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					          Issue #17 - September 2008

       full circle
                                                                                                  HARALD SITTER

                                                                                              GIMP PART 6
                                                                                              PROGRAM IN C

                                                                                              CONNECT TO IRC
                                                                                              SCAN AND CONVERT TO PDF

                                                                                              NANO & VIM

                                                                                    PHOTO FIX
                                                                                     SEND IN THE CLONES!
                                                                                     (AND HEALING TOOLS)
                      Full Circle magazine is not affiliated with or endorsed by Canonical Ltd.

                                                                                                 Nano & Vim                       p.06

                            full circle
                                                                                                 Program In C - Part 1            p.08
                                                                                                 Connect To IRC                   p.12
                                                                                                 GIMP - Part 5                    p.16
                                                                                                 Scan And Convert To PDF          p.19

                                                             ...When I Was Two                p.22

                                                                                                 Is This The Year?                p.27

                                                                                                 Linux Mint 5                     p.29
                                                                                                            : Harald Sitter       p.31
       P.08                P.12                                                                                                   p.34
                                                                                                        : Email Notifiers         p.38
       P.16                P.19                      P.31                    P.38

                                                                                                        icons: KDE4 Oxygen

                  The articles contained in this magazine are released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
                  Unported license. This means you can adapt, copy, distribute and transmit the articles but only under the following
                 conditions: You must attribute the work to the original author in some way (at least a name, email or URL) and to this
magazine by name ('full circle magazine') and the URL (but not attribute the article(s) in any way that
suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you must distribute the
resulting work under the same, similar or a compatible license.

                                                                                This magazine was created using :

   This month, we have a new series for you: How To Program In C. C is
surely King of programming languages. If you want to program in the
most widely used, and most respected, language, then this new series
is definitely for you. Also, we have an extra-long 'My Story' from David
Rowell, giving us his timeline from Fortran punch-cards to his current
Ubuntu usage (morse-code anyone?). And a few other small cosmetic
changes within the magazine.
  Many people have asked about PDF files containing an entire series.
We (myself and some others on the forum) are in the process of
compiling a PDF of my Scribus tutorials and, once we get that done,        Ubuntu is a complete operating
                                                                           system that is perfect for laptops,
we will create a PDF of the Create Your Own Server series. So look out     desktops and servers. Whether at
for those coming soon.                                                     home, school or work Ubuntu
                                                                           contains all the applications you'll
  Our IRC channel has become rather quiet lately (understatement of        ever need including word processor,
the year!) so, to try to get you good folks on IRC, we are publishing a    email application and web browser.
How-To on connecting to IRC. Not only is this to get people in our
channel, but it is also the best, and quickest, way to get help when                          You do not pay any
you have a question about either Ubuntu, or an app. So please take         licensing fees. You can download,
the time to learn IRC; it's like having a 24hr help desk at your           use and share Ubuntu with your
disposal. And don't forget to visit the Full Circle channel where you      friends, family, school or business
can have your say on what you like (or dislike) about the magazine.        for absolutely nothing.
                                                                           Once installed, your system is ready
                                                                           to use with a full set of productivity,
                                                                           internet, drawing and graphics
Editor, Full Circle Magazine                                               applications, and games.

                                             HP Using Linux In Media Vault                     Ubuntu 9 - Jaunty Jackalope
                 NEWS                        MV2120 Server
                                                                              In the end,                             Shuttleworth has
Digital Piano Adds Linux                                                      this product                            announced that
                                                                                                                      Ubuntu 9.04,
                                                                              isn't just
                                                                   another NAS, but a                                 scheduled for
                       With version 3.0 of
                                                                    bold statement that                               release in April
                       the Mark IV
                                                                   HP is making, that it                              2009, will be
                                                                    doesn't have to be                                called Jaunty
                       MontaVista Linux
                                                                   saddled by the rough                               Jackalope. It will
                       controls the
                                             riders of Redmond when it can build                                      focus on
                       333MHz AMD
                                             (license?) its own practically identical box at                          improving boot
                       Geode-based piano,
                                             a lower cost. Now I know that there are                                  times and the
                       enabling new
                                             some things that you can only do with a PC-       convergence of desktop and web. The
                                             like server running a full OS, but honestly,      8.10 release, Intrepid Ibex, is coming
possibilities, acoustic recording, and
                                             what are they? ... I want to know from you        next month with GNOME 2.24 and will
interaction with Web-based services.
                                             folks: Why bother with Windows Home               include better support for
The Disklavier is an add-on available for    Server when the Linux-based alternatives          subnotebooks.
a variety of Yamaha piano models,            are on the surface equally friendly, equally              :
including uprights and grands. A small       powerful and—oh yeah—half the cost?
controller box mounted underneath the
keyboard runs a proprietary RTOS (real-              :
time operating system) on a custom LSI
(large-scale integration) processor. The     Lenovo Removes Linux Option for                     A magazine isn't a magazine
                                                                                                 without articles and Full Circle
RTOS gathers data from sensors claimed
able to "continuously trace the hammer
                                             Home Buyers                                         is no exception. We need your
position from the time a key is pressed                                                                    ,            and
                                                       Lenovo has stopped selling laptops
until it's released." By recording
                                                       pre-installed with Linux on its web               . We also need
hammer and damper positions, the
device is able to capture a live musical
                                                       site, only eight months after                       (games, apps &
                                             starting the trial program. Word has it that        hardware),          articles
performance in a special musical data
                                             the decision to pull the plug on Linux came
language not altogether unlike the                                                               (on any K/X/Ubuntu subject)
                                             from the highest levels of the company's
perforated holes that once powered                                                               and any questions, or
                                             corporate headquarters. For those looking
player pianos, except for having                                                                 suggestions, you may have.
                                             to buy full-sized laptops and desktops with
obviously much greater dynamic
                                             Linux pre-loaded Dell, System76, ZaReason
                                             and Everex all still offer such products.

                                            Rockbox 3.0 Supercharges Your                  Google Promises Chrome For
                  NEWS                      MP3 Player                                     Linux

Google launches first Android
                          unveiled the
                          world’s first
                                            Open-source MP3 firmware Rockbox has
                          Android phone
                                            released its first major update in three
                          yesterday –
                                            years, adding support and stability for more   Amanda Walker, a software engineer at
                          the T-Mobile
                                            MP3 players and playback of more file          Google, said that the browser will be
                          G1. The 3G
                                            types. Rockbox has long been the best tool     completely rewritten for the Mac, and
                                            to breath new life into an aging MP3 player,   Linux, releases.
running Google’s Linux-based open-
                                            from first through 5.5 generation iPods to
source Android operating system gives                                                      The developer also said that, with the
                                            iRiver, Sandisk, and Archos players (see all
software developers the opportunity to                                                     release of the Windows build, the Mac
                                            the supported players here:
create new applications for the phone.                                                     and Linux versions would become
                                                                                           'open' projects so that users could
With the ability to display full HTML the   Rockbox features include support,
                                                                                           track progress.
G1 has a touchscreen interface, Wi-Fi       album art, games, video playback, and tons
connectivity, and 3G HDSPA mobile           more. Better yet, the new release comes        Walker dismissed the notion that the
broadband speeds.                           with a streamlined installation tool called    Mac and Linux builds would be the
                                            RockboxUtility that works on Windows, Mac,     conventional software 'ports' in which
Bundled into the phone is a stack of        and Linux and makes installation simple.       Windows code is merely tweaked to
Google’s own software applications,
                                                                                           work on a different platform.
including Google search, Google
calendar, YouTube, Google Maps, Google                                                     "In order to make sure Chromium feels
Talk and Gmail. An Amazon mp3 player                                                       right, each platform's version is being
is included as well so users can                                                           built by people who live and breathe
download unprotected mp3 tracks over                                                       that platform," she said.
Wi-Fi connections.
                                                                                           "Macs and Linux machines are very
The UK will get a head start on the                                                        popular at Google at all levels, so
launch, with availability from November.                                                   progress is already being followed
                                                                                           avidly across all levels of the company."

                                                                                      tasks could be anything from
              Written by Robert Clipsham
                                                                                      find/replace to just saving a file.
                                                                                      In graphical editors, the latter is
                                                                                      done by using menus or clicking

   f you've been following the                                                        buttons. In Nano, you use certain
   tutorials so far, you should now                                                   key combinations to perform
   know the basics of staying                                                         these tasks. Vim has two modes
safe, and managing files at a                                                         for this functionality: an insert
command line. This month we                                                           mode and a command mode.
show you how to edit files using                                                      Vim (below) starts in command
Nano and Vi/Vim.                                                                      mode by default, so you won't
                                                                                      be able to edit the document.
  To get started, I'll show you the
easier of the two editors to use,
Nano (right).
$ nano example.txt
                                           will 'WriteOut' or save the file, and
   At the top you will see three           ^W (Ctrl+w) will allow you to search
things. On the left 'GNU Nano'             for a certain term in the file. Enter
followed by a version number, in           some text into the file, then save it.
the center the name of the file,           Nano is the easier of the two editors
and on the right the status of the         to use, but its functionality is much
file. At the bottom, there are two         less than that of Vi or Vim.
rows of commands for the editor,
then a status row just above                  By default, Ubuntu comes only
them. To edit the file, just start         with the basic Vim package, without        $ vim example.txt
typing like you would with any             all the bells and whistles. This is fine
                                           for this tutorial, but for advanced            To switch to insert mode, press
other text editor!
                                           editing, you'll need the full package      'i' or the insert key. You will now
  Other than editing the file, the         (we'll show you how to get this using      be able to edit the file. Enter a
common functions (and their key            a command line in the next tutorial).      few lines of extra text, then
combinations) are listed at the                                                       switch back to command mode
bottom. For example, ^O (Ctrl+O)             Text editors do two main things:         by pressing the escape (esc) key.
                                           edit files and automate tasks. The

                                          There are a hundreds, if not            line numbers, and more
                                          thousands of commands in vim,           advanced functions too. If you
:w              Save the document.        providing a lot of functions. Some of   want more information, use :help
:q              Quit Vim.                 the basic commands are shown in         or read the documentation at
                                          Fig.1 (left).                 
                Quit Vim without Saving
h,j,k,l         Move around                 So, for example, if you wanted to
                document, you can         save your changes, type ':w' (all of
                also use the arrow keys   vim's command start with ':'). You
:e [filename]   Open the given file.      can also mix commands, so for                                         is a
                                          example ':wq' saves and quits vim.                 self-confessed geek,
                Open the main help
[command]                                                                                    whose hobbies include:
                page or get specific        These are just a few of the basic       programming/scripting, chatting
                                          commands Vim has. There are also          on IRC and not writing his
:set [option]   Get a list of options     commands for copy/paste, find and         articles on time.
[value]         that have been set, or    replace, syntax highlighting, showing
                set an option

                    Written by Elie De Brauwer
                                                                    PROGRAM IN C - PART 1
                                                   basics of the language are explained,    known is probably the Linux
                                                   we will introduce new concepts,          kernel itself. The main objections
 N/A                                               techniques, and more intermediate-       against learning C are that it is
                                                   to-advanced principles -- by             not a modern language; for
                                                   example. I hereby promise I will do      example, it lacks a rich
                                                   my best not to make too-large leaps,     framework, and it is not object-
                                                   and to introduce new concepts as we      oriented, which makes C a rather
                                                   encounter them. If any reader            simple language to learn. On the
                                                   experiences problems, or fails to        other hand, a valid objection is
                                                   properly understand certain things,      that, since C is a language
         Graphics    Internet Multimedia System
                                                   please do not hesitate to get in touch   closely related to the hardware,
                                                   with me.                                 it can allow users to do things
                                                                                            that were not supposed to be
                                                                                            done. If you really want to shoot
 CD/DVD HardDrive USB Drive    Laptop   Wireless
                                                      Today, there are numerous             yourself in the foot, C will not
                                                   programming languages out there,         prevent you from doing so.

       his article is the first in a               and the question of why to use 'A'
       series which will focus on                  and not 'B' has led to never-ending
       having fun with the C                       discussions. A first argument is that       Now, the scary part -- it's time
programming language. In the                       C is still a very popular language. A    to get our hands dirty. If you visit
first articles, we will introduce the              second argument is the link between      a programming-related forum or
C language and some basic                          UNIX and C -- C was initially            newsgroup, you will encounter,
computer programming concepts                      developed at AT&T Bell Labs              at regular intervals, somebody
to the novice user. This way,                      between 1969 and 1973 by Dennis          who wants to start programming
inexperienced users should be                      Ritchie, and the UNIX kernel was the     and fails to compile/execute the
able to follow the series, and get                 first major project to be implemented    first example they found on a
to a level where they should be                    in the language. Nowadays, the           website (or in a magazine).
able to write and understand                       number of (open) software projects       Especially for those beginning
simple C applications. Once the                    written in C is still huge -- the best   programmers, Debian/Ubuntu

has foreseen this, and provided a     use of a terminal
                                                                 01.   #include <stdio.h>
special metapackage called 'build-    emulator to type in
essential`. Running:                  some commands.
                                                                 03.   /***********************************
                                      Once you master
sudo apt-get install build-                                      04.   * Main function gets called when *
                                      these steps, and
essential                                                        05.   * the application is launched     *
                                      know what's going on
                                                                 06.   ***********************************/
  will equip your system with         under the hood, you
                                                                 07.   int main()
everything required to compile a      can still switch to an
                                                                 08.   {
simple C application (amongst         IDE, or not. I write all
                                                                 09.      // Say something to the audience
others the GNU GCC compiler and       my code using Emacs
                                                                 10.      printf("Hello world\n");
make). In this series, we won't       and some x-terminals.
                                                                 11.      return 0;
teach you how to use an IDE                                      12.   }
              — a graphical suite        Enough talk. The
that performs embedded                simplest application
debugging, editing, building, and     (which actually does something), and       echo $?
includes, preferably, some            the de facto first example for every       0
content help for the user as well).   programming language, is the so-
There are some excellent IDEs         called 'hello world' application. This        The first line will invoke the
available, such as                    is an application which starts up,         GNU C compiler to compile the
                         , and        displays the string 'Hello world', and     file called                 and
        in conjunction with the       terminates. This code can be seen in       output (-o) it to an executable
CDT. You are, of course, free to      Listing 1. To compile and execute this     called                . The options
use any of those, but I suggest       application, put it in a text file with    -Wall -W and -Werror instruct the
you learn programming using           the extension .c, open a terminal, go      compiler to check for warnings
your favorite text editor such as     to the directory where you saved the       (a warning is a non-critical error,
Emacs, Vi, Vim, Kate, and             file, and execute:                         meaning the compilation will still
numerous others. Simply pick an                                                  succeed but it might not do what
                                      gcc -Wall -W -Werror hello-                the user expected in all
editor that supports syntax
                                      world.c -o hello-world                     situations), and abort when a
highlighting for C (most editors
should have this feature). And,       ./hello-world                              warning is encountered. We
next to your favorite editor, make                                               execute the binary by prefixing it
                                      Hello world                                with './' -- this is because the

directory where you placed the         •          defines the main entry point       with a string as an argument.
binary will typically not be in your   of our application. When the                  The only odd thing here is the
$PATH. And we used the funny           application is executed, it will start        '\n'; this is a so-called escape
echo command to inform us of the       executing the function                                            sequence, and it
                                                                            Let's take a close
exit status of the last command        called main(); the int in                                         means nothing
executed. It is not a coincidence      front of it means that                                            more than a
that this value is the same as the     the main function                    look at the source...        newline. Try
value after the 'return' statement.    should return an                                                  removing it, and
                                       integer. The '()' means that main() is        you will see that when you
  Now, let's take a close look at
                                       a function, and it takes no arguments         execute the application, your
the source file:
                                       (it can take arguments, but we will           prompt will be printed on the
•                  instructs the       discuss this later).                          same line as the application.
preprocessor. This is a piece of                                                     Note that every instruction ends
                                       •          opens a block -- which is          with a semicolon. You will forget
logic executed prior to the actual
                                       closed at line 12. These blocks group         to place these semicolons on
compilation, and it focuses on
                                       instructions which belong together;           numerous occasions! This way,
manipulating the C language,
                                       in this case they group the main()            you can put multiple instructions
such as inserting other files or
                                       function instructions.                        on one line, or can have them
replacing macros with C code. It
includes a header file called          •          is a single-line comment.          span multiple lines.
stdio.h. This file should be located   When '//' is encountered on a line,           •             exits from the main
in /usr/include/stdio.h, and           what remains of that line is ignored          function, and passes a certain
contains definitions for several       by the compiler. It's impossible to           value (in this case 0 -- which is of
functions; in our case, we need it     end these comments, and they can              type int) back to whatever called
to let the compiler know that          not span multiple lines.                      this function. In this case, the
something called printf() exists.
                                       •                  , we finally find          shell called the main function.
•             consist of a block       something useful; here we call                And that's why            gave us
comment that will be ignored by        another function called printf(), and,        our zero. This is an instruction,
the compiler -- everything             between the parenthesis, we pass              and thus also terminated with a
between '/*' and '*/' will be          the function an argument, which, in           semicolon.
ignored. It is clear that this         our case, is a string literal. C strings       One final note is that, if you
comment can span multiple lines.       are placed between double-quotes.             modify your source file, you
                                       Thus, we call the printf() function

should run gcc again. C is unlike       • Remove the
Perl, Bash, Python, PHP, and          parameter at the command line.
others -- it's not an interpreted     What is the default name given to
language; the gcc command calls       the binary? Answer is shown below.
a compiler (which transforms a
                                        • Try removing all comments from
higher level language into
                                      the source file, verify that this has no
assembler), an assembler
translates assembler into object
files (machine instructions), and a     • If you rename the
linker, which combines several        function to     , what will the
object files into an executable.      compiler (actually the linker) tell
These will transform the C code       you?
into machine code that your CPU
is able to understand and execute.

  • Compile the example
yourself, see that you can
reproduce the result.
                                                the default name is
  • Make the application display
  • Replace return 0; by return 1;,
and confirm that the exit status
                                                                   is a Belgian
has changed.                                    Linux fanatic, currently
                                                employed as an embedded
  • Delete the return 1;               software engineer with one of the
statement, and check what the          world's leading satellite
compiler says. Is it a warning or
                                       communications companies. Apart
an error?                              from spending time with his family, he
                                       enjoys playing with technology, and
  • Run gcc without the                spends his days waiting for Blizzard to
parameter; does it create a binary     finally release Diablo III.
now or not?
                    Written by Chris Lucier
                                                                                    CONNECT TO IRC
                                                     Both Xchat and Konversation are
                                                   available through the standard
N/A                                                Ubuntu repositories. To install them,
                                                   use whichever package manager
                                                   works best for you. For XChat you
                                                   should be prompted to install both
                                                   xchat and xchat-common (if for some
                                                   reason you're not, be sure you get
                                                   both). Also make sure you get xchat,
                                                   not xchat-gnome, or this tutorial
         Graphics    Internet Multimedia System
                                                   won't work.
                                                     When Xchat starts, you'll be            In Konversation, you will be
                                                   presented with a Network List. Here     presented with a Server List
 CD/DVD HardDrive USB Drive    Laptop
                                                   you'll create your user name and        populated with one entry, which
                                                   some alternate user names (in case      will take you to the Kubuntu IRC
                                                                                           channel. Click 'New', then 'Edit',

                                                   yours is already taken). You can then
   nternet Relay Chat (IRC) is a                   optionally enter your Real Name.        enter some Default Identity
   way of communicating online,                                                            information, and click 'OK'.
   in real-time, with other users
grouped into networks. Networks                                                                                We want to
have various channels for users to                                                                          connect to the
meet on. Inside a channel you can                                                                           FreeNode
communicate with others, and                                                                                network where
even send files. This tutorial is a                                                                         we will find the
simple guide to getting started                                                                             Full Circle
using IRC with the XChat (GNOME)                                                                            channel. To do
and Konversation (KDE)                                                                                      this in Xchat,
applications.                                                                                               click on
                                                                                           “FreeNode” in the Network List.

   In Konversation, we need to add
Freenode to our list of IRC servers      While in the Konversation 'New
- this is done by clicking the 'New'   Server' window, click the 'Add'
button in the Server List window       button below the 'Auto Join
and entering the Network name          Channels', enter #fullcirclemagazine,
as 'Freenode'. Next, click the 'Add'   and click 'OK'. Click 'OK' again to
button. For Server, enter              close the 'New Server' window., and for Port,                                   To join the
enter 6667. And click 'OK'.                                    Full Circle IRC
  Next, in Xchat, we enter in our                              channel, in
channel name which is                                          Konversation,
#fullcirclemagazine. You can also                              click on          your topic isn't being covered by
view a list of all available                                   Freenode,         the channel you are in, you can
channels within the server, but,                               and click the     go to the menu and select
for now, we'll stick to what we        'Connect' button.                         Server > Join Channel (in Xchat),
know.                                                                            or File > Join Channel (in
                                          In Xchat, you will then see text
                                                                                 Konversation), to find another
                                       that welcomes you to the FCM
                                                                                 channel from the list. You should
                                       channel with a list of users, to the
                                                                                 see your nickname at the bottom
                                       right, who are already there.
                                                                                 of the window with a box next to
                                       Konversation uses a tabbed
                                                                                 it. That box is where you'll be
                                       interface, so you may have to click
                                                                                 entering what you want to say,
                                       the #fullcirclemagazine tab to see
                                                                                 and any command you need to
                                       the chat channel.
                                         This is where you now chat with
                                                                                  A really helpful IRC service to
                                       everyone about whatever you wish. If
                                                                                 make use of is NickServ.

NickServ allows you to register       NickServ. I won't go into further          followed by the nick of the user
your nickname and protect it with     detail in this article, but you can find   you wish to message, and then
a password. You may also link it to   more info at                               type whatever you wish to say -
your email address. This prevents      such as:
another user from using the same
                                        To chat on an IRC channel, you just      /msg deicidist Hi
name as you.
                                      type what you want to say, and press       deicidist! Can you help me
  To set up your nickname using       'Enter', like you would in an instant      with something?
the NickServ service, open XChat      message application. You can also do
(or your IRC client of choice) and    special functions using commands.
enter:                                To get you started, here are a few
                                      useful commands and what they do:
/msg NickServ REGISTER
your_password your_email              /me <type your message/action>
                                                                                    Note that on freenode, you
                                                                                 need to register your nick, and
                                                                                 be Identified to NickServ to send
                                                                                 private messages (see below for
                                                                                 how to do that automatically). If
                                                                                 you need help, you can use the
                                                                                 '/help' command to get a list of
                                                                                 useful commands to use in your
                                                                                 IRC session. Simply type '/help'
                                                                                 and press enter.
  If everything has gone correctly,                                                When you're ready to leave,
you should see something similar      /nick <new nickname>                       you can send a good-bye
to the image above. You'll also                                                  message to everyone by using
receive an email with a password                                                 the '/quit' command.
to finish registering your
                                                                                 /quit Bye everyone!
nickname. Remember that
passwords are case sensitive!
                                        To send a private message to a
  This isn't the only function of     user, use the '/msg' command

  XChat offers you the option of       the New Server window in                      Ubuntu Forums:
automatically joining your favorite    Konversation.                                 (
channel.                                                                             splay.php?f=270). You can find
                                          Click on 'Close'. You should be back
                                                                                     me using the name deicidist on
  For this example, we'll continue     at the network list window. You can
                                                                                     the forums, or the Full Circle IRC
using the Full Circle channel. Click   check the box next to 'Skip network
                                                                                     channel. See you there!
on the FreeNode network, and           list on startup' if you like. This will let
then click 'Edit'. Then, check the     you go directly into the channel
box next to 'Auto connect to this      you're auto-joining - without being
network at startup', then enter        interrupted by this window. Click on                                  is a self-
#fullcirclemagazine into the           'Connect' when you're ready. Now,                       employed IT and
'Channels to join' box. You'll also    whenever you start XChat, you'll be                     computer consultant who
want to fill in your NickServ          brought right into the Full Circle              goes by the aliases chris.lucier
                                                                                       and deicidist on many forums. He
password - if you want to use your     channel with your registered                    does all his work on an ASUS Eee
registered nickname on the             nickname!                                       PC 701 (4G), and has been using
channel when you join. By                                                              Ubuntu since the release of 6.06.
                                         If you have any trouble, feel free to
contrast, we already did this in
                                       post in the Full Circle forum at

                                                                      The Fridge is an information hub for the Ubuntu
                                                                      community, bringing together news, grassroots
                                                                      marketing, advocacy, team collaboration, and
                                                                      great original content.
                                                                      Just like the family fridge at home, this is where
                                                                      we - the Ubuntu family - can put our best work
                                                                      on display for everyone to see. Whether you’re
                                                                      working on advocacy and local marketing in a
                                                                      LoCo team, creating wonderful new worlds of
                                                                      Ubuntu in a derivative team, or building the
                                                                      freedom and technology of the future in a
                                                                      development team, we want to help you tell the
                                                                      community about your success.

                    Written by Ronnie Tucker                             USING GIMP - PART 6
                                                                     eyeball, causing        the rectangular selection tool to
                                                                     the black pupil to      draw a box around both her
FCM #12 - #16 : USING GIMP 1 - 5                                     look red.               eyes; then try the Red-Eye
                                                                                             Removal filter.
                                                                         The easy way to
                                                                      fix red-eye is to go
                                                                      to the Filters >
                                                                      Enhance > Red-Eye
                                                                      Removal menu.
                                                   This will give you a preview of the
  Dev    Graphics    Internet Multimedia System    image, and a threshold slider to fine-
                                                   tune the red-eye removal.
                                                                                                Much better. Just watch that
                                                                                             you don't overdo the threshold
 CD/DVD HardDrive USB Drive    Laptop   Wireless
                                                                                             slider lest you darken her
                                                                                             reddish eyebrows.

      his month, we move on to
      some more advanced
      features of GIMP. This group
of features is primarily used in
photographic touch-ups (also
known as air-brushing) to either
repair or enhance an image.                           But wait, it's altering parts of the
                                                   image that aren't her pupils! This is
   Let's do the easy photo repair                  because her lips are also red. Really,
first - the infamous red-eye. This                 all that GIMP is doing is changing the
occurs when the camera's flash                     red pixels to black. So, we need to be
highlights the inside of the                       more selective with this image. Use

   Another way of doing red-eye        pointer with a 'no entry' symbol                                  Before you
removal is to simply create a new      (circle with a diagonal line through                           start
layer, draw a black dot for each       it). This means you have no                                    pointing
pupil, and then multiply the dots      reference point as yet. Hold down                              fingers, no,
layer with the original image until    CTRL, and the 'no entry' symbol will                           that photo is
it looks good. But the Red-Eye         vanish. Click somewhere near the                               not me! It's
Removal filter is a nice, quick,       blemish then release CTRL. You will                            my
shortcut.                              now see a circle with a cross inside it                        grandfather,
                                       marking your reference point.             and the photo was taken in,
                       Our next                                                  roughly, 1930, so it's a bit tatty
                    volunteer is                                                 and needs some touching up.
                    a celebrity
                    who is, in                                                                 For this, we could
                    this photo,                                                            easily use the Healing
                    looking a                                                              tool, but, this time, we
                    little bit                                                   will bring in the powerful Clone
                    'worse for            Now, simply                            tool. It will, like the Healing tool,
                    wear' let's        draw over the nearby blemish, and, if     need a reference point, but, this
                    say. Let's         the reference point is good, the          time, it will just clone the
                    help her out;      blemish will vanish. Sometimes you        reference point to where your
                    she needs to       will need to undo what you did with       brush is - no guess work. So let's
have those nasty spots removed.        the Healing tool, and try again, but      try it: same idea, you click the
                                       trial-and-error is no bad thing.          Clone tool, hold down CTRL, click
           The Healing tool will let                                             on the source (near a crack in
         you select a spot (no pun                             And, just like
                                                                                 the photo), release CTRL, and
         intended!) on the image                             any good spot
                                                                                 you're ready to paint out the
         to act as a reference                               removal cream:
point. GIMP will then give its best                          apply as
guess as to what should be under                             necessary:
your brush - taking into account
                                                                Now our celeb
the reference spot. First, click the
                                                             is ready for the
Healing tool icon. You'll see two
                                                             front page.
crossed elastoplasts beside your

                 And, just to prove a point, try the
              Healing tool on some photo cracks.
              It'll probably work just as well, but
              it's always better to have a Plan B!

                                                          Think of Wine as a compatibility layer
                                        is Editor of      for running Windows programs.
                              magazine, a proud Kubuntu
                       user, and part-time artist whose             , as it is a completely free
               gallery of work can be seen at             alternative implementation of the
                         Windows API consisting of 100% non-
                                                          Microsoft code.

                                                          The Wine Application Database
                                                          (AppDB) is where you can get
                                                          information on application
                                                          compatibility with Wine.

                    Written by Irv Risch                  SCAN AND CONVERT TO PDF
                                                     At this point, I would like to say     1.Main Xsane Window (left)
                                                  you can scan a document directly          2.Histogram Window (top middle)
N/A                                               into Open-Office Write, but I have        3.Options Window (bottom)
                                                  had issues with their “scan select        4.Preview Window (right)
                                                  source.” Everything is in millimeters
                                                                                                            In the main
                                                  instead of inches, and the only DPI
                                                                                                         window, I set the
                                                  options are 50 or 1200, so I do it just
                                                                                                         Path, Type of file
                                                  a little differently. You need the
                                                                                                         (JPEG), and
                                                  application “Xsane” - which is in the
                                                                                                         Resolution (300). All
                                                  Repository. If you do not have it
  Dev    Graphics    Internet Multimedia System                                                          the other settings I
                                                  installed, then install it first. Go to
                                                                                                         leave set at
                                                  menu and select Applications >
                                                  Graphics > Xsane Image Scan. I
                                                  have it set to open four windows                                In the
 CD/DVD HardDrive USB Drive Scanner    Wireless   (shown below).                                                Preview
                                                                                                                Window, I set

        y problem was that I                                                                                    the scan to
        needed an old newsletter                                                                                full size, and
        in PDF format to post on                                                                                then acquire
the Internet, but all I had was a                                                                               a preview.
hard copy. I tried this on my                                                                                      After you
Windows machine, but finally                                                                                     obtain the
gave up and fired up my Linux                                                                                   preview (by
laptop.                                                                                     clicking 'Acquire preview'), select
  The first thing I needed to do                                                            the area you want scanned by
was hook my scanner to my                                                                   moving the sizing lines in the
laptop. No problem, it just                                                                 preview window (see dotted line
recognized it.                                                                              around scan image in above

                    screen           Now, we must save this scan by
                    shot), then    going to the menu File > Save Image.
                    go to the
                    window and
                    click the
                    Scan button.
                   your scan is
                   done, it will
                   open the
window and show you the finished                                               Select the file you want to
scan.                                                                        insert and click Open.
                                     If you use the default file names, it     Placing the cursor on the start
                                   will save them as page0001,               of the next page, repeat this
                                   page0002, etc. In my case, I needed       process until you have all the
                                   4 pages scanned. When I was done          scanned files in your OpenOffice
                                   scanning, I just closed the viewer and    document.
                                   main windows, and all the others
                                                                               Next, we want to export the
                                   closed also.
                                                                             complete document into a PDF
                                     Now, let us move on to converting       format. We do this by going to
                                   them to one nice PDF document             the menu: File>Export as PDF.
                                                                               When the next
                                     Select the Word          box opens up,
                                   Processor from your menu. It will         take the
                                   open with a blank document (right).       defaults and
                                                                             select the
                                      With the cursor at the top of the      “Export” button.
                                   first page, go to the menu: Insert >
                                   Picture > From File.
  A Save Document dialog box                    After closing your Open Office              This is what my finished
will open, so you can select where           writer document, you can now do a            product looks like in KPDF viewer.
you want to save your finished               preview of your finished work. Go to
                                             where you saved your file, and open             To finish my job, I opened up
document. It will be saved as a
                                             it with a PDF document viewer.               Firefox, ran the plugin FireFTP,
PDF-formatted document.
                                                                                          and uploaded it to my Web
                                                                                          server. If you would like to view
                                                                                          it, it can be found at:

Additional Benefits of Joining as an Associate Member include:
• The ability to run for and vote for a Linux Foundation board seat and influence the
direction of the foundation
• Access to quarterly member-only newsletter that will keep you up-to-date on Linux and
other open source developments
• Receive a Linux Foundation t-shirt – proudly showcase your support of the Linux
community and the foundation!

             MY STORY
             Written by David Rowell
                                                        ...WHEN I TURNED TWO

   'm a 71-year-old, retired,                                                 programmed in Basic, Algol and
   mechanical-aeronautical                                                    FORTRAN with device drivers in
   engineer, with Central New                                                 assembler.
York roots, now living on the                                                   In the early '80s, I bought the
Florida 'Space Coast'. To put that                                            kids a Commodore Vic 20.
age in perspective, Hitler invaded                                            Reasons? It could be expanded,
Poland on my second birthday.                                                 there was an assembler
1956 to 1959 were spent on the                                                available, it had decent BASIC,
German border patrol with the          access to the GE Timesharing System    and we could afford it. The kids
14th Cavalry. I have an AA in          using an ASR-33 Teletype machine
physics from Sierra College, and a     was an opportunity to program using
physics BA from Syracuse               a really powerful BASIC superset –
University.                            chiefly matrix manipulation
  My first experience with             commands. With these resources, we
computers was a FORTRAN                could code the tools that form the
programming course at SU in            backbone of an engineer's job,
1965. We punched our own cards         saving time and making optimization
(above right), and offered the         easier.
deck to the computer gods -               Around 1970, Lipe clutch was
hoping to be favored with useful       designing a new test rig driven by a
output. Ever consider what             1000+ horsepower aircraft engine. To
happens when you drop a                address the significant sequencing
program card deck? In 1967,            and safety concerns, we installed a
Hewlett Packard invited me out to      HP 2100 mini computer system
Palo Alto for a couple weeks to        (right) to monitor it. Our bleeding
study the HP-2116 - a computer         edge 2100 had 8k RAM, 75 c/s tape
designed to operate in a factory       punch, 300 c/s tape reader, and a
or lab environment. At work,           good old ASR-33 terminal. We

                                     system for the VIC's MOS 6502 CPU,          the M-100. My blower application
                                     and I had developed application             software dramatically improved
                                     engineering tools.                          with the better BASIC.
                                                                                   Sometime around '84, the
                                                                                 Apple MAC was demonstrated -
                                                                                 at a FORTH users group meeting
                                                                                 of all places. Wow - real
                                                                                 graphics, and the wonder of
                                                                                 making things happen with a
                                                                                 mouse! One of the members
                                                                                 showed how overworked the
taught the teachers computer                                                     68000 CPU was by porting a
skills, and were barred from the                                                 FORTH system. It crawled and
classes! The VIC (above) was                                                     FORTH just doesn't do that!
                                       In '84, I bought a TRS-80 Model
followed by a couple of C-64s, and                                                  My son bought an Atari ST in
                                     100 (above), the world's first
a C-128 (below). More perspective                                                '85 or '86. Before it came home,
                                     successful notebook computer. The
– by the time we gave it away, I                                                 it was modified to 1 MB RAM -
                                     M100 had several neat features: 32k
recall we had over $1000 in the                                                  carefully soldered to the main
                                     RAM, 2.4 MHz 80C85 CPU, a ROM
fully expanded VIC system. At 14,                                                board! Now we're talking color
                                     slot, real printer and serial ports, but,
my son had written a F79 Forth                                                   graphics, a mouse, and some
                                     best of all, it had a modem built-in.
                                     Hoo ha!! I could access CompuServe          serious speed. He took it to
                                     at 300 baud! We could exchange              college with him where it died
                                     ideas and code with folks all around        from a beer bath!
                                     the world – folks we've never met nor          The Commodores were
                                     ever would. Soon SuperROM was               followed by a succession of PCs
                                     plugged into its belly, and I had a         of one sort or another, most
                                     real word processor, spread sheet           home made (I like ASUS
                                     and outline processor. Oh, did I            motherboards). If you haven't
                                     mention that it ran for weeks on 4 AA       worked with CP/M, or one of the
                                     cells? I coded a FIG Forth system and       other early operating systems, it
                                     wrote a few magazine articles about         is hard to appreciate the

immediate impact of DOS and the     had to be partitioned into two virtual   Windows than Windows. Yes, it
IBM PC. Even DOS 1 was far more     drives to satisfy DOS/Windows 32 MB      did run DOS programs as well or
forgiving than CP/M. DOS 2 was      limitations. Soon, we would get a CD     better than Windows. No, it
much more powerful than any         reader and Sound Blaster card for        didn't like my printer. Yes, it was
alternatives. DOS, combined with    similar cost, and we were off and        slow but man it was pretty.
open hardware architecture, was     running in the “modern” world. Our
                                                                               I recoded a NASA centrifugal
just what the business owner        games that, up to then, had been
                                                                             compressor analysis program in
needed, and the blower              dominated by Zork and the like,
                                                                             Professional Basic – we didn't
application software just got       could now have graphics and sound!
                                                                             have a FORTRAN compiler at
better.                             Let's hear it for Kings Quest!
                                                                             work. On my 10 MHz 80386/387
                                      At some time around '94, IBM put       Windows 3 machine, I could start
                                    on a whiz-bang demo of OS/2 Warp         running a simple case, go brew a
                                    (below) at the Syracuse PCUG. For        pot of coffee, and come back
                                    the first time we saw the World Wide     with a cup, generally before a
                                    Web! Oh, the wonder of viewing           run finished. On this box, it's
                                    pictures from the Louvre and other       done about the time my finger
                                    cool places! We just had to have it,     leaves the Enter key!
                                    and the special pricing made it
                                                                               I have fiddled with various
                                    reasonable. Yes, it was a better
                                                                             Linux distributions since trying
                                                                             Red Hat and Mandrake in the
                                                                             late '90s. They installed, and I
  I tried Windows 2 (above) for a
                                                                             managed to get sound and my
week or so on one of my 80386
                                                                             Zip drive working. But
machines - slow, clunky, what a
                                                                             responsiveness was anything but
kludge! Windows 3.1, on the other
                                                                             zippy - so I reverted to DOS and
hand, was a real winner. When the
price of a 40MB hard drive fell
below $400, my son and I                                                       At my grandson's urging, I
convinced Mama that we needed                                                installed Ubuntu 5.04, dual
one – and, after a few days use,                                             booting with XP, on my Compaq
she agreed! Keep in mind that 40                                             AMD Athlon XP box. I liked what I
MB was such a big drive that it                                              saw, and determined to learn

and live with Linux, because I                                                 applications. So, I'm happy as a
didn't look forward to Microsoft's                                             clam with Ubuntu; it's stable,
version of the future.                                                         and I've found the software I
  I see I made this post a few
years back:                                                                        Currently, Ubuntu's Hardy
                                                                               Heron serves me very well. Oh,
                                                                               my Windows XP is updated to
                                                                               SP3, but I don't use it except to
                                                                               handle my iRiver T-10. Someday
                                                                               I'll figure out how to deal with it
                                                                               under Ubuntu.
                                                                                  I've had the opportunity to
                                     CAD system and genealogy                  design and test quite a few
                                     programs. I discovered DOSBox, and        centrifugal blowers for Hoffman
                                     Professional Basic loves it. I'm slowly   Air Systems. My current (back
                                     coming to grips with GIMP, and, yes,      burner) project is trying to write
                                     it will do what needs to be done. The     a centrifugal blower design
                                     recent Full Circle Magazine series of     cookbook with associated
                                     articles sure helps. I discovered the     Fortran software, but it may
                                     “dirty” codecs which solved the MP3       never get past first draft! Of
                                     and video problems. GRAMPS                course, the blower software
                                     (above) had a major update, and           development uses the Linux
                                     recently yet another; now it's a          Fortran tools, while Open Office
                                     hands-down winner. Someone                handles the writing. When I need
                                     suggested Avidemux as a simple            it, my old MS Professional Basic
                                     video editor. It fills my needs. Update   system runs very nicely on
                                     Manager is especially adept at            DOSBOX while CAD software
                                     keeping the system and all the            runs on Wine.
  Shortly after I made that post,    software updated - updated in small
                                                                                 I've become the family
Wine improved by leaps and           increments rather than one huge
                                                                               historian since my daughter
bounds - allowing me to run the      'service pack' that breaks so many
                                                                               sweet-talked me into “helping”

her. To organize our family data,      members about the vehicle, I've         I'm listening to music using
we used Family Tree Maker for a        written a text using Open Office        Audacious (K.I.S.S.). I've ripped
while but dropped it in favor of       Writer. The group has been              all my CDs to Ogg Vorbis format
Personal Ancestral File. The PAF       convinced to adopt OO as standard       – byte for byte I think sound
database was converted to the          software; now to convert them to        quality is best in that format.
more capable Linux program             Linux!                                  Planet Penguin Racer lets old Tux
Gramps a few years ago. Last                                                   have some fun now and again.
                                         Several Windows programs run on
year, I scanned seven boxes of                                                 Frozen bubble is fun, but I get
                                       Wine - I'm learning Morse code using
family pictures and documents                                                  bored and quit somewhere
                                       G4FON's Koch Morse Trainer (below) -
using XSane Image Scanner.                                                     above level 20.
                                        an old Print Artist supplies me with
GThumb manages my pictures
                                       greeting cards - Flickr Uploadr gets      We've had something like 19
while the GIMP lets me “improve”
                                       pix online - PAF and Ancestral Quest    computers, including 6
them, and stitch multiple scans.
                                       let me help the genealogy               notebooks, in the family since
Using some of that data, I
                                       community.                              we bought that VIC-20 in the
managed to put together a list of
                                                                               early '80s. At the moment, we
Baldwinsville (NY) Academy                Everything isn't serious though. I
                                                                               have a Compaq AMD Athlon XP
graduates from 1870 until 1926 -       like to play PySol or Mahjongg while
                                                                               box running Windows XP and
including their spouses in most
                                                                               Ubuntu, an ASUS EeePC running
cases. That little Open Office
                                                                               an awful Xandros Linux, a
generated PDF is in the library
                                                                               Compaq notebook running 98SE,
along with the source material.
                                                                               and a Toshiba notebook dual
I've scanned the 1896 50th
                                                                               booting ME and Arch Linux with
Anniversary Edition of the
                                                                               Xfce environment. There's a
Baldwinsville Gazette and am
                                                                               whole lot of good to say for Xfce
slowly indexing it. If I ever finish
                                                                               especially on older hardware.
that, I'll tackle the 100th
Anniversary Edition.
  I'm active as maintenance
officer in a local HAM radio group
that has built a very complete
emergency communication
vehicle. To support teaching

              MY OPINION
              Written by Robin Catling                                  IS THIS THE YEAR?
  Bios:                                  sure who 'the man' is.                     "All those people who've
                                                                                 bought net-book computers this
  Memory:                                  "Think about it, Professor. With
                                                                                 year. That's five million Asus Eee
                                         everyone tightening their belts - "
  Reality:                                                                       PCs, the Acer Aspire, Elonex
                                          "Money's too tight to mention..." I    One, Everex Green PC, MSI Wind -
  "Credit crunch!" Alter suddenly                                                 "
                                         warbled, off key. Alter ignored me.
                                           "... no one wants to spend money        At the mention of the Wind, I
  "What?" I said, putting down my                                                made a childish noise. Blame it
                                         on a Vista upgrade."
teacake.                                                                         on Blazing Saddles.
                                           "There wasn't exactly a rush before
  "Licence fees!" Alter was clearly                                                "That would be five million
                                         the Credit Crunch," I said
losing it.                                                                       Asus Eee PC's, but only two
  "Is this some sort of word                                                     million running Linux."
                                           "Your mortgage isn't sub-prime,
game? Am I supposed to link the                                                    Alter wasn't impressed, but
                                         Professor." This was rich coming from
phrases together into a longer,                                                  carried on.
                                         a tenant who pays no rent.
less meaningful sentence?"
                                           "Anyhow, people aren't buying           "- Dell selling Ubuntu with
  "Consider, Professor - this year                                               everything. It's what customers
                                         Vista because they're keeping XP."
could be the best prospect yet as                                                want."
the year of Linux."                        Alter assumed the pose with one
                                         eyebrow raised in condescension. It's      "It's what the Linux fan-boys
   You could hear the heavenly                                                   on Ideastorm wanted, that's not
                                         his smug-shot.
choir in his head as he said it.                                                 the same thing, Alter. Most
We've had this argument every              "I think there's a few million        people don't care. That's why my
year for at least ten years. Each        computer users would disagree with      friend Steve B in Redmond is
time Alter mans the barricades of        you, Professor."                        making deals to keep XP working
the Linux uprising, expecting to                                                 past its pension age."
                                           "Name me a hundred thousand or
stick it to 'the man'. I'm still not

  He's not really my friend. I met         "Hmmm. I can see the Linux share         the house, I tell you."
him only once. I'm still partially       of the desktop market going up.
                                                                                      I had him out-flanked.
deaf in my left ear.                     Perhaps a whole half a percentage
                                                                                    Wellington would have been
                                         point. As long as India doesn't buy
  "You - you!" Alter spluttered.                                                    proud of me. Time for the coup-
                                         any computers this week."
"You made that podcast this year,                                                   de-grace.
you even called it                         "Ha!" Alter scented victory. "India,
                                                                                      "Even allowing for all those
                   "                     Brazil, China. Come now, Professor.
                                                                                    phones, all those netbooks, do
                                         Millions of new users in the
  "I did. I also said - no, it isn't."                                              you know what happens when
                                         developing world, hardware cheaper
                                                                                    their owners get home? They sit
  "Your current client bought ten        than a second-hand Hum-Vee,
                                                                                    down in front of their desktop
of the Asus Eee's as evaluation          running Linux with everything - even
                                                                                    computers and those still have a
tools out of petty cash."                phones! Phones! Motorola already
                                                                                    Redmond logo on the front
                                         sold over nine million Linux-based
   "True. Then wiped most of them                                                   screen."
in order to load a custom build of
                                                                                      I hated to drench his
XP."                                       "Windows Mobile 6," I countered.
                                                                                    revolutionary fervour like this,
  "Visibility, Professor. That's still     "Gahhghgh," Alter nearly choked.         but the old boy has to realise
millions of Linux desktops -                                                        we're in this Linux thing for the
                                            "Quite. But it's becoming
Xandros on the Eee, that 'Cloud'                                                    long haul. Crushed, Alter still
                                         ubiquitous - look it up. My current
thing on the Elonex. All – based –                                                  had to have the last word.
                                         client switched to those HTC phones
on - Linux!"
                                         with Windows Mobile 6 and so did             "Can I get you some rat poison
  Sometimes Alter reverts to his         our main supplier. The operating           to go with your teacake,
old Marxist revolutionary self. It's     system is bundled with the phone,          Professor?"
touching, really.                        not the other way round."

  "The people are beginning to             Alter paused for breath. I pressed
                                                                                              occasionally earns money
realise you don't need all that          on.                                                  as a project manager,
bloat-ware to run basic desktop                                                       business analyst and technical
                                            "Don't you dare mention God-awful
functions - email, web browsing,                                                      trainer. He coaches fencing in
                                         Android and Open Milkshake -" I              the New Forest, Hampshire,
Office Writer. All those tiny, cheap
                                         warned him. "Vapourware, all of it;          England, and is completely, and
Net-book machines are
                                         like cheap claret. I won't hear of it in     utterly, barking mad.
spearheading the Linux charge."

               Written by Robin Catling
                                                                                     LINUX MINT 5

        lthough it's not one of the
        core Ubuntu distributions,          Mint 5.0 is now based on Ubuntu              I know it comes down to
        we've given Mint a fair           8.04 Hardy, which means that all the        personal choice, but, if you don't
amount of coverage in the                 underlying code from the kernel to          like Ubuntu brown or Kubuntu
magazine this year: Mint 4.0              the utilities to the applications is the    blue, then the default Mint
(Daryna) was Flavor of the Month          latest. This includes Gnome Desktop,        theme of green and black will
in Issue #10, and was compared            Open Office, and Firefox 3.                 come as a pleasant change. Mint
favorably to Ubuntu in Issue #11.                                                     includes the restricted drivers
Now that release 5.0 (Elyssa) is                                        The Mint
                                                                                      for NVidia and ATI cards
out, it's worth another quick look                                    (Live) CD
                                                                                      (handled by Envy), which work
for the sake of three key things:                                     uses the
                                                                                      well. I expected the graphics to
• it's bang up to date                                                                be fairly shoddy on my elderly
• it's still pretty                                                                   Compaq machine, but they were
• it's really, really easy                                                            pin-sharp and (without 3-D
                                                                                      effects) faster than I expected. If
   Before you say it's just another                                   the default
                                                                                      you don't like the theme, the
distro, bear in mind the hardware                                     steps of
                                                                                      Mint project thoughtfully
I've run it on:                           the install wizard works perfectly.
                                                                                      provides a bookmark to its own
                                          Once you are up and running, the
• Compaq Deskpro, Pentium 3                                                           version of pre-
                                          Mint Updater connects to the Mint
733MHz, 512mb memory, 20Gb                                                            filtered for the Mint distro. So,
                                          repositories to bring everything up to
disk, onboard Intel graphics.                                                         you can be confident that all the
                                          date. The Updater (left) shows you
• Abit Pentium 4, 2.14GHz clone,                                                      themes and engines work for
                                          what it's up to, and rates the
1Gb memory, Geforce-IV AGP                                                            Elyssa.
                                          packages on a scale of 1 to 5
graphics card.                            according to importance and                   The Mint main menu is laid out
• Both trialled on a Belkin wireless      compatibility. The Updater icon (a          clearly, and wouldn't put off a
USB dongle (spelled T-R-O-U-B-L-E         padlock, strangely) resides in the          newcomer used to a Windows
in any Linux glossary).                   Gnome panel.                                Start Menu. Which brings us on
                                                                                      to the last point...

                                                                                  hardware. Give Mint to a Linux
                                                                                  newcomer so that you won't
   After two separate installations                                               need to spend hours explaining
on old hardware, I haven't needed                                                 everything. The Mint bookmarks
to use the command line. For me,                                                  provided with Firefox are a great
this is a major triumph, as I got                                                 place to start. The Linux Mint
the Wireless USB dongle to work                                                   Forums are a very friendly place
with no intervention. The Pentium-                                                to visit, second only to Ubuntu.
IV picked up native Linux drivers,                                                Newcomers are made to feel
and connected to the router from                                                  very welcome. The Mint Blog
the get-go. The Compaq was a                                                      and newsletter keep the
different matter. I've had no end       wind up asking why all Linux distros
                                        don't have this.                          community up to date. It's not
of trouble with USB wireless                                                      going to replace my main
adapters, mainly because they              Mint comes with most of the            Ubuntu 8.04 set-up yet (too
rely on using ndiswrapper with          common multimedia codecs for              many customizations in mine),
the Windows driver software that        music and video already installed. If     but Mint 5.0 Elyssa is a usable,
comes with the USB stick. I can         there's more software you need, the       out-of-the-box, desktop distro. If
spend hours messing around in a         Mint Installer (shortcut: "Software       the Mint team keep raising the
terminal trying to set these up -       Portal" in the Mint Menu) offers a sort   bar like this, all other distros will
and I mean in current distros. Not      of Google search for a particular         have to take note. Then we'll all
in Elyssa. In the Mint menu,            program. If found, it will take you to    reap the benefits.
there's an entry for Wireless           a website that lists and describes the
Windows Drivers (shown above).          package, and has an "Install Now"
When I launched this on the             button. One click will download and
Compaq, it suggested what driver        install the appropriate file. You could
to use with the chip-set detected.      say 'so what', but does the new
One click to accept, and the            Linux user want to rummage about
installer did the rest on its own. It   in repositories or Synaptic?
just plain works. I know it's just a
clever bit of scripting sitting on
top of the networking provided in         Surprisingly, Mint feels quicker and
Ubuntu 8.04, but this comes as          smoother than a standard Ubuntu
such a refreshing change - you          install on the same low-powered

                 MOTU INTERVIEW
                Taken from
                                                                                          HARALD SITTER
Behind MOTU is a site featuring interviews with those known as 'Masters of the Universe' (MOTU). They are the volunteer army of
package maintainers who look after the            and           software repositories.

                                                                                                joined the Kubuntu tribe and
                                                                                                started creating more packages.
                                              Since Breezy Badger - in dual boot
                                              with SUSE; since Dapper Drake - only
                                                                                                The first package was done

                                              I think it was
                                              when I published
                                              my first package
      19                                      at
           Austria, Europe, Earth,            (didn’t even think
Solar System, Milky Way, Universe             about including it
                                              into Ubuntu).
            apachelogger                      Following this,
                                              Raphaël Pinson
                                              asked me whether
                                              I actually want to
In 2003 I started off with Red Hat            contribute to
Linux 9, didn’t last for long                 Ubuntu and
though. I soon switched over to               maintain the
SUSE (9 I think), where I fell in             package there. I
love with KDE.

following a howto on                 Well, Kubuntu; later on, the      Hardy is going
almighty Ubuntu wiki and the         to be the first
Kubuntu crew (well, also a very      release which
well known web search engine).       ships with
                                     KDE 4.0 - I’m
                                     actually using
                                     it as kind of
Everything. Really, since every      default since
part is having the higher goal of    November,
making (K)Ubuntu more usable, I      and can
really enjoy everything. Though, I   honestly say
guess, mostly it’s introducing hot   it totally
new KDE/Qt software and helping      rocks, even
new contributors to join Ubuntu      more than
development.                         ponies! At the
                                     same time,
                                     we are
                                     providing KDE
Poke me. More general though:        3.5.8 - this
never hesitate to ask.               makes Hardy most awesome because
                                     of two resulting advantages: those
                                     who want to check out 4.0 can do so,   Managing marketing/promotion,
                                     hence report bugs, hence improve       releases, and everything else
                                     whatever KDE 4.0.x is going to be      within the Amarok project, as
                                     shipped in Hardy+1; and those who      well as giving support on
Updates, sponsoring, and getting     just want a stable, reliable system    Amarok, Kubunu and KDE, and if
all the shiny new KDE 4 software     can use 3.5.                           there is any time left, sleep.
into Universe

                                                  – Professor Hubert

               UBUNTU WOMEN
              Written by Cathy Malmrose

                                             There are many highly talented       much about the products they
                                          women already in F/LOSS, many           are showcasing. In contrast,
                                          specializing in Ubuntu. One of the      most Linux conferences
                                          first women I met was Belinda Lopez.    generate a sort of enthusiasm
                                          She immediately welcomed me and         that makes me want to go back
                                          put me at ease. Every time I see her    year after year. There is an
                                          at a conference, she introduces me      automatic camaraderie that is
                                          to a few new people, including Emma     natural at Linux events, even big
                                          Jane Hogbin, one of the core Ubuntu     showy ones like LinuxWorld
                                          Women.                                  Expo. It is easy to strike up a
                                                                                  conversation with anyone there,
                                            This year I had my own booth at
                                                                                  because you can be relatively
                                          LinuxWorld Expo 2008 in San
                                                                                  confident that everyone shares
                                          Francisco. There were several
                                                                                  your same love for Linux. You
                                          opportunities to talk with Stormy
                                                                                  also can be sure that nearly
                                          Peters of the GNOME project,
                                                                                  everyone there is passionate
                                          formerly of OpenLogic and HP. She is
                                                                                  about their particular field of
                                          a big picture person, and I always
                                          learn something new from her. I said

        ne of the most powerful           a quick "Hello again," to Emily from       My final "hello" was with two
        ways to encourage women           the Free Software Foundation. I met     notable women: Kat and Robin
        to join us in the Ubuntu          for the first time a lady named Kit,    from Canonical. Simply seeing
environment is by making it more          who works with Angela Brown of the      them on the show floor was a
welcoming and normal for women            Linux Foundation. Kit was spunky        morale boost for me. They
to be here. One of the easiest and        and charismatic.                        represented the type of
most effective ways to                                                            professionalism that I hope will
accomplish this is by amplifying            Typically, conferences are industry
                                                                                  saturate the field over the next
the voices of the women already           events where businesses rub
                                                                                  eight to ten years.
in the field.                             shoulders, and booths are staffed
                                          with people who might not know

                                      Every month we like to publish some of the emails we receive. If you would like to

              LETTERS                 submit a letter for publication, compliment or complaint, please email it to:
                             PLEASE NOTE: some letters may be edited for space reasons.

       ou cannot imagine how           LETTER OF THE MONTH               Writer of Letter of the Month wins
                                                                         two metal Ubuntu case badges!
        happy and thrilled I am to
        be able to learn, use, and    Two years ago a friend of mine threw a
tell other people about, Ubuntu. I    birthday party. As the party went on I          encounter with Ubuntu was on
first tried Kubuntu 6.06, but was     couldn't help but glancing over at his It was on the top of
                                      father's computer monitor. I knew it            the list, so I decided to check it out.
not very successful with it. Now, I                                                    Looking at screenshots and reviews
                                      wasn't a Mac, but I also knew that it
am using Ubuntu 8.04 as a Wubi        definitely wasn't running Windows. Then         got me really excited. I even read
inside Windows XP. I still cannot     I remembered reading an article on the          that Google used it internally. Hey, If
get over how much Ubuntu has          Internet about Linux. Out of curiosity, I       Google uses it, it's gotta be good!
improved since Kubuntu 6.06.          asked him: "Is that Linux?" I left the          During Winter recess, I decided to
                                      party with Debian, Knoppix, and MEPIS           give Linux another go. I burned a
  One day, after I had been to my     CD's.                                           copy of 7.10 and booted up. I had my
Chiropractor, I went to the local                                                     fingers crossed as the installer's
                                      This past holiday season, I received a          progress bar slowly crept forward. I
computer shop to browse. While I      Dell Inspiron 1520 to replace my aging          was stunned that everything worked
was there I started to talk with      HP. Like most modern computers, it              right out of the box. Vista needed
the sales-girl. She told me she       shipped with Windows Vista. For a while,        three driver CDs to get basic
had installed Ubuntu on a PC that     everything was OK. Two months later, I          networking going, but Ubuntu had
                                      decided that I had enough. Having
she had built herself. Now, here is                                                   wireless working right away. Ubuntu
                                      reinstalled Vista three times and losing        had everything I was looking for.
the crunch: she said that when        an entire library of ripped CDs in the          Stability, security, and ease of
she decides to build a Linux          process, I decided it was time for a            installation. Now my whole family
tower, she does the following: she    change. So I backed everything up and           uses Ubuntu, even my little brother
gathers all the information that      dug out that old Debian CD. It had to be        at nine years old. Thanks to the
she requires, to enable a painless    better than this. I was immediately             entire Ubuntu community, especially
                                      intimidated by the installers lack of a         those who helped me those long
build of her tower, e.g. video        GUI. Not knowing enough to continue the
cards, sound cards, etc. but only                                                     winter days on
                                      installation, I aborted at the partitioning
ones that are compatible to           step. Feeling discouraged, I turned to
whatever distro she will be using.    Google to see what I could find. My first
When she has all the required

materials and information, she                                                   manual ways of changing the
begins to build her tower.                                                       Grub and Usplash screens, but
According to her, that is how she                                                the GUI startupmanager is a lot
built her current Ubuntu tower.                                                  easier and faster.
  At the time, I was perusing the
Asus EEE PC, I happened to have
a copy of 'Ubuntu for Dummies'.

The book itself was only slightly                                                   am a teenager in the UK, I
bigger then the Asus itself! I hope                                                 use Ubuntu 8.04, I really like
to purchase the 'Ubuntu Official                                                    your magazine as it helps me
Handbook' soon. In closing, I can                                                on a lot of my computing issues.
only say, that when the
manufacturers of printers, WiFi,                                                     One of the main attractions,
etc. make it easier for Linux                                                    however, was                  . In
distros to be 'plug and play', we                                                the latest issue it was not there.
will see Windows left in the dust.                                               Please can you tell me whether it
                                                                                 is temporary (in which case I am
  Congratulations, and keep up                                                   OK with that) or permanent. If it
the good work.                                                                   is permanent then please undo
                                                                                 this decision.

                                          enjoyed the Gnome-Look guide in
                                         Issue 16, it's nice to see this
                                         summarized in one place. There

       n Saturday 23 of August        was one bit of information missing
       2008 I married my fiancée      though. The easiest way of installing
       Elena. Here are pictures of    Grub and Usplash screens is with a
our big day. Note the badge in my     package called                       .
button hole: it is a badge with the   After it's installed there is a launcher
Ubuntu logo. I preferred it to the    in System > Administration >
usual paper, or real, flower.         StartUp-Manager. Go to the
                                      Appearance tab and there you will
                                      see the controls to manage Grub and
                                      Usplash screens. There are of course

            Written by Tommy Alsemgeest
                                                If you have Ubuntu-related questions, email them to:
                                       , and Tommy will answer them in a future issue.

Q                                         A
                                                 If you are using Hardy Heron,            Compiz from there. Both
                                                 you should restart the                   programs are in the repositories.

                                                 computer, and if it has a
                                          countdown, press escape. From

                                          there, go into the recovery mode,
        Can you change the tags           and choose the option to repair the
       with any other programs?           graphics, which should do it
       You might want to try a            automatically. If that doesn't work,
different media player or                 do the same thing again but this
organizer, such as Kaffeine. Also,        time go into the root terminal, and
check that your filetypes are             type:

actually mp3 and not a file which                                                                Your sound should work.
doesn't support tags.                     dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg
                                                                                                 Don't buy anything until

                                          That should do it.                                     you have made sure it is a
                                                                                          hardware problem. It may be a

                                          Q                                               configuration problem. Try
                                                                                          changing the sound-related
                                                                                          settings in the menu. Since you
                                                                                          get the test tones, I think it is a
                                                                                          problem with the programs you
                                                                                          are using. Go to the settings of
                                                                                          the program, and change the
                                                                                          sound settings there. Even if you

                                                 You might want to install                do end up getting a new card,
                                                                                          you can probably get one for
                                                        , and see if you can              about $20 (~£10). If you don't
                                          change any settings from there. Also,           know how to install a card, you
                                          install          , and try to launch            could get a usb sound device.

                MY DESKTOP
                                                        Your chance to show the world your desktop or PC. Email your screenshots and
                                                        photos to: and include a brief paragraph about your
                                                        desktop, your PC's specs and any other interesting tidbits about your setup.

I've been a Linux user for 12 years. I started with Slackware and
was using it for about five years, then Debian, and, for the last
few years, I have been using Ubuntu.
                                                                         I've been using Linux for approximately two years; just last year I
I work at one of the biggest IT companies in the world, and, of          found Ubuntu and fell in love with it. I've used Redflag, Ubuntu
course, the employees are directed towards Microsoft products.           7.10 and OpenSUSE. Now, I am using Ubuntu 8.04, and I find that
Being a Java developer, and having almost all of my                      it can solve almost any problem that comes up. I have
applications run in Debian servers, the need for Linux on the            customized my system using Google Gadgets and AWN. The
desktop was huge for me. So, when we all got new laptops at              theme I use is modified by me from the default Human theme,
work, I decided to install Ubuntu on my new machine.                     and the AWN theme (Curved Glassy Mint AWN). The sidebar is
Everything but the calendar (Exchange 2007) works in Linux               Google Gadgets, which you can get from the official Google
applications. But instead of Exchange, I use my Google calendar          website. I run a Tsinghua Tongfang T21 laptop, with a Celeron M
in Lightning. At work I use a very basic desktop, as I need it to        1.6GHz, 1GB of RAM, and an integrated video card with the
be fast and accessible.                                                  resolution set to 1024x768.

               TOP5 EMAIL NOTIFIERS
                Written by Andrew Min                    
Mail Notification is a                                         KBiff is to KDE what
simple Gnome-based                                             Mail Notification is to
notifier that sits in                                          Gnome. Based on the
your tray. It can                                              famous command-line
check multiple                                                 checker biff, KBiff is a
inboxes, supports a                                            powerful email checker
bunch of formats                                               that will run on your
including POP3,                                                desktop (like xbiff), or
IMAP, Maildir, mbox,                                           in your Kicker tray. It
and mh, and even                                               supports POP3, IMAP, nntp, mh, maildir, and mbox; it
works with email                                               has customizable icons; and it can run commands
clients like Evolution,                                        and play sounds when your message comes in. The
Thunderbird, Gmail,                                            only downside is that it's only available for KDE 3, not
Yahoo Mail, Hotmail,                                           the new KDE 4, so it won't integrate as well, unlike
and Sylpheed. You                                              Korn (next page).
can also configure it
                                                               You can install KBiff using the      package in the
to play a sound, as well as open or mark as read the
                                                               universe repositories.
message. All in all, it's hard to ask for a more useful
Gnome email checker.
To install Mail Notification, grab the
               package from the universe

korn/                                                                                           http://www.kde-
                                              CheckGmail is the ultimate Gmail notifier. It
If you think KBiff is too complicated, give   has all the "normal" features, including
Korn a try. Also based on biff, and           running commands when new emails
named after the music group KoRn, this        appear. But, since it's Gmail specific, it also   If you're a Gmail fan, but can't stand
powerful email checker does everything        has a lot of other handy Gmail-only features      running a Gnome app like CheckGmail,
KBiff does, but with much more ease of        such as opening the messages, deleting            KGmailNotifier is a great alternative.
use. Protocols supported include DCOP,        them, batch deleting them, and archiving          It's not quite as configurable as
IMAP, KMail, mbox, nntp, process, and         them - all without opening a browser. It can      CheckGmail, but it features audio and
qmail. Unlike KBiff (previous page), it       also be configured to check mail only for a       LED notification, a handy pop-up for
supports multiple accounts with just one      certain label, and will work with Google          new mail, and support for opening the
instance. And the alert options let you       Apps' Gmail. It'll even blink your LEDs (on       item in the browser of your choice.
hand configure whether you want to            an incoming message) if configured                Like KBiff, the authors have not
play a sound, show a popup, run a             correctly.                                        (unfortunately) gotten around to
command, or change an animation.                                                                porting it to KDE 4, but it's still a handy
                                              To install CheckGmail, use the
Korn is available in the Ubuntu               package in the Universe repositories.
repositories under the package name                                                             You can install KGmailNotifier using the
      in the Universe repositories.                                                                              package in the
                                                                                                Universe repositories.
                                                                    has been a Linux
                                                     addict since he first installed
                                                     openSuSE in VMWare. Learn more
                                               about him at

                                                                                                Full Circle Team
                 HOW TO CONTRIBUTE                                                                     - Ronnie Tucker
                                                                                                             - Rob Kerfia
  We are always looking for new articles to include in Full Circle. For article guidelines,
  ideas, and for issue translation, please see our wiki:                                                                   - Robert Clipsham
  Please email your articles to:

If you would like to submit news, email it to:                                                  Andrew Min                                                                     David Sutton
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Send your comments or Linux experiences to:                                                     David Haas                      If you want to have your say on how         Gord Campbell
                                                    Full Circle Magazine develops, please       Matt Janeski
Hardware/software reviews should be sent to:        attend our monthly IRC meeting.
                                                    You can find our next Agenda at:
Questions for Q&A should go to:          
                                                    We want input from you, the reader, to
MyDesktop screens should be emailed to:             help us make decisions that affect the                         magazine.
                                                    Next general meeting (all welcome):
If you have questions, you can visit our forum:                        at           .
                                                    Meetings take place in the IRC channel
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                                           server. Or you can use
                                                    our webIRC page which is at
                                           and it
     Sunday 05th October.                                                                       And our thanks go out to
                                                    will allow you to interact with our IRC
                                                                                                         , the
                                                    channel from within your web browser.
                                                                                                     and the many translation
     Friday 31st October.                                                                       teams around the world.


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