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									        OPERATING SYTEMS
       B.TECH II YR (TERM 08-09)
          UNIT 2 PPT SLIDES
Operating System Concepts- Abraham Silberchatz,
   Peter B. Galvin, Greg Gagne 7th Edition, John
Operating systems- A Concept based Approach-
   D.M.Dhamdhere, 2nd Edition, TMH.

No. of slides: 52
               UNIT 2 PPT SLIDES
1. Process concepts threads     L9    L9.1 to L9.10
2. scheduling-criteria alg      L10   L10.1 to L10.7
3. scheduling-criteria alg      L11   L11.1 to L11.7
4. Algorithms evaluation        L12   L12.1 to L12.6
5. Thread scheduling            L13   L13.1 to L13.11
6. Case studies UNIX,LINUX      L14   L14.1 to L14.4
7. Windows                      L15  L15.1 to L15.2
8. REVISION                     L16
           Process Concept
• An operating system executes a variety of
  – Batch system – jobs
  – Time-shared systems – user programs or tasks
• Textbook uses the terms job and process
  almost interchangeably
• Process – a program in execution; process
  execution must progress in sequential fashion
• A process includes:
  – program counter
  – stack
  – data section
            Process State

• As a process executes, it changes state
  – new: The process is being created
  – running: Instructions are being executed
  – waiting: The process is waiting for some event
    to occur
  – ready: The process is waiting to be assigned
    to a processor
  – terminated: The process has finished
Diagram of Process State
   Process Control Block (PCB)
Information associated with each process
• Process state
• Program counter
• CPU registers
• CPU scheduling information
• Memory-management information
• Accounting information
• I/O status information
Process Control Block (PCB)
CPU Switch From Process to Process
      Process Scheduling Queues
• Job queue – set of all processes in the
• Ready queue – set of all processes
  residing in main memory, ready and waiting
  to execute
• Device queues – set of processes waiting
  for an I/O device
• Processes migrate among the various
Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues
Representation of Process Scheduling
• Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) –
  selects which processes should be brought
  into the ready queue
• Short-term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) –
  selects which process should be executed
  next and allocates CPU
    Producer-Consumer Problem
• Paradigm for cooperating processes,
  producer process produces information that
  is consumed by a consumer process
  – unbounded-buffer places no practical limit on
    the size of the buffer
  – bounded-buffer assumes that there is a fixed
    buffer size
        Bounded-Buffer – Shared-Memory Solution
• Shared data
       #define BUFFER_SIZE 10
       typedef struct {
       } item;

       item buffer[BUFFER_SIZE];
       int in = 0;
       int out = 0;
• Solution is correct, but can only use
  BUFFER_SIZE-1 elements
    Bounded-Buffer – Producer
while (true) {
  /* Produce an item */
    while (((in = (in + 1) % BUFFER SIZE
count) == out)
    ; /* do nothing -- no free buffers */
   buffer[in] = item;
   in = (in + 1) % BUFFER SIZE;
   Bounded Buffer – Consumer
while (true) {
    while (in == out)
          ; // do nothing -- nothing to consume

   // remove an item from the buffer
   item = buffer[out];
   out = (out + 1) % BUFFER SIZE;
return item;
            Scheduling Criteria
• CPU utilization – keep the CPU as busy as possible
• Throughput – # of processes that complete their
  execution per time unit
• Turnaround time – amount of time to execute a
  particular process
• Waiting time – amount of time a process has been
  waiting in the ready queue
• Response time – amount of time it takes from when
  a request was submitted until the first response is
  produced, not output (for time-sharing environment)
Scheduling Algorithm Optimization
•   Max CPU utilization
•   Max throughput
•   Min turnaround time
•   Min waiting time
•   Min response time
  First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) Scheduling

             ProcessBurst Time
                 P1       24
                 P2       3
                 P3        3
• Suppose that the processes arrive in
  the order: P1 , P2 , P3
  The Gantt Chart for the schedule is:
               P1              P2        P3

      0                   24        27        30
          FCFS Scheduling (Cont)
Suppose that the processes arrive in the order
                    P2 , P3 , P1
• The Gantt chart for the schedule is:
  Waiting time for P1 = 6; P2 = 0; P3 = 3
• Average waiting time: (6 + 0 + 3)/3 = 3
• Much better than previous case
• Convoy effect short process behind long process

              P2       P3         P1

          0        3        6               30
     Shortest-Job-First (SJF)
• Associate with each process the length of
  its next CPU burst. Use these lengths to
  schedule the process with the shortest
• SJF is optimal – gives minimum average
  waiting time for a given set of processes
  – The difficulty is knowing the length of the next
    CPU request
           Determining Length of Next CPU Burst
• Can only estimate the length
• Can be done by using the length of previous CPU bursts,
  using exponential averaging

   n1   t n  1    n .
         1. t n  actual length of n th CPU burst
         2.  n 1  predicted value for the next CPU burst
         3.  , 0    1
         4. Define :
          Examples of Exponential Averaging
•  =0
  – n+1 = n
  – Recent history does not count
•  =1
  – n+1 =  tn
  – Only the actual last CPU burst counts
• If we expand the formula, we get:
    n+1 =  tn+(1 - ) tn -1 + …
            +(1 -  )j  tn -j + …
            +(1 -  )n +1 0

• Since both  and (1 - ) are less than or equal
  to 1, each successive term has less weight than
                Priority Scheduling
• A priority number (integer) is associated with each process
• The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority
  (smallest integer  highest priority)
   – Preemptive
   – nonpreemptive
• SJF is a priority scheduling where priority is the predicted next
  CPU burst time
• Problem  Starvation – low priority processes may never
• Solution  Aging – as time progresses increase the priority of
  the process
                    Round Robin (RR)
• Each process gets a small unit of CPU time (time quantum), usually 10-100
  milliseconds. After this time has elapsed, the process is preempted and
  added to the end of the ready queue.
• If there are n processes in the ready queue and the time quantum is q, then
  each process gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at
  once. No process waits more than (n-1)q time units.
• Performance
    – q large  FIFO
    – q small  q must be large with respect to context switch, otherwise
       overhead is too high
   Process         Burst Time
                   P1      24
                   P2       3
                                    P1       P2       P3        P1        P1    P1     P1    P1
                   P3      3
                                0        4        7        10        14        18 22    26    30
   The Gantt chart is:
   Typically, higher average turnaround than SJF, but better response
Time Quantum and Context Switch Time
                 Multilevel Queue Scheduling

Multilevel Feedback Queues   NUMA and CPU Scheduling
          Algorithm Evaluation
• Deterministic modeling – takes a particular
  predetermined workload and defines the
  performance of each algorithm for that
• Queueing models
• Implementation
Evaluation of CPU schedulers by
Dispatch Latency
Since the JVM Doesn’t Ensure Time-
  Slicing, the yield() Method
May Be Used:

 while (true) {
    // perform CPU-intensive task
                Thread Priorities

  Priority         Comment
Thread.MIN_PRIORITY        Minimum Thread
Thread.MAX_PRIORITY           Maximum Thread
Thread.NORM_PRIORITY          Default Thread

Priorities May Be Set Using setPriority() method:
  setPriority(Thread.NORM_PRIORITY + 2);
Solaris 2 Scheduling
                               User Threads
• Thread management done by user-level
  threads library
• Three primary thread libraries:
     – POSIX Pthreads
     – Win32 threads
     – Java threads
                            Kernel Threads
 •   Supported by the Kernel

 •   Examples
      –   Windows XP/2000
      –   Solaris
      –   Linux
      –   Tru64 UNIX
      –   Mac OS X
            Thread Scheduling
• Distinction between user-level and kernel-level
• Many-to-one and many-to-many models, thread
  library schedules user-level threads to run on
  – Known as process-contention scope (PCS) since
    scheduling competition is within the process
Kernel thread scheduled onto available CPU is
 system-contention scope (SCS) –
 competition among all threads in system
        Pthread Scheduling

• API allows specifying either PCS or
  SCS during thread creation
    threads using PCS scheduling
    threads using SCS scheduling.
          Pthread Scheduling API
#include <pthread.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#define NUM THREADS 5
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
     int i;
    pthread t tid[NUM THREADS];
    pthread attr t attr;
    /* get the default attributes */
    pthread attr init(&attr);
    /* set the scheduling algorithm to PROCESS or SYSTEM */
    pthread attr setscope(&attr, PTHREAD SCOPE SYSTEM);
    /* set the scheduling policy - FIFO, RT, or OTHER */
    pthread attr setschedpolicy(&attr, SCHED OTHER);
    /* create the threads */
    for (i = 0; i < NUM THREADS; i++)
           pthread create(&tid[i],&attr,runner,NULL);
         Pthread Scheduling API
  /* now join on each thread */
  for (i = 0; i < NUM THREADS; i++)
       pthread join(tid[i], NULL);
 /* Each thread will begin control in this function */
void *runner(void *param)
   printf("I am a thread\n");
   pthread exit(0);
       Multiple-Processor Scheduling
• CPU scheduling more complex when multiple CPUs are
• Homogeneous processors within a multiprocessor
• Asymmetric multiprocessing – only one processor accesses
  the system data structures, alleviating the need for data sharing
• Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) – each processor is self-
  scheduling, all processes in common ready queue, or each has
  its own private queue of ready processes
• Processor affinity – process has affinity for processor on
  which it is currently running
    – soft affinity
    – hard affinity
           Thread Libraries
• Thread library provides programmer with
  API for creating and managing threads
• Two primary ways of implementing
  – Library entirely in user space
  – Kernel-level library supported by the OS
• May be provided either as user-level or
• A POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for
  thread creation and synchronization
• API specifies behavior of the thread library,
  implementation is up to development of the
• Common in UNIX operating systems
  (Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X)
               Threading Issues
• Semantics of fork() and exec() system calls
• Thread cancellation of target thread
    – Asynchronous or deferred
•   Signal handling
•   Thread pools
•   Thread-specific data
•   Scheduler activations
           Thread Cancellation
• Terminating a thread before it has finished
• Two general approaches:
  – Asynchronous cancellation terminates the
    target thread immediately
  – Deferred cancellation allows the target thread to
    periodically check if it should be cancelled
                          Linux Threads
Linux refers to them as tasks rather than threads

Thread creation is done through clone() system call

clone() allows a child task to share the address space of the parent task (process)
Windows XP Threads
Local Procedure Calls in Windows   XP
            Windows XP Threads
• Implements the one-to-one mapping, kernel-level
• Each thread contains
   – A thread id
   – Register set
   – Separate user and kernel stacks
   – Private data storage area
• The register set, stacks, and private storage area are
  known as the context of the threads
• The primary data structures of a thread include:
   – ETHREAD (executive thread block)
   – KTHREAD (kernel thread block)
   – TEB (thread environment block)
Alternating Sequence of CPU And
            I/O Bursts
Windows XP Priorities
        Linux Scheduling
• Constant order O(1) scheduling time
• Two priority ranges: time-sharing and
• Real-time range from 0 to 99 and
  nice value from 100 to 140
• (figure 5.15)
        Examples of IPC Systems – Windows XP
• Message-passing centric via local procedure call (LPC) facility
  – Only works between processes on the same system
  – Uses ports (like mailboxes) to establish and maintain
    communication channels
  – Communication works as follows:
     • The client opens a handle to the subsystem’s connection
       port object
     • The client sends a connection request
     • The server creates two private communication ports and
       returns the handle to one of them to the client
     • The client and server use the corresponding port handle
       to send messages or callbacks and to listen for replies
Priorities and Time-slice length

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