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HEALTH MIDDLE SCHOOL COMMUNICABLE _ CHRONIC DISEASES Standards

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									HEALTH                                          MIDDLE SCHOOL
                   COMMUNICABLE & CHRONIC DISEASES

Standards & Benchmarks: 1:1,8; 3:4

Objective:
•= The students will define the terms Communicable disease and Chronic disease and
   list some examples of each.
•= The students will describe at least 3 types of disease causing pathogens.
•= The students will explain common ways diseases are transmitted between people and
   between species.
•= The students will demonstrate effective ways to prevent transmission of
   communicable diseases in the classroom.

Resources:
       Meeks Heit Totally Awesome Health grade level 6, 7, or 8; Unit 7
       Glo-Germs and UV light – available through catalogue or check with your
school’s nurse.

Activity:
•= As a class, discuss the definitions of Communicable and Chronic Diseases.
•= Use either the Glo-germs or the index card exercise in Unit 7 of Totally Awesome
Health to demonstrate how germs are transmitted between people.
•= Discuss and demonstrate proper handwashing to prevent disease transmission.
•= Divide the class into small groups and have them make a list of Communicable and
Chronic Diseases. Compile a class list of these and discuss how each disease might be
transmitted and if they can be transmitted between species.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:




Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)
Evaluation:
Teacher observation of class discussion and handwashing techniques.

Notes for Future Reference:
HEALTH                                           MIDDLE SCHOOL
                    COMMUNICABLE & CHRONIC DISEASES

Standards & Benchmarks: 1:1,8; 3:4

Objective:
•= The students will identify ways pathogens can enter the body.
•= The students will explain how the body can keep pathogens from entering the body,
   and ways the body is able to kill pathogens if they do enter the body.
•= The students will discuss the causes and symptoms of the common cold, influenza,
   hepatitis A,B, and C, Streptococal infections, tuberculosis, HIV infection, and
   Shigella.
•= The students will identify behaviors that help prevent transmission of each of these
   illnesses and reduce the risk of catching a communicable disease.

Resources:
      •= Meeks Heit Totally Awesome Health grade 6, 7, or 8; Unit 7
      •= LCPS Hepatitis B Curriculum and Video (check with School’s nurse)
      •= Public Health Department (505) 528-5001

Activity:
•= Lead a classroom discussion of the three main types of pathogens: viruses, bacteria,
   and protozoa, how they enter the body and how the body responds to invasion by
   pathogens.
•= Divide the class into small groups. Assign each group one or two of the diseases
   listed in the objectives to evaluate. They should try to identify which of the three
   types of pathogens is responsible for the illness, what the common symptoms are,
   what the impact of the illness would be on the individual, family, and community,
   and what are some prevention strategies for the disease.
•= Have each group share their ideas with the class and have the class clarify or fill in
   any inaccurate or missing information. As a class, identify any unanswered questions
   and discuss how to get the missing information.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:




Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)
Evaluation:
       Teacher observation of small group presentation Unit 7 test or equivalent teacher
administered test.

Notes for Future Reference:
HEALTH                                           MIDDLE SCHOOL
                    COMMUNICABLE & CHRONIC DISEASE

Standards & Benchmarks: 2:2,5,6; 3:1; 4:1

Objective:
•= Describe commonly occurring symptoms of illness.
•= Identify appropriate, safe behaviors to take care of someone who has symptoms of a
mild acute illness.
•= Explore cultural differences in how illness is viewed and symptoms of illness treated
in your community and in other parts of the world.
•= Identify when it is appropriate to seek medical treatment for an acute illness.

Resources:
1.    School nurse, other registered nurse, or physician
2.    Resource pages with this unit.
3.    Use a nurse or doctor as a guest speaker or teach this unit on your own.

Activity:
•= Divide the class into small groups. Assign each group one of the illness scenarios to
   discuss and present to the class with their suggestions on how the individual should
   handle the health problem. They should give suggestions on how to manage the
   symptoms, who to ask for help, and when, and if, they should go to the doctor.
•= Make a list of the symptoms as the class discusses them and their ideas for taking care
   of each symptom. Be sure to point out different cultural perspectives on illness and
   the different ideas for treating illness. Use the handout “Self-Management of
   Common Symptoms of Illness” to help the students learn the most effective way to
   take care of common symptoms of illness.
•= Display health care products such as Ace bandages, band aids, disinfectants. Have
   students guess their prices and then discuss which items are better buys than others.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:




Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)
Evaluation:
      Teacher observation of participation in the classroom discussion.

Notes for Future Reference:
                           Health Problem Scenarios

Olivia
        While doing her homework Tuesday night Olivia began to be bothered by an
aching in her right ear. She has had a stuffy nose and a bit of a sore throat since
Saturday. She finished her homework and went to bed early. When she got up for school
the next morning her ear hurt more than ever. Decide what Olivia should do to manage
this health problem.


Juan
        When Juan got up this morning his throat was a little scratchy, but after drinking
some juice it felt better and he forgot about it. By the middle of the afternoon, however,
it was sore and really starting to bother him and his nose started to get runny. What can
Juan do to take care of this health problem?


Michael
        Just before lunch, Michael’s stomach started to growl. When the bell rang he
hurried to get in the lunch line near the front so he could eat as soon as possible. He
hadn’t had time to eat breakfast this morning and he was really hungry. He wolfed down
his pizza and milk and then ate some of his friend’s potato chips and a Snickers bar from
his back pack. Then he played basketball for 20 minutes. Back in his seat in class later,
Michael’s stomach really started to hurt and he had kind of a sour taste in his mouth.
What do you think might be causing Michael’s symptoms, and what might he do to take
care of the problem and prevent it in the future?


Sarah
        Sarah moved here a month ago. She is trying hard to adjust to her new teachers
and make new friends. For the past couple of weeks she has been getting headaches at
school. They make her grouchy, and she can’t pay attention in class. Her Mom picked
her up a couple of times but said from now on she needs to stay in class. What might be
causing Sarah’s health problem and what could she do to manage it?


Bryan
       Bryan began to feel crampy and uncomfortable about dinner time. He told his
Mom he wasn’t hungry and skipped dinner. An hour later he rushed to the bathroom
with diarrhea. He felt really terrible and was in the bathroom four times in the next two
hours. His Mom checked his temperature and it was 101degrees. What can Bryan and
his Mom do to take care of this health problem? What serious health problems should
they watch for? Should Bryan plan to go to school tomorrow?
               Self-Management for Common Health Problems
Red Eyes
        When the white part of the eye becomes red or “blood shot” it is an indication that
something is irritating the eyes. Irritation can be caused by foreign objects (i.e., an
eyelash), or fumes such a from an onion or ammonia, an injury such as a scratch, or from
an illness such as a cold or “pink eye.”
        If the person has sudden eye pain, watering, and the eye turns red, check for a
foreign object in the eye. To do this, have the person look up, down, and side to side
while someone looks in the eye. To remove a small object seen floating in the eye, flush
the eye with a few drops of clean water or eye wash solution, have the person blink
several times and wipe his/her eye with a clean tissue. The corner of a clean tissue can
also be used to wipe a small object from the corners of the eye. If there is a large or sharp
object in the eye, keep the eye closed, make sure the person does not rub the eye and have
a doctor look at the eye right away.
        If the eye irritation is from fumes, get away from the fumes, flush the eyes with
some clean water and cover the eyes with a cool cloth for a few minutes.
        If the eye has been scratched it will become more painful during the first few
hours and it will water more and the vision will become blurry. The person should see a
doctor or an eye doctor for medication to decrease pain and prevent infection.
        If the person complains his/her eye burns and itches and there is thick, sticky,
yellow or green goop in the eye the person has an eye infection (pink eye) and should see
a doctor as soon as possible for diagnosis and treatment. These eye infections can be
very contagious. Make sure the person does not rub his/her eyes and wash hands often.

Coughing
         There are two basic types of coughs: The dry cough associated with throat
irritations and the productive, wet cough associated with lower respiratory illnesses. All
persons should remember to cover their mouth and nose when the cough to prevent
spreading germs to others.
         The dry cough can be caused by anything that irritates the throat such as a head
cold or allergies that cause inflammation and drainage from the sinuses to run down the
throat, a sore throat, food crumbs at the back of the throat, dust, smoking, or asthma.
These coughs can be treated best by removing the cause of the irritation. If food crumbs
caused the cough, drinking some water will usually help. If a cold or allergies are the
cause, taking a decongestant such as pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) will help eliminate the
mucus draining down the throat. Taking antihistamines can help to control an allergy
problem. Avoid smoke in all forms, especially tobacco smoke; it is very irritating to all
the mucus membranes in the body. If none of these treatments help, try taking a cough
medicine. If the cough is not getting better in three days, the person should see a doctor.
         A productive cough is caused by mucus collecting in the lower airway. The body
will move these secretions into the main airways and remove them with forceful
coughing.
         Coughing is an important function to help the individual get rid of extra mucus
and get well. If the person is coughing occasionally and the mucus is clear or white in
color, there is no treatment needed except to drink lots of fluids to keep the mucus thin.
        If the mucus becomes yellow to green, or has streaks of blood in it, they need to
see their doctor for treatment. Coughing is very tiring. If the person is coughing
constantly they may need a cough medicine to decrease the coughing so they can rest.

Earache
        Earaches are most often caused by a build-up of fluid behind the eardrum and
often an infection resulting from the accumulation of the fluid. Head colds, strep throats,
influenza, and allergies are the most frequent causes of the fluid build-up. Ear pain can
be treated by giving the person a pain medication and also a decongestant such a
pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) to reduce congestion in the head, nose, and throat which will
help drain the fluid out of the middle ear. Hot moist heat will also decrease the ear pain.
        If the pain lasts more than one day, the person should see his/her health care
provider to determine if an infection is present and the best way to treat the earache. An
ear infection that is not treated can be very painful and also cause the eardrum to break
which results in hearing loss for the person.

Sore Throat
        Minor sore throats are very common with any respiratory illness or allergy. Try
gargling with salt water (1/4 tsp. To a cup of warm water) and sucking on sore throat
lozenges or hard candy, and drinking lots of liquids (hot or cold whichever feels better on
the throat). Taking a non-prescription pain medication may also help.
        If the sore throat is very painful and the tonsils or other lymph nodes in the head
or neck are swollen, or the person has a fever higher than 100 degrees, he/she should
check with his/her health care provider to determine if the infection is caused by
streptococcal bacteria. These bacteria can cause damage to the heart and kidneys, if they
are not treated with antibiotics.

Swollen Tonsils and Other Swollen Glands
        The lymph system is the body’s main internal defense system against pathogens.
There are lymph nodes (glands) throughout the body, but the ones with which we are
most familiar are the tonsils located in the back of the throat. When the body is fighting
off an infection in the upper respiratory system, they will become swollen and sore. If
the tonsils become very enlarged, or the person is running a moderate to high fever, the
person should see his/her health care provider. Any lymph node that becomes swollen
and stays that way for more than three days, whether or not it is painful, should be
checked by a health care provider. To manage the discomfort from swollen tonsils,
follow the guidelines listed under Sore Throat.

Sneezing
        Sneezing removes dust, irritants and mucus from the nose. It is a common
symptom of head colds and allergies. To decrease frequent sneezing, clear the nasal
passages by thoroughly blowing the nose. Use antihistamines to decrease inflammation
from allergens. People should cover the nose and mouth with a mask or scarf if they are
outside when it is very dusty, or if doing an activity such as sweeping or sanding wood
that creates a lot of dust.
Headache
        Headaches are a common problem. Most can be treated with an over-the-counter
pain reliever, drinking four cups of a non-caffeinated liquid and some rest. If the person
has other symptoms such as body aches or nausea, they may be getting sick.
        Frequent headaches may be a symptom of more serious health problems and the
individual should see his/her health care provider to determine the cause and treatment.

Fever
         The most effective way to measure body temperature is with a thermometer.
There are several different types of thermometers: oral, rectal, ear and an underarm type.
Do not use the forehead strip thermometers; they are not accurate. Learn how to
correctly use the kind of thermometer that you have at home. If a thermometer is not
available, you can use the following clues to tell if a person has a fever: a flushed face,
especially reddened cheeks; the person complains he/she feels cold or is shivering but
feels hot when you touch them; skin may feel sore and tender all over; and they may
complain of body aches and/or joint pains.
         A body temperature of 99.6 to 101 degrees is a mild fever. Treatment for this is
to rest, drink plenty of fluids, and take an anti-inflammatory drug like acetaminophen
(Tylenol) or Ibuprofen (Motrin). If the fever lasts longer that three days, the person
should see a doctor.
         A body temperature of 101.2 to 103.8 is a moderate fever and is treated the same
as a mild fever. The person should see his/her doctor if it lasts longer than one day
without getting better.
         A body temperature of 104 or higher is a high fever. The person should see a
doctor as soon as possible for this.

Diarrhea
        Diarrhea means unformed, watery bowel movements. It is usually accompanied
by painful intestinal cramping and can be caused by a large number of pathogens. If the
person is vomiting, is having a lot of pain, there is blood with the diarrhea, or the diarrhea
is green in color and has mucus in it the person should see a health care provider as soon
as possible. Dehydration is a frequent complication of diarrhea (see Vomiting). To
manage this symptom the person should make sure to drink at least two cups of non
caffeinated liquids an hour. Do not eat or drink dairy products (except yogurt) for at least
two days after an episode of diarrhea. There are over the counter antidiarrheal
medications that can be helpful.

Vomiting
         Throwing up is a natural defense of the body to infection and is very common.
Dehydration (severe loss of body fluids) is a serious health problem that can occur if the
person is vomiting for more than a couple of hours. To manage nausea and vomiting the
following suggestions are usually helpful; if the stomach is upset, but the person is not
vomiting, they can try taking small sips of water, weak tea, or a clear soda (Sprite, 7-up),
or flat Coca-Cola, and eating plain crackers (saltines) or plain toast. If the person is
vomiting, do not give them anything to eat or drink until they haven’t thrown up for an
hour, then they can try sucking on ice chips or the drinks listed before. He/she should
stop drinking if stomach becomes more upset.
        The person should see a doctor if he/she is continuously vomiting for more than
two hours, or if they vomit off and on for more than two days. Be especially concerned
about dehydration if the person is less than two years old, has a fever over 101 degrees,
or also has diarrhea. If the person’s skin and mouth are dry and they seem weak and
dizzy, suspect dehydration and obtain medical care right away!

Rash
         There are many different causes for rashes and the cause can be hard to determine
even for health care providers. There are some general guidelines for deciding what to do
for a rash. If the person is ill with a fever, aches and pains, and/or vomiting and he/she
develops a rash he/she should go to the health care provider as soon as possible. If the
rash is blistery and wet and spreading he/she should also see health care provider as soon
as possible. If the person has a rash over more than 50% of the body they should see the
doctor as soon as possible.
         If the rash is dry and confined to a small area of the body the person can observe
the rash for a few days to decide if it is improving or becoming worse. A lot of rashes
come and go away in a day without any special treatment. Many rashes are caused by
irritation from the many chemicals and irritants that we come in regular contact with such
as nettles, detergents, and fragrances added to personal care products. Rashes can also be
caused by fungal infections like athlete’s foot and ringworm (not really a worm).
Hydrocortisone cream 1% or an anti-fungal cream, both available over the counter, may
help to heal the rash. If the rash is not getting better after two to three days, the person
should check with his/her health care provider.

Redness, pain and Swelling
        Any area on the body, that becomes red, hot, and painful, is showing signs of
infection. It may or may not be swollen. If the area is larger than a quarter, or on the
face, neck or genital area it should immediately be looked at by a health care provider.
        Small areas of infection can be treated by soaking them in warm water, with or
without Epsom salts, or applying warm moist towels. Antibiotic ointment should be
applied and the area kept covered by a bandage. If the area becomes larger, more swollen
or painful, a health care provider should be consulted.

Toothache
         Toothache can be caused by broken or decayed teeth that leave the nerve of the
tooth exposed, infection, or loosing baby teeth and growing new teeth. Seeing a dentist at
least once a year for preventive dental care is the best way to prevent a toothache. To
treat a toothache the following strategies can be tried; purchase one of the anesthetic
ointments for tooth pain and apply it in the area that hurts, take an oral pain medication
such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), apply oil of cloves to the tooth that hurts. As soon as
possible have a dentist check the tooth and repair the problem.
        If there is pain and swelling of the gum above the tooth there may be an abscess
which is an infection in the root of the tooth. These need to be treated with antibiotics for
several days before a dentist can work on the tooth. Otherwise the infection could spread
throughout the body.
HEALTH                                                                MIDDLE SCHOOL
               COMMUNICABLE & CHRONIC DISEASES

Standards & Benchmarks: 1:1,7,8; 2:4; 3:4

Objective:
•= The student will describe the differences between a Chronic and Acute illness.
•= The student will explain the long term impact of Chronic illnesses on the individual,
   family and community.
•= The student will identify community resources and support for individuals and
   families coping with a Chronic illness.

Resources:
      •= Meeks Heit Totally Awesome Health, Grades 6, 7, or 8; Unit 7
      •= American Diabetic Association, American Cancer Society, American Heart
          Association, The Epilepsy Foundation
      •= A parent volunteer willing to talk about a Chronic Illness
      •= (Check with the school’s nurse for additional ideas)

Activity:
•= Review the differences between acute and chronic illness.
•= Assist the class in making a list of chronic illnesses.
•= Arrange for a guest speaker to present information on living with a chronic illness.
   He/she should discuss how it impacts the individual, family, and the community.
   He/she should also discuss resources that exist in the community to support
   individuals with chronic illnesses.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:




Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)




Evaluation:
      Teacher observation of class discussion of chronic illnesses.
      Written evaluation: quiz

Notes for Future Reference:
HEALTH                                                               MIDDLE SCHOOL
                          Communicable & Chronic Diseases

Standards & Benchmarks: 1:1,8; 2:2,6; 3:1,4

Objective:
•= The student will explain why it is important to keep a family medical history and
   share it with your doctor.
•= The student will identify community resources and support for individuals and
   families coping with a chronic illness.
•= The student will demonstrate the ability to use at least three resources to gather
   information about a chronic health problem.
•= The student will explain the risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease,
   diabetes, and cancer.
•= The student will define the terms; stroke, heart attack, atherosclerosis, and
   hypertension.
•= The student will identify healthy choices that help to prevent the development of
   these kinds of chronic diseases.

Resources:
Meeks Heit Totally Awesome Health, grades 6, 7, or 8; Unit 7
List of chronic illnesses generated by class in previous lesson
Activity:
1.      Discuss how information about blood relatives helps to assess the risk for certain
        health problems and can help people better manage their health.
2.      Review the Healthy Heart Pledge and the Cancer Detection Pledge and have the
        class participate in the marble activity listed in lesson 34.
3.      Each student will select a chronic disease to research, using at least three sources
        of information and present a poster to the class. The report should include signs
        and symptoms of the illness, risk factors for contracting the disease, methods of
        treatment or management, community resources available to assist people with
        the illness, and the impact of the disease on the individual, family and community.
        The student and/or teacher may elect to have the reports focus on the disease or a
        person who coped with a disease such as a family member, sports figure,
        politician, etc.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:
Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)




Evaluation:
      Teacher observation: Assess the quality of the Poster Presentation


Notes for Future Reference:
HEALTH                                           MIDDLE SCHOOL
                    COMMUNICABLE & CHRONIC DISEASES

Standards & Benchmarks: 1:3,5,7; 2:5,6; 3:4;

Objective:
•= The students will list the warning signs of cancer and discuss some of the different
   ways of treating cancers and the improvement in survival rates during the past ten
   years.
•= The students will describe the signs and symptoms of diabetes and how treatment of
   the disease has changed during the past ten years.
•= The students will describe what happens to the body when a person has an allergy.
•= The students will explain what happens to an individual when they have an asthma
   attack.
•= The students will state ways that a person with asthma can manage their illness to
   prevent attacks or minimize symptoms and stay healthy and active.

Resources:
1)    Student presentations
2)    Meeks Heit Totally Awesome Health, grades 6, 7, or 8; unit 7

Activity:
•= Students will select a topic from the objectives and prepare a poster presentation.
•= At the end of the student presentations, fill in any information listed in the objectives
that was not covered in the presentations.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:




Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)




Evaluation:
      Written evaluation: quiz
      Teacher observation of presentations

Notes for Future Reference:
HEALTH                                          MIDDLE SCHOOL
                   COMMUNICABLE & CHRONIC DISEASES

Standards & Benchmarks: 1:1,6,8; 3:3; 4:1,2; 6:1,2; 7:2,4

Objective:
•= The student will identify the causes, symptoms, and treatment for these Sexually
   Transmitted Diseases (STDs): chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, HPV
   (Genital Warts), candidiasis, trichomoniasis, pubic lice.
•= The student will identify reasons to avoid infection with an STD.
•= The student will explain why abstinence is the safest way to prevent STDs.
•= The student will discuss why the Public Health Department is concerned about STDs
   and what they are doing to help the community prevent this type of illness.

Resources:
•= Meeks Heit Totally Awesome Health, grades 6, 7, or 8, Unit 7, Lesson 32.
•= Sex Can Wait Curriculum ETR Associates Lesson 21, 22.
•= Guest speaker from the Public Health Department or Planned Parenthood.

Activity:
•= Present an informational lecture on Sexually Transmitted Diseases using the
   curriculum materials or invite a guest speaker to deliver the information.
•= Ask students to write a question they have about STD’s after the presentation and
   answer the questions during the next class.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:




Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)




Evaluation:
      Written evaluation: Teacher evaluation of quality of questions, examination

Notes for Future Reference:
HEALTH                                                             MIDDLE SCHOOL

Standards & Benchmarks: 1:1,4,6,8; 3:3; 4:1,2; 6:1; 7:2,4

Objective:
•= The students will describe the Human Immuno Virus (HIV) and how it breaks down
   the human immune system.
•= The students will explain why a person can spread HIV before testing positive for
   HIV.
•= The student will explain current treatment for HIV infection and AIDS and how it has
   changed over the last ten years.
•= The students will explain what universal precautions are and when it is appropriate to
   use them.
•= The students will state ways to reduce a person’s risk of contracting an HIV infection.

Resources:
•= LCPS HIV Unit and Universal Precautions material
•= Meeks Heit Totally Awesome Health, grades 6, 7, or 8; Unit 7; Lesson 33.
•= Sex Can Wait curriculum. ETR Assoc. Lesson 21, 22.
•= Your school’s nurse or a more experienced teacher if you are not knowledgeable
about this topic.

Activity:
       Lecture about HIV that meets the objectives listed above.

ESL Strategies and Spanish Vocabulary:




Modifications:
(Indicate modifications necessary for students with I.E.P.s or 504 plans or Title I
Students to achieve this objective.)




Evaluation:
      Written examination

Notes for Future Reference:

								
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