors are from
the Teachers’ Curriculum Institute, a group of novice an veteran teachers, whose goals
are to transform history courses from “dull, fact-laden memorization” into personal
student interactions that allows the student the ability to relate the past to real-life
experiences. Some of the strategies include: interactive slide presentations (students are
part of slide during lecture), social studies skill builders (working in pairs), experiential
exercises (re-creating history), problem solving group work, and interactive student
notebooks.

This manual is a must have for social science teachers. I will use this manual for
preparing lesson plans that address the multiple intelligences or my students. TCI also
offers extended versions of this short introductory book, and also offer workshops for
employed teachers. These expanded resource are invaluable and contain detailed lesson
plans, teacher notes, slides, transparencies, and assessments. However, the only downfall
is the price of the extended version. A teacher would need to petition the school for the
funding. Each “binder” that encompasses a certain historical period, runs about $400
each. Although they offer a discount for workshop attendees, the price is quite costly.
The manual itself is not expensive. A new copy runs about $30.00.


Resource #3: http://www.thehistorychannel.com
This website is a smorgasbord for history teachers and students. Formatted as a guide to
the History Channel, this site offers more than information. You can click on “store” to
shop, and can purchase any one of its 5,000 items, as varied as a book or CD to a WWII
Bomber Chair. There is clothing, collectibles, gift items, home décor, posters, and much
more. The home page features “This Day In History,” which recounts an event for that
day, or the browser can choose another day in history to acquire information. This would
be a great day starter for the teacher, as she can write on the board using the same
heading, “this day in history,” and have the students keep a calendar of events. The
“Speeches” section is of particular interest, since you can search, retrieve, and copy entire
famous speeches to use in the classroom, from presidential speeches, direct broadcasts, to
eyewitness accounts. Students can also browse the speeches section to use a resource
when drafting a paper or presentation. There is a discussion section which allows the user
to discuss with other users about certain posted topics of interest. The “Classroom” offers
suggestions and study guides on how to use their videos, but does not offer full detailed
lesson plans. There are weekly “Exhibits” that display a certain event or topic that has
been submitted and published. For example, one of the exhibits for this week was “Ellis
Island.” This would be a good section for students; an easy read and visually attractive.

Teachers do receive a 10% discount on DVDs and videos, but it can be quite costly if you
are not permitted to tape them and show these programs in your classrooms (which I’m
sure many teachers do). Also quite pricey are the products for sale in the store, but this is
typical for on-line shopping. Except for the speeches, the content of the topics and events
are not very comprehensive, but the resource is a good one for an overview of ideas,
listings of upcoming television airings so you can plan accordingly, and anecdotal
information that can be distributed to your class.

Resource #4: Instructional Models: Strategies for Teaching in a Diverse Society
                           (Lasley, Matczynski, Rowley)

All teachers who are planning to teach, or are presently teaching in California, should
have a copy of this textbook. Instructional Models offers different models for presenting
skills, content, and ideas to students. These models address the “real world of teaching,”
in a growing culturally diverse society and are designed to explore more fully the
instructional options to help students achieve their learning goals. The models include:
Concept Attainment, Inquiry, Concept Formation, Synectics, Mnemonics, Direct
Instruction, Cooperative Learning, and Oral Discussion. Each chapter covers a different
model and comprehensively covers: theory, teaching phases, applications, to name a few
chapter components, and offers case studies as examples.

I will use this text extensively to help prepare culturally relevant lesson plans. Some
models are not as useful as others in a social science classroom. For example, I found
difficulty trying to apply Concept Attainment in relation to teaching history. Concept
attainment offers a deductive and inductive approach. The idea behind this model is that
students will be given certain concepts, via positive and negative exemplars, and work
toward discovering the concept the teacher is trying to convey by hypothesizing and
eliminating exemplars that do not fit. Most other models, however, can be used
effectively for social science, and the cooperative learning, inquiry, oral discussion, and
synectics chapters were particularly useful.

The only negative aspect would be that textbooks can be expensive. A new copy would
probably run about $90.00.



Resource #5: We Interrupt This Broadcast (Book and CD)
Whenever we hear the words, “we interrupt this broadcast,” it consumes our attention,
and for a few moments we stop what we are doing to listen anxiously for the upcoming
announcement. This book and complementary CD brings to life the famous and
infamous moments of the twentieth century. The CD contains over two hours of audio
and covers such events as: the Hindenburg Explosion, Pearl Harbor, Cuban Missile
Crisis, Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., Iran Hostage Crisis, Princess Diana Dies,
and the Waco Standoff.

The book is 155 pages long, contains many visuals, has a high school comprehension
reading level, and covers 38 events which represent a broad spectrum of social, political,
economic, and cultural perspectives. For audio learners in the classroom, this set is
crucial to any social science teacher, as well as a good supplement to any lesson about the
twentieth century.

Students can use this as a resource for papers or projects, but it would be more effective
to use for the entire class with teacher’s anecdotal guidance

								
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